Sample records for rapid photographic processing

  1. Image processing of galaxy photographs (United States)

    Arp, H.; Lorre, J.


    New computer techniques for analyzing and processing photographic images of galaxies are presented, with interesting scientific findings gleaned from the processed photographic data. Discovery and enhancement of very faint and low-contrast nebulous features, improved resolution of near-limit detail in nebulous and stellar images, and relative colors of a group of nebulosities in the field are attained by the methods. Digital algorithms, nonlinear pattern-recognition filters, linear convolution filters, plate averaging and contrast enhancement techniques, and an atmospheric deconvolution technique are described. New detail is revealed in images of NGC 7331, Stephan's Quintet, Seyfert's Sextet, and the jet in M87, via processes of addition of plates, star removal, contrast enhancement, standard deviation filtering, and computer ratioing to bring out qualitative color differences.

  2. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing. (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P


    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  3. Digital image processing of flow visualization photographs (United States)

    Hesselink, L.; White, B. S.


    This paper is concerned with the propagation of laser light through a slab of a randomly varying medium. A theoretical analysis is presented which relates the spectrum of the recorded-intensity field some distance downstream of the medium to the spectrum of the index-of-refraction field. For a homogeneous and isotropic random field, the 3-D spectrum of the medium is obtained from the 2-D spectrum of the photograph by dividing each component of the spectrum by the frequency raised to the fourth power. Free-space propagation outside the random medium is accounted for by a scaling factor. Experimental results are presented which support the theoretical analysis. The nonintrusive diagnostic technique presented here is applicable to photographs which contain partially developed caustic networks.

  4. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children


    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Tulio Silva Lara; Priscila Vaz Ayub; Amanda Sayuri Cardoso Ohashi; Francisco Antônio Bertoz


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods: Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced ortho...

  5. Use of spatially positioned photographs in construction process


    Pudgar, Aljaž


    In this thesis we have developed and demonstrated the use of system that enables management of photographic information collected from construction process. Captured photos can be treated as documents that are linked to a specific project context and geografic position. Photodocumentation in this thesis is placed in the comprehensive ontology framework describing construction process. For this purpose standard classification tools have been analysed and their relevance has been...

  6. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E


    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  7. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der


    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  8. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Facial photographs (front view and profile of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic was acceptable. RESULTS: From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. CONCLUSIONS: RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis.

  9. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children (United States)

    da SILVA FILHO, Omar Gabriel; LARA, Tulio Silva; AYUB, Priscila Vaz; OHASHI, Amanda Sayuri Cardoso; BERTOZ, Francisco Antônio


    Objective The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic) was acceptable. Results From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. Conclusion RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis. PMID:21986660

  10. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  11. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel... (United States)


    ... manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. 723.175 Section 723.175... manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. (a) Purpose and scope. (1... chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart...

  12. High speed television camera system processes photographic film data for digital computer analysis (United States)

    Habbal, N. A.


    Data acquisition system translates and processes graphical information recorded on high speed photographic film. It automatically scans the film and stores the information with a minimal use of the computer memory.

  13. Rapid gas hydrate formation process (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.


    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  14. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W


    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  15. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    fast and inexpensive supply for polymer master models and a ceramic shaping method that enables the replication of the RP model into multiple ceramic materials within a short time. (Knitter et al 1999). 2. Rapid prototyping process chains. The manufacturing of ceramic microparts presented here set out with the 3D-CAD ...

  16. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B


    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  17. Rapid thermal processing and beyond applications in semiconductor processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, W


    Heat-treatment and thermal annealing are very common processing steps which have been employed during semiconductor manufacturing right from the beginning of integrated circuit technology. In order to minimize undesired diffusion, and other thermal budget-dependent effects, the trend has been to reduce the annealing time sharply by switching from standard furnace batch-processing (involving several hours or even days), to rapid thermal processing involving soaking times of just a few seconds. This transition from thermal equilibrium, to highly non-equilibrium, processing was very challenging a

  18. Second-order relational face processing is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast. (United States)

    Matheson, H E; Bilsbury, T G; McMullen, P A


    A large body of research suggests that faces are processed by a specialized mechanism within the human visual system. This specialized mechanism is made up of subprocesses (Maurer, LeGrand, & Mondloch, 2002). One subprocess, called second- order relational processing, analyzes the metric distances between face parts. Importantly, it is well established that other-race faces and contrast-reversed faces are associated with impaired performance on numerous face processing tasks. Here, we investigated the specificity of second-order relational processing by testing how this process is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast. Participants completed a feature displacement discrimination task, directly measuring the sensitivity to second-order relations between face parts. Across three experiments we show that, despite absolute differences in sensitivity in some conditions, inversion impaired performance in all conditions. The presence of robust inversion effects for all faces suggests that second-order relational processing can be applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast.

  19. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA). (United States)

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R


    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of marine macro-debris abundance around Vancouver Island, Canada, based on archived aerial photographs processed by projective transformation. (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Isobe, Atsuhiko


    The abundance of marine macro-debris was quantified with high spatial resolution by applying an image processing technique to archived shoreline aerial photographs taken over Vancouver Island, Canada. The photographs taken from an airplane at oblique angles were processed by projective transformation for georeferencing, where five reference points were defined by comparing aerial photographs with satellite images of Google Earth. Thereafter, pixels of marine debris were extracted based on their color differences from the background beaches. The debris abundance can be evaluated by the ratio of an area covered by marine debris to that of the beach (percent cover). The horizontal distribution of percent cover of marine debris was successfully computed from 167 aerial photographs and was significantly related to offshore Ekman flows and winds (leeway drift and Stokes drift). Therefore, the estimated percent cover is useful information to determine priority sites for mitigating adverse impacts across broad areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao


    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  2. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)


    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  3. Photographic filters (United States)

    Rodigues, Jose Eduardo; Santosdealmeida, Wagner


    Some of the main aspects related to photographic filters are examined and prepared as a reference for researchers and students of remote sensing. A large range of information about the filters including their basic fundamentals, classification, and main types is presented. The theme cannot be exhausted in this or any other individual publication because of its great complexity, profound theoretical publication, and dynmaic technological development. The subject does not deal only with filter applications in remote sensing. As much as possible, additional information about the utilization of these products in other professional areas, as pictorial photography, photographic processing, and optical engineering, were included.

  4. Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

  5. SMS photograph-based external quality assessment of reading and interpretation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (United States)

    Mukadi, Pierre; Gillet, Philippe; Barbé, Barbara; Luamba, Jean; Lukuka, Albert; Likwela, Joris; Mumba, Dieudonné; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Lutumba, Pascal; Jacobs, Jan


    The present External Quality Assessment (EQA) assessed reading and interpretation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The EQA consisted of (i) 10 high-resolution printed photographs displaying cassettes with real-life results and multiple choice questions (MCQ) addressing individual health workers (HW), and (ii) a questionnaire on RDT use addressing the laboratory of health facilities (HF). Answers were transmitted through short message services (SMS). The EQA comprised 2344 HW and 1028 HF covering 10/11 provinces in DRC. Overall, median HW score (sum of correct answers on 10 MCQ photographs for each HW) was 9.0 (interquartile range 7.5 - 10); MCQ scores (the % of correct answers for a particular photograph) ranged from 54.8% to 91.6%. Most common errors were (i) reading or interpreting faint or weak line intensities as negative (3.3%, 7.2%, 24.3% and 29.1% for 4 MCQ photographs), (ii) failure to distinguish the correct Plasmodium species (3.4% to 7.0%), (iii) missing invalid test results (8.4% and 23.6%) and (iv) missing negative test results (10.0% and 12.4%). HW who were trained less than 12 months ago had best MCQ scores for 7/10 photographs as well as a significantly higher proportion of 10/10 scores, but absolute differences in MCQ scores were small. HW who had participated in a previous EQA performed significantly better for 4/10 photographs compared to those who had not. Except for two photographs, MCQ scores were comparable for all levels of the HF hierarchy and non-laboratory staff (HW from health posts) had similar performance as to laboratory staff. Main findings of the questionnaire were (i) use of other RDT products than recommended by the national malaria control programme (nearly 20% of participating HF), (ii) lack of training for a third (33.6%) of HF, (iii) high proportions (two-thirds, 66.5%) of HF reporting stock-outs. The present EQA revealed common errors in RDT reading and interpretation by

  6. Rapid neutron capture process in supernovae and chemical element formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, Rulee; Duorah, Kalpana; Duorah, H. L.


    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half

  7. Different neural processes accompany self-recognition in photographs across the lifespan: an ERP study using dizygotic twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Butler

    Full Text Available Our appearance changes over time, yet we can recognize ourselves in photographs from across the lifespan. Researchers have extensively studied self-recognition in photographs and have proposed that specific neural correlates are involved, but few studies have examined self-recognition using images from different periods of life. Here we compared ERP responses to photographs of participants when they were 5-15, 16-25, and 26-45 years old. We found marked differences between the responses to photographs from these time periods in terms of the neural markers generally assumed to reflect (i the configural processing of faces (i.e., the N170, (ii the matching of the currently perceived face to a representation already stored in memory (i.e., the P250, and (iii the retrieval of information about the person being recognized (i.e., the N400. There was no uniform neural signature of visual self-recognition. To test whether there was anything specific to self-recognition in these brain responses, we also asked participants to identify photographs of their dizygotic twins taken from the same time periods. Critically, this allowed us to minimize the confounding effects of exposure, for it is likely that participants have been similarly exposed to each other's faces over the lifespan. The same pattern of neural response emerged with only one exception: the neural marker reflecting the retrieval of mnemonic information (N400 differed across the lifespan for self but not for twin. These results, as well as our novel approach using twins and photographs from across the lifespan, have wide-ranging consequences for the study of self-recognition and the nature of our personal identity through time.

  8. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process (United States)


    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer, Defence and...qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping ’ of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...8217 without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with

  9. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  10. Neural correlates of rapid spectrotemporal processing in musicians and nonmusicians. (United States)

    Gaab, N; Tallal, P; Kim, H; Lakshminarayanan, K; Archie, J J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D E


    Our results suggest that musical training alters the functional anatomy of rapid spectrotemporal processing, resulting in improved behavioral performance along with a more efficient functional network primarily involving traditional language regions. This finding may have important implications for improving language/reading skills, especially in children struggling with dyslexia.

  11. Imperceptibly rapid contrast modulations processed in cortex: Evidence from psychophysics. (United States)

    Falconbridge, Michael; Ware, Adam; MacLeod, Donald I A


    Rapid fluctuations in contrast are common in our modern visual environment. They arise, for example, in a room lit by a fluorescent light, when viewing a CRT computer monitor and when watching a movie in a cinema. As we are unconscious of the rapid changes, it has been assumed that they do not affect the operation of our visual systems. By periodically reversing the contrast of a fixed pattern at a rapid rate we render the pattern itself, as well as the modulations, invisible to observers. We show that exposure to these rapidly contrast-modulated patterns alters the way subsequent stationary patterns are processed; patterns similar to the contrast-modulated pattern require more contrast to be detected than dissimilar patterns. We present evidence that the changes are cortically mediated. Taken together, our findings suggest that cortical stages of the visual system respond to the individual frames of a contrast-reversed sequence, even at rates as high as 160 frames per second.

  12. Lamp of adjustable spectrum for photographic usage (United States)

    Mazikowski, Adam; Feldzensztajn, Mateusz


    Photography is a unique rapidly growing interdisciplinary field encompassing aspects of science, art and technology. Expectations of photographers are steadily increasing with the development of technology. One of the areas playing a crucial role in photography is lighting. Consequently, several types of light sources for photographic use have been developed. The ongoing research in this field concentrates on lamps with tunable CCT (Correlated Color Temperature). In this paper, we present a lamp, which emission spectrum can be tailored without affecting the output luminous ux. Intended for photographic uses, the lamp is based on an integrating sphere and a selection of LEDs. As the LED drivers, DC-DC converters controlled by a Raspberry PI were applied. Design process, including the selection of LED wavelengths, is presented. Output characteristics of the lamp were measured using the setup containing the spectrometer. The results of these experiments show good agreement with the spectrum set on the microcomputer.

  13. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.


    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  14. Vertical Photographs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes of photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken with high resolution cameras mounted in airplanes, unmanned platforms or the bow of...

  15. Oblique Photographs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken in the field. Most are lateral views of animals that are used to confirm species identity...

  16. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul


    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  17. Rapid process for manufacturing of aluminum nitride powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, A.W.; Cochran, G.A.; Eisman, G.A.; Henley, J.P.; Hook, B.D.; Mills, L.K. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States). Ceramics and Advanced Materials Research; Guiton, T.A.; Knudsen, A.K.; Nicholas, R.N.; Volmering, J.E.; Moore, W.G. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States). Advanced Ceramics Lab.


    A rapid, direct nitridation process for the manufacture of sinterable aluminum nitride (AIN) powder was developed at the pilot scale. Atomized aluminum metal and nitrogen gas were heated and reacted rapidly to synthesize AIN while they passed through the reaction zone of a transport flow reactor. The heated walls of the reactor simultaneously initiated the reaction and removed the generated heat to control the exotherm. Several variations of the process were required to achieve high conversion and reduce wall deposition of the product. The fine AIN powder produced did not require a postreaction grinding step to reduce particle size. However, a secondary heat treatment, following a mild milling step to expose fresh surface, was necessary to ensure complete conversion of the aluminum. In some instances, a final air classification step to remove large particles was necessary to promote densification by pressure less sintering. The AIN powder produced was pressure less sintered with 3 wt% yttria to fabricate fully dense parts which exhibited high thermal conductivity. The powder was shown to be less sinterable than commercially available carbothermally produced powders

  18. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide


    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  19. Logarithmic Type Image Processing Framework for Enhancing Photographs Acquired in Extreme Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA, C.


    Full Text Available The Logarithmic Type Image Processing (LTIP tools are mathematical models that were constructed for the representation and processing of gray tones images. By careful redefinition of the fundamental operations, namely addition and scalar multiplication, a set of mathematical properties are achieved. Here we propose the extension of LTIP models by a novel parameterization rule that ensures preservation of the required cone space structure. To prove the usability of the proposed extension we present an application for low-light image enhancement in images acquired with digital still camera. The closing property of the named model facilitates similarity with human visual system and digital camera processing pipeline, thus leading to superior behavior when compared with state of the art methods.

  20. Does Taking Photographs Help? (United States)

    Hand, Sarah


    Since many people tend to use photographs as memory anchors, this author decided she wanted to know whether the process of capturing and manipulating an image taken during a learning activity would act as a memory anchor for children's visual, auditory and kinaesthetic memories linked to their cognitive learning at the time. In plain English,…

  1. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs (United States)


    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  2. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process


    Iorio Lorenzo; Strano Matteo; Monno Michele


    The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performe...

  3. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing. (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J


    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt


    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  5. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorio Lorenzo


    Full Text Available The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performed by comparing the results of a DOE done at different values of press force.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications (United States)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  7. Rapid Delivery of Cyber Capabilities: Evaluation of the Requirement for a Rapid Cyber Acquisition Process (United States)


    capabilities and rapid implementation of tactics—all aspects readily addressed using non-material solutions. Additionally, configuration and maintenance of...Offict Symbol: 4. Co~ttac-t 1nror11tation: (l\\’am~ Pj Rcqu.-$1/.Uomtlt’nttNU POC) (RD.11J.!Crrult’) (0/ Jit ’’ Spn) Phone’ 1\\’un.rbo S. T ec:hni<’lll POC 6

  8. Heavenly bodies the photographer's guide to astrophotography

    CERN Document Server

    Krages, Esq, Bert P


    Detailing the photographic equipment and astronomical instruments needed to capture celestial images, this guide shows how astrophotography can be accessible to all photographers. Included is a detailed introduction to basic astronomy with information on mapping the sky, locating celestial bodies, and planning an expedition to photograph astronomical phenomena. Photographers learn how to determine the color sensitivity of various films and achieve the best possible exposure, how to ensure a captivating composition, and how commercially processed prints can support their artistic vision. Whethe

  9. Improving the Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out process. (United States)

    Hyden, Rachel; Fields, Willa


    Bedside staff nurses are in a unique position to identify implementation problems and ways to improve compliance with evidence-based practice guidelines. The goal of this performance improvement project was to improve compliance with an evidence-based Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out pathway. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how a bedside staff nurse was able to decrease wait times and length of stay for patients with low-risk chest pain while applying evidence-based practice.

  10. Drell-Yan process at forward rapidity at the LHC


    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia(Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, 31-342, Poland); Stasto, Anna M.


    We analyze the Drell-Yan lepton pair production at forward rapidity at the Large Hadron Collider. Using the dipole framework for the computation of the cross section we find a significant suppression in comparison to the collinear factorization formula due to saturation effects in the dipole cross section. We develop a twist expansion in powers of Q_s^2/M^2 where Q_s is the saturation scale and M the invariant mass of the produced lepton pair. For the nominal LHC energy the leading twist desc...

  11. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro


    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  12. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process in the supernova envelope at a high neutron density and a temperature of 109 degrees. ... Major advances have been made in calculating r-process .... Also electron capture on free protons is limited by the small abundance of free protons. These prob- lems are eased by higher density and higher temperature, ...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D. [United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, CT (United States); Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)


    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  14. Rapid digestion process for determination of trichinellae in meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, P.M.


    This patent relates to an accelerated digestion process for releasing trichinellae from meat (usually pork) as excysted and encysted worms in transparent fluid whereby they may be easily identified and/or counted visually or automatically. This improved digestion process for the determination of trichinellae in meat comprises placing the meat in a blender, adding a digestant consisting of one of the following ingredients, namely sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid and pepsin, bromelin, trypsin, or dilute papain; and blending the meat and digestant for about one minute and then pouring the solution into a receptacle, allowing particulate to settle to the bottom, extracting samples from the bottom of said receptacle, and visually or automatically identifying and/or counting any trichinellae that may be present. (auth)

  15. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the r-process path corresponding to temperatures ranging from 1.0 × 109 K to 3.0 × 109 K and neutron density ranging from 1020 cm-3 to 1030 cm-3. With temperature and density conditions of 3.0 × 109 K and 1020 cm-3 a nucleus of mass 273 was theoretically found corresponding to atomic number 115.

  16. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications (United States)


    Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI at the NRAO, Green Bank , finds its use in the spectrometers currently under development for the GBT...rates. The single dish Green Bank Telescope (GBT) [68], for example, is used for pulsar searches and high-precision timing studies, which drive...their support. I am extremely thankful to Dr. Richard Prestage of the NRAO, Green Bank , WV, for his initial support and continued guidance in

  17. "Photographers Are the Devil": An Essay in the Historiography of Photographing Schools (United States)

    Hardcastle, John


    Today, the use of photographs in publications and exhibitions is commonplace, but this was not always so. This article shows how photographs of certain schools that have had lasting impact on design stand in ambiguous relationships to the buildings themselves. Photographs function as part of the design process; they record details of construction…

  18. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data (United States)

    Stalzer, Mark A.


    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  19. Rapid and continuous analyte processing in droplet microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strey, Helmut; Kimmerling, Robert; Bakowski, Tomasz


    The compositions and methods described herein are designed to introduce functionalized microparticles into droplets that can be manipulated in microfluidic devices by fields, including electric (dielectrophoretic) or magnetic fields, and extracted by splitting a droplet to separate the portion of the droplet that contains the majority of the microparticles from the part that is largely devoid of the microparticles. Within the device, channels are variously configured at Y- or T junctions that facilitate continuous, serial isolation and dilution of analytes in solution. The devices can be limited in the sense that they can be designed to output purified analytes that are then further analyzed in separate machines or they can include additional channels through which purified analytes can be further processed and analyzed.

  20. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin


    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  1. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  2. Evaluation of Novel Process Indicators for Rapid Monitoring of Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination Processes. (United States)

    McLeod, N P; Clifford, M; Sutton, J M


    measurement can be achieved within a few minutes of vapour-phase hydrogen peroxide cycle completion, compared with a minimum of 7 days for the evaluation of biological indicator growth, this offers a potentially valuable tool for rapid vapour-phase hydrogen peroxide bio-decontamination cycle development and subsequent re-qualification.LAY ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical product manufacture is performed in controlled cleanroom and closed chamber environments (isolators) to reduce the risk of contamination. These environments undergo regular decontamination to control microbial contamination levels, using a range of methods, one of which is to vaporize hydrogen peroxide (a chemical disinfectant) into a gas or an aerosol and disperse it throughout the environment, killing any microorganisms present. Biological indicators, which consist of a small steel coupon carrying a population of bacterial spores that are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide than are most microorganisms, are placed within the environment, and then tested for growth following treatment to ensure the process was effective. Confirmation of growth/no growth (and therefore hydrogen peroxide cycle efficacy) can take up to 7 days, which significantly increases time and cost of developing and confirming cycle efficacy. This study tests whether a new technology which uses a robust enzyme, thermostable adenylate kinase, could be used to predict biological indicator growth. The study shows this method can be used to confirm hydrogen peroxide cycle efficacy, by predicting whether the BI is killed at a specific time point or not and results are obtained in a few minutes rather than 7 days. This potentially offers significant time and cost benefits. © PDA, Inc. 2017.

  3. Photographic fixative poisoning (United States)

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  4. Glacier Photograph Collection (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Glacier Photograph Collection is a database of photographs of glaciers from around the world, some dating back to the mid-1850's, that provide an historical...

  5. The use of semiconductor processes for the design and characterization of a rapid thermal processor (United States)

    Hodul, David; Metha, Sandeep


    While a variety of tools are used for the design of semiconductor equipment, processes themselves are often the most informative, providing a convenient and direct method for improving both the hardware and the process. Experiments have been done to evaluate the performance of a commercial rapid thermal processing (RTP) instrument. The effects of chamber geometry and optics as well as the time/temperature recipe were probed using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), sintering of tungsten suicide and molybdenum silicide, and partial activation of implanted ions. We show how sheet resistance and film thickness maps can be used to determine the dynamic and static temperature uniformity.

  6. Adaptive multiparameter control: application to a Rapid Thermal Processing process; Commande Adaptative Multivariable: Application a un Procede de Traitement Thermique Rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mago, S.J.


    In this work the problem of temperature uniformity control in rapid thermal processing is addressed by means of multivariable adaptive control. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is a set of techniques proposed for semiconductor fabrication processes such as annealing, oxidation, chemical vapour deposition and others. The product quality depends on two mains issues: precise trajectory following and spatial temperature uniformity. RTP is a fabrication technique that requires a sophisticated real-time multivariable control system to achieve acceptable results. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of the process leads to very complex mathematical models. These are the reasons why adaptive control techniques are chosen. A multivariable linear discrete time model of the highly non-linear process is identified on-line, using an identification scheme which includes supervisory actions. This identified model, combined with a multivariable predictive control law allows to prevent the controller from systems variations. The control laws are obtained by minimization of a quadratic cost function or by pole placement. In some of these control laws, a partial state reference model was included. This reference model allows to incorporate an appropriate tracking capability into the control law. Experimental results of the application of the involved multivariable adaptive control laws on a RTP system are presented. (author) refs

  7. Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Luther Ruban, Cassia


    Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded…

  8. Furnace for rapid thermal processing with optical switching film disposed between heater and reflector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der


    A furnace (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), characterized in that the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the

  9. Investigation of the role of aesthetics in differentiating between photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Fu; Lin, Qian; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lee, Seungyon; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan


    Automatically quantifying the aesthetic appeal of images is an interesting problem in computer science and image processing. In this paper, we incorporate aesthetic properties and convert them into computable image features for classifying photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers. In particular, color histograms, spatial edge distribution, and repetition identification are used as features. Results of experiments on professional and amateur photograph data sets confirm the discriminative power of these features.

  10. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)


    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ{sub gap}/τ{sub emission} = O(1), where τ{sub gap} is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ{sub emission} is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  11. Decreasing pressure ulcer risk during hospital procedures: a rapid process improvement workshop. (United States)

    Haugen, Vicki; Pechacek, Judy; Maher, Travis; Wilde, Joy; Kula, Larry; Powell, Julie


    A 300-bed acute care community hospital used a 2-day "Rapid Process Improvement Workshop" to identify factors contributing to facility-acquired pressure ulcers (PU). The Rapid Process Improvement Workshop included key stakeholders from all procedural areas providing inpatient services and used standard components of rapid process improvement: data analysis, process flow charting, factor identification, and action plan development.On day 1, the discovery process revealed increased PU risk related to prolonged immobility when transporting patients for procedures, during imaging studies, and during the perioperative period. On day 2, action plans were developed that included communication of PU risk or presence of an ulcer,measures to shorten procedure times when clinically appropriate, implementation of prevention techniques during procedures, and recommendations for mattress upgrades. In addition, educational programs about PU prevention were developed, schedules for presentations were established, and an online power point presentation was completed and placed in a learning management system module. Finally, our nursing department amended a hospital wide handoff communication tool to include skin status and PU risk level. This tool is used in all patient handoff situations, including nonnursing departments such as radiology. Patients deemed at risk for ulcers were provided "Braden Risk" armbands to enhance interdepartmental awareness.

  12. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding (United States)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.


    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  13. Rapidity regulators in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan processes (United States)

    Fleming, Sean; Labun, Ou Z.


    We study the semi-inclusive limit of the deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan (DY) processes in soft collinear effective theory. In this regime so-called threshold logarithms must be resummed to render perturbation theory well behaved. Part of this resummation occurs via the Dokshitzer, Gribov, Lipatov, Altarelli, Parisi (DGLAP) equation, which at threshold contains a large logarithm that calls into question the convergence of the anomalous dimension. We demonstrate here that the problematic logarithm is related to rapidity divergences, and by introducing a rapidity regulator can be tamed. We show that resumming the rapidity logarithms allows us to reproduce the standard DGLAP running at threshold as long as a set of potentially large nonperturbative logarithms are absorbed into the definition of the parton distribution function (PDF). These terms could, in turn, explain the steep falloff of the PDF in the end point. We then go on to show that the resummation of rapidity divergences does not change the standard threshold resummation in DY, nor do our results depend on the rapidity regulator we choose to use.

  14. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen


    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  15. Are burns photographs useful? (United States)

    Nelson, L; Boyle, M; Taggart, I; Watson, S


    Routine photography of all patients admitted to the West of Scotland Regional Burns Unit was introduced in 2003. To date, there are few burns units to evaluate the usefulness of photographs taken. To assess the usefulness of photographs of patients admitted to the burns unit to various members of the multidisciplinary team. A questionnaire was completed by hospital staff involved in the management of burns patients over a 3-month period. A total of 43 questionnaires were completed. The majority of questionnaires were completed by nursing staff (55%) followed by medical staff (23%); physiotherapy (5%); anaesthetists (7%); theatre staff (5%); students (2%); dietician (2%). About 98% of respondents agreed that photographs were useful overall, particularly for teaching purposes. About 9% disagreed that photographs were useful for assessment due to difficulty in assessing depth of burn. About 72% agreed that the photographs were useful for patient management and improve patient care. About 88% agreed that all patients should have photographs available in future. Advantages of photographs include; moving and handling of patients; patient positioning in theatre; reviewing wound healing and complications. They are useful for assessing site, size and type of burn. Disadvantages include difficulty in assessing depth of burn, technical factors, and unavailability out of hours. Photographs of burns patients are useful overall to all members of the multidisciplinary team.

  16. Three stages of emotional word processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation. (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; He, Weiqi; Wang, Ting; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Li, Hong; Luo, Yue-Jia


    Rapid responses to emotional words play a crucial role in social communication. This study employed event-related potentials to examine the time course of neural dynamics involved in emotional word processing. Participants performed a dual-target task in which positive, negative and neutral adjectives were rapidly presented. The early occipital P1 was found larger when elicited by negative words, indicating that the first stage of emotional word processing mainly differentiates between non-threatening and potentially threatening information. The N170 and the early posterior negativity were larger for positive and negative words, reflecting the emotional/non-emotional discrimination stage of word processing. The late positive component not only distinguished emotional words from neutral words, but also differentiated between positive and negative words. This represents the third stage of emotional word processing, the emotion separation. Present results indicated that, similar with the three-stage model of facial expression processing; the neural processing of emotional words can also be divided into three stages. These findings prompt us to believe that the nature of emotion can be analyzed by the brain independent of stimulus type, and that the three-stage scheme may be a common model for emotional information processing in the context of limited attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Modification of microstructure and micromagnetic properties in Gd-Fe thin films by rapid thermal processing


    Talapatraa, A.; Chelvane, J. Arout; Satpati, B.; Kumar, S.; Mohanty, J.


    Impact of rapid thermal processing (RTP) on microstructure and magnetic properties of Gd-Fe thin films have been investigated with a special emphasis to magnetic microstructure. 100 nm thick amorphous Gd-Fe film shows elongated stripe domains with characteristic feature size of 122 nm, which signifies the development of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in this system. RTP at 550^oC for different time intervals viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes induces the crystallization of Fe over the amorph...

  18. Wind Tunnel Model Design and Test Using Rapid Prototype Materials and Processes (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED WIND TUNNEL MODEL DESIGN AND TEST USING RAPID PROTOTYPE MATERIALS AND PROCESSES Richard R. Heisler and Clifford L. Ratliff The Johns Hopkins...deflection, and attach directly to the strongback with screws. A and tolerance deviations when the material was grown. schematic diagram of the RPM...constructed around the clay to contain the I. R. R. Heisler , "Final Test Report for the Wind pouring of silicon resin. Tunnel Test of the JHU/APL WTM-01 at

  19. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes


    Shih-Cheng Hu; Angus Shiue; Han-Yang Liu; Rong-Ben Chiu


    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing...

  20. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia


    Maria Luisa eLorusso; Chiara eCantiani; Massimo eMolteni


    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 childre...

  1. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas


    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  2. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal. (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J


    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  3. Multi-parton interactions and rapidity gap survival probability in jet-gap-jet processes (United States)

    Babiarz, Izabela; Staszewski, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni


    We discuss an application of dynamical multi-parton interaction model, tuned to measurements of underlying event topology, for a description of destroying rapidity gaps in the jet-gap-jet processes at the LHC. We concentrate on the dynamical origin of the mechanism of destroying the rapidity gap. The cross section for jet-gap-jet is calculated within LL BFKL approximation. We discuss the topology of final states without and with the MPI effects. We discuss some examples of selected kinematical situations (fixed jet rapidities and transverse momenta) as distributions averaged over the dynamics of the jet-gap-jet scattering. The colour-singlet ladder exchange amplitude for the partonic subprocess is implemented into the PYTHIA 8 generator, which is then used for hadronisation and for the simulation of the MPI effects. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed. We present the ratio of cross section calculated with and without MPI effects as a function of rapidity gap in between the jets.

  4. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes. (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci


    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Empirical and mathematical model of rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) process of acetaminophen (United States)

    Kien, Le Anh


    Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS) is a solvent-free technology to produce small solid particles with very narrow size distribution. RESS process is simple and easy to control in comparison with other methods based on supercritical techniques. In this study, the engineering of nano (or submicron) acetaminophen particles using rapid expansion CO2 supercritical solution (RESS) was investigated. Empirical model with response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effects of processing parameters, i.e. extraction temperature T (313-333 K), extraction pressure P (90-150 bar) and pre-expansion temperature Texp (353-373 K), on the size of precipitated acetaminophen particles. The results show that the smallest particle size, i.e. 52.08 nm can be achieved at 90 bar, 313 K and 353 K (P, T, Texp, respectively). To better understand and develop a mechanistic predictive tool for RESS process, a one dimensional steady flow model was used in this work to describe the subsonic expansion process inside the capillary nozzle and the supersonic expansion process outside expansion nozzle. It was shown that particle characteristics are governed by both operation parameters such as pre-expansion temperature, pre-expansion pressure, and expansion temperature. These parameters affects particle size in the same trend as that was found from experiment data and empirical model.

  6. Rapid visuomotor processing of phobic images in spider- and snake-fearful participants. (United States)

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas


    This study investigates enhanced visuomotor processing of phobic compared to fear-relevant and neutral stimuli. We used a response priming design to measure rapid, automatic motor activation by natural images (spiders, snakes, mushrooms, and flowers) in spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and control participants. We found strong priming effects in all tasks and conditions; however, results showed marked differences between groups. Most importantly, in the group of spider-fearful individuals, spider pictures had a strong and specific influence on even the fastest motor responses: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants, this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. We conclude that spider phobia leads to enhanced processing capacity for phobic images. We argue that this is enabled by long-term perceptual learning processes. © 2013.

  7. Los materiales fotográficos: su organización y tratamiento en la biblioteca Photographic Materials: their Organization and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Portugal


    Full Text Available Se analizan, a través del relevamiento de la literatura de la especialidad, los principales aspectos vinculados con el tratamiento y organización del material fotográfico. En primer lugar, se examina la descripción bibliográfica y la clasificación. Luego, se observa en distintos OPACs con acceso a través de Internet cómo se efectúa la catalogación y la recuperación de este material. Se brindan pautas acerca de su adquisición, preservación y almacenamiento. Además, se destacan las ventajas y desventajas de la fotografía como material en la biblioteca. Para concluir, se presentan las etapas de la cadena documental que permiten estructurar el procesamiento de este tipo de ítem en función de las necesidades de los usuarios.The main aspects of photographic material in the library are analized through the compilation and study of the special literature concerned. Firstly, the bibliographic description, and the classification are examined. Then, in different OPACs by means of Internet, it is possible to see how the cataloging and retrieval of the above mentioned material is carried out. Criteria about its acquisition, preservation and storage are also provided. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of photography as library material are remarked. To conclude, the different steps to follow in the document chain are supplied, which will lead to a process suitable enough to meet the users' needs.

  8. Choosing optimal rapid manufacturing process for thin-walled products using expert algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Gorski


    Full Text Available Choosing right Rapid Prototyping technology is not easy, especially for companies inexperienced with that group of manufacturing techniques. Paper summarizes research focused on creating an algorithm for expert system, helping to choose optimal process and determine its parameters for thin-walled products rapid manufacturing. Research was based upon trial manufacturing of different thin-walled items using various RP technologies. Products were categorized, each category was defined by a set of requirements. Basing on research outcome, main algorithm has been created. Next step was developing detailed algorithms for optimizing particular methods. Implementation of these algorithms brings huge benefit for recipients, including cost reduction, supply time decrease and improvements in information flow.

  9. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto


    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  10. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudowe, Ralf [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program and Health Physics Dept.; Roman, Audrey [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Dailey, Ashlee [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Go, Elaine [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program


    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  11. End mill tools integration in CNC machining for rapid manufacturing processes: simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Nafis Osman Zahid


    Full Text Available Computer numerical controlled (CNC machining has been recognized as a manufacturing process that is capable of producing metal parts with high precision and reliable quality, whereas many additive manufacturing methods are less capable in these respects. The introduction of a new layer-removal methodology that utilizes an indexing device to clamp the workpiece can be used to extend CNC applications into the realm of rapid manufacturing (CNC-RM processes. This study aims to improve the implementation of CNC machining for RM by formulating a distinct approach to integrate end mill tools during finishing processes. A main objective is to enhance process efficiency by minimizing the staircasing effect of layer removal so as to improve the quality of machined parts. In order to achieve this, different types of end mill tools are introduced to cater for specific part surfaces during finishing operations. Virtual machining simulations are executed to verify the method and the implications. The findings indicate the advantages of the approach in terms of cutting time and excess volume left on the parts. It is shown that using different tools for finishing operations will improve the capabilities of CNC machining for rapid manufacturing applications.

  12. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)


    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  13. USGS Photographic Library (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Denver Library maintains a collection of over 400,000 photographs taken during geologic studies of the United States and its territories...

  14. Increased insight in microbial processes in rapid sandfilters in drinking water treatment (DW BIOFILTERS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Lee, Carson


    The aim of this research project is to improve our knowledge on biological rapid sand filters as they are present in thousands groundwater based water works. This includes molecular investigations of the microorganisms responsible for the individual processes (e.g. nitrification); and detailed...... monitoring and experiments in the filters and laboratory to provide insight in the process mechanisms, kinetics and effect of environmental factors. Management of the filters (e.g. backwashing, flow rate, carrier type) will be investigated at pilot and full scale, supported by mathematical models...... investigated by deep sequencing. This will also contribute to a verification of whether the selected qPCR probes include all important groups. Filters from three water works have been sampled and are currently being processed to investigate depth profiles and horizontal variation in filters. Assays...

  15. D Photographs in Cultural Heritage (United States)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kiel, St.


    . Though 3D photographs are a well established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, they are still a matter of research and practical improvement: - For example, multistage concepts for 3D heritage photographs, e.g., combining before and aft images and images showing different focus, daytime etc., as well as combining 3D imagery of different sensors and comparing 3D imagery with drawings etc. and even standards for exposing and processing 3D heritage photographs are only some topics for recent research. - To advise on state-of-the-art 3D visualisation methodology for Cultural heritage purposes an updated synoptically overview, even claiming completeness, also will be dealt with. - 3D photographs increasingly should replace old fashioned subjective interpreted manual 2D drawings (in 2D only) of heritage monuments. - Currently we are witnesses of early developments, showing Cultural Heritage objects in 3D crystal as well as in 3D printings.

  16. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochanadel, P.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  17. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor. (United States)

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan


    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time.

  18. Colloidal processing and rapid prototyping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liwu Wang


    Some progresses have been made in the wet shaping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based on a better understanding of the colloidal behavior of suspensions and by improved pressure casting with porous polystyrene (PS) molds. This work illustrated that the combination of proper colloidal processing and rapid prototyping is an effective way to fabricate high-performance ceramics with complex shapes. In colloidal processing the packing density and microstructure of green bodies can be controlled if the interaction between ceramic particles in suspensions and the conditions under which the suspensions are consolidated are understood. Therefore, detailed studies on the surface chemistry of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder, the dispersing behavior of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspensions, the influence of dispersants and the mechanism during powder consolidation into complex-shaped green bodies are performed. (orig.)

  19. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  20. Studies on the Process Parameters of Rapid Prototyping Technique (Stereolithography for the Betterment of Part Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Bangalore Singe Gowda


    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping (RP has evolved as frontier technology in the recent times, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into functional prototypes where it tremendously reduces the lead time to produce physical prototypes necessary for design verification, fit, and functional analysis by generating the prototypes directly from the CAD data. Part quality in the rapid prototyping process is a function of build parameters such as hatch cure depth, layer thickness, orientation, and hatch spacing. Thus an attempt was made to identify, study, and optimize the process parameters governing the system which are related to part characteristics using Taguchi experimental design techniques quality. The part characteristics can be divided into physical part and mechanical part characteristics. The physical characteristics are surface finish, dimensional accuracy, distortion, layer thickness, hatch cure, and hatch file, whereas mechanical characteristics are flexural strength, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength. Thus, this paper proposes to characterize the influence of the physical build parameters over the part quality. An L9 orthogonal array was designed with the minimum number of experimental runs with desired parameter settings and also by analysis tools such as ANOVA (analysis of variance. Establishment of experimentally verified correlations between the physical part characteristics and mechanical part characteristics to obtain an optimal process parameter level for betterment of part quality is obtained. The process model obtained by the empirical relation can be used to determine the strength of the prototype for the given set of parameters that shows the dependency of strength, which are essential for designers and RP machine users.

  1. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis. (United States)

    Markiewicz, P J; Thielemans, K; Schott, J M; Atkinson, D; Arridge, S R; Hutton, B F; Ourselin, S


    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of (18)F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner.

  2. Rapid DNA analysis for automated processing and interpretation of low DNA content samples. (United States)

    Turingan, Rosemary S; Vasantgadkar, Sameer; Palombo, Luke; Hogan, Catherine; Jiang, Hua; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard F


    Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of casework samples with low DNA content include those resulting from the transfer of epithelial cells from the skin to an object (e.g., cells on a water bottle, or brim of a cap), blood spatter stains, and small bone and tissue fragments. Low DNA content (LDC) samples are important in a wide range of settings, including disaster response teams to assist in victim identification and family reunification, military operations to identify friend or foe, criminal forensics to identify suspects and exonerate the innocent, and medical examiner and coroner offices to identify missing persons. Processing LDC samples requires experienced laboratory personnel, isolated workstations, and sophisticated equipment, requires transport time, and involves complex procedures. We present a rapid DNA analysis system designed specifically to generate STR profiles from LDC samples in field-forward settings by non-technical operators. By performing STR in the field, close to the site of collection, rapid DNA analysis has the potential to increase throughput and to provide actionable information in real time. A Low DNA Content BioChipSet (LDC BCS) was developed and manufactured by injection molding. It was designed to function in the fully integrated Accelerated Nuclear DNA Equipment (ANDE) instrument previously designed for analysis of buccal swab and other high DNA content samples (Investigative Genet. 4(1):1-15, 2013). The LDC BCS performs efficient DNA purification followed by microfluidic ultrafiltration of the purified DNA, maximizing the quantity of DNA available for subsequent amplification and electrophoretic separation and detection of amplified fragments. The system demonstrates accuracy, precision, resolution, signal strength, and peak height ratios appropriate for casework analysis. The LDC rapid DNA analysis system is effective for the generation of STR profiles from a wide range of sample types. The technology broadens the range of sample

  3. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes. (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A Erman


    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified.

  4. Approaching photographic ekphrasis


    Castro, Azucena


    My paper analyses the ekphrastic sequences in postmodern writer Tomás Eloy Martínez’s novel, Santa Evita (1995), in which the photographic descriptions of Eva Perón are a recurring theme. The photographic ekphrasis in this novel reflects the various meanings and messages the photography has, but it also manifests the appropriation of the photographictools and mechanisms by the literary practice to create a deceitful sensation of reality in the reader-spectator. The fictive world is created by...

  5. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.


    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  6. Synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anammox processes in two-stage ASBRs (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Li, W. R.; Zhao, Y.


    The “methanation + anaerobic ammonia oxidation autotrophic denitrification” method was adopted by using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) and realized a satisfactory synchronous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in wastewater after 75 days operation. 90% of COD was removed at a COD load of 1.2 kg/(m3•d) and 90% of TN was removed at a TN load of 0.14 kg/(m3•d). The anammox reaction ratio was estimated to be 1: 1.32: 0.26. The results showed that synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation processes in two-stage ASBRs was feasible.

  7. Measurements of crystal growth kinetics at extreme deviations from equilibrium. [Rapid solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, M.J.


    We have measured solute trapping of Sn in Al over a wide enough range of velocities to make a quantitative test of theory. The Continuous Growth Model of Aziz is the only one-parameter model that fits the data. We have also measured the diffusive speed - the growth rate at which interfacial partitioning is in mid-transition between equilibrium partitioning and complete solute trapping - for several solutes in A1. We have found an inverse correlation between the equilibrium partition coefficient and the diffusive speed. Taken together, these results give us heretofore unprecedented predictive capability in modeling rapid solidification processing. We have also examined theoretically short-range diffusion-limited growth, characteristic of incomplete solute trapping, and interface-limited growth, characteristic of complete solute trapping, in alloy solidification and have shown that the two regimes fall naturally out of a single unified theory of solidification.

  8. Properties of polycrystals and nanotwinned structures in silicon during rapid cooling process (United States)

    Gao, Tinghong; Li, Kaiwen; Tian, Zean; Xie, Quan; Hu, Xuechen; Li, Yidan; Luo, Xiangyan; Ren, Lei


    The evolution characteristics of polycrystals and nano-twinned structures during the rapid solidification of silicon under cooling rate of 1010 K s‑1 are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulation. The microstructural properties of silicon were analyzed by several structural characterization methods. The distorted tetrahedral units with 5 nearest-neighbor atoms play different roles in three stages of the quenching process. As transitional structures, they play a significant part in liquid to liquid and liquid to crystal transition, and break the translational symmetry of the crystalline structures. The tetrahedral units can aggregate to form polycrystals with high stability in this system. When the temperature was decreased at a cooling rate of 1010 K s‑1, Coherent twin boundaries, having excellent structural stability and configurational continuity, were easily formed between zinc-blende and wurtzite structures.

  9. High-density Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor prepared by rapid thermal melt processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B.M.; Lalevic, B. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, P. O. Box 909, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0909 (US)); Kear, B.H.; McCandlish, L.E. (Department of Mechanics and Materials Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, P. O. Box 909, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0909); Safari, A.; Meskoob, M. (Department of Ceramic Science and Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, P. O. Box 909, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0909)


    A high quality, dense Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor has been successfully synthesized by rapid thermal melt processing. Conventionally sintered pellets were melted at 1200 {degree}C, cooled rapidly, and then annealed. As-melted samples exhibited semiconductor behavior, which upon annealing became superconducting at 115 K ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}(zero)=105 K). A detailed study of various processing techniques has been carried out.

  10. High-density Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor prepared by rapid thermal melt processing (United States)

    Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Kear, B. H.; McCandlish, L. E.; Safari, A.; Meskoob, M.


    A high quality, dense Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor has been successfully synthesized by rapid thermal melt processing. Conventionally sintered pellets were melted at 1200 °C, cooled rapidly, and then annealed. As-melted samples exhibited semiconductor behavior, which upon annealing became superconducting at 115 K [Tc(zero)=105 K]. A detailed study of various processing techniques has been carried out.

  11. A rapid and reliable bonding process for microchip electrophoresis fabricated in glass substrates. (United States)

    Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Almeida, André Luiz de Jesus; Piazetta, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Mazo, Luiz Henrique; Carrilho, Emanuel


    In this report, we describe a rapid and reliable process to bond channels fabricated in glass substrates. Glass channels were fabricated by photolithography and wet chemical etching. The resulting channels were bonded against another glass plate containing a 50-microm thick PDMS layer. This same PDMS layer was also used to provide the electrical insulation of planar electrodes to carry out capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The analytical performance of the proposed device was shown by using both LIF and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection systems. Efficiency around 47,000 plates/m was achieved with good chip-to-chip repeatability and satisfactory long-term stability of EOF. The RSD for the EOF measured in three different devices was ca. 7%. For a chip-to-chip comparison, the RSD values for migration time, electrophoretic current and peak area were below 10%. With the proposed approach, a single chip can be fabricated in less than 30 min including patterning, etching and sealing steps. This fabrication process is faster and easier than the thermal bonding process. Besides, the proposed method does not require high temperatures and provides excellent day-to-day and device-to-device repeatability.

  12. Rapid identification of mRNA processing defects with a novel single-cell yeast reporter. (United States)

    Sorenson, Matthew R; Stevens, Scott W


    It has become increasingly evident that gene expression processes in eukaryotes involve communication and coordination between many complex, independent macromolecular machines. To query these processes and to explore the potential relationships between them in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we designed a versatile reporter using multicolor high-throughput flow cytometry. Due to its design, this single reporter exhibits a distinctive signature for many defects in gene expression including transcription, histone modification, pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, nonsense-mediated decay, and mRNA degradation. Analysis of the reporter in 4967 nonessential yeast genes revealed striking phenotypic overlaps between chromatin remodeling, histone modification, and pre-mRNA splicing. Additionally, we developed a copper-inducible reporter, with which we demonstrate that 5-fluorouracil mimics the mRNA decay phenotype of cells lacking the 3'-5' exonuclease Rrp6p. Our reporter is capable of performing high-throughput, rapid, and large-scale screens to identify and characterize genetic and chemical perturbations of the major eukaryotic gene expression processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aranovskiy


    Full Text Available Abstract. A problem of output robust control for a system with power nonlinearity is considered. The considered problem can be rewritten as a stabilization problem for a system with polynomial nonlinearity by introducing the error term. The problem of temperature regulation is considered as application; the rapid thermal processes in vapor deposition processing are studied. Modern industrial equipment uses complex sensors and control systems; these devices are not available for laboratory setups. The limited amount of available sensors and other technical restrictions for laboratory setups make it an actual problem to design simple low-order output control laws. The problem is solved by the consecutive compensator approach. The paper deals with a new type of restriction which is a combination of linear and power restrictions. It is shown that the polynomial nonlinearity satisfies this restriction. Asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system is proved by the Lyapunov functions approach for the considered nonlinear function; this contribution extends previously known results. Numerical simulation of the vapor deposition processing illustrates that the proposed approach results in zero-mean tracking error with standard deviation less than 1K.

  14. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Demberg

    Full Text Available While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA, relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German, three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments, and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  15. Late Quaternary Climate Forcing of Rapid Sedimentation and Erosion Processes in the NW Himalaya (Invited) (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.


    The intensity of the Asian summer-monsoon circulation varies over decadal to millennial time scales and is reflected in changes in surface processes, terrestrial environments, and marine sediment records. The impact of climatic forcing on the landscape’s response and associated erosion processes varies, depending on magnitude and size of the climatic events, as well as on the tectonic and geomorphologic preconditioning of the landscape. Here, we present new surface-exposure ages combined with previously published data to quantify erosion and process rates and their changes through the time. The NW Himalaya is located at the end of the monsoonal conveyer belt that transports moisture from the Bay of Bengal to the Sutlej Valley and farther west. Along the Himalaya, orographic barriers force out rainfall with peak amounts located consistently at a 3-km-radius relief of ~1 km. The tail and northward end of the rainfall distribution decays rapidly with only little or no moisture reaching the southern Tibetan Plateau. However, during a generally stronger monsoon circulation in the early Holocene called the Intensified Monsoon Phase rainfall reached the today arid regions of the northern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau as documented in numerous terrestrial sediment archives. During this time period in the NW Himalaya, the presently arid, high-elevation areas have been impacted by flooding and heavy landsliding ultimately leading to a significant increase in sediment-flux rates. Some of the sediment material has been derived from glaciers. We show that the transiently-stored sediments in these valleys have been rapidly removed during the early Holocene at the onset of the Intensified Monsoon Phase. The limiting factor for sediment removal and transport on millennial timescales are large bedrock landslides that impounded the river network and formed intramontane basins lasting for several thousands of years. We suggest a feedback process between sediment removal and


    Berry, F.G.


    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  17. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener


    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  18. Rapid removal of fine particles from mine water using sequential processes of coagulation and flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.; Lee, H.J.; Shim, Y. [Korean Mine Reclamation Corporation MIRECO, Seoul (Republic of Korea)


    The processes of coagulation and flocculation using high molecular weight long-chain polymers were applied to treat mine water having fine flocs of which about 93% of the total mass was less than 3.02 {mu} m, representing the size distribution of fine particles. Six different combinations of acryl-type anionic flocculants and polyamine-type cationic coagulants were selected to conduct kinetic tests on turbidity removal in mine water. Optimization studies on the types and concentrations of the coagulant and flocculant showed that the highest rate of turbidity removal was obtained with 10 mg L{sup -1} FL-2949 (coagulant) and 12 mg L{sup -1} A333E (flocculant), which was about 14.4 and 866.7 times higher than that obtained with A333E alone and that obtained through natural precipitation by gravity, respectively. With this optimized condition, the turbidity of mine water was reduced to 0 NTU within 20 min. Zeta potential measurements were conducted to elucidate the removal mechanism of the fine particles, and they revealed that there was a strong linear relationship between the removal rate of each pair of coagulant and flocculant application and the zeta potential differences that were obtained by subtracting the zeta potential of flocculant-treated mine water from the zeta potential of coagulant-treated mine water. Accordingly, through an optimization process, coagulation-flocculation by use of polymers could be advantageous to mine water treatment, because the process rapidly removes fine particles in mine water and only requires a small-scale plant for set-up purposes owing to the short retention time in the process.

  19. SMEX03 Site Photographs, Alabama (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMEX03 Site Photographs data set includes photographs of the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003 Soil Moisture...

  20. Rapid implementation of image processing onto FPGA using modular DSP C6201 VHDL model (United States)

    Brost, V.; Yang, F.; Paindavoine, M.; Liu, X. J.


    Recent FPGA chips, with their large capacity memory and reconfigurability potential, have opened new frontiers for rapid prototyping of embedded systems. With the advent of high density FPGAs it is now feasible to implement a high-performance VLIW processor core in an FPGA. We describe research results of enabling the DSP TMS320 C6201 model for real-time image processing applications, by exploiting FPGA technology. The goals are, firstly, to keep the flexibility of DSP in order to shorten the development cycle, and secondly, to use powerful available resources on FPGA to a maximum in order to increase real-time performance. We present a modular DSP C6201 VHDL model which contains only the bare minimum number of instruction sets, or modules, necessary for each target application. This allows an optimal implementation on the FPGA. Some common algorithms of image processing were created and validated on an FPGA VirtexII-2000 multimedia board using the proposed application development cycle. Our results demonstrate that an algorithm can easily be, in an optimal manner, specified and then automatically converted to VHDL language and implemented on an FPGA device with system level software.

  1. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes. (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben


    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber's leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H₂O₂ of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment.

  2. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Cheng Hu


    Full Text Available There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber′s leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H2O2 of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment.

  3. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys of hypereutectic composition (United States)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.


    A combination of bulk undercooling in an electromagnetic levitation apparatus and splat quenching between two copper plates is used to process Nb-Si alloys in order to maximize rapid solidification conditions and minimize the effects of recalescence, with emphasis on the solidification of characteristics of alloys in the 21 to 27 at. pct Si range of composition. SEM and TEM as well as X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the microstructures of the processed samples. In the range of compositions studied, the splat-quenched drops always formed the tetragonal Nb3Si phase directly from the liquid. Drops solidified in the coil were characterized by the presence of the primary intermetallic Nb5Si3 and the absence of both peritectic Nb3Si and the equilibrium eutectic. In these cases, a metastable alpha-Nb + beta-Nb5Si3 eutectic formed. The results are discussed in terms of possible metastable configurations of the Nb-Si phase diagram as well as concepts of nucleation and growth kinetics applied to the Nb3Si and Nb5Si3 intermetallics.

  4. Implicit affectivity and rapid processing of affective body language: An fMRI study. (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald


    Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Geotagging Photographs in Student Fieldwork (United States)

    Welsh, Katharine E.; France, Derek; Whalley, W. Brian; Park, Julian R.


    This resource paper provides guidance for staff and students on the potential educational benefits, limitations and applications of geotagging photographs. It also offers practical advice for geotagging photographs in a range of fieldwork settings and reviews three free smartphone applications (apps) for geotagging photographs (Flickr, Evernote…

  6. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping (United States)

    Bahr, Thomas


    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  7. The Effect of Orthographic Depth on Letter String Processing: The Case of Visual Attention Span and Rapid Automatized Naming (United States)

    Antzaka, Alexia; Martin, Clara; Caffarra, Sendy; Schlöffel, Sophie; Carreiras, Manuel; Lallier, Marie


    The present study investigated whether orthographic depth can increase the bias towards multi-letter processing in two reading-related skills: visual attention span (VAS) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). VAS (i.e., the number of visual elements that can be processed at once in a multi-element array) was tested with a visual 1-back task and RAN…

  8. Photograph of the month (United States)


    Sigmoid (σ-type) structure in mylonite exposed along the wall of the Blue Nile Canyon in Bure, Ethiopian Plateau, Ethiopia. The Blue Nile River carved a 1.6 km deep and extensive canyon on the Ethiopian Plateau and exposed Neoproterozoic to Quaternary rocks. The lenticular-shaped sigmoid is a deformed feldspar aggregate with elongated wings at both ends. The wings of the clast step up in the direction of movement of the upper part of shear zone, thus showing a dextral (right-lateral) sense of shear. This Neoproteozoic-Early Paleozoic shear zone might have formed by dynamic metamorphism during the East African Orogeny, which is related to the collision between East and West Gondwanaland. The horizontal scale bar in the photograph is 5 cm. Outcrop location Bure region (10° 20.326' N, 037°1.305 E, 1580 m altitude). Photograph © Nahid D. Gani, WKU, Bowling Green, USA (

  9. STS-80 Onboard Photograph (United States)


    This STS-80 onboard photograph shows the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (ORFEUS-SPAS II), photographed during approach by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for retrieval. Built by the German Space Agency, DARA, the ORFEUS-SPAS II, a free-flying satellite, was dedicated to astronomical observations at very short wavelengths to: investigate the nature of hot stellar atmospheres, investigate the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars, determine the nature of accretion disks around collapsed stars, investigate supernova remnants, and investigate the interstellar medium and potential star-forming regions. Some 422 observations of almost 150 astronomical objects were completed, including the Moon, nearby stars, distant Milky Way stars, stars in other galaxies, active galaxies, and quasar 3C273. The STS-80 mission was launched November 19, 1996.

  10. Computer aided photographic engineering (United States)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom


    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  11. Fast-ramp rapid vertical processor for 300-mm Si wafer processing (United States)

    Porter, Cole; Laser, Allan; Herring, Robert; Pandey, Pradeep


    Fast-ramp vertical furnace technology has been established on the 200-nm wafer platform providing higher capacity production, decreased cycle time and lower thermal budgets. Fast-ramp furnaces are capable of instantaneous temperature ramp rates up to 100 degrees C/min. This fast-ramp technology is now applied to 300-nm wafer processing on the SVG/Thermco Rapid Vertical Processor Vertical Furnace. 300- mm fast-ramp capability using the latest in real-time adaptive model based temperature control technology, Clairvoyant Control, is reported. Atmospheric Thermal Oxidation, LPCVD Nitride and Polysilicon Deposition, and LPCVD TEOS-based SiO2 Deposition results are discussed. 300- mm wafer Radial Delta Temperature dependence on temperature ramp rate, wafer pitch, and wafer support fixtures are discussed. Wafer throughput is calculated and reported. The Clairvoyant Control methodology of combining thermal, direct and virtually-sensed parameters to produce real-tim e estimation of wafer temperatures, thermal trajectory optimization, and feedback to minimize variations in film thickness and electrical properties is presented.

  12. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso


    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  13. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia. (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo


    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  14. Rapid solidification of an Al-5Ni alloy processed by spray forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Ramos Moreira Afonso


    Full Text Available Recently, intermetallic compounds have attracted much attention due to their potential technological applications as high-temperature materials. In particular the intermetallic compounds, associated with the Al-Ni binary system stand out as promising candidates for high-temperature materials for the use in harsh environments. It is expected that a bulk Al-Ni alloy may exceed the strength of many commercial materials. The great challenge in developing these alloys is to manipulate the solidification thermal parameters in order to obtain the desired microstructural features. One of the indicated routes to obtain very refined intermetallic phases dispersed in the microstructure is the spray forming process. The dendritic and eutectic growth dependences on cooling rate are already known for directionally solidified (DS hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys. In the case of rapidly solidified (RS samples, extrapolations of such experimental laws are needed, which can be very helpful to estimate realistic values of high cooling rates imposed during the spray forming process. The present study aims to compare directionally solidified and spray-formed Al-5wt. (%Ni alloy samples with a view to providing a basis for understanding how to control solidification parameters and the as-cast microstructure. The Al-5.0wt. (%Ni alloy was shown to have a cellular morphology for the overspray powder size range examined (up to 500 µm. The mean cell spacing decreased from 5.0 to 1.1 µm with the decrease in the powder average diameter. It was found that the experimental cooling rates imposed during the atomization step of the overspray powder solidification varied from 10³ to 2.10(4 K/s. The DSC trace depicted a crystallization peak of an amorphous structure fraction in the smallest Al-5.0wt. (%Ni alloy powder size range (<32 µm estimating a 15 µm critical diameter of amorphous powder in the binary Al97.5Ni2.5 (at% alloy.

  15. Rapid Processing of a Global Feature in the ON Visual Pathways of Behaving Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang


    Full Text Available Visual objects are recognized by their features. Whereas, some features are based on simple components (i.e., local features, such as orientation of line segments, some features are based on the whole object (i.e., global features, such as an object having a hole in it. Over the past five decades, behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and computational studies have established a general model of vision, which starts from extracting local features in the lower visual pathways followed by a feature integration process that extracts global features in the higher visual pathways. This local-to-global model is successful in providing a unified account for a vast sets of perception experiments, but it fails to account for a set of experiments showing human visual systems' superior sensitivity to global features. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the “global-first” process will offer critical insights into new models of vision. The goal of the present study was to establish a non-human primate model of rapid processing of global features for elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying differential processing of global and local features. Monkeys were trained to make a saccade to a target in the black background, which was different from the distractors (white circle in color (e.g., red circle target, local features (e.g., white square target, a global feature (e.g., white ring with a hole target or their combinations (e.g., red square target. Contrary to the predictions of the prevailing local-to-global model, we found that (1 detecting a distinction or a change in the global feature was faster than detecting a distinction or a change in color or local features; (2 detecting a distinction in color was facilitated by a distinction in the global feature, but not in the local features; and (3 detecting the hole was interfered by the local features of the hole (e.g., white ring with a squared hole. These results suggest that monkey ON

  16. Still Photographic Career Ladder, AFSC 231X2 (United States)


    media imagery, mixing photographic chemistry, performing clinical and surgical documentation, and performing photojournalism duties. In addition, 7...survey sam¢ple. Like the Photojournal - ists, this job focuses on shooting photographs with very little time spent on processing and printing film. However

  17. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon


    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  18. The Photograph as Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina


    tool for reading the net-work of images. The case is two visitor snapshots at the photographic exhibition, ‘The Story of Soweto’, in the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa. I demonstrate that, when slightly adjusted for research engaging with visual materials, Latourian concepts......Inspired by actor-network theory (ANT), this article develops a theoretical framework to grasp the dynamic visual work of memory. It introduces three sensitizing concepts of actor-network methodology, namely entanglement, relationality and traceability, and operationalizes them in a methodological...

  19. Automated Brightness and Contrast Adjustment of Color Fundus Photographs for the Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. (United States)

    Tsikata, Edem; Laíns, Inês; Gil, João; Marques, Marco; Brown, Kelsey; Mesquita, Tânia; Melo, Pedro; da Luz Cachulo, Maria; Kim, Ivana K; Vavvas, Demetrios; Murta, Joaquim N; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Miller, Joan W; Chen, Teresa C; Husain, Deeba


    The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm to automatically standardize the brightness, contrast, and color balance of digital color fundus photographs used to grade AMD and to validate this algorithm by determining the effects of the standardization on image quality and disease grading. Seven-field color photographs of patients (>50 years) with any stage of AMD and a control group were acquired at two study sites, with either the Topcon TRC-50DX or Zeiss FF-450 Plus cameras. Field 2 photographs were analyzed. Pixel brightness values in the red, green, and blue (RGB) color channels were adjusted in custom-built software to make the mean brightness and contrast of the images equal to optimal values determined by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 2 group. Color photographs of 370 eyes were analyzed. We found a wide range of brightness and contrast values in the images at baseline, even for those taken with the same camera. After processing, image brightness variability (brightest image-dimmest image in a color channel) was reduced 69-fold, 62-fold, and 96-fold for the RGB channels. Contrast variability was reduced 6-fold, 8-fold, and 13-fold, respectively, after adjustment. Of the 23% images considered nongradable before adjustment, only 5.7% remained nongradable. This automated software enables rapid and accurate standardization of color photographs for AMD grading. This work offers the potential to be the future of assessing and grading AMD from photos for clinical research and teleimaging.

  20. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Table 1, compound 1a was treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of potassium carbonate in refluxing 1,4-dioxane to afford the corresponding ketoxime 2a in excellent yield. Acetophenone oxime (2a) was also obtained by the use of ethanol or methanol as the solvent at room temperature or at reflux temperature in excellent yields (Entries 9-12 in Table 1), whereas the side reaction was detected for the reaction of 1a with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of potassium carbonate in refluxing water. According to our preliminary results, we selected the methanol as the solvent due to short reaction time and low price. As shown in Table 2, aliphatic and aromatic ketones except for benzophenone (1f) were rapidly and selectively converted to the corresponding Z-oximes in good yields. Also, various types of aromatic aldehydes 1g. with electron donating and withdrawing groups were rapidly and selectively converted to the corresponding Zaldoximes in good to excellent yields. In our condition, the oximation of aldehydes is more Z-selective than the oximation of ketones. In order to evaluate the utility of industrial process, we examined the one mole scale reaction. Treatment of one mole acetophenone (1a) and benzaldehyde (1g) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and potassium carbonate in methanol afforded the corresponding oximes 2a (E/Z ratio = 15:85, 92%) and 2g (E/Z ratio = 10:90, 92%). The structures of the oximes were established by IR and NMR. In the case of ketoximes, we distinguished two isomers by using the carbon chemical shifts of C=NOH, that is, the chemical shifts of the Z-isomer are detected higher field than the chemical shifts of the E-isomer. In the case of aldoximes, E/Z-isomers were distinguished by using the proton chemical shifts of HC=N for aldoximes, that is, the proton chemical shifts of the Z-isomer are detected lower field than the chemical shifts of the E-isomer. In summury, we have demonstrated the rapid and convenient oximation of

  1. Photographic Portraits: Narrative and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roberts


    Full Text Available This article is a more general "companion" to the subsequent, Brian ROBERTS (2011 "Interpreting Photographic Portraits: Autobiography, Time Perspectives and Two School Photographs". The article seeks to add to the growing awareness of the importance of visual materials and methods in qualitative social research and to give an introduction to the "photographic self image"—self-portraits and portraits. It focuses on time and memory, including the experiential associations (in consciousness and the senses that the self engenders, thus linking the "visual" (photographic and "auto/biographical". The article attempts to "map" a field—the use of portraiture within social science—drawing on narrative and biographical research, on one side, and photographic portraiture, on the other. In supporting the use of photography in qualitative research it points to the need for researchers to have a greater knowledge of photographic (and art criticism and cognisance of photographic practices. The article does not intend to give a definitive account of photographic portraiture or prescribe in detail how it may be used within social science. It is an initial overview of the development and issues within the area of photographic portraiture and an exploration of relevant methodological issues when images of individuals are employed within social science—so that "portraiture" is better understood and developed within biographical and narrative research. URN:

  2. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.


    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  3. The role of rapid eye movement sleep for amygdala-related memory processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Konrad, B.N.; Dresler, M.


    Over the years, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been associated with general memory consolidation, specific consolidation of perceptual, procedural, emotional and fear memories, brain maturation and preparation of waking consciousness. More recently, some of these associations (e.g., general and

  4. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy (United States)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  5. AVSynDEx: A Rapid Prototyping Process Dedicated to the Implementation of Digital Image Processing Applications on Multi-DSP and FPGA Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fresse


    Full Text Available We present AVSynDEx (concatenation of AVS + SynDEx, a rapid prototyping process aiming to the implementation of digital signal processing applications on mixed architectures (multi-DSP + FPGA. This process is based on the use of widely available and efficient CAD tools established along the design process so that most of the implementation tasks become automatic. These tools and architectures are judiciously selected and integrated during the implementation process to help a signal processing specialist without relevant hardware experience. We have automated the translation between the different levels of the process to increase and secure it. One main advantage is that only a signal processing designer is needed, all the other specialized manual tasks being transparent in this prototyping methodology, hereby reducing the implementation time.

  6. Closed-Loop Control of the Thermal Stir Welding Process to Enable Rapid Process/Part Qualification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) provides advancement over the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process because it separates the primary processes variables...

  7. Colosed-Loop Control of the Thermal Stir Welding Process to Enable Rapid Process/Ppart Qualification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) provides advancement over the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process because it separates the primary processes variables...

  8. Continuous-specimen-flow, high-throughput, 1-hour tissue processing. A system for rapid diagnostic tissue preparation. (United States)

    Morales, Azorides R; Essenfeld, Harold; Essenfeld, Ervin; Duboue, Maria Carmen; Vincek, Vladimir; Nadji, Mehrdad


    Current conventional tissue-processing methods employ fixation of tissues with neutral buffered formalin, dehydration with alcohol, and clearing with xylene before paraffin impregnation. Because the time required for this procedure is usually 8 hours or longer, it is customary to process tissues in automated instruments throughout the night. Although this time-honored method continues to serve histology laboratories well, it has a number of shortcomings, such as a 1-day delay of diagnosis, the need to batch specimens, the relatively large volumes and toxicity of reagents used, and the extent of RNA degradation. To describe a rapid new method of tissue processing using a continuous-throughput technique. Design.-We used a combination of common histologic reagents, excluding formalin and xylene, as well as microwave energy, to develop a rapid processing method. The effect of this method on the quality of histomorphology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and RNA content of processed tissue was compared with that of adjacent tissue sections processed by the conventional processing technique. We also assessed the impact of this rapid processing system on our practice by comparing the turnaround times of surgical pathology reports before and after its implementation. The new processing method permitted preparation of paraffin blocks from fresh or prefixed tissue in about 1 hour. The procedure allowed continuous flow of specimens at 15-minute intervals. It eliminated the use of formalin and xylene in the processing and used considerably lower volumes of other chemical reagents. Histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical results were comparable to the parallel sections prepared by the conventional method. The new technique, however, preserved higher quality RNA. Use of the new methodology led to the diagnosis and reporting of more than one third of surgical pathology specimens on the same day that they were received, as compared to 1% of same

  9. Photograph Usage in History Education (United States)

    Akbaba, Bulent


    In this study, the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students' achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group's courses were done…

  10. Optimization of process parameters for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Rajendran, Kumar; Sen, Shampa


    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications including gas sensors, pigments owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness, non-toxicity and high resistance to corrosion. These nanoparticles were generally synthesized by different chemical methods. In the present study, nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly without heat treatment by biosynthesis approach using culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus SVK1. The physiochemical parameters for rapid synthesis were optimized by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The time taken for hematite nanoparticle synthesis was found to increase with the increasing concentration of the precursor. This might be due to the inadequate proportion of quantity of biomolecules present in the culture supernatant to the precursor which led to delayed bioreduction. Greater quantities of culture supernatant with respect to precursor lead to rapid synthesis of hematite nanoparticles. The nucleation of the hematite nucleus happens more easily when the solution pH was less than 10. The optimum parameters identified for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles were pH9, 37°C (temperature) and 1mM ferric chloride as precursor. The particles were well crystallized hexagonal structured hematite nanoparticles and are predominantly (110)-oriented. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to contain predominantly iron (73.47%) and oxygen (22.58%) as evidenced by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. Hematite nanoparticles of 15-40nm diameters were biosynthesized in 48h under optimized conditions, compared to 21days before optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges (United States)


    views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the...SORDAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) leader in rapid acquisitions, and its culture and practices should be benchmarked by the other services. This...should be benchmarked by all other services. This essay first examines SORDAC’s acquisition environment and assesses SORDAC’s unique culture. This

  12. Processes of microbial pesticide degradation in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water


    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Aerobic rapid sand filters for treatment of groundwater at waterworks were investigated for the ability to remove pesticides. The potential, kinetics and mechanisms of microbial pesticide removal was investigated in microcosms consisting of filter sand, treated water and pesticides in initial concentrations of 0.04-2.4 μg/L. The pesticides were removed from the water in microcosms with filter sand from all three investigated sand filters. Within the experimental periode of six to 13 days, 65-...

  13. Brief formalin fixation and rapid tissue processing do not affect the sensitivity of ER immunohistochemistry of breast core biopsies. (United States)

    Sujoy, Victoria; Nadji, Mehrdad; Morales, Azorides R


    Recent studies have questioned the supporting evidence for the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines of the 8-hour minimum fixation time required for estrogen receptor immunohistochemistry (ER-IHC) assays in breast cancer. We investigated whether brief formalin fixation together with rapid tissue processing affects the sensitivity of ER in core breast biopsies. Five core samples each from 22 mastectomy specimens were collected and fixed in 10% formalin for periods ranging from 30 minutes to 1 week. Core 5 was fixed and processed according to the ASCO/CAP guidelines. ER-IHC was performed following heat-induced antigen retrieval using antibody 1D5. The proportion and intensity of reaction was recorded using the Q score. Five of 22 cancers were ER negative in all cores. In 17 ER-positive cases, no differences were found in the intensity of reaction between 30 minutes and 1 week of formalin fixation. Similarly, no difference was observed in the Q scores of rapidly and conventionally processed control tumor cores. Brief formalin fixation along with rapid processing has no negative effect on the sensitivity of ER-IHC in breast core biopsies. This combination significantly reduces the turnaround time for preparing breast needle biopsy specimens.

  14. Process Modelling of Rapid Manufacturing Based Mass Customisation System for Fabrication of Custom Foot Orthoses: Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Jumani


    Full Text Available The need for custom-made devices, rehabilitation aids and treatments is explicit in the medical sector. Applications of rapid manufacturing techniques based on additive fabrication processes combined with medical digitising technologies can generate high quality solutions in situations where the need for custom-made devices and rehabilitation aids and low-lead times are very important factors. Foot orthoses are medical devices applied in the treatment of biomechanical foot disorders, foot injuries and foot diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The significant challenge in the treatment of foot related diseases is progressing pathological deterioration in the affected sites of the foot which requires quick provision of the orthoses. A process model is developed using the IDEF0 modelling technique in which a rapid manufacturing approach is integrated in the design and fabrication process of custom foot orthoses. The process model will be used in the development of rapid manufacturing based design and fabrication system for mass customisation of foot orthoses. The developed system is aimed at mass scale production of custom foot orthoses with the advantages of reduced cost, reduced lead-time and improved product in terms of increased fit, consistency and accuracy in the final product.

  15. Tracking Protests Using Geotagged Flickr Photographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Alanyali

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed waves of protests sweeping across countries and continents, in some cases resulting in political and governmental change. Much media attention has been focused on the increasing usage of social media to coordinate and provide instantly available reports on these protests. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to identify protest outbreaks through quantitative analysis of activity on the photo sharing site Flickr. We analyse 25 million photos uploaded to Flickr in 2013 across 244 countries and regions, and determine for each week in each country and region what proportion of the photographs are tagged with the word "protest" in 34 different languages. We find that higher proportions of "protest"-tagged photographs in a given country and region in a given week correspond to greater numbers of reports of protests in that country and region and week in the newspaper The Guardian. Our findings underline the potential value of photographs uploaded to the Internet as a source of global, cheap and rapidly available measurements of human behaviour in the real world.

  16. Exploration and practice of methods and processes of evidence-based rapid review on peer review of WHO EML application. (United States)

    Li, Youping; Yu, Jiajie; Du, Liang; Sun, Xin; Kwong, Joey S W; Wu, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jing; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Lingli


    After 38 years of development, the procedure of selection and evaluation of the World Health Organization Essential Medicine List (WHO EML) is increasingly scientific and formal. However, peer review for the applications of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List is always required in a short period. It is necessary to build up a set of methods and processes for rapid review. We identified the process of evidenced-based rapid review on WHO EML application for peer reviews according to 11 items which were required during reporting of the peer review results of the proposals. The most important items for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer reviewers are (1) to confirm the requirements and identify the purposes; (2) to establish the research questions and translate the questions into the 'Participants, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Study design' (PICOS) format; (3) to search and screen available evidence, for which high-level evidence is preferred, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, health technology assessment, clinical guidelines; (4) to extract data, where we extract primary information based on the purposes; (5) to synthesize data by qualitative methods, assess the quality of evidence, and compare the results; (6) to provide the answers to the applications, quality of evidences and strength of recommendations. Our study established a set of methods and processes for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review, and our findings were used to guide the reviewers to fulfill the 19(th) World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review. The methods and processes were feasible and met the necessary requirements in terms of time and quality. Continuous improvement and evaluation in practice are warranted. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. New technologies applied to surgical processes: Virtual Reality and rapid prototyping. (United States)

    Suárez-Mejías, Cristina; Gomez-Ciriza, Gorka; Valverde, Israel; Parra Calderón, Carlos; Gómez-Cía, Tomás


    AYRA is software of virtual reality for training, planning and optimizing surgical procedures. AYRA was developed under a research, development and innovation project financed by the Andalusian Ministry of Health, called VirSSPA. Nowadays AYRA has been successfully used in more than 1160 real cases and after proving its efficiency it has been introduced in the clinical practice at the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital . Furthermore, AYRA allows generating physical 3D biomodels using rapid prototyping technology. They are used for surgical planning support, intraoperative reference or defect reconstruction. In this paper, some of these tools and some real cases are presented.

  18. Processes of microbial pesticide degradation in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Aerobic rapid sand filters for treatment of groundwater at waterworks were investigated for the ability to remove pesticides. The potential, kinetics and mechanisms of microbial pesticide removal was investigated in microcosms consisting of filter sand, treated water and pesticides in initial...... concentrations of 0.04-2.4 μg/L. The pesticides were removed from the water in microcosms with filter sand from all three investigated sand filters. Within the experimental periode of six to 13 days, 65-85% of the bentazone, 86-93% of the glyphosate, 97-99% of the p-nitrophenol was removed from the water phase...

  19. Physical Processes Affecting the Distribution of Diydymosphenia Geminata Biomass Bloom in Rapid Creek, South Dakota (United States)

    Abessa, M. B.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Updhayay, S.


    Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom that has invaded and colonized many of the world’s oligotrophic streams and rivers, including Rapid Creek in Western South Dakota - a perennial oligotrophic stream that emerges from the Black Hills and is fed by cold water release from the Pactola Reservoir. Since 2002, D. geminata blooms have been observed in certain stretches of the Rapid Creek. These massive blooms are localized to certain segments of the Creek where the flow is mainly slow, stable and shallow dominated by boulder type bed material and submerged large woody debris. Water chemistry data from this Creek showed the variability of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrates/nitrites and ammonium are insignificant across our study sites while the nature of the stream flow is quite irregular. We measured flow rates, depth, temperature, stream bed characteristics, water chemistry, and D. geminata biomass in regions with and without blooms. The presentation will discuss how changes in physical parameters along the various reaches of the Creek impact the biomass distribution of this invasive alga.

  20. Implementation of a new rapid tissue processing method--advantages and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Julie; Talman, Maj-Lis; Hasselager, Thomas


    Conventional tissue processing of histologic specimens has been carried out in the same manner for many years. It is a time-consuming process involving batch production, resulting in a 1-day delay of the diagnosis. Microwave-assisted tissue processing enables a continuous high flow of histologic...... the gastrointestinal, urogenital, and female genital tract. We studied the TAT for all histologic specimens received in a period of six consecutive weeks in 2006 and 2007, respectively. We found a positive impact on TATs after introducing microwave-assisted processing in the laboratory. Turnaround times, in general...

  1. Reflection on photographs. (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; McMurray, Anne


    Nursing students' exposure to clinical placements with older adults is instrumental in helping them adopt positive attitudes toward care of that population. This qualitative pilot study analyzed perceptions and expectations of a group of first-year students prior to a clinical placement with older adults. A photo-elicitation technique, involving viewing of realistic photographs of older adults being cared for, was used to help students clarify expectations. This was followed by thematic analysis of their perceptions and expectations. Analysis revealed five main themes: Dissecting What It Means to Be a Nurse, Revisioning Therapeutic Relationships in Terms of Dignity, Youthful Reflection on the Differences Between Young and Old, Feeling Challenged and Confronted, and Experiencing Sensitivity and Awkwardness Toward Older Adults' Nakedness. Engagement with images of older adults encouraged students to anticipate their clinical placement in an aged care setting in a more meaningful, reflective way than they may have done without prior exposure, suggesting a need for realistic pre-practice education. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA


    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  3. Rapid development of scalable scientific software using a process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian


    Scientific applications are often not written with multiprocessing, cluster computing or grid computing in mind. This paper suggests using Python and PyCSP to structure scientific software through Communicating Sequential Processes. Three scientific applications are used to demonstrate the features...... of PyCSP and how networks of processes may easily be mapped into a visual representation for better understanding of the process workflow. We show that for many sequential solutions, the difficulty in implementing a parallel application is removed. The use of standard multi-threading mechanisms...

  4. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickman, B.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Burrows, Andrew


    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes...

  5. Evaluation Of Model Based Systems Engineering Processes For Integration Into Rapid Acquisition Programs (United States)


    integration of new capabilities seamlessly into an existing software baseline or architecture  the ability to effectively assess performance at... software development,” (b) “model driven development,” (c) “ architecture centric development,” (d) “specification-driven development,” and (e) “generative...Development Process Like the MK54 program, this Radar project utilized an agile Vee process, in a Scrum environment. However, in this case, the software


    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  7. Rapid serial processing of natural scenes: color modulates detection but neither recognition nor the attentional blink. (United States)

    Marx, Svenja; Hansen-Goos, Onno; Thrun, Michael; Einhäuser, Wolfgang


    The exact function of color vision for natural-scene perception has remained puzzling. In rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks, categorically defined targets (e.g., animals) are detected typically slightly better for color than for grayscale stimuli. Here we test the effect of color on animal detection, recognition, and the attentional blink. We present color and grayscale RSVP sequences with up to two target images (animals) embedded. In some conditions, we modify either the hue or the intensity of each pixel. We confirm a benefit of color over grayscale images for animal detection over a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with improved hit rates from 50 to 120 ms and overall improved performance from 90 to 120 ms. For stimuli in which the hue is inverted, performance is similar to grayscale for small SOAs and indistinguishable from original color only for large SOAs. For subordinate category discrimination, color provides no additional benefit. Color and grayscale sequences show an attentional blink, but differences between color and grayscale are fully explained by single-target differences, ruling out the possibility that the color benefit is purely attentional. © 2014 ARVO.

  8. Rapid sample processing for detection of food-borne pathogens via cross-flow microfiltration. (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Ximenes, Eduardo; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Vibbert, Hunter B; Foster, Kirk; Jones, Jim; Liu, Xingya; Bhunia, Arun K; Ladisch, Michael R


    This paper reports an approach to enable rapid concentration and recovery of bacterial cells from aqueous chicken homogenates as a preanalytical step of detection. This approach includes biochemical pretreatment and prefiltration of food samples and development of an automated cell concentration instrument based on cross-flow microfiltration. A polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane module having a nominal pore size of 0.2 μm constitutes the core of the cell concentration instrument. The aqueous chicken homogenate samples were circulated within the cross-flow system achieving 500- to 1,000-fold concentration of inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and naturally occurring microbiota with 70% recovery of viable cells as determined by plate counting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) within 35 to 45 min. These steps enabled 10 CFU/ml microorganisms in chicken homogenates or 10(2) CFU/g chicken to be quantified. Cleaning and sterilizing the instrument and membrane module by stepwise hydraulic and chemical cleaning (sodium hydroxide and ethanol) enabled reuse of the membrane 15 times before replacement. This approach begins to address the critical need for the food industry for detecting food pathogens within 6 h or less.

  9. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process. (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji


    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  10. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics. (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki


    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.

  11. Machine platform and software environment for rapid optics assembly process development (United States)

    Sauer, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel


    The assembly of optical components for laser systems is proprietary knowledge and typically done by well-trained personnel in clean room environment as it has major impact on the overall laser performance. Rising numbers of laser systems drives laser production to industrial-level automation solutions allowing for high volumes by simultaneously ensuring stable quality, lots of variants and low cost. Therefore, an easy programmable, expandable and reconfigurable machine with intuitive and flexible software environment for process configuration is required. With Fraunhofer IPT's expertise on optical assembly processes, the next step towards industrializing the production of optical systems is made.

  12. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph (United States)


    In this photograph, astronaut Carl Walz performs the Performance Assessment Workstation (PAWS) experiment at the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during the STS-65 mission. Present day astronauts are subject to a variety of stresses during spaceflight. These include microgravity, physical isolation, confinement, lack of privacy, fatigue, and changing work/rest cycles. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of microgravity upon thinking skills critical to the success of operational tasks in space. The principle objective is to distinguish between the effects of microgravity on specific information-processing skills affecting performance and those of fatigue caused by long work periods. To measure these skills, the investigators use a set of computerized performance tests called the Performance Assessment Workstation, which is based on current theoretical models of human performance. The tests were selected by analyzing tasks related to space missions and their hypothesized sensitivity to microgravity. Multiple subjective measures of cumulative fatigue and changing mood states are also included for interpreting performance data.

  13. A Unique Role of Endogenous Visual-Spatial Attention in Rapid Processing of Multiple Targets (United States)

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Palafox, German; Suzuki, Satoru


    Visual spatial attention can be exogenously captured by a salient stimulus or can be endogenously allocated by voluntary effort. Whether these two attention modes serve distinctive functions is debated, but for processing of single targets the literature suggests superiority of exogenous attention (it is faster acting and serves more functions).…

  14. Fabrication of protein microarrays for alpha fetoprotein detection by using a rapid photo-immobilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirasa Yodmongkol


    Full Text Available In this study, protein microarrays based on sandwich immunoassays are generated to quantify the amount of alpha fetoprotein (AFP in blood serum. For chip generation a mixture of capture antibody and a photoactive copolymer consisting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA, methacryloyloxy benzophenone (MaBP, and Na-4-styrenesulfonate (SSNa was spotted onto unmodified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA substrates. Subsequently to printing of the microarray, the polymer and protein were photochemically cross-linked and the forming, biofunctionalized hydrogels simultaneously bound to the chip surface by short UV- irradiation. The obtained biochip was incubated with AFP antigen, followed by biotinylated AFP antibody and streptavidin-Cy5 and the fluorescence signal read-out. The developed microarray biochip covers the range of AFP in serum samples such as maternal serum in the range of 5 and 100 ng/ml. The chip production process is based on a fast and simple immobilization process, which can be applied to conventional plastic surfaces. Therefore, this protein microarray production process is a promising method to fabricate biochips for AFP screening processes.

  15. Development of rapid continuous dyeing process for heavy-weight nylon 6,6 carpet (United States)

    An improved continuous dyeing process for coloration of heavy-weight (60-70 oz/yd2), residential nylon 6,6 carpet is reported. By inserting a slot steam applicator after the dye pad and before the box steamer to preheat the carpet to around 180°F (greater than the nylon wet glass transition temperat...

  16. Rapid preparation of solution-processed InGaZnO thin films by microwave annealing and photoirradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heajeong Cheong


    Full Text Available We fabricated solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs by microwave (MW annealing an IGZO precursor film followed by irradiating with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV light. MW annealing allows more rapid heating of the precursor film than conventional annealing processes using a hot plate or electric oven and promotes the crystallization of IGZO. VUV irradiation was used to reduce the duration and temperature of the post-annealing step. Consequently, the IGZO TFTs fabricated through MW annealing for 5 min and VUV irradiation for 1 min exhibited an on/off current ratio of 108 and a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm2 V−1 s−1. These results indicate that MW annealing and photoirradiation is an effective combination for annealing solution processed IGZO precursor films to prepare the semiconductor layers of TFTs.

  17. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr


    color differences. Though 3D photographs are a well established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, they are still a matter of research and practical improvement: – For example, multistage concepts for 3D heritage photographs, e.g., combining before and aft images and images showing different focus, daytime etc., as well as combining 3D imagery of different sensors and comparing 3D imagery with drawings etc. and even standards for exposing and processing 3D heritage photographs are only some topics for recent research. – To advise on state-of-the-art 3D visualisation methodology for Cultural heritage purposes an updated synoptically overview, even claiming completeness, also will be dealt with. – 3D photographs increasingly should replace old fashioned subjective interpreted manual 2D drawings (in 2D only of heritage monuments. – Currently we are witnesses of early developments, showing Cultural Heritage objects in 3D crystal as well as in 3D printings.

  19. Development of macroporous calcium phosphate scaffold processed via microwave rapid drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamuna-Thevi, K., E-mail: [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Zakaria, F.A. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Othman, R. [Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Muhamad, S. [Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre (HMRC), Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. A new method to fabricate macroporous calcium phosphate (CP) scaffold via microwave irradiation, followed by conventional sintering to form HA scaffold was developed. Incorporation of trisodium citrate dihydrate and citric acid in the CP mixture gave macroporous scaffolds upon microwave rapid drying. In this work, a mixture of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid and double distilled de-ionised water (DDI) was exposed to microwave radiation to form a macroporous structure. Based on gross eye examinations, addition of trisodium citrate at 30 and 40 wt.% in the CP mixture ({beta}-TCP and CaCO{sub 3}) without citric acid indicates increasing order of pore volume where the highest porosity yield was observed at 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate addition and the pore size was detected at several millimeters. Therefore, optimization of pore size was performed by adding 3-7 wt.% of citric acid in the CP mixture which was separately mixed with 30 and 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate for comparison purposes. Fabricated scaffolds were calcined at 600 deg. C and washed with DDI water to remove the sodium hydroxycarbonate and sintered at 1250 deg. C to form HA phase as confirmed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Based on Archimedes method, HA scaffolds prepared from 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate with 3-7 wt.% of citric acid added CP mixture have an open and interconnected porous structure ranging from 51 to 53 vol.% and observation using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the pore size distribution between 100 and 500 {mu}m. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the porous HA scaffolds have no cytotoxic potential on MG63 osteoblast-like cells which might allow for their use as biomaterials.

  20. Competition for cognitive resources during rapid serial processing: changes across childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim


    Full Text Available The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the attentional blink (AB paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1 and second target (T2 embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500 ms of each other. Two groups of children (6 to 7 year-olds and 10 to 11 year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA. In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA, and a slight performance gain for the Lag-1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age.

  1. 36 CFR 702.4 - Photographs. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs. 702.4 Section... Photographs. (a) The policy set out herein applies to all individuals who are photographing Library of... Communications, or his/her designee, is authorized to grant or deny permission, in writing, to photograph the...

  2. Process inhomogeneity leads to rapid side product turnover in cultivation of Corynebacterium glutamicum (United States)


    Background Corynebacterium glutamicum has large scale industrial applications in the production of amino acids and the potential to serve as a platform organism for new products. This means the demand for industrial process development is likely to increase. However, large scale cultivation conditions differ from laboratory bioreactors, mostly due to the formation of concentration gradients at the industrial scale. This leads to an oscillating supply of oxygen and nutrients for microorganisms with uncertain impact on metabolism. Scale-down bioreactors can be applied to study robustness and physiological reactions to oscillating conditions at a laboratory scale. Results In this study, C. glutamicum ATCC13032 was cultivated by glucose limited fed-batch cultivation in a two-compartment bioreactor consisting of an aerobic stirred tank and a connected non-aerated plug flow reactor with optional feeding. Continuous flow through both compartments generated oscillating profiles with estimated residence times of 45 and 87 seconds in the non-aerated plug flow compartment. Oscillation of oxygen supply conditions at substrate excess and oscillation of both substrate and dissolved oxygen concentration were compared to homogeneous reference cultivations. The dynamic metabolic response of cells within the anaerobic plug flow compartment was monitored throughout the processes, detecting high turnover of substrate into metabolic side products and acidification within oxygen depleted zones. It was shown that anaerobic secretion of lactate into the extracellular culture broth, with subsequent reabsorption in the aerobic glucose-limited environment, leads to mixed-substrate growth in fed-batch processes. Apart from this, the oscillations had only a minor impact on growth and intracellular metabolite characteristics. Conclusions Carbon metabolism of C. glutamicum changes at oscillating oxygen supply conditions, leading to a futile cycle over extracellular side products and back into

  3. [Rapid determination of nine components in the first extraction process of Xingnaojing injection by using ultraviolet spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Yi; Wei, Dan-Ni; Fang, Jin-Yang; Li, Xi-Yuan; Yan, Bin-Jun


    In this study, an analytical method based on ultraviolet spectroscopy was established for the rapid determination of nine components including isophorone, 4-methylene-isophorone, curcumenone, curcumenol, curdione, curzerenone, furanodienone, curcumol and germacrone in the first extraction process of Xingnaojing injection. 166 distillate samples of Gardeniae Fructus and Radix Curcumae were collected in the first extraction process of Xingnaojing injection. The ultraviolet spectra of these samples were collected, and the contents of the nine components in these samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Least squares support vector machine and radial basis function artificial neural network were used to establish the multivariate calibration models between the ultraviolet spectra and the contents of the nine components. The results showed that the established ultraviolet spectrum analysis method can determine the contents of the nine components in the distillates accurately, with root mean square error of prediction of 0.068, 0.147, 0.215, 0.319, 1.01, 1.27, 0.764, 0.147, 0.610 mg•L⁻¹, respectively. This proposed method is a rapid, simple and low-cost tool for the monitoring and endpoint determination of the extraction process of Xingnaojing injection to reduce quality defects and variations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Research on rapid-cooling press hardening process and its effect for formability of ultra high strength steel (United States)

    Ying, L.; Hu, P.; Zhao, X.; Shi, D. Y.; Dai, M. H.; Yu, H. Y.; Chang, Y.


    In this study, a new rapid-cooling process in press hardening based on theoretical analysis, experimental test and optimal formability simulation were investigated for improving formability and obdurability of 22MnB5 boron steel. A series of non-isothermal flow behaviors in different plastic strain rates from 0.001s-1 to 0.1s-1 was investigated by thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile tests. Furthermore, martensite transformation measurement was also involved in the temperature range from 600° to 800°. According to an interrelated Norton-Hoff constitutive model was developed to describe the complicated thermal-mechanical-phase transformation couple model, a typical deep drawing box used to simulate formability so as to compare with actual press hardening experiments used by the self-developed multi-field coupled static-explicit FE software KMAS and dynamic-explicit commercial software LS-DYNA respectively. The results showed the rapid-cooling process indicate the validity and efficiency of meeting the forming performance characteristics and the optimal process which temperature range from 650°C˜700°C can contribute to improve formability of press hardening manufacture.

  5. Novel ultra-rapid freezing particle engineering process for enhancement of dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. (United States)

    Overhoff, Kirk A; Engstrom, Josh D; Chen, Bo; Scherzer, Brian D; Milner, Thomas E; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O


    An ultra-rapid freezing (URF) technology has been developed to produce high surface area powders composed of solid solutions of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and a polymer stabilizer. A solution of API and polymer excipient(s) is spread on a cold solid surface to form a thin film that freezes in 50 ms to 1s. This study provides an understanding of how the solvent's physical properties and the thin film geometry influence the freezing rate and consequently the final physico-chemical properties of URF-processed powders. Theoretical calculations of heat transfer rates are shown to be in agreement with infrared images with 10ms resolution. Danazol (DAN)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powders, produced from both acetonitrile (ACN) and tert-butanol (T-BUT) as the solvent, were amorphous with high surface areas (approximately 28-30 m2/g) and enhanced dissolution rates. However, differences in surface morphology were observed and attributed to the cooling rate (film thickness) as predicted by the model. Relative to spray-freezing processes that use liquid nitrogen, URF also offers fast heat transfer rates as a result of the intimate contact between the solution and cold solid surface, but without the complexity of cryogen evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). The ability to produce amorphous high surface area powders with submicron primary particles with a simple ultra-rapid freezing process is of practical interest in particle engineering to increase dissolution rates, and ultimately bioavailability.

  6. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan


    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing...... to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self......-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  7. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres


    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; GERAGHTY Paul"; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan


    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes ...

  8. Betatrons For Investigation Of Rapid Processes And Testing Moving Gears Inside Closed Housings (United States)

    Boiko, D. A.; Moskalev, V. A.; Chakhlov, V. L.; Shestakov, V. G.; Stein, M. M.


    High-current 25-1AeV betatrons with cinecameras can be helpful in studying concealed processes proceeding at a rate of up to 3 kms. An installation comprising a small betat-ron with a synchronization circuit has been devised for inspection of machine elements moving periodically at a frequency of up to 200 Hz. These elements can be placed in housings having walls of a thickness equivalent to 300 mm of steel.

  9. Rapid VLIW Processor Customization for Signal Processing Applications Using Combinational Hardware Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoare Raymond R


    Full Text Available This paper presents an architecture that combines VLIW (very long instruction word processing with the capability to introduce application-specific customized instructions and highly parallel combinational hardware functions for the acceleration of signal processing applications. To support this architecture, a compilation and design automation flow is described for algorithms written in C. The key contributions of this paper are as follows: (1 a 4-way VLIW processor implemented in an FPGA, (2 large speedups through hardware functions, (3 a hardware/software interface with zero overhead, (4 a design methodology for implementing signal processing applications on this architecture, (5 tractable design automation techniques for extracting and synthesizing hardware functions. Several design tradeoffs for the architecture were examined including the number of VLIW functional units and register file size. The architecture was implemented on an Altera Stratix II FPGA. The Stratix II device was selected because it offers a large number of high-speed DSP (digital signal processing blocks that execute multiply-accumulate operations. Using the MediaBench benchmark suite, we tested our methodology and architecture to accelerate software. Our combined VLIW processor with hardware functions was compared to that of software executing on a RISC processor, specifically the soft core embedded NIOS II processor. For software kernels converted into hardware functions, we show a hardware performance multiplier of up to times that of software with an average times faster. For the entire application in which only a portion of the software is converted to hardware, the performance improvement is as much as 30X times faster than the nonaccelerated application, with a 12X improvement on average.

  10. Human serum processing and analysis methods for rapid and reproducible N-glycan mass profiling. (United States)

    Kronewitter, Scott R; de Leoz, Maria Lorna A; Peacock, Kyle S; McBride, Kelly R; An, Hyun Joo; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Leiserowitz, Gary S; Lebrilla, Carlito B


    Glycans constitute a new class of compounds for biomarker discovery. Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification and is often associated with transformation to malignancy. To analyze glycans, they are released from proteins, enriched, and measured with mass spectrometry. For biomarker discovery, repeatability at every step of the process is important. Locating and minimizing the process variability is key to establishing a robust platform stable enough for biomarker discovery. Understanding the variability of the measurement devices helps understand the variability associated with the chemical processing. This report explores the potential use of methods expediting the enzymatic release of glycans such as a microwave reactor and automation of the solid-phase extraction with a robotic liquid handler. The study employs matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry but would be suitable with any mass spectrometry method. Methods for system-wide data analysis are examined because proper metrics for evaluating the performance of glycan sample preparation procedures are not well established.

  11. Experiencing Photographs Qua Photographs: What's So Special about Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Benovsky


    Full Text Available Merely rhetorically and answering in the negative, Kendall Walton has asked: "Isn't photography just another method people have of making pictures, one that merely uses different tools and materials; cameras, photosensitive paper, and darkroom equipment, rather than canvas, paint, and brushes? And don't the results differ only contingently and in degree, not fundamentally, from pictures of other kinds?" Contrary to Walton and others, I answer with a resounding "Yes" to Walton’s questions in this article. It is a widely shared view that photographs are somehow special and that they fundamentally differ from hand-made pictures such as paintings, both from a phenomenological point of view (in the way we experience them and an epistemic point of view (since they are supposed to have a different that is, greater, epistemic value from paintings that gives us a privileged access to the world. I almost reject the totality of these claims and, as a consequence, there remains little difference between photographs and paintings. As we shall see, “photographs are always partly paintings,” a claim that is true not only of retouched digital photographs but of all photographs, including traditional ones made using photosensitive film and development techniques.

  12. The Information Technology Program Manager’s Dilemma: Rapidly Evolving Technology and Stagnant Processes (United States)


    information technology systems. The current DoDI 5000.02 leaves IT project and program managers wondering how the current process applies to them, as the guidance is fairly rigid and does not allow for the flexibility required to appropriately manage IT programs. Until very recently, in comparison to the development of a traditional weapons system, IT programs seemed to have been viewed as a utility or service instead of a critical component to national security. Perhaps that is because data passing through cables cannot be observed with the naked senses and therefore an

  13. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan


    to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self......-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  14. Ultrasensitive Silicon Nanowire Sensor Developed by a Special Ag Modification Process for Rapid NH3 Detection. (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Liu, Diao; Zhang, Tianyi; Cui, Zhen


    Surface functionalization is very effective in enhancing sensing properties of a chemiresistive gas sensor. In this work, we develop a novel and cost-effective process to prepare Ag-modified silicon nanowire (SiNW) sensors and further suggest a resistance effect model to clarify the enhanced sensing mechanism of Ag-modified SiNWs. The SiNWs were formed via metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE), and the Ag nanoparticle (NP) modification was achieved in situ based on the MACE-produced Ag dendrites by involving a crucial anisotropic postetching of TMAH. The TMAH etching induces a loose array of needle-like, rough SiNWs (RNWs) with firm attachment of tiny Ag NPs. Comparative investigations for NH3-sensing properties indicate that the RNWs modified by discrete Ag NPs (Ag@RNWs) display an ∼3-fold enhancement in gas response at room temperature compared with pristine SiNWs. Meanwhile, transient response and ultrafast recovery are observed for the Ag@RNW sensor (tres ≤ 2 s and trec ≤ 9 s to 0.33-10 ppm of NH3). The study demonstrates the considerable effect and potential of the Ag modification process developed in this work. A resistance effect model was further suggested to clarify the underlying mechanism of the enhanced response and the response saturation characteristic of the Ag@RNWs. The promotion of TMAH etching-induced microstructure modulation to sensing properties was also demonstrated.

  15. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany. (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  16. Automated Formosat Image Processing System for Rapid Response to International Disasters (United States)

    Cheng, M. C.; Chou, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, B.; Liu, C.; Yu, S. J.


    FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO), Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  17. Rapid Species-level Identification of Salvias by Chemometric Processing of Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry-derived Chemical Profiles. (United States)

    Giffen, Justine E; Lesiak, Ashton D; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B; Musah, Rabi A


    The Salvia genus contains numerous economically important plants that have horticultural, culinary and nutraceutical uses. They are often similar in appearance, making species determination difficult. Species identification of dried Salvia products is also challenging since distinguishing plant morphological features are no longer present. The development of a simple high-throughput method of analysis of fresh and dried Salvia leaves that would permit rapid species-level identification and detection of diagnostic biomarkers. Plant leaves were analysed in their native form by DART-MS without the need for any sample preparation steps. This furnished chemical fingerprints characteristic of each species. In the same experiment, in-source collision-induced dissociation was used to identify biomarkers. Biomarker presence was also independently confirmed by GC-MS. Chemometric processing of DART-MS profiles was performed by kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) to classify the fingerprints according to species. The approach was successful despite the occurrence of diurnal cycle and plant-age related chemical profile variations within species. In a single rapid experiment, the presence of essential oil biomarkers such as 3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, β-caryophyllene, camphor and borneol could be confirmed. The method was applied to rapid identification and differentiation of Salvia apiana, S. dominica, S. elegans, S. officinalis, S. farinacea and S. patens. Species-level identification of Salvia plant material could be accomplished by chemometric processing of DART-HRMS-derived chemical profiles of both fresh and dried Salvia material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Rapid transcriptional and metabolic regulation of the deacclimation process in cold acclimated Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Alpers, Jessica; Erban, Alexander


    BACKGROUND: During low temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. This is accompanied by dampened oscillations of circadian clock genes and disrupted oscillations of output genes and metabolites. During deacclimation...... in response to warm temperatures, cold acclimated plants lose freezing tolerance and resume growth and development. While considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the molecular and metabolic basis of cold acclimation, much less information is available about the regulation of deacclimation....... RESULTS: We report metabolic (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and transcriptional (microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR) responses underlying deacclimation during the first 24 h after a shift of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0) plants cold acclimated at 4 °C back to warm temperature (20 °C). The data...

  19. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process. (United States)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng


    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing varying concentrations of VFA. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between current densities (0.03 ± 0.01 to 2.43 ± 0.12 A/m(2)) and VFA concentrations (5-100 mM) was found. The sensor performance was then investigated under different affecting parameters such as the external voltage, VFA composition ratio, and ionic strength. Linear relationship between the current density and VFA concentrations was always observed. Furthermore, the bio-electrolytic sensor proved ability to handle interruptions such as the presence of complex organic matter, anode exposure to oxygen and low pH. Finally, the sensor was applied to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Cheng


    Full Text Available FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan’s first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO, Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  1. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, Jason W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Lewis, Simon W. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Purcell, Stuart D. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Waddell, Lucy R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Francis, Paul S. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)]. E-mail:


    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids - morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine - were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M and 1 x 10{sup -9} M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively.

  2. Estimation of norovirus removal performance in a coagulation-rapid sand filtration process by using recombinant norovirus VLPs. (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Ohno, K


    Norovirus (NV) is an important human pathogen that causes epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Because of the lack of a cell culture system or an animal model for this virus, studies of drinking water treatment such as separation and disinfection processes are still hampered. We successfully estimated NV removal performance during a coagulation-rapid sand filtration process by using recombinant NV virus-like particles (rNV-VLPs) morphologically and antigenically similar to native NV. The behaviors of two widely accepted surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, bacteriophages Qbeta and MS2, were also investigated for comparison with that of rNV-VLPs. Approximately 3-log(10) removals were observed for rNV-VLPs with a dose of 40 muM-Al or -Fe, as polyaluminum chloride at pH 6.8 or ferric chloride at pH 5.8, respectively. Smaller removal ratios were obtained with alum and ferric chloride at pH 6.8. The removal performance for MS2 was somewhat larger than that for rNV-VLPs, meaning that MS2 is not recommended as an appropriate surrogate for native NV. By comparison, the removal performance for Qbeta was similar to, or smaller than, that for rNV-VLPs. However, the removal performances for rNV-VLPs and Qbeta differed between the coagulation process and the following rapid sand filtration process. Therefore, Qbeta also is not recommended as an appropriate surrogate for native NV. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods (United States)

    Tatebe, Chiye; Zhong, Xining; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine basic colorants such as pararosaniline (PA), auramine O (AO), and rhodamine B (RB) in various processed foods was developed. Linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 50 μg/mL for PA and 0.05–100 μg/mL for AO and RB. The detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) of the basic colorants, which were evaluated as signal-to-noise ratios of 3 for LOD and 10 for LOQ, ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 and 0.025 to 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviations of three basic colorants in six processed foods, namely, chili sauce, curry paste, gochujang (hot pepper paste), tandoori chicken (roasted chicken prepared with yogurt and spices), powder soup, and shrimp powder ranged from 70.2% to 102.8% and 0.8% to 8.0%, respectively. The intraday precision of the recovery test ranged from 1.7% to 4.5%, whereas the interday precision ranged from 3.7% to 7.7%. The reported method has been successfully applied to basic colorant determination in various processed foods such as fat-based food matrices (curry paste and tandoori chicken), chili products (gochujang and chili sauce), and protein-based products (shrimp powder and powder soup). Thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for the determination of basic colorants in processed foods were also developed for rapid analysis and identification, respectively. These methods are very useful for monitoring unauthorized basic colorants in inspection centers or quarantine laboratories in many countries. PMID:25473512

  4. Determining the physical processes behind four large eruptions in rapid sequence in the San Juan caldera cluster (Colorado, USA) (United States)

    Curry, Adam; Caricchi, Luca; Lipman, Peter


    Large, explosive volcanic eruptions can have both immediate and long-term negative effects on human societies. Statistical analyses of volcanic eruptions show that the frequency of the largest eruptions on Earth (> ˜450 km3) differs from that observed for smaller eruptions, suggesting different physical processes leading to eruption. This project will characterize the petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and zircon geochronology of four caldera-forming ignimbrites from the San Juan caldera cluster, Colorado, to determine the physical processes leading to eruption. We collected outflow samples along stratigraphy of the three caldera-forming ignimbrites of the San Luis caldera complex: the Nelson Mountain Tuff (>500 km3), Cebolla Creek Tuff (˜250 km3), and Rat Creek Tuff (˜150 km3); and we collected samples of both outflow and intracaldera facies of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff (>500 km3), which formed the Creede caldera. Single-crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages show that these eruptions occurred in rapid succession between 26.91 ± 0.02 Ma (Rat Creek) and 26.87 ± 0.02 Ma (Snowshoe Mountain), providing a unique opportunity to investigate the physical processes leading to a rapid sequence of large, explosive volcanic eruptions. Recent studies show that the average flux of magma is an important parameter in determining the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions. High-precision isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) zircon geochronology will be performed to determine magma fluxes, and cross-correlation of chemical profiles in minerals will be performed to determine the periodicity of magma recharge that preceded these eruptions. Our project intends to combine these findings with similar data from other volcanic regions around the world to identify physical processes controlling the regional and global frequency-magnitude relationships of volcanic eruptions.

  5. Silver recovery from spent photographic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunda, W.; Etsell, T.H.


    A process is disclosed for recovering silver sulfide from a silver-containing spent photographic fixer solution. The process is particularly suited for treating the fixer solution in a manner which enables recycling of the solution, and does not have the inefficiencies and high costs of alternative processes such as electrolysis. The process comprises introducing hydrosulfide ion into the silver-containing spent fixer solution to precipitate silver sulfide. The resultant precipitate is isolated from the fixer solution in order to remove silver from the solution. The process is especially suited for treating spent solutions which contain thiosulfate, in particular sodium or ammonium thiosulfate. The preferred hydrosulfide is either a sodium or ammonium hydrosulfide for precipitating silver in the form of silver sulfide. The quantity of hydrosulfide used is in the range of greater than 0.5 mole per mole of silver in the fixer solution. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign (United States)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  7. The Life of Digital Photographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    )mobilities of things, practice approaches to photography and multi sited ethnography, this talk discusses and empirically track the life (the conception, birth, transformative years, ageing and death) travel, detours, makeovers and destinations of (analogue and digital) photographs in our present network societies. So......The Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography PhD, Jonas Larsen, Lecturer in Social and Cultural Geography, ENSPAC, Roskilde University, Denmark Inspired by ideas that things have lives, the mobilities paradigm's (Hannam et al. 2006) attentiveness to the spatiotemporal (im...... this talk ‘tracks' photographs spatialities and temporalities, their physical and digital materialities and (im)mobilities and ‘placing' within and beyond ‘networked households'. This is done in a historical perspective, seeing the new in the light of the old, so both breaks and coexistences between older...

  8. Adobe Photoshop CC for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin


    Adobe Photoshop for Photographers 2014 Release by Photoshop hall-of-famer and acclaimed digital imaging professional Martin Evening has been fully updated to include detailed instruction for all of the updates to Photoshop CC 2014 on Adobe's Creative Cloud, including significant new features, such as Focus Area selections, enhanced Content-Aware filling, and new Spin and Path blur gallery effects. This guide covers all the tools and techniques photographers and professional image editors need to know when using Photoshop, from workflow guidance to core skills to advanced techniques for profess

  9. Rapid atmospheric pressure plasma jet processed reduced graphene oxide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Ping; Wu, Ting-Jui; Chang, Haoming; Kao, Peng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Cheng, I-Chun


    In this work, we present the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the counter electrode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). rGO was first deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by screen-printing, followed by post-treatment to remove excessive organic additives. We investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the DSSC performance. A power conversion efficiency of 5.19% was reached when DSSCs with an rGO counter electrode were treated by APPJs in the ambient air for a few seconds. For comparison, it requires a conventional calcination process at 400 °C for 15 min to obtain comparable efficiency. Scanning electron micrographs show that the APPJ treatment modifies the rGO structure, which may reduce its conductivity in part but simultaneously greatly enhances its catalytic activity. Combined with the rapid removal of organic additives by the highly reactive APPJ, DSSCs with APPJ-treated rGO counter electrode show comparable efficiencies to furnace-calcined rGO counter electrodes with greatly reduced process time. This ultrashort process time renders an estimated energy consumption per unit area of 1.1 kJ/cm(2), which is only one-third of that consumed in a conventional furnace calcination process. This new methodology thus saves energy, cost, and time, which is greatly beneficial to future mass production.

  10. Al-Si-Re Alloys Cast by the Rapid Solidification Process / Stopy Al-Si-Re Odlewane Metodą Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the studies described in this article was to present the effect of rare earth elements on aluminium alloys produced by an unconventional casting technique. The article gives characteristics of the thin strip of Al-Si-RE alloy produced by Rapid Solidification (RS. The effect of rare earth elements on structure refinement, i.e. on the size of near-eutectic crystallites in an aluminium-silicon alloy, was discussed. To determine the size of crystallites, the Scherrer X-ray diffraction method was used. The results presented capture relationships showing the effect of variable casting parameters and chemical composition on microstructure of the examined alloys. Rapid Solidification applied to Al-Si alloys with the addition of mischmetal (Ce, La, Ne, Pr refines their structure.

  11. A review of rapid transport of pesticides from sloping farmland to surface waters: processes and mitigation strategies. (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyu; Zhu, Bo; Katou, Hidetaka


    Pesticides applied to sloping farmland may lead to surface water contamination through rapid transport processes as influenced by the complex topography and high spatial variability of soil properties and land use in hilly or mountainous regions. However, the fate of pesticides applied to sloping farmland has not been sufficiently elucidated. This article reviews the current understanding of pesticide transport from sloping farmland to surface water. It examines overland flow and subsurface lateral flow in areas where surface soil is underlain by impervious subsoil or rocks and tile drains. It stresses the importance of quantifying and modeling the contributions of various pathways to rapid pesticide loss at catchment and regional scales. Such models could be used in scenario studies for evaluating the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies such as constructing vegetated strips, depressions, wetlands and drainage ditches, and implementing good agricultural practices. Field monitoring studies should also be conducted to calibrate and validate the transport models as well as biophysical-economic models, to optimize mitigation measures in areas dominated by sloping farmland.

  12. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea]. (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang


    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  13. Innovations in the Speciation of Organolead Compounds in Water: Towards a More Rational, Rapid, and Simple Analytical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Baena


    Full Text Available Speciation analysis calls for rapid, simple systems for minimizing errors made in the most troublesome of all steps in the analytical process: sample preparation. In this context, continuous-flow systems are of great help. The evolution in the different methodologies enabled solutions to the main shortcomings occurring from the lack of selectivity of using RP–C18 as sorbent material. One solution was a shift to more sensitive and selective, but only partially automated, systems employing C60 fullerene and Grignard’s reagent; another was a shift to completely automated systems employing sodium tetrapropylborate; and a final solution was to employ the simplest possible configuration by removing the reagent stream. The analytical methods developed allowed the identification and quantification of different organolead species at the pg/ml levels in rainwater samples, with precision (RSD of about 5% and recoveries ranging from 92 to 100%.

  14. Aplicaciones didácticas de la cianotipia en la educación artística. Un proceso compatible con el medio ambiente = Educational appliations with cyanotype in art education. A photographic process compatible with environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Moreno Sáez


    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo comprende una propuesta didáctica basada en una técnica fotográfica que tuvo su máximo auge en el siglo XIX, denominada Cianotipia y que en la actualidad está siendo recuperada por diversos artistas, quienes consideran que esta técnica abre nuevas vías de expresión artística. Dicha propuesta responde a la demanda de encontrar diferentes recursos en el ámbito de la educación artística, que propicien la creatividad y fomenten el respecto por la naturaleza y el reciclaje por parte de los alumnos, sumergidos en la vorágine de las nuevas tecnologías. El bajo índice de toxicidad de esta técnica, al no ser necesario revelador o fijador en su proceso, hacen de esta técnica el procedimiento perfecto para ser aplicado en diferentes contextos, especialmente en todas las etapas de la Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria.   Abstract This article includes a didactic proposal based on a photographic techniquethat boompeaked in the nineteenth century, called cyanotype which currently isbeing recovered by various artists, who believe that this opens up new ways of artisticexpression. This proposal responds to the demand to find many different resourcesin the field of art education that will foster creativity, respect for natureand recycling by students, immersed in the maelstrom of new technologies. The lowtoxicity of this technique, not being necessary developer or fixer in its process,makes it the most perfect procedure to be applied in different contexts, especiallyin all stages of secondary education.

  15. Photographic nucleonics: a record of many lost opportunities in the history of science. (United States)

    Thackray, M


    Underexposed photographic negatives were toned with uranium around the turn of the century. Such radioactive photographs permit image transfer by autoradiography, and this confers several new options in photography. It is surprising that about half a century elapsed before the implications of such image transfer were described. The full possibilities of such transfer in processes of intensification, relief imaging, and photographic research are only now being realized.

  16. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge Historical Photographs (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a series of photographs from St. Vincent Island. Photograph dates range from 1909 to 1969. Subjects include structures, vegetation, equipment,...

  17. Rapid FLIM: The new and innovative method for ultra-fast imaging of biological processes (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Orthaus-Mueller, Sandra; Kraemer, Benedikt; Tannert, Astrid; Roehlicke, Tino; Wahl, Michael; Rahn, Hans-Juergen; Koberling, Felix; Erdmann, Rainer


    Over the last two decades, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool in Life Sciences thanks to measurement procedures such as Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM), lifetime based Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), and Fluorescence (Lifetime) Correlation Spectroscopy (F(L)CS) down to the single molecule level. Today, complete turn-key systems are available either as stand-alone units or as upgrades for confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). Data acquisition on such systems is typically based on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) electronics along with picosecond pulsed diode lasers as excitation sources and highly sensitive, single photon counting detectors. Up to now, TCSPC data acquisition is considered a somewhat slow process as a large number of photons per pixel is required for reliable data analysis, making it difficult to use FLIM for following fast FRET processes, such as signal transduction pathways in cells or fast moving sub-cellular structures. We present here a novel and elegant solution to tackle this challenge. Our approach, named rapidFLIM, exploits recent hardware developments such as TCSPC modules with ultra short dead times and hybrid photomultiplier detector assemblies enabling significantly higher detection count rates. Thanks to these improved components, it is possible to achieve much better photon statistics in significantly shorter time spans while being able to perform FLIM imaging for fast processes in a qualitative manner and with high optical resolution. FLIM imaging can now be performed with up to several frames per second making it possible to study fast processes such as protein interactions involved in endosome trafficking.

  18. Controlling Growth High Uniformity Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Nanowires via the Rapid Thermal Annealing Process at Low Temperature. (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chu; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chiu-Yen


    High uniformity Au-catalyzed indium selenide (In2Se3) nanowires are grown with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The diameters of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires could be controlled with varied thicknesses of Au films, and the uniformity of nanowires is improved via a fast pre-annealing rate, 100 °C/s. Comparing with the slower heating rate, 0.1 °C/s, the average diameters and distributions (standard deviation, SD) of In2Se3 nanowires with and without the RTA process are 97.14 ± 22.95 nm (23.63%) and 119.06 ± 48.75 nm (40.95%), respectively. The in situ annealing TEM is used to study the effect of heating rate on the formation of Au nanoparticles from the as-deposited Au film. The results demonstrate that the average diameters and distributions of Au nanoparticles with and without the RTA process are 19.84 ± 5.96 nm (30.00%) and about 22.06 ± 9.00 nm (40.80%), respectively. It proves that the diameter size, distribution, and uniformity of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires are reduced and improved via the RTA pre-treated. The systemic study could help to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials through tuning the annealing rate, temperatures of precursor, and growth substrate to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process proved that it can uniform the size distribution of Au nanoparticles, and then it can be used to grow the high uniformity Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Comparing with the general growth condition, the heating rate is slow, 0.1 °C/s, and the growth temperature is a relatively high growth temperature, > 650 °C. RTA pre-treated growth substrate can form smaller and uniform Au nanoparticles to react with the In2Se3 vapor and produce the high uniformity In2Se3 nanowires. The in situ annealing TEM is used to realize the effect of heating rate on Au nanoparticle

  19. Global interference during early visual processing:ERP evidence from a rapid global/local selective task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eBeaucousin


    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the integration of local elements of a visual scene into a global frame. Evidence from behavioral studies shows that (1 the detection of the global frame is faster than the detection of the local parts, a phenomenon called the global advantage, and that (2 an interference of the global shape is also present during local processing. Together, these effects are called the global precedence effect. Even if the global advantage appears to impact neural processing as early as the first 100 msec post-stimulus, previous studies failed to find a global interference effect before 200 msec post-stimulus. Using for the first time a rapid display of letter component stimuli during a global/local selective task in which conditions with perceptual conflict, congruent and incongruent conditions were considered, the present event-related potential study shows a global interference effect occurring as early as the time range of the N1 component. In particular, only congruent stimuli elicited similar N1 amplitude during the global and local tasks, whereas an increased of the N1 amplitude during the global task was observed (as compared to the local task for both stimuli with perceptual conflict and incongruent stimuli. This finding corroborates the recent neural models of human visual perception.

  20. Rapid and facile ratiometric detection of an anthrax biomarker by regulating energy transfer process in bio-metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Zhang, Yihe; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Zheng, Youxuan


    A ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on luminescent bio-metal-organic framework was prepared by exchanging both Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations into anionic bio-MOF-1. Due to a highly efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) (>89%), emission color of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 was orange-red even though Tb(3+) was the dominant content in this Tb/Eu co-doping material. More interestingly, this energy transfer process could be modulated by dipicolinic acid (DPA), an unique biomarker for bacillus spores. With DPA addition, corresponding DPA-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer was gradually enhanced while the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) was significantly weakened. By regulating the energy transfer process in Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1, visual colorimetric sensing of DPA in porous MOF was realized for the first time. Detection limit of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 for DPA was 34nM, which was much lower than an infectious dosage of Bacillus anthracis spores (60μM) for human being. Besides, Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 showed a remarkable selectivity over other aromatic ligands and amino acids. More importantly, this porous ratiometric sensor worked equally well in human serum. These particularly attractive features of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 made the direct, rapid and naked-eye detection of DPA for practical application possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Tooling for Functional Prototype of Metal Mold Processes Final Report CRADA No. TC-1032-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heestand, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaskolski, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Production inserts for die-casting were generally fabricated from materials with sufficient strength and· good wear properties at casting temperatures for long life. Frequently tool steels were used and machining was done with a combination of. conventional and Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) with some handwork, an expensive and time consuming process, partilly for prototype work. We proposed electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) as a process for rapid fabrication of dies. Metals, ranging from low melting point to refractory metals (Ta, Mo, etc.), would be evaporated and deposited at high rates (-2mm/hr.). Alloys could be easily evaporated and deposited if their constituent vapor pressures were similar and with more difficulty if they were not. Of course, layering of different materials was possible if required for a specific application. For example, a hard surface layer followed by a tough steel and backed by a high thermal conductivity (possibly cooled) copper layer could be fabricated. Electron-beam deposits exhibited 100% density and lull strength when deposited at a substrate (mandrel) temperature that was a substantial fraction of the deposited material's melting point. There were several materials that could have the required high temperature properties and ease of fabrication required for such a mandrel. We had successfully used graphite, machined from free formed objects with a replicator, to produce aluminum-bronze test molds. There were several parting layer materials of interest, but the ideal material depended upon the specific application.

  2. Rapid maturation of voice and linguistic processing systems in preschool children: a near-infrared spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takao; Ogata, Katsuya; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Ijichi, Ikue; Katagiri, Masatoshi; Mitsudo, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Tobimatsu, Shozo


    To better understand how voice and linguistic processing systems develop during the preschool years, changes in cerebral oxygenation were measured bilaterally from temporal areas using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS was recorded while children listened to their mothers' voice (MV), an unfamiliar female voice (UV) and environmental sound (ES) stimuli. Twenty typical children (aged 3-6years) were divided into younger (Y) (n=10, male=5; aged 3-4.5years) and older (O) (n=10, male=5; aged 4.5-6years) groups. In the Y group, while MV stimuli significantly activated anterior temporal areas with a right predominance compared to ES stimuli, they significantly activated left mid-temporal areas compared to UV stimuli. These temporal activations were significantly higher in the Y group compared to the O group. Furthermore, only the O group exhibited significant habituation and gender differences in the left mid-temporal area during MV perception. These findings suggest that the right voice-related and the left language-related temporal areas already exist in the Y group, and that MV stimuli modulate these areas differently in the two age groups. Therefore, we conclude that a mother's voice plays an important role in the maturation of the voice and linguistic processing systems, particularly during the first half of the preschool-aged period. This role may decrease during the latter half of the preschool-aged period due to rapid development of these systems as children age. © 2013.

  3. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling. (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M; Adams-McGavin, Robert C; Fung, Barnabas C; Mahoney, Eric J; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla


    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  4. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla


    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  5. The analysis of track chamber photographs using flying spot digitizers

    CERN Multimedia

    Powell, Brian W


    A vast quantity of data pours from the experiments on particle accelerators throughout the world. For example, over 300 000 photographs per week came from the three bubble chambers operating on the CERN PS at the end of 1965. The conventional method of processing these bubble chamber photographs is for each one of them to be examined ('scanned') to see whether it records an interesting particle interaction. The interesting photographs are then passed to hand operated measuring machines to obtain precise measurements of the particle trajectories recorded on the film. Similar measurements are carried out on photographs taken in film spark chamber experiments. This article on the Flying Spot Digitizers at CERN describes one of the most fruitful attempts to speed and make more accurate the process of analysis of bubble and spark chamber photographs. There are two types of Flying Spot Digitizer at CERN — the HPD or Hough Powell Device (named after Professor Hough and the author who, together, initiated the devel...

  6. 22 CFR 51.26 - Photographs. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographs. 51.26 Section 51.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.26 Photographs. The applicant must submit with his or her application photographs as prescribed by the Department that are a...

  7. 31 CFR 91.10 - Photographs. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs. 91.10 Section 91.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.10 Photographs. The taking of photographs on...

  8. Using Photographs as Illustrations in Human Geography (United States)

    Rose, Gillian


    Photographs have always played a major role in geographical studies. Ever since the invention of photography in the 1830s, it has been assumed that photographs are perfectly suited to help answer that eminently geographical question, "what is this place like?". Photographs can convey a great deal of information about the appearance of a place far…

  9. The Potential Stopping Power of Student Photographs. (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.


    Suggests that capturing photographs that have "stopping power" should not be an impossible task, but a reality for student photographers. Lists 19 recent publications and web sites on photography and photojournalism. Discusses ways for scholastic photographers to take pictures with stopping power. (RS)

  10. Rapid thermal processing for production of chalcopyrite thin films for solar cells: Design, analysis, and experimental implementation (United States)

    Lovelett, Robert J.

    The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity, or photovoltaic energy conversion, has a number of environmental, social, and economic advantages over conventional electricity generation from fossil fuels. Currently, the most commonly-used material for photovoltaics is crystalline silicon, which is now produced at large scale and silicon-based devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies over 25% However, alternative materials, such as inorganic thin films, offer a number of advantages including the potential for lower manufacturing costs, higher theoretical efficiencies, and better performance in the field. One of these materials is the chalcopyrite Cu(InGa)(SeS) 2, which has demonstrated module efficiencies over 17% and cell efficiencies over 22%. Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 is now in the early stages of commercialization using a precursor reaction process referred to as a "selenization/sulfization" reaction. The precursor reaction process is promising because it has demonstrated high efficiency along with the large area (approximately 1 m2) uniformity that is required for modules. However, some challenges remain that limit the growth of the chalcopyrite solar cell industry including: slow reactions that limit process throughput, a limited understanding of complex reaction kinetics and transport phenomena that affect the through-film composition, and the use of highly toxic H2Se in the reaction process. In this work, I approach each of these challenges. First, to improve process throughput, I designed and implemented a rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactor, whereby the samples are heated by a 1000 W quartz-halogen lamp that is capable of fast temperature ramps and high temperature dwells. With the reactor in place, however, achieving effective temperature control in the thin film material system is complicated by two intrinsic process characteristics: (i) the temperature of the Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 film cannot be measured directly, which leaves the system without

  11. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report (United States)

    Powers, William O.


    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  12. Assessment of a virtual functional prototyping process for the rapid manufacture of passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses. (United States)

    Schrank, Elisa S; Hitch, Lester; Wallace, Kevin; Moore, Richard; Stanhope, Steven J


    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthosis (PD-AFO) bending stiffness is a key functional characteristic for achieving enhanced gait function. However, current orthosis customization methods inhibit objective premanufacture tuning of the PD-AFO bending stiffness, making optimization of orthosis function challenging. We have developed a novel virtual functional prototyping (VFP) process, which harnesses the strengths of computer aided design (CAD) model parameterization and finite element analysis, to quantitatively tune and predict the functional characteristics of a PD-AFO, which is rapidly manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM). The purpose of this study was to assess the VFP process for PD-AFO bending stiffness. A PD-AFO CAD model was customized for a healthy subject and tuned to four bending stiffness values via VFP. Two sets of each tuned model were fabricated via FDM using medical-grade polycarbonate (PC-ISO). Dimensional accuracy of the fabricated orthoses was excellent (average 0.51 ± 0.39 mm). Manufacturing precision ranged from 0.0 to 0.74 Nm/deg (average 0.30 ± 0.36 Nm/deg). Bending stiffness prediction accuracy was within 1 Nm/deg using the manufacturer provided PC-ISO elastic modulus (average 0.48 ± 0.35 Nm/deg). Using an experimentally derived PC-ISO elastic modulus improved the optimized bending stiffness prediction accuracy (average 0.29 ± 0.57 Nm/deg). Robustness of the derived modulus was tested by carrying out the VFP process for a disparate subject, tuning the PD-AFO model to five bending stiffness values. For this disparate subject, bending stiffness prediction accuracy was strong (average 0.20 ± 0.14 Nm/deg). Overall, the VFP process had excellent dimensional accuracy, good manufacturing precision, and strong prediction accuracy with the derived modulus. Implementing VFP as part of our PD-AFO customization and manufacturing framework, which also includes fit customization, provides a novel and powerful method to

  13. The Daily Readiness Huddle: a process to rapidly identify issues and foster improvement through problem-solving accountability. (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F; Cherian, Shirley S; Chua, Kimberly B; Thankachan, Sam; Millecker, Laura A; Koroll, Alex G; Bisset, George S


    Because of the increasing complexities of providing imaging for pediatric health care services, a more reliable process to manage the daily delivery of care is necessary. Objective We describe our Daily Readiness Huddle and the effects of the process on problem identification and improvement. Our Daily Readiness Huddle has four elements: metrics review, clinical volume review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability. It is attended by radiologists, directors, managers, front-line staff with concerns, representatives from support services (information technology [IT] and biomedical engineering [biomed]), and representatives who join the meeting in a virtual format from off-site locations. Data are visually displayed on erasable whiteboards. The daily readiness assessment uses queues to determine whether anyone has concerns or outlier data in regard to S-MESA (Safety, Methods, Equipment, Supplies or Associates). Through this assessment, problems are identified and categorized as quick hits (will be resolved in 24-48 h, not requiring project management) and complex issues. Complex issues are assigned an owner, quality coach and report-back date. Additionally, projects are defined as improvements that are often strategic, are anticipated to take more than 60 days, and do not necessarily arise out of identified issues during the Daily Readiness Huddle. We tracked and calculated the mean, median and range of days to resolution and completion for complex issues and for projects during the first full year of implementing this process. During the first 12 months, 91 complex issues were identified and resolved, 11 projects were in progress and 33 completed, with 23 other projects active or in planning. Time to resolution of complex issues (in days) was mean 37.5, median 34.0, and range 1-105. For projects, time to completion (in days) was mean 86.0, median 84.0, and range 5-280. The Daily Readiness Huddle process has given us a framework to rapidly identify

  14. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software. (United States)

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T


    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Photographic evidence for the third-order rainbow. (United States)

    Grossmann, Michael; Schmidt, Elmar; Haussmann, Alexander


    The first likely photographic observation of the tertiary rainbow caused by sunlight in the open air is reported and analyzed. Whereas primary and secondary rainbows are rather common and easily seen phenomena in atmospheric optics, the tertiary rainbow appears in the sunward side of the sky and is thus largely masked by forward scattered light. Up to now, only a few visual reports and no reliable photographs of the tertiary rainbow are known. Evidence of a third-order rainbow has been obtained by using image processing techniques on a digital photograph that contains no obvious indication of such a rainbow. To rule out any misinterpretation of artifacts, we carefully calibrated the image in order to compare the observed bow's angular position and dispersion with those predicted by theory.

  16. Registration of 3-dimensional facial photographs for clinical use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maal, T.J.J.; Loon, B. van; Plooij, J.M.; Rangel, F.A.; Ettema, A.M.; Borstlap, W.A.; Berge, S.J.


    PURPOSE: To objectively evaluate treatment outcomes in oral and maxillofacial surgery, pre- and post-treatment 3-dimensional (3D) photographs of the patient's face can be registered. For clinical use, it is of great importance that this registration process is accurate (< 1 mm). The purpose of

  17. An ab initio study of the nickel-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon into graphene in rapid thermal processing (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Lu, Yong Feng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are employed to investigate the chemical mechanism underlying the Ni-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon (a-C) into graphene in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) experiment to directly grow graphene on various dielectric surfaces via the evaporation of surplus Ni and C at 1100 °C (below the melting point of bulk Ni). It is found that the a-C-to-graphene transformation entails the metal-induced crystallization and layer exchange mechanism, rather than the conventional dissolution/precipitation mechanism typically involved in Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene. The multi-layer graphene can be tuned by changing the relative thicknesses of deposited a-C and Ni thin films. Our AIMD simulations suggest that the easy evaporation of surplus Ni with excess C is likely attributed to the formation of a viscous-liquid-like Ni-C solution within the temperature range of 900-1800 K and to the faster diffusion of C atoms than that of Ni atoms above 600 K. Even at room temperature, sp3-C atoms in a-C are quickly converted to sp2-C atoms in the course of the simulation, and the graphitic C formation can occur at low temperature. When the temperature is as high as 1200 K, the grown graphitic structures reversely dissolve into Ni. Because the rate of temperature increase is considerably faster in the AIMD simulations than in realistic experiments, defects in the grown graphitic structures are kinetically trapped. In this kinetic growth stage, the carbon structures grown from sp3-carbon or from sp2-carbon exhibit marked differences.Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are employed to investigate the chemical mechanism underlying the Ni-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon (a-C) into graphene in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) experiment to directly grow graphene on various dielectric surfaces via the evaporation of surplus Ni and C at 1100 °C (below the melting point of bulk

  18. Assessment of aerodynamic processes on subsurface in karst terrains by rapid multi-parametric surveys (case of Castanar Cave, Spain) (United States)

    Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Cuezva, S.; Garcia-Anton, M.; Alvarez-Gallego, M.; Canaveras, J. C.; Porca, E.; Jurado, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Sanchez-Moral, S.


    The transfer of the isotopic signals and the trace element abundances in speleothems depends of the gas-aqueous-solid equilibrium conditions in the cave environment. Therefore, the speleothem paleoclimate interpretation requires of a previous knowledge about the influence of gas exchange and cave ventilation processes on the current speleothem growth, among other hydrogeochemical features related to the infiltration process. Here, we propose an intense and rapid multi-parametric study (few-hours long surveys) that includes simultaneous and spatial-distributed sampling and measurements of: carrier (CO2) and trace gases (222Rn and CH4), isotopic signal of CO2 (d13C) and temperature of a cave atmosphere (Castañar cave, west-central Spain), in order to achieve an early overview and better understand the relationships between surface weather and the cave microphysical environment. A portable stable carbon isotope ratio analyzer was used to rapidly and reliably detect 12CO2 and 13CO2 concentration anomalies and identify possible spatial changes in the isotopic composition of the cave air in relation to external soil and atmosphere. Additionally, an aerobiological sampling was conducted to quantify the level of airborne microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in cave air. The spatial distribution of these microenvironmental parameters was modeled by geostatistical techniques. Previous studies revealed that Castañar is a low-energy cave characterized by a very stable microclimate over an annual cycle; however a preferential cave area was identified due to soft but anomalous variations of the measured parameters. Despite it is a deep area, far from the single and most elevated entrance of the cave, some microenvironmental features at this cave site reveal a high connection degree with the outer atmosphere: 1) higher air temperature (+0.89oC) and variations (+0.22oC); 2) lower radon levels (roughly -5000 Bq/m3) and 3) an elevated level of airborne microorganisms, in relation

  19. Applying the polarity rapid assessment method to characterize nitrosamine precursors and to understand their removal by drinking water treatment processes. (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Bei, Er; Li, Shixiang; Ouyang, Yueying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, I H Mel


    Some N-nitrosamines (NAs) have been identified as emerging disinfection by-products during water treatment. Thus, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the NA precursors. In this study, the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and the classical resin fractionation method were studied as methods to fractionate the NA precursors during drinking water treatment. The results showed that PRAM has much higher selectivity for NA precursors than the resin approach. The normalized N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) FP of four resin fractions was at the same level as the average yield of the bulk organic matter whereas that of the cationic fraction by PRAM showed 50 times the average. Thus, the cationic fraction was shown to be the most important NDMA precursor contributor. The PRAM method also helped understand which portions of the NA precursor were removed by different water treatment processes. Activated carbon (AC) adsorption removed over 90% of the non-polar PRAM fraction (that sorbs onto the C18 solid phase extraction [SPE] cartridge) of NDMA and NDEA precursors. Bio-treatment removed 80-90% of the cationic fraction of PRAM (that is retained on the cation exchange SPE cartridge) and 40-60% of the non-cationic fractions. Ozonation removed 50-60% of the non-polar PRAM fraction of NA precursors and transformed part of them into the polar fraction. Coagulation and sedimentation had very limited removal of various PRAM fractions of NA precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp


    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  1. Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore coral ecosystems of Kahoolawe were rapidly assessed in 1993. Surveys were made of the coral coverage, fish communities, and sediment types from 19...

  2. Evaluating the Process and Extent of Institutionalization: A Case Study of a Rapid Response Unit for Health Policy in Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Ouedraogo, Salimata


    Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service. A qualitative case study design was used, drawing on interviews with policy-makers, together with documentary analysis. Previously used institutionalization frameworks were combined to guide the analysis. Burkina Faso's rapid response service has largely reached the consolidation phase of the institutionalization process but not yet the final phase of maturity. The impetus for the project came from designated project leaders, who convinced policy-makers of the importance of the rapid response service, and obtained resources to run a pilot. During the expansion stage, additional policy-makers at national and sub-national levels began to use the service. Unit staff also tried to improve the way it was delivered, based on lessons learned during the pilot stage. The service has, however, stagnated at the consolidation stage, and not moved into the final phase of maturity. The institutionalization process for the rapid response service in Burkina Faso has been fluid rather than linear, with some areas developing faster than others. The service has reached the consolidation stage, but now requires additional efforts to reach maturity.

  3. Effects of Rapid Solidification Process and 0.1 wt.% Pr Addition on Properties of Sn-9Zn Alloy and Cu/Solder/Cu Joints (United States)

    Zhao, Guoji; Jing, Yanxia; Sheng, Guangmin; Chen, Jianhua


    Effects of 0.1 wt.% Pr addition and rapid solidification process on Sn-9Zn solder alloy were investigated. Solder characteristics of the as-solidified and rapidly solidified Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr alloys were analyzed in comparison with those of the as-solidified Sn-9Zn alloy. Mechanical properties and interfacial microstructure of solder/Cu joints obtained using these solders were comparatively studied. By comparison with the as-solidified Sn-9Zn alloy, the wettability of the solder was obviously improved with 0.1 wt.% Pr addition, and the melting behavior of the solder was promoted due to the rapid solidification process. The corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr alloy was improved due to the refined microstructure resulting from 0.1 wt.% Pr addition and rapid solidification. The growth of IMCs at the interface of Sn-9Zn-0.1Pr/Cu joints was depressed in some degree. Rapid solidification process promoted the interfacial reaction during soldering and improved the bonding strength of joints.

  4. Rugoscopy: Human identification by computer-assisted photographic superimposition technique. (United States)

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Patil, Rajendra G; Pammi, V R; Sandya, M Pavana; Kalyan, Siva V; Anitha, A


    Human identification has been studied since fourteenth century and it has gradually advanced for forensic purposes. Traditional methods such as dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and secure identification processes. But, in circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source of material. The present study was done to evaluate the individualistic nature and use of palatal rugae patterns for personal identification and also to test the efficiency of computerized software for forensic identification by photographic superimposition of palatal photographs obtained from casts. Two sets of Alginate impressions were made from the upper arches of 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) with one month interval in between and the casts were poured. All the teeth except the incisors were removed to ensure that only the palate could be used in identification process. In one set of the casts, the palatal rugae were highlighted with a graphite pencil. All the 200 casts were randomly numbered, and then, they were photographed with a 10.1 Mega Pixel Kodak digital camera using standardized method. Using computerized software, the digital photographs of the models without highlighting the palatal rugae were overlapped over the images (transparent) of the palatal rugae with highlighted palatal rugae, in order to identify the pairs by superimposition technique. Incisors were remained and used as landmarks to determine the magnification required to bring the two set of photographs to the same size, in order to make perfect superimposition of images. The result of the overlapping of the digital photographs of highlighted palatal rugae over normal set of models without highlighted palatal rugae resulted in 100% positive identification. This study showed that utilization of palatal photographs

  5. A Photographer From Ankara: Osman Darcan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk


    Full Text Available This work introduces Osman Darcan, an important name in the history of Ankara photography studios. Darcan followed in the footsteps of famous Austrian photographer Othmar Pferschy, whom he met in Istanbul, to go on to create his own valuable work. On leaving the Public Press Authority Photo Film Center, where he worked as a newsreel photographer and film operator, in 1943 he began taking photographs at the Tatbikat Theater at the Ankara State Conservatoire, where he continued as the photographer for the State Theater until the end of his life. At the same time, this master photographer took the pictures of a select coterie of Ankara’s leading individuals and well-known performers at a studio he opened on Anafartalar Caddesi. In both these roles, his photographs evoke admiration thanks to Darcan’s professional abilities and level of artistry.

  6. Quality of clinical photographs taken by orthodontists, professional photographers, and orthodontic auxiliaries. (United States)

    Sandler, Jonathan; Dwyer, Joe; Kokich, Vincent; McKeown, Fiona; Murray, Alison; McLaughlin, Richard; O'Brien, Catherine; O'Malley, Paul


    A survey of the members of the Angle Society of Europe showed that 60% of orthodontists took their own clinical photographs, 35% assigned the task to an auxiliary, and 5% hired professional clinical photographers. It is always useful to ensure that orthodontists' time is used to maximum effect. Clinical photography could be delegated to auxiliary staff. In this study, we assessed the quality of photographs taken by orthodontists to see whether those taken by orthodontic auxiliaries and clinical photographers are of comparable quality. Fifty sets of orthodontic photographs were collected from each of 3 types of photographers: orthodontists, orthodontic auxiliaries, and professional clinical photographers. Four assessors scored each set for quality and detailed errors. The results were compared to determine whether there were differences between the quality of the photographs taken by the different groups. Most of the photos taken by the 3 groups of photographers were judged to be good or acceptable. The results for extraoral photographs showed no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups for good (P = 0.398) and acceptable (P = 0.398) images. The results for intraoral photographs did not differ significantly for acceptable and unacceptable photographs, but orthodontists produced significantly more good-quality intraoral photographs (P = 0.046).

  7. Paris vs. Prague: A "Suspicion of Fraud": Ernst Mach Argues over Photographs and Epistemological Prerequisites. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christoph


    Argument In spring 1888, an anonymous critic raised severe doubts about Ernst Mach's and Peter Salcher's studies, published one year before, on the processes in the air caused by very rapid projectiles. Paraphrasing the experiments for the French popular science magazine La Nature, the critic insinuated that the photographs upon which Mach and Salcher's argument were ostensibly based must have been of such low quality that they did not allow any well-founded conclusion. The critic did not deny the phenomena Mach and Salcher had presented in their article; he denied that the photographs taken in the course of the experiments could permit any observation of the phenomena. I take the resulting quarrel as a window into the actors' ideas on the requirements of "good observations" and the role of technical devices in this case. In particular I enquire how the various arguments relate to Lorraine Daston's and Peter Galison's framing of photography as an emblem of "mechanical objectivity." We will see that in the case under debate, actors considered naked-eye observation, observation by telescope and photography mainly with regard to the challenges of the particular research object.

  8. An innovative photographic database for cutaneous facial defects. (United States)

    Miller, Matthew Q; Rikhi, Shefali R; Park, Stephen S; Christophel, John J


    To construct an easy-to-use server-based database that stores photographs of patients undergoing reconstructive surgery for cutaneous facial defects and organizes them in a manner best suited for rapid search and education. An institutional review board-approved user-modifiable database was designed using OnBase software (Hyland Software Inc., Westlake, OH) to store both the photographs of patients undergoing reconstructive surgery and the pertinent clinical data. We designed a database using the OnBase software system (Hyland Software Inc.) to catalog patient data and photographs (pre-, intra-, and postoperative) and allow searches based on key data points. The database operates on three different frames: an upload frame, retrieval frame, and patient document frame. Data entry was based on patients undergoing facial reconstruction of Mohs defects, and upload is in the form of 25 keywords for which data values are entered via dropdown menus. Keyword entry describes defect description, flap nomenclature, flap design, outcomes, and complications. The database allows easy and rapid searches of case examples based on a number of criteria. It allows the user to view multiple examples of different patients with a given defect as defined by location, depth, and size. Server-based database systems such as OnBase (Hyland Software Inc.) provide platforms that can be used to create user-friendly photograph and data collection systems. Our database provides a way to educate medical students and surgeons-in-training, review personal outcomes, and exercise continued practice-based learning. Implementation of similar databases could potentially be utilized around the globe to facilitate education and self-assessment because OnBase (Hyland Software Inc.) and other similar software platforms are widely available within healthcare systems. Laryngoscope, 2016 Laryngoscope, 126:2451-2455, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Registration of 3-dimensional facial photographs for clinical use. (United States)

    Maal, Thomas J J; van Loon, Bram; Plooij, Joanneke M; Rangel, Frits; Ettema, Anke M; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Bergé, Stefaan J


    To objectively evaluate treatment outcomes in oral and maxillofacial surgery, pre- and post-treatment 3-dimensional (3D) photographs of the patient's face can be registered. For clinical use, it is of great importance that this registration process is accurate (registration procedures. Fifteen volunteers (7 males, 8 females; mean age, 23.6 years; range, 21 to 26 years) were invited to participate in this study. Three-dimensional photographs were captured at 3 different times: baseline (T(0)), after 1 minute (T(1)), and 3 weeks later (T(2)). Furthermore, a 3D photograph of the volunteer laughing (T(L)) was acquired to investigate the effect of facial expression. Two different registration methods were used to register the photographs acquired at all different times: surface-based registration and reference-based registration. Within the surface-based registration, 2 different software packages (Maxilim [Medicim NV, Mechelen, Belgium] and 3dMD Patient [3dMD LLC, Atlanta, GA]) were used to register the 3D photographs acquired at the various times. The surface-based registration process was repeated with the preprocessed photographs. Reference-based registration (Maxilim) was performed twice by 2 observers investigating the inter- and intraobserver error. The mean registration errors are small for the 3D photographs at rest (0.39 mm for T(0)-T(1) and 0.52 mm for T(0)-T(2)). The mean registration error increased to 1.2 mm for the registration between the 3D photographs acquired at T(0) and T(L). The mean registration error for the reference-based method was 1.0 mm for T(0)-T(1), 1.1 mm for T(0)-T(2), and 1.5 mm for T(0) and T(L). The mean registration errors for the preprocessed photographs were even smaller (0.30 mm for T(0)-T(1), 0.42 mm for T(0)-T(2), and 1.2 mm for T(0) and T(L)). Furthermore, a strong correlation between the results of both software packages used for surface-based registration was found. The intra- and interobserver error for the reference

  10. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da


    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  11. Rapid naming and phonemic awareness in children with reading disabilities and/or specific language impairment : Differentiating processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J.A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.


    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). A composite word reading index and

  12. Creating a web-based digital photographic archive: one hospital library’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marshall, MLS, AHIP


    Conclusion: Within 8 months, we digitized and indexed over 500 photographs. The digital archive now allows patrons and researchers to access the history of the hospital and enables the library to process archival references more efficiently.

  13. Single-image-based Modelling Architecture from a Historical Photograph (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta


    Historical photographs are proved to be very useful to provide a dimensional and geometrical analysis of buildings as well as to generate 3D reconstruction of the whole structure. The paper addresses the problem of single historical photograph analysis and modelling of an architectural object from it. Especially, it focuses on reconstruction of the original look of New-Town synagogue from the single historic photograph, when camera calibration is completely unknown. Due to the fact that the photograph faithfully followed the geometric rules of perspective, it was possible to develop and apply the method to obtain a correct 3D reconstruction of the building. The modelling process consisted of a series of familiar steps: feature extraction, determination of base elements of perspective, dimensional analyses and 3D reconstruction. Simple formulas were proposed in order to estimate location of characteristic points of the building in 3D Cartesian system of axes on the base of their location in 2D Cartesian system of axes. The reconstruction process proceeded well, although slight corrections were necessary. It was possible to reconstruct the shape of the building in general, and two of its facades in detail. The reconstruction of the other two facades requires some additional information or the additional picture. The success of the presented reconstruction method depends on the geometrical content of the photograph as well as quality of the picture, which ensures the legibility of building edges. The presented method of reconstruction is a combination of the descriptive method of reconstruction and computer aid; therefore, it seems to be universal. It can prove useful for single-image-based modelling architecture.

  14. Schlieren Photographic Studies Of Dynamic Stall (United States)

    Carr, L.; Chandrasekhara, M.


    Report describes stroboscopic Schlieren photographic observations of flows around airfoil oscillating sinusoidally about fixed angle of attack. Conducted in wind tunnel on (NACA) 0012 airfoil oscillating with amplitude of 10 degrees about mean angle of attack of 10 degrees. Photographs taken along span of airfoil. Mach numbers and frequencies chosen to encompass conditions on retreating blades of helicopter rotors in forward flight.

  15. [Anisotropy in depth perception of photograph]. (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshio


    How can we reproduce real physical depth from a photograph? How does depth perception in the photograph differ from depth perception in the direct observation? In Experiment 1, objects in an open space were photographed and presented on a screen. Subjects were asked to judge the distances from a fixed point to the objects and the angles from the median line. The distances and the angles in the photograph were perceived shorter and larger than in physical space, respectively. Furthermore, depth perception in the photograph had an anisotropic property. In Experiment 2, the same objects as in Experiment 1 were observed directly by the subjects. The distances and the angles in the direct observation were perceived longer and smaller at longer distance than in the photograph, respectively. It was concluded that depth perception in the photograph did not reproduce depth either in physical space or in visual space, but it was closer to depth in visual space than in physical space. Furthermore, photographic space had an anisotropic property as visual space did.

  16. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)


    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  17. ShakeMap implementation for Pyrenees in France-Spain border: regional adaptation and earthquake rapid response process.


    Bertil, Didier; Roviró, Jordi; Antonio Jara, Jose; Susagna, Teresa; Nus, Eduard; Goula, Xavier; Colas, Bastien; Dumont, Guillaume; Cabañas, Luis; Anton, Resurección; Calvet, Marie


    International audience; The USGS-ShakeMap package is used with a regional adaptation to provide automatic shake maps in rapid response for Pyrenean earthquakes. The Near Real Time system relies on servers designed for data exchange between transborder organizations involved in the Sispyr project. First maps will be provide as soon as possible after the shock, and updated with observed macroseismic intensities on the following hours. Regional Predictive Equations Tapia (2006) and Goula et al. ...

  18. Sapc - Application for Adapting Scanned Analogue Photographs to Use Them in Structure from Motion Technology (United States)

    Salach, A.


    The documentary value of analogue scanned photographs is invaluable. A large and rich collection of archival photographs is often the only source of information about past of the selected area. This paper presents a method of adaptation of scanned, analogue photographs to suitable form allowing to use them in Structure from Motion technology. For this purpose, an automatic algorithm, implemented in the application called SAPC (Scanned Aerial Photographs Correction), which transforms scans to a form, which characteristic similar to the images captured by a digital camera, was invented. Images, which are created in the applied program as output data, are characterized by the same principal point position in each photo and the same resolution through cutting out the black photo frame. Additionally, SAPC generates a binary image file, which can mask areas of fiducial marks. In the experimental section, scanned, analogue photographs of Warsaw, which had been captured in 1986, were used in two variants: unprocessed and processed in SAPC application. An insightful analysis was conducted on the influence of transformation in SAPC on quality of spatial orientation of photographs. Block adjustment through aerial triangulation was calculated using two SfM software products: Agisoft PhotoScan and Pix4d and their results were compared with results obtained from professional photogrammetric software - Trimble Inpho. The author concluded that pre-processing in SAPC application had a positive impact on a quality of block orientation of scanned, analogue photographs, using SfM technology.

  19. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakóbczyk Joanna


    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  20. [One photograph, myriad images: rural education in Northern Brazil]. (United States)

    Araújo, Sonia Maria da Silva


    The article addresses the processes by which schools have been established and institutionalized on extensive-grazing ranches in rural Soure, Marajó Island, Brazil. Emergence of these schools has been tied to large landholdings and to the political relations between ranchers, vaqueiros, and government. Theoretical reflections, social data, and events are placed side-by-side with photographs that depict the fragile state of public education available to children living in the rural areas of far northern Brazil.

  1. What Makes a Photograph Memorable? (United States)

    Isola, Phillip; Jianxiong Xiao; Parikh, Devi; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude


    When glancing at a magazine, or browsing the Internet, we are continuously exposed to photographs. Despite this overflow of visual information, humans are extremely good at remembering thousands of pictures along with some of their visual details. But not all images are equal in memory. Some stick in our minds while others are quickly forgotten. In this paper, we focus on the problem of predicting how memorable an image will be. We show that memorability is an intrinsic and stable property of an image that is shared across different viewers, and remains stable across delays. We introduce a database for which we have measured the probability that each picture will be recognized after a single view. We analyze a collection of image features, labels, and attributes that contribute to making an image memorable, and we train a predictor based on global image descriptors. We find that predicting image memorability is a task that can be addressed with current computer vision techniques. While making memorable images is a challenging task in visualization, photography, and education, this work is a first attempt to quantify this useful property of images.

  2. Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL(©)): streamlining the systematic review process and creating utility for evidence-based health care. (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Boyd, Courtney; Jain, Shamini; Khorsan, Raheleh; Jonas, Wayne


    Systematic reviews (SRs) are widely recognized as the best means of synthesizing clinical research. However, traditional approaches can be costly and time-consuming and can be subject to selection and judgment bias. It can also be difficult to interpret the results of a SR in a meaningful way in order to make research recommendations, clinical or policy decisions, or practice guidelines. Samueli Institute has developed the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL) SR process to address these issues. REAL provides up-to-date, rigorous, high quality SR information on health care practices, products, or programs in a streamlined, efficient and reliable manner. This process is a component of the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH™) program developed by Samueli Institute, which aims at answering the question of "What works?" in health care. The REAL process (1) tailors a standardized search strategy to a specific and relevant research question developed with various stakeholders to survey the available literature; (2) evaluates the quantity and quality of the literature using structured tools and rulebooks to ensure objectivity, reliability and reproducibility of reviewer ratings in an independent fashion and; (3) obtains formalized, balanced input from trained subject matter experts on the implications of the evidence for future research and current practice. Online tools and quality assurance processes are utilized for each step of the review to ensure a rapid, rigorous, reliable, transparent and reproducible SR process. The REAL is a rapid SR process developed to streamline and aid in the rigorous and reliable evaluation and review of claims in health care in order to make evidence-based, informed decisions, and has been used by a variety of organizations aiming to gain insight into "what works" in health care. Using the REAL system allows for the facilitation of recommendations on appropriate next steps in policy, funding

  3. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick


    "Derrick shows that Photoshop can be friendly as well as powerful. In part, he does that by focusing photographers on the essential steps of an efficient workflow. With this guide in hand, you'll quickly learn how to leverage Photoshop CS4's features to organize and improve your pictures."-- John Nack, Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop & BridgeMany photographers -- even the pros -- feel overwhelmed by all the editing options Photoshop provides. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers pares it down to only the tools you'll need most often, and shows you how to use those tools as

  4. Photograph of moon after transearth insertion (United States)


    This photograph of the moon was taken after transearth insertion when the Apollo 10 spacecraft was high above the lunar equator near 27 degrees east longitude. North is about 20 degrees left of the top of the photograph. Apollo Landing Site 3 is on the lighted side of the terminator in a dark area just north of the equator. Apollo Landing Site 2 is near the lower left margin of the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillitatis), which is the large, dark area near the center of the photograph.

  5. Standardizing the protocol for hemispherical photographs: accuracy assessment of binarization algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Glatthorn

    Full Text Available Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify the photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study assessed the accuracy of seven binarization methods implemented in software currently available for the processing of hemispherical photographs. Therefore, binarizations obtained by the algorithms were compared to reference data generated through a manual binarization of a stratified random selection of pixels. This approach was adopted from the accuracy assessment of map classifications known from remote sensing studies. Percentage correct (Pc and kappa-statistics (K were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed for photographs taken with automatic exposure settings (auto-exposure and photographs taken with settings which avoid overexposure (histogram-exposure. In addition, gap fraction values derived from hemispherical photographs were compared with estimates derived from the manually classified reference pixels. All tested algorithms were shown to be sensitive to overexposure. Three of the algorithms showed an accuracy which was high enough to be recommended for the processing of histogram-exposed hemispherical photographs: "Minimum" (Pc 98.8%; K 0.952, "Edge Detection" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.950, and "Minimum Histogram" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.947. The Minimum algorithm overestimated gap fraction least of all (11%. The overestimation by the algorithms Edge Detection (63% and Minimum Histogram (67% were considerably larger. For the remaining four evaluated algorithms (IsoData, Maximum Entropy, Min

  6. Homogenization and texture development in rapidly solidified AZ91E consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N. R.; Whalen, S. A.; Bowden, M. E.; Olszta, M. J.; Kruska, K.; Clark, T.; Stevens, E. L.; Darsell, J. T.; Joshi, V. V.; Jiang, X.; Mattlin, K. F.; Mathaudhu, S. N.


    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) -a novel processing route that combines high shear and extrusion conditions- was evaluated as a processing method to densify melt spun magnesium alloy (AZ91E) flake materials. This study illustrates the microstructural regimes and transitions in crystallographic texture that occur as a result of applying simultaneous linear and rotational shear during extrusion. Characterization of the flake precursor and extruded tube was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microindentation techniques. Results show a unique transition in the orientation of basal texture development. Despite the high temperatures involved during processing, uniform grain refinement and material homogenization are observed. These results forecast the ability to implement the ShAPE processing approach for a broader range of materials with novel microstructures and high performance.

  7. Discovery of Rapid and Reversible Water Insertion in Rare Earth Sulfates: A New Process for Thermochemical Heat Storage. (United States)

    Hatada, Naoyuki; Shizume, Kunihiko; Uda, Tetsuya


    Thermal energy storage based on chemical reactions is a prospective technology for the reduction of fossil-fuel consumption by storing and using waste heat. For widespread application, a critical challenge is to identify appropriate reversible reactions that occur below 250 °C, where abundant low-grade waste heat and solar energy might be available. Here, it is shown that lanthanum sulfate monohydrate La 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ⋅H 2 O undergoes rapid and reversible dehydration/hydration reactions in the temperature range from 50 to 250 °C upon heating/cooling with remarkably small thermal hysteresis (dehydration/hydration behavior. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  9. Live, video-rate super-resolution microscopy using structured illumination and rapid GPU-based parallel processing. (United States)

    Lefman, Jonathan; Scott, Keana; Stranick, Stephan


    Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy is a powerful super-resolution method that is capable of achieving a resolution below 100 nm. Each super-resolution image is computationally constructed from a set of differentially illuminated images. However, real-time application of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has generally been limited due to the computational overhead needed to generate super-resolution images. Here, we have developed a real-time SIM system that incorporates graphic processing unit (GPU) based in-line parallel processing of raw/differentially illuminated images. By using GPU processing, the system has achieved a 90-fold increase in processing speed compared to performing equivalent operations on a multiprocessor computer--the total throughput of the system is limited by data acquisition speed, but not by image processing. Overall, more than 350 raw images (16-bit depth, 512 × 512 pixels) can be processed per second, resulting in a maximum frame rate of 39 super-resolution images per second. This ultrafast processing capability is used to provide immediate feedback of super-resolution images for real-time display. These developments are increasing the potential for sophisticated super-resolution imaging applications.

  10. Editing soft shadows in a digital photograph. (United States)

    Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack; Choudhury, Prasun


    This technique for modeling, editing, and rendering shadow edges in a photograph or a synthetic image lets users separate the shadow from the rest of the image and make arbitrary adjustments to its position, sharpness, and intensity.

  11. Adopt a Pixel Photographs: 2013-Present (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The photographs in the Adopt a Pixel collection were provided by volunteers with a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and a compass or a smart mobile...

  12. Photographing without shooting: the survival of artistic appropriation in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana S. Martins


    Full Text Available This article investigates the ways in which postmodern artistic appropriation resisted the digital revolution and its impact on the (immateriality of photographic objects. Drawing on the analysis of the particular production and reception processes in the work of the artist Joachim Schmid, this text investigates how art has adapted itself to the new technological landscapes in a paradoxical world, where people are shooting more than ever, while traditional photographic objects are on the verge of disappearance.

  13. Cultural Diffusion and Trends in Facebook Photographs


    You, Quanzeng; García-García, Darío; Paluri, Mahohar; Luo, Jiebo; Joo, Jungseock


    Online social media is a social vehicle in which people share various moments of their lives with their friends, such as playing sports, cooking dinner or just taking a selfie for fun, via visual means, that is, photographs. Our study takes a closer look at the popular visual concepts illustrating various cultural lifestyles from aggregated, de-identified photographs. We perform analysis both at macroscopic and microscopic levels, to gain novel insights about global and local visual trends as...

  14. On the detection of cracks in photographic prints (United States)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Fogar, Erika; Ramponi, Giovanni


    A method for the detection of cracks in old paper photographs is presented. Cracks in photographic prints usually result from a folding of the paper support of the photograph; they often extend across the entire image, along a preferred orientation. A first clue we exploit for crack detection is the fact that old prints have a characteristic sepia hue, due to aging and to the type of processing used at the time; a break of the gelatin exposes the white support paper; likewise, a break of the paper causes a black region in the digitized image. Thus, cracks are usually achromatic; this fact can be used for their detection on a color space with an explicit hue component. A series of parallel microcracks that run along the direction of a main crack usually result as well; even though the gelatin may not be broken, the folds corresponding to these microcracks cause a set of image discontinuities, observable at a high-enough resolution. In an interactive process, the user indicates the ends of the crack on the frame of the photo and the algorithm detects the crack pixels. In addition to color, the algorithm uses a multidirectional, multiresolution Gabor approach and mathematical morphology. The resulting method provides crack detection with good performance, as evidenced by the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) graphs.1

  15. Rapid data processing for ultrafast X-ray computed tomography using scalable and modular CUDA based pipelines (United States)

    Frust, Tobias; Wagner, Michael; Stephan, Jan; Juckeland, Guido; Bieberle, André


    Ultrafast X-ray tomography is an advanced imaging technique for the study of dynamic processes basing on the principles of electron beam scanning. A typical application case for this technique is e.g. the study of multiphase flows, that is, flows of mixtures of substances such as gas-liquidflows in pipelines or chemical reactors. At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) a number of such tomography scanners are operated. Currently, there are two main points limiting their application in some fields. First, after each CT scan sequence the data of the radiation detector must be downloaded from the scanner to a data processing machine. Second, the current data processing is comparably time-consuming compared to the CT scan sequence interval. To enable online observations or use this technique to control actuators in real-time, a modular and scalable data processing tool has been developed, consisting of user-definable stages working independently together in a so called data processing pipeline, that keeps up with the CT scanner's maximal frame rate of up to 8 kHz. The newly developed data processing stages are freely programmable and combinable. In order to achieve the highest processing performance all relevant data processing steps, which are required for a standard slice image reconstruction, were individually implemented in separate stages using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language. Data processing performance tests on different high-end GPUs (Tesla K20c, GeForce GTX 1080, Tesla P100) showed excellent performance. Program Files doi: Licensing provisions: LGPLv3 Programming language: C++/CUDA Supplementary material: Test data set, used for the performance analysis. Nature of problem: Ultrafast computed tomography is performed with a scan rate of up to 8 kHz. To obtain cross-sectional images from projection data computer-based image reconstruction algorithms must be applied. The

  16. Dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic graphene oxide for rapid and selective quantification of acrylamide in heat-processed (including fried) foods. (United States)

    Ning, Fangjian; Qiu, Tingting; Wang, Qi; Peng, Hailong; Li, Yanbin; Wu, Xiaqing; Zhang, Zhong; Chen, Linxin; Xiong, Hua


    Novel nano-sized dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers (DSMIPs) on a magnetic graphene oxide (GO-Fe3O4) surface were developed as substrates, using propionamide as a dummy template molecule for the selective recognition and rapid pre-concentration and removal of acrylamide (AM) from food samples. These products showed rapid kinetics, high binding capacity (adsorption at 3.68mg·g-1), and selectivity (imprinting factor α 2.83); the adsorption processes followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Excellent recognition selectivity toward acrylamide was achieved compared to structural analogs, such as propionic and acrylic acids (selectivity factor β 2.33, and 2.20, respectively). Moreover, DSMIPs-GO-Fe3O4 was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples, yielding satisfactory recovery (86.7-94.3%) and low relative standard deviation (acrylamide from food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer imaging software for profile photograph analysis. (United States)

    Tollefson, Travis T; Sykes, Jonathan M


    To describe a novel calibration technique for photographs of different sizes and to test a new method of chin evaluation in relation to established analysis measurements. A photograph analysis and medical record review of 14 patients who underwent combined rhinoplasty and chin correction at an academic center. Patients undergoing concurrent orthognathic surgery, rhytidectomy, or submental liposuction were excluded. Preoperative and postoperative digital photographs were analyzed using computer imaging software with a new method, the soft tissue porion to pogonion distance, and with established measurements, including the cervicomental angle, the mentocervical angle, and the facial convexity angle. The porion to pogonion distance consistently increased after the chin correction procedure (more in the osseous group). All photograph angle measurements changed toward the established normal range postoperatively. Surgery for facial disharmony requires artistic judgment and objective evaluation. Although 3-dimensional video analysis of the face seems promising, its clinical use is limited by cost. For surgeons who use computer imaging software, analysis of profile photographs is the most valuable tool. Even when preoperative and postoperative photographs are of different sizes, relative distance comparisons are possible with a new calibration technique using the constant facial landmarks, the porion and the pupil. The porion-pogonion distance is a simple reproducible measurement that can be used along with established soft tissue measurements as a guide for profile facial analysis.

  18. Biological removal of iron and manganese in rapid sand filters - Process understanding of iron and manganese removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Katie

    In Denmark and many other European countries, drinking water is exclusively or mainly based on groundwater. Treatment of the groundwater is rather simple, only including aeration and a subsequent filtration process. The filtration process may take place over to steps. Step 1: Filtration in a pre......-filter, where iron is removed. Step 2: Filtration in an after-filter where e.g. ammonium and manganese is removed. The treatment relies on microbial processes and may present an alternative, greener and more sustainable approach for drinking water production spending less chemicals and energy than chemical (e.......g. flocculation) and physical (e.g. membrane filtration) based technologies. The removal of dissolved manganese and iron is important. If manganese and iron enter the distribution system, the water will become coloured and have a metallic taste, and it may cause problems in the distribution network due...

  19. Rapid monitoring of the fermentation process for Korean traditional rice wine 'Makgeolli' using FT-NIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan


    The quality parameters of the Korean traditional rice wine "Makgeolli" were monitored using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) during fermentation. Alcohol, reducing sugar, and titratable acid were the parameters assessed to determine the quality index of fermentation substrates and products. The acquired spectra were analyzed with partial least squares regression (PLSR). The best prediction model for alcohol was obtained with maximum normalization, showing a coefficient of determination (Rp2) of 0.973 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.760%. In addition, the best prediction model for reducing sugar was obtained with no data preprocessing, with a Rp2 value of 0.945 and a SEP of 1.233%. The prediction of titratable acidity was best with mean normalization, showing a Rp2 value of 0.882 and a SEP of 0.045%. These results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used for rapid measurements of quality parameters during Makgeolli fermentation.

  20. 8 CFR 333.1 - Description of required photographs. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of required photographs. 333.1 Section 333.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS PHOTOGRAPHS § 333.1 Description of required photographs. (a) Every applicant required to furnish photographs of...

  1. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law...

  2. Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling (United States)

    A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...

  3. The rapid identification of lactic acid bacteria present in Chilean winemaking processes using culture-independent analysis. (United States)

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Jara, Carla; Romero, Jaime


    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was developed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are commonly present in winemaking processes (Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc). This culture-independent approach revealed the presence of Oenococcus in the spontaneous malolactic fermentation in industrial Chilean wines.

  4. An Octave/MATLAB® Interface for Rapid Processing of SMOS L1C Full Polarization Brightness Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saavedra


    Full Text Available A tool to process the SMOS microwave radiometer level 1C polarized brightness temperatures data product has been developed. The SMOS L1C science product contains the dual and full (Stokes vector polarization brightness temperatures at L-band for multiple incidence angles. In order to use the L1C product, the measurements are processed by a number of procedures including radio frequency interference (RFI filters, conversion of the polarization plane from the antenna (X- & Y-pol to the Earth’s surface frame (H- & V-pol, and averaging to fixed classes of incidence angles. The software allows for the processing of data for the entire daily half-orbit product, or for specific regions of interest, and can be adapted as a bash-job to process a large number of data files e.g. for time series analysis. This paper describes the tool which was developed in GNU C++ with the capability to be compiled as MEX function to work with Octave or MATLAB® without any source code adjustment. Funding statement: 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' DFG under grant number SI 606/24-1.

  5. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang


    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  6. A mixed-methods study on perceptions towards use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to improve informed consent processes for health research in a low-income setting. (United States)

    Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Newport, Melanie J; Addissie, Thomas; MacGregor, Hayley; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Farsides, Bobbie


    Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia. Mixed methods research using a sequential explanatory approach was conducted from July to September 2012, including 241 cross-sectional, self-administered and 19 qualitative, in-depth interviews among health researchers and regulators including ethics committee members in Ethiopian health research institutions and universities. In their evaluation of the consent process, only 40.2% thought that the consent process and information given were adequately understood by study participants; 84.6% claimed they were not satisfied with the current consent process and 85.5% thought the best interests of study participants were not adequately considered. Commonly mentioned consent-related problems included lack of clarity (48.1%), inadequate information (34%), language barriers (28.2%), cultural differences (27.4%), undue expectations (26.6%) and power imbalances (20.7%). About 95.4% believed that consent should be contextualized to the study setting and 39.4% thought REA would be an appropriate approach to improve the perceived problems. Qualitative findings helped to further explore the gaps identified in the quantitative findings and to map-out concerns related to the current research consent process in Ethiopia. Suggestions included, conducting REA during the pre-test (pilot) phase of studies when applicable. The need for clear guidance for researchers on issues such as when and how to apply the REA tools was stressed. The study findings clearly indicated that there are perceived to be correctable gaps in the consent process of medical research in Ethiopia. REA is considered relevant by researchers and stakeholders

  7. Multiscale and multidisciplinary Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment data collection methods for process studies: the case of the Taranto Gulf (United States)

    Federico, Ivan; Maicu, Francesco; Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Causio, Salvatore; Caporale, Claudio; Demarte, Maurizio; Falconieri, Alfredo; Lecci, Rita; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Matteo; Sepp-Neves, Augusto; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfe', Giorgia; Trotta, Francesco; Zaggia, Luca; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro


    The present work aims to investigate the thermohaline properties and the circulation of the Gulf of Taranto, which is a deep, semi-enclosed ocean area in the northern Ionian sea, encircled by two Italian peninsulas of southern Apulia and Calabria. Since few observations in the past have been reported in the Gulf of Taranto, it emerged the need of planning and implementing oceanographic cruises in this area, based on an innovative concept of MREA (Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment). The methodology was based on an optimal experimental strategy to collect definitive evidences on ocean mesoscales with a spatial-and-time synoptic coverage. The MREA surveys have been performed thanks to the synergies between Italian oceanographic research centers and the Italian Navy Hydrographic Institute. Starting from the experience and results of MREA14 (Pinardi et al., 2016), which have shown in the Gulf an anticyclonic circulation in Autumn (October 2014) and the presence of submesoscale structure, a new experiment (MREA16) was repeated in a different season (Summer, June-July 2016), evaluating possible changes in current circulation. Furthermore, the new sampling methodology was refined and strengthened integrating the classical CTD data collection with additional simultaneous measurements of currents by means of vessel-mounted ADCP. The geostrophic circulation pattern derived from the CTD objective-analysis mapping techniques has been verified with the ADCP measurements. Moreover, the analysis on circulation fields confirms the presence of possible submesoscale structures, which can be well solved by a high-resolution sampling scheme. The MREA investigation in Gulf of Taranto shows a large-scale gyre anticyclonically-oriented in Autumn (MREA14) and cyclonically-oriented in Summer (MREA16). This opposite circulation pattern is probably connected to (i) the impact of Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), (ii) the effect of the Northern Ionian Sea outflow-inflow system in

  8. Fundamental understanding and integration of rapid thermal processing, PECVD, and screen printing for cost-effective, high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic devices (United States)

    Doshi, Parag Mahendra

    The final hurdle preventing widespread application of photovoltaics is cost-effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies in the laboratory have reached 24%, but industrial cells, constrained by low-cost, high-throughput processes, are limited to 10-15%. This thesis focuses on industrially relevant technologies such as rapid thermal processing (RTP), PECVD, and screen-printing to simplify and speed up cell processing yet maintain the key features that give high efficiencies in the laboratory. RTP utilizes tungsten-halogen and UV lamps as a source of high energy photons that induce thermal and photophysical effects which can significantly increase the kinetics of semiconductor processes such as diffusion, oxidation, and annealing. PECVD also serves as a promising low-cost candidate for SiN/SiOsb2 antireflection coatings and passivation. Finally, screen printing serves as a very high-throughput technology for contact formation as a low-cost alternative to photolithography. Integration of these technologies into a single cell fabrication sequence, however, revealed the susceptibility to low internal quantum efficiencies in the long and short wavelengths. For example, the inherent rapid cooling during RTP can degrade minority-carrier lifetime and long wavelength response. Lack of knowledge in tailoring RTP emitter diffusion profiles coupled with less than perfect PECVD surface passivation and parasitic SiN absorption was found to limit short wavelength response. Problems like these limited RTP cell efficiencies to only 15.4% prior to this thesis. Through a combination of fundamental understanding of device physics, materials and device characterization, modeling, and cell fabrication these losses were quantified and overcome in this thesis. An in-situ annealing cycle during RTP was optimized to prevent quenching-induced lifetime degradation and to preserve high long wavelength response. Measurement of SiN extinction coefficients to compute parasitic absorption, optimization

  9. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time. (United States)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A E; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Ferreira, José M F; Pullar, Robert C


    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90°C), drying temperature (60 and 80°C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700°C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH7.5 and calcined at 400°C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, TCP) were produced at pH5.5 and (pH7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  11. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.


    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  12. The rapid identification of lactic acid bacteria present in Chilean winemaking processes using culture-independent analysis


    Ilabaca, Carolina; Jara, Carla; Romero, Jaime


    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was developed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are commonly present in winemaking processes (Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc). This culture-independent approach revealed the presence of Oenococcus in the spontaneous malolactic fermentation in industrial Chilean wines. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (...

  13. Framing the Photographer: Discourse and Performance in Portrait Photography


    Dean, Alison Vivian


    Framing the Photographer: Discourse and Performance in Portrait Photography reconsiders photographic criticism, theory, and history in terms of the photographic event. I argue that discursive frames—whether formed through art history, juridical language, technological format, or otherwise—inform and interact with the formal composition of photographs, the channels through which photography circulates, and the attitudes and performances of the photographers themselves. Rather than representing...

  14. Photography and photographic-photometry of the solar aureole (United States)

    Deepak, A.; Adams, R. R.


    This paper describes procedures for taking solar aureole photographs with conventional small format (35- or 70-mm) cameras and films and discusses photographic-photometry techniques for obtaining accurate solar aureole radiance measurements from these photographs, the measurements being used for retrieving atmospheric aerosol characteristics. The photographic data reduction techniques discussed here include sensitometry, densitometry, off-axis illumination distribution measurement, photogrammetry and photometry relations, etc. Comparison tests show that photographic measurements of the solar aureole radiance agree well with simultaneous photoelectric measurements.

  15. Development of a photographic atlas of Venezuelan food portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernández


    Full Text Available Introduction: The instruments to estimate consumed portion are a key factor, which ensures data quality in surveys of food intake assessment. Venezuela does not have a tool like this, properly validated and published. The aim of the study was develop a photographic atlas as a complementary tool for assess usual food consumption in Venezuelan adults.Material and Methods: Foods were classified into 13 groups according to their similarity in nutrient content according to the table of composition and the food balance sheet of Venezuela. We selected the most consumed by Venezuelans according to data from national studies and another researches by the authors. For each food were set 3 portion sizes: small, medium and large; which were weighed in an electronic balance before taking a picture. Later, the atlas underwent a valuation process by experts.Results: The instrument includes 110 foods with a total of 300 photographs, distributed in 100 sheets, presenting the advantages of quality control used during the planning and design, the review of national and international reference materials. The experts successfully assessed the pertinence of the items and the relevance of the atlas information.Conclusions: The photographic atlas of foods developed, in the opinion of the expert reviewers, could be a useful tool to be used in the evaluation of food consumption in Venezuelan adults. However, to fulfill this purpose, the proposed instrument should be validated to prove their technical conditions of validity and reliability.

  16. Rapid flash annealing of thermally reactive copolymers in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta


    intensity pulsed light, delivered by a commercial photonic sintering system. Thermally labile ester groups are positioned on the DTZ unit of the copolymer that can be eliminated thermally for enhanced photochemical stability and advantages in terms of processing (solubility/insolubility switching......Light induced thermocleaving of a thermally reactive copolymer based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) in contact with the heat sensitive substrate the heat sensitive substrate polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) was effectively demonstrated with the use of high...

  17. Enhanced Superhydrophobic Performance of BN-MoS2 Heterostructure Prepared via a Rapid, One-Pot Supercritical Fluid Processing. (United States)

    Thangasamy, Pitchai; Partheeban, Thamodaran; Sudanthiramoorthy, Subramanian; Sathish, Marappan


    Fabrication of highly crystalline BN-MoS2 heterostructure with >95% yield was demonstrated using one-pot supercritical fluid processing within 30 min. The existence of 20-50 layers of BN-MoS2 in the prepared heterostructure was confirmed by AFM analysis. The HR-TEM imaging and mapping analysis revealed the well-melded BN and MoS2 nanosheets in the heterostructure. The drastic reduction in XRD line intensities corresponding to the (002) plane and broadening of the peaks for the BN system over MoS2 indicated the effective exfoliation and lateral size reduction in BN nanosheets during SCF processing. Also, the exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are preferentially exposed rather than BN nanosheets; consequently, the MoS2 nanosheets sturdily covered BN nanosheets in the heterostructure. The exfoliated BN and MoS2 nanosheets with nanoscale roughness make the surface highly hydrophobic in nature. As a result, the BN-MoS2 heterostructure showed superior superhydrophobic performance with high water contact angle of 165.9°, which is much higher than the value reported in the literature.

  18. Rapid regulation of sialidase activity in response to neural activity and sialic acid removal during memory processing in rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Minami, Akira; Meguro, Yuko; Ishibashi, Sayaka; Ishii, Ami; Shiratori, Mako; Sai, Saki; Horii, Yuuki; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Hokuto; Shimba, Sumika; Taguchi, Risa; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi


    Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac) or 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDA receptors, or NMDA receptors. The increase in sialidase activity with neural excitation appears to be caused not by secreted sialidase or by an increase in sialidase expression but by a change in the subcellular localization of sialidase. Astrocytes as well as neurons are also involved in the neural activity-dependent increase in sialidase activity. Sialidase activity visualized with a benzothiazolylphenol-based sialic acid derivative (BTP3-Neu5Ac), a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, at the CA3 stratum lucidum of rat acute hippocampal slices was immediately increased in response to LTP-inducible high-frequency stimulation on a time scale of seconds. To obtain direct evidence for sialic acid removal on the extracellular cell surface during neural excitation, the extracellular free sialic acid level in the hippocampus was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. The free sialic acid level was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Desialylation also occurred during hippocampus-dependent memory formation in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. Our results show that neural activity-dependent desialylation by sialidase may be involved in hippocampal memory processing. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. An unusual method of forensic human identification: use of selfie photographs. (United States)

    Miranda, Geraldo Elias; Freitas, Sílvia Guzella de; Maia, Luiza Valéria de Abreu; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff


    As with other methods of identification, in forensic odontology, antemortem data are compared with postmortem findings. In the absence of dental documentation, photographs of the smile play an important role in this comparison. As yet, there are no reports of the use of the selfie photograph for identification purposes. Owing to advancements in technology, electronic devices, and social networks, this type of photograph has become increasingly common. This paper describes a case in which selfie photographs were used to identify a carbonized body, by using the smile line and image superimposition. This low-cost, rapid, and easy to analyze technique provides highly reliable results. Nevertheless, there are disadvantages, such as the limited number of teeth that are visible in a photograph, low image quality, possibility of morphological changes in the teeth after the antemortem image was taken, and difficulty of making comparisons depending on the orientation of the photo. In forensic odontology, new methods of identification must be sought to accompany technological evolution, particularly when no traditional methods of comparison, such as clinical record charts or radiographs, are available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nobels Nobels laureates photographed by Peter Badge

    CERN Document Server


    A unique photographic record of all living Nobel laureates. In this handsome coffee-table book, photographer Peter Badge captures the likeness of every living Nobel laureate in a lasting black-and-white image -- more than 300 striking portraits in all. Brief biographical sketches accompanying the large-scale photographs pay homage to each laureate's singular contribution to science, literature or world peace. Bringing readers face-to-face with Nelson Mandela, Jimmy Carter, the Dalai Lama, James Watson, Gabriel García Márquez, Toni Morrison, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Linda Buck, and Paul Samuelson among many others, NOBELS offers an intimate and compelling look at well-known honorees as well as lesser-known recipients. A fascinating word/image tableau.

  1. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile gamma ray spectrometry Processing of results from the RESUME99 exercise, Gaevle, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Smetkurst, M A


    Data from mobile measuring teams participating in the RESUME99 Fixed Route exercise in Sweden have been processed to facilitate a detailed comparison between the data sets. The exercise was organised by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and is part of the BOK-1.2 project Mobile Measurements and Measurements Strategies within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme for 1998-2000. 11 car borne gamma ray spectrometer systems measured a fixed route in the vicinity of Gaevle in Sweden so that the capabilities of the different measuring systems in determining the levels and patterns of sup 1 37Cs contamination along the route could be studied. This report describes how the data sets from the different measuring systems were projected into the known trace of the fixed route so that the results can be compared. Estimates of equivalent surface activity of sup 1 37Cs from the different measuring systems were normalised to data obtained by the Danish Emergency management Agency (system DKA1) an...

  2. Trestima – Digital Photographs for Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rouvinen


    Full Text Available Higher efficiency of forest survey is a corner stone of forest inventory and forest planning. Mobile technologies create a unique opportunity to solve the problem as well as measurement accuracy improvement, higher data objectiveness and independent control of the results. Trestima technology bases on extraction of forest attributes such as basal area, tree stem diameter, tree height and species distribution from photographs captured by a mobile phone. Image processing is performed automatically in a cloud service using machine vision, which is aided by a human operator when necessary. That allows automating all further calculations. Functions of electronic compass and geopositioning implemented on modern smart-phones allows registering the direction as well as sufficiently accurate geographic coordinates, which enables unambiguously association of a measurement and its location. The service produces reports about timber stock, basal area, average diameter, average height, number of tree trunks and diameter distribution. The report prepared for each tree stand includes standard error, as well as confidence interval for the measurements results and the assessment, with a 95 % probability level. Using thecross-section area, the average diameter and average height, the timber stock and the number of stems in the specific area may be calculated. The report generated by Trestima can be easily supplemented by a derived parameters, as well as any of the applicable formulas can be easily modified or altered in accordance with the needs, for example, dependingon the particularforest inventory area. One of the key features of the Trestima technology is the fact that each measurement contains geographic coordinates’ data. It means that, the location of eachmeasurementcan be displayedon the map, and the route, and the area cover under consideration can be analyzed.

  3. Development of Curriculum of Learning through Photograph (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    A curriculum of an integrated learning using power of photography in the junior highschool was constructed, and was experimented in the class "Seminar for Photographic Expression" of the integrated learning at a junior high school. The center of the curriculum is viewing photographs and self-expression using photography. By comparing the results of questionnaires investigation between before and after the class it is suggested that the curriculum brings about increase in self-esteem, empathy, and motivation for learning. This educational effect is really to foster ability to live self-sufficient lives. On the basis of these results curriculums which can be conducted by anyone at every junior highschool were proposed.

  4. Le métier de photographe


    Debeauvais, Rémi; Vauclare, Claude


    Évalués à environ 25 000, les photographes professionnels font face, depuis une quinzaine d’années, à des changements importants liés à la diffusion des nouvelles technologies numériques, qui ont redéfini les pratiques de toute une profession. La mutation des conditions de création, de production et de diffusion de la photographie s’est traduite par une dérégulation du marché de la photographie et par une fragilisation du cadre juridique qui garantissait auparavant les revenus des photographe...

  5. PREFACE: Workshop Photograph and Program (United States)


    Workshop photograph Workshop Program Sunday 28 March 201019:00-21:00 Reception at Okura Frontier Hotel Tsukuba(Buffet style dinner with drink) Monday 29 March 2010Introduction (Chair: André Rubbia (ETH Zurich))09:00 Welcome address (05') Atsuto Suzuki (KEK)09:05 Message from CERN on neutrino physics (10') Sergio Bertolucci (CERN)09:15 Message from FNAL on neutrino physics (10') Young Kee Kim (FNAL)09:25 Message from KEK on neutrino physics (10') Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK)09:35 Introductory remark on GLA2010 (10') Takuya Hasegawa (KEK) Special session (Chair: Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK))09:45 The ICARUS Liquid Argon TPC (45') Carlo Rubbia (CERN)10:30-11:00 Coffee break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments I (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))11:00 Results from massive underground detectors (non accelerator) (30') Takaaki Kajita (ICRR, U. of Tokyo)11:30 Present long baseline neutrino experiments (30') Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook)12:00-12:10 Workshop picture12:10-14:00 Lunch break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments II (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))14:00 Physics goals of the next generation massive underground experiments (30') David Wark (Imperial College London)14:30 Near detectors for long baseline neutrino experiments (20') Tsuyoshi Nakaya (Kyoto U.) Lessons on Liquid Argon Charge Imaging technology from ongoing developments (Chair: Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook))14:50 WARP (30') Claudio Montanari (U. of Pavia)15:20 ArDM (30') Alberto Marchionni (ETH Zurich)15:50 From ArgoNeuT to MicroBooNE (30') Bonnie Fleming (Yale U.)16:20 250L (30') Takasumi Maruyama (KEK)16:50 The DEAP/CLEAN project (20') Mark Boulay (Queen's U.)17:10-17:40 Coffee break Lessons from Xe based Liquids Imaging detectors (Chair: Flavio Cavanna (U. of L'Aquilla))17:30 MEG (20') Satoshi Mihara (KEK)17:50 The XENON project (20') Elena Aprile (Columbia U.)18:10 XMASS (20') Hiroyuki Sekiya (ICRR, U. of Tokyo) Studies on physics performance (Chair

  6. Rapid degradation of p-arsanilic acid with simultaneous arsenic removal from aqueous solution using Fenton process. (United States)

    Xie, Xiande; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa


    Although banned in some developed countries, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is still used widely as a feed additive for swine production in many countries. With little uptake and transformation in animal bodies, nearly all the p-ASA administered to animals is excreted chemically unchanged in animal wastes, which can subsequently release the more toxic inorganic arsenic species upon degradation in the environment. For safe disposal of the animal wastes laden with p-ASA, we proposed a method of leaching the highly water-soluble p-ASA out of the manure first, followed by treatment of the leachate using the Fenton process to achieve fast oxidation of p-ASA and removal of the inorganic arsenic species released (predominantly arsenate) from solution simultaneously. The effects of solution pH, dosages of H2O2 and Fe(2+), and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the treatment efficiency were systematically investigated. Under the optimum treatment conditions (0.53 mmol L(-1) Fe(2+), 2.12 mmol L(-1) H2O2, and initial pH of 3.0), p-ASA (10 mg-As L(-1)) could be completely oxidized to As(V) within 30 min in pure water and 4 natural water samples, and at the final pH of 4.0, the residual arsenic levels in solution phase were as low as 1.1 and 20.1-43.4 μg L(-1) in the two types of water matrixes, respectively. The presence of humic acid significantly retarded the oxidation of p-ASA by scavenging HO, and inhibited the As(V) removal through competitive adsorption on ferric hydroxide. Due to the high contents of DOM in the swine manure leachate samples (TOC at ∼500 mg L(-1)), much higher dosages of Fe(2+) (10.0 mmol L(-1)) and H2O2 (40.0 mmol L(-1)) and a longer treatment time (120 min) were required to achieve near complete oxidation of p-ASA (98.0%), while maintaining the levels of residual arsenic in the solution at factory farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Antigen Processing and Presentation of a Protective and Immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted Hepatitis C Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell Epitope (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia; Iversen, Astrid K. N.; Tenzer, Stefan; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Lohmann, Volker; Distler, Ute; Bowness, Paul; Schild, Hansjörg; Blum, Hubert E.; Klenerman, Paul


    HLA-B*27 exerts protective effects in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. While the immunological and virological features of HLA-B*27-mediated protection are not fully understood, there is growing evidence that the presentation of specific immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes contributes to this phenomenon in both infections. Indeed, protection can be linked to single immunodominant CD8+ T-cell epitopes and functional constraints on escape mutations within these epitopes. To better define the immunological mechanisms underlying HLA-B*27-mediated protection in HCV infection, we analyzed the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy and naïve precursor frequency of CD8+ T cells targeting the immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope as well as its antigen processing and presentation. For comparison, HLA-A*02-restricted HCV-specific epitopes were analyzed. The HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope was not superior to epitopes restricted by HLA-A*02 when considering the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy or naïve precursor frequency. However, the peptide region containing the HLA-B*27-restricted epitope was degraded extremely fast by both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome. This efficient proteasomal processing that could be blocked by proteasome inhibitors was highly dependent on the hydrophobic regions flanking the epitope and led to rapid and abundant presentation of the epitope on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. Our data suggest that rapid antigen processing may be a key immunological feature of this protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope. PMID:23209413

  8. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko


    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  9. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085660; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Kreim, Susanne

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton- to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium (129−131 Cd) and caesium...

  10. On the reverse. Some notes on photographic images from the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Mazzucco


    Full Text Available How can the visual and textual data about an image – the image of a work of art – on recto and verso of a picture be interpreted? An analogical-art-documentary photograph represents a palimpsest to be considered layer by layer. The examples discussed in this article, which refer to both Aby Warburg himself and the first nucleus of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection, contribute to effectively outline elements of the debate around the question of the photographic reproduction of the work of art as well as of the position of photography in relation to the perception of the work of art.

  11. Rapid determination of 4-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamic acid in biological decarboxylation process by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Takeda, Sahori; Yamano, Naoko; Kawasaki, Norioki; Ando, Hisanori; Nakayama, Atsuyoshi


    4-Aminobutylic acid (GABA) is a monomer of plastic polyamide 4. Bio-based polyamide 4 can be produced by using GABA obtained from biomass. The production of L-glutamic acid (Glu) from biomass has been established. GABA is produced by decarboxylation of Glu in biological process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with derivatization is generally used to determine the concentration of GABA and Glu in reacted solution samples for the efficient production of GABA. In this study, we have investigated the rapid determination of GABA and Glu by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) without derivatization. The determination was achieved with the use of a shortened capillary, a new internal standard for GABA, and optimization of sheath liquid composition. Determined concentrations of GABA and Glu by CE-MS were compared with those by pre-column derivatization HPLC with phenylisothiocyanate. The determined values by CE-MS were close to those by HPLC with pre-column derivatization. These results suggest that the determination of GABA and Glu in reacted solution is rapid and simplified by the use of CE-MS. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cryptography Would Reveal Alterations In Photographs (United States)

    Friedman, Gary L.


    Public-key decryption method proposed to guarantee authenticity of photographic images represented in form of digital files. In method, digital camera generates original data from image in standard public format; also produces coded signature to verify standard-format image data. Scheme also helps protect against other forms of lying, such as attaching false captions.

  13. STS-97 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station (United States)


    This image of the International Space Station in orbit was taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to docking. Most of the Station's components are clearly visible in this photograph. They are the Node 1 or Unity Module docked with the Functional Cargo Block or Zarya (top) that is linked to the Zvezda Service Module. The Soyuz spacecraft is at the bottom.

  14. Standardization of Guidelines for Patient Photograph Deidentification. (United States)

    Roberts, Erik A; Troiano, Chelsea; Spiegel, Jeffrey H


    This work was performed to advance patient care by protecting patient anonymity. This study aimed to analyze the current practices used in patient facial photograph deidentification and set forth standardized guidelines for improving patient autonomy that are congruent with medical ethics and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The anonymization guidelines of 13 respected journals were reviewed for adequacy in accordance to facial recognition literature. Simple statistics were used to compare the usage of the most common concealment techniques in 8 medical journals which may publish the most facial photographs. Not applicable. Not applicable. Facial photo deidentification guidelines of 13 journals were ascertained. Number and percentage of patient photographs lacking adequate anonymization in 8 journals were determined. Facial image anonymization guidelines varied across journals. When anonymization was attempted, 87% of the images were inadequately concealed. The most common technique used was masking the eyes alone with a black box. Most journals evaluated lack specific instructions for properly de-identifying facial photographs. The guidelines introduced here stress that both eyebrows and eyes must be concealed to ensure patient privacy. Examples of proper and inadequate photo anonymization techniques are provided. Improving patient care by ensuring greater patient anonymity.

  15. The Social Effects of War Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DEMİREL


    Full Text Available In today’s world, knowledge is increasingly impacted via visual representation. The messages sent through various sources, such as newspaper, television and the internet, lead people to form opinions about various topics. In this context, photography is one of the most powerful source of information. Moreover, the visual power and the ability to show nonverbal communication makes it a perfect tool for propaganda. These days, photographs showing war themes are used more often than the past. It can be said that war photographs serve as a tool for showing the world the realities of war to those, even to those who turn their back to massacres. After all, a dead body creates a shocking effect in the seer. In this study, the context of the photographs of the war, examined in sample of photograph of Aylan Kurdi, which became the “icon” of immigration due to Syrian civil war and war it relates to and it is studied to understand how it is assessed and understood considering the environment and conditions on the date the photo was taken, existing values, beliefs and things happened in the world in that time, from a critical point of view.

  16. How Many Words Is a Picture Worth? Integrating Visual Literacy in Language Learning with Photographs (United States)

    Baker, Lottie


    Cognitive research has shown that the human brain processes images quicker than it processes words, and images are more likely than text to remain in long-term memory. With the expansion of technology that allows people from all walks of life to create and share photographs with a few clicks, the world seems to value visual media more than ever…

  17. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø


    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary....... To gain more insight on this, we examine realtime viscosity of sorted-out and unsorted barley during downscaled mashing with added enzymes in comparison with malting quality sorted barley. A rapid visco analyser was used to simulate brewery mashing process at lab scale together with two commercial enzymes...... (Ondea®-Pro and Cellic®-CTec2). During downscaled mashing, viscosity profile of sorted-out barley was markedly different from others, irrespective of enzyme type, whereas a small difference was observed between the sorted and un-sorted barley. Furthermore, whilst sorted-out barley generated lowest sugar...

  18. Quality Degradation of Chinese White Lotus Seeds Caused by Dampening during Processing and Storage: Rapid and Nondestructive Discrimination Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu


    Full Text Available Dampening during processing or storage can largely influence the quality of white lotus seeds (WLS. This paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and nondestructive discrimination of the dampened WLS. Regular (n=167 and dampened (n=118 WLS objects were collected from five main producing areas and NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1 were measured for bare kernels. The influence of spectral preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV, on partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA was compared to select the optimal data preprocessing method. A moving-window strategy was combined with PLSDA (MWPLSDA to select the most informative wavelength intervals for classification. Based on the selected spectral ranges, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.927, 0.950, and 0.937 for SNV-MWPLSDA, respectively.

  19. Rapid and quantitative evaluation of the effect of process variables on the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of phenol using experimental design techniques and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. (United States)

    Bosco, Marta; Larrechi, M Soledad


    A 2(3) factorial design has been used to analyze the effect of pH, the nature of the catalyst, and the concentration of the substrate on the rate constant of the photodegradation reaction of phenol. The main effects of the considered variables and their interaction are discussed. The significance of the effects has been corroborated using an ANOVA test. The values of phenol concentrations, used to calculate the rate constant, and the concentrations of intermediates were obtained by applying parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis to the data obtained from monitoring the process by means of excitation-emission fluorescence (EEM). The proposed methodology, which combines experimental design and multivariate techniques, is a rapid alternative for study of chemical kinetics.

  20. Enhanced mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint using two-pass friction stir processing with rapid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nan, E-mail:; Bao, Yefeng


    In this study, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joint was subjected to two-pass rapid cooling friction stir processing (RC-FSP). The main results show that, two-pass RC-FSP causes the significant dissolution of the coarse eutectic β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase into the magnesium matrix and the remarkable grain refinement in the stir zone. The low-hardness region which frequently located at heat-affected zone was eliminated. The stir zone showed ultrafine grains of 3.1 μm, and exhibited a good combination of ultrahigh tensile strength of 284 MPa and large elongation of 7.1%. This work provides an effective strategy to enhance the strength of TIG welded magnesium alloy joint without ductility loss.

  1. A Real Time Quality Monitoring System for the Lighting Industry: A Practical and Rapid Approach Using Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Ng


    Full Text Available In China, the manufacturing of lighting products is very labour intensive. The approach used to check quality and control production relies on operators who test using various types of fixtures. In order to increase the competitiveness of the manufacturer and the efficiency of production, the authors propose an integrated system. This system has two major elements: a computer vision system (CVS and a real‐time monitoring system (RTMS. This model focuses not only on the rapid and practical application of modern technology to a traditional industry, but also represents a process innovation in the lighting industry. This paper describes the design and development of the prototyped lighting inspection system based on a practical and fast approach using computer vision and imaging processing (CVIP tools. LabVIEW with IMAQ Vision Builder is the chosen tool for building the CVS. Experimental results show that this system produces a lower error rate than humans produce in the quality checking process. The whole integrated manufacturing strategy, aimed at achieving a better performance, is most suitable for a China and other labour intensive environments such as India.

  2. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R.; Holmbom, B. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)


    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  3. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs (United States)


    reduce oxygen uptake by the mix. Par-cooking was also tested as a means of developing the cooked-scrambled egg flavor in the retorted product. In this...carbon. It was then instantaneously frozen by plunging into a “ nitrogen slurry”. The frozen sample was first sublimated to remove any ice or nitrogen on...choice of oil had large impact on flavor depending on whether soy, corn, sunflower , olive or canola was used. Standard vegetable oil performed

  4. The Amyloid Precursor Protein is rapidly transported from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome and where it is processed into beta-amyloid (United States)


    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Aβ is produced by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Many studies have demonstrated that the internalization of APP from the cell surface can regulate Aβ production, although the exact organelle in which Aβ is produced remains contentious. A number of recent studies suggest that intracellular trafficking also plays a role in regulating Aβ production, but these pathways are relatively under-studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the intracellular trafficking of APP, and to examine the site of intracellular APP processing. Results We have tagged APP on its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein (paGFP). By photoactivating APP-paGFP in the Golgi, using the Golgi marker Galactosyltranferase fused to Cyan Fluorescent Protein (GalT-CFP) as a target, we are able to follow a population of nascent APP molecules from the Golgi to downstream compartments identified with compartment markers tagged with red fluorescent protein (mRFP or mCherry); including rab5 (early endosomes) rab9 (late endosomes) and LAMP1 (lysosomes). Because γ-cleavage of APP releases the cytoplasmic tail of APP including the photoactivated GFP, resulting in loss of fluorescence, we are able to visualize the cleavage of APP in these compartments. Using APP-paGFP, we show that APP is rapidly trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome; where it is rapidly cleared. Chloroquine and the highly selective γ-secretase inhibitor, L685, 458, cause the accumulation of APP in lysosomes implying that APP is being cleaved by secretases in the lysosome. The Swedish mutation dramatically increases the rate of lysosomal APP processing, which is also inhibited by chloroquine and L685, 458. By knocking down adaptor protein 3 (AP-3; a heterotetrameric protein complex required for trafficking many proteins to

  5. An interactive program for digitization of seabed photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Sharma, R.

    A program for dignitization of seabed photographs to compute coverage and abundance of polymetallic nodules is developed. Since the objects in the seabed photograph are partially covered by thin sediment layer, the automatic scanning devices may...

  6. Digital Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon is considered the definitive reference manual to the global photographic coverage of the Moon. The images contained...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinete Martins Azevedo


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the possibility to use digital photographs to evaluate success of the reclamation of a gravel-mined degraded area. The indicator used to measure success was the degree of vegetation ground cover. Photographs were taken with a Canon camera (model Power Shot A 100. On 11th of October 2003, in a sunny day (without clouds, a total of 24 photographs were taken of the centre of the 24 experimental plots. All the 24 photographs were processed with ENVI 3.5 software following the same procedures appliedto process satellite scenes. In each scene analysed, two classes - vegetation cover and bared soil - were identified with the maximum likelihood algorithm. Results showed that digital photographs can be used in the quantification of vegetation ground cover and that the technique employed in this study can be applied to evaluate methodologies of reclamation of mined areas in which the establishment of vegetation is expected. The technique tested in thisstudy can be employed by government agencies in charge of land reclamation plans because it is efficient in determining vegetation ground cover, is easy to perform and is not expensive.

  8. Images of the Great Depression: A Photographic Essay. (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.


    Provides background information on the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the photographic section of the FSA. Identifies six photographers and features three photographers (Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, and Ben Shahn) who were recruited to document farm conditions. Discusses using FSA photos in the classroom and provides lesson plans to help…

  9. 7 CFR 97.9 - Drawings and photographs. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drawings and photographs. 97.9 Section 97.9... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.9 Drawings and photographs. (a) Drawings or photographs submitted with an application shall disclose the distinctive characteristics of the variety. (b...

  10. 7 CFR 500.9 - Photographs for news or advertising. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographs for news or advertising. 500.9 Section 500..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.9 Photographs for news or advertising. Photographs for news purposes may be taken at the USNA without prior...

  11. Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography


    Shepardson, Daniel P.


    Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography was written to be used in conjunction with Daniel P. Shepardson’s A Place Called Turkey Run: A Celebration of Indiana’s Second State Park in Photographs and Words. This guide contains tips and techniques designed to provide a basic understanding of how to photograph nature and improve one’s photography skills.

  12. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... by service of a notice to appear shall be fingerprinted and photographed. Such fingerprints and...

  13. Best of Adobe Photoshop techniques and images from professional photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Hurter, Bill


    Bill Hurter is the editor of ""Rangefinder"" magazine, the former editor of ""Petersen's PhotoGraphic,"" and the author of ""The Best of Wedding Photography, Group Portrait Photography Handbook, The Portrait Photographer's Guide to Posing, ""and ""Portrait Photographer's Handbook. ""He lives in Santa Monica, California.

  14. Complementary processing of haptic information by slowly and rapidly adapting neurons in the trigeminothalamic pathway. Electrophysiology, mathematical modeling and simulations of vibrissae-related neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel eSanchez-Jimenez


    Full Text Available Tonic (slowly adapting and phasic (rapidly adapting primary afferents convey complementary aspects of haptic information to the central nervous system: object location and texture the former, shape the latter. Tonic and phasic neural responses are also recorded in all relay stations of the somatosensory pathway, yet it is unknown their role in both, information processing and information transmission to the cortex: we don’t know if tonic and phasic neurons process complementary aspects of haptic information and/or if these two types constitute two separate channels that convey complementary aspects of tactile information to the cortex. Here we propose to elucidate these two questions in the fast trigeminal pathway of the rat (PrV-VPM: principal trigeminal nucleus-ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus. We analyze early and global behavior, latencies and stability of the responses of individual cells in PrV and medial lemniscus under 1-40 Hz stimulation of the whiskers in control and decorticated animals and we use stochastic spiking models and extensive simulations. Our results strongly suggest that in the first relay station of the somatosensory system (PrV: 1 tonic and phasic neurons process complementary aspects of whisker-related tactile information 2 tonic and phasic responses are not originated from two different types of neurons 3 the two responses are generated by the differential action of the somatosensory cortex on a unique type of PrV cell 4 tonic and phasic neurons do not belong to two different channels for the transmission of tactile information to the thalamus 5 trigeminothalamic transmission is exclusively performed by tonically firing neurons and 6 all aspects of haptic information are coded into low-pass, band-pass and high-pass filtering profiles of tonically firing neurons. Our results are important for both, basic research on neural circuits and information processing, and development of sensory neuroprostheses.

  15. Processing of real and implied motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.


    Processing of real and implied motion We readily recognize whether an animal, person or object within a photograph was moving or standing motionless at the moment the photograph was taken. Photographers, painters, sculptures and cartoonist can successfully convey motion information, even though

  16. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques. (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh


    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  17. Photograph and documentation at São Paulos’ countryside: “batuque da umbigada” dance by Rodolpho Copriva


    Leite, Marcelo Eduardo; Professor Adjunto na Universidade Federal do Ceará - Campus Cariri


    This article is dedicated to analyze the process of photographic documentation accomplished by the photographer Rodolpho Copriva in the city of Rio Claro, São Paulo’ State, in 1952, 1953 and 1955. Such images are rare and show the dance of batuque da umbigada made by the city’s black community. The photographer going is singular, as it shows how a photo taken with law enforcement could carry a huge ethnography signification. Este artigo se dedica a analisar o processo de documentação fotog...

  18. [Superimposition of ante- and post-mortem photographs of tattoos as a means of identification--a case report]. (United States)

    Birngruber, Christoph G; Ramsthaler, Frank; Mattias, Kettner; Verhoff, Marcel A


    With the rising number of tattooed people tattoos have become increasingly important for the identification of unknown corpses. Tattoos can be helpful in both phases of the identification process, either by providing clues to the identity of an unknown person or body or as a means of verifying a postulated identity. In the presented case, an ante-mortem photograph of a tattoo was available although it was of poor quality. The respective skin region of the body was photographed from the same angle as the tattoo on the ante-mortem photograph. When superimposing the two photos, the tattoos were found to match and the identity of the body could be verified.

  19. Understanding and mitigating the lid in SP Al-BSF Cz-Si solar cell by use of IR-belt furnace Rapid Thermal Processing (United States)

    Mvutu, Mayangi Ma

    In this study, Rapid Thermal Processing was used to understand and mitigate the light-induced degradation in boron-doped Cz-Si solar cells. Two different design-types of solar cells were used in the experiment to investigate the impact the solar cell design (structure) might have in lifetime recovery. The two design types include 5-Busbar (5BB) and 4-Street-5-Busbar (4S-5BB), with a resistivity of 2 O-cm, surface area of 239 cm2, thickness of 0.018 cm, and doping concentration of 7.22 x 10 15 cm-3. In the annealing process, the peak temperature of 795°C, belt speed of 210 ipm, and dwell time of less than 2 minutes were used. It was found that solar cell design-type does not affect the lifetime recovery, since both design-types showed similar trends in all electrical output parameters. Also, although the lifetime was fully recovered following the annealing, the efficiency was not, because of contact degradation that resulted in high series resistance and junction recombination. Thus contact firing is key to effective lifetime and efficiency recovery.

  20. Rapid 'on-line' image processing as a tool in the evaluation of kinetic and morphological aspects of receptor-induced cell activation. (United States)

    Theler, J M; Wollheim, C B; Schlegel, W


    Transmembrane signalling involves rapid and spatially well defined changes in cytosolic free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i. Specific technologies involving image processing permit the analysis of kinetic and morphological aspects of [Ca2+]i at the subcellular level with the fluorescent Ca2+ probe fura-2. Fluorescence excitation wavelengths (340 nm or 380 nm) are alternated in synchrony with the acquisition at video rate of images captured with an intensified CCD camera. Images are digitized, recursively filtered, divided, and displayed after calibration of the 'ratio' image into a numerical [Ca2+]i scale. The image processor IMAGINE (Synoptics Ltd., UK) permits these operations at video rate. This produces 'on-line' [Ca2+]i images in real time which are stored on video tapes for subsequent analysis. The present communication summarizes the rationale for the selection of our current technologies. A comparison with alternative solutions should highlight the particular advantages and drawbacks of our approach. The present text thus should serve as a help for investigators who try to assemble image processing tools for work in the receptor and cellular signalling field.

  1. Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: changes in neural mass activity after training. (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas; Choudhury, Naseem; Thomas Friedman, Jennifer; Benasich, April A


    Children with language-learning impairment (LLI) have consistently shown difficulty with tasks requiring precise, rapid auditory processing. Remediation based on neural plasticity assumes that the temporal precision of neural coding can be improved by intensive training protocols. Here, we examined the extent to which early oscillatory responses in auditory cortex change after audio-visual training, using combined source modeling and time-frequency analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Twenty-one elementary school students diagnosed with LLI underwent the intervention for an average of 32 days. Pre- and post-training assessments included standardized language/literacy tests and EEG recordings in response to fast-rate tone doublets. Twelve children with typical language development were also tested twice, with no intervention given. Behaviorally, improvements on measures of language were observed in the LLI group following completion of training. During the first EEG assessment, we found reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45-75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29-52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. Amplitude reduction for the second tone was no longer evident for the LLI children post-intervention, although these children still exhibited attenuated phase-locking. Our findings suggest that specific aspects of inefficient sensory cortical processing in LLI are ameliorated after training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why don't hospital staff activate the rapid response system (RRS? How frequently is it needed and can the process be improved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Stuart J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid response system (RRS is a process of accessing help for health professionals when a patient under their care becomes severely ill. Recent studies and meta-analyses show a reduction in cardiac arrests by a one-third in hospitals that have introduced a rapid response team, although the effect on overall hospital mortality is less clear. It has been suggested that the difficulty in establishing the benefit of the RRS has been due to implementation difficulties and a reluctance of clinical staff to call for additional help. This assertion is supported by the observation that patients continue to have poor outcomes in our institution despite an established RRS being available. In many of these cases, the patient is often unstable for many hours or days without help being sought. These poor outcomes are often discovered in an ad hoc fashion, and the real numbers of patients who may benefit from the RRS is currently unknown. This study has been designed to answer three key questions to improve the RRS: estimate the scope of the problem in terms of numbers of patients requiring activation of the RRS; determine cognitive and socio-cultural barriers to calling the Rapid Response Team; and design and implement solutions to address the effectiveness of the RRS. Methods The extent of the problem will be addressed by establishing the incidence of patients who meet abnormal physiological criteria, as determined from a point prevalence investigation conducted across four hospitals. Follow-up review will determine if these patients subsequently require intensive care unit or critical care intervention. This study will be grounded in both cognitive and socio-cultural theoretical frameworks. The cognitive model of situation awareness will be used to determine psychological barriers to RRS activation, and socio-cultural models of interprofessional practice will be triangulated to inform further investigation. A multi-modal approach

  3. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael


    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  4. Photographic wound documentation after open fracture. (United States)

    Solan, M C; Calder, J D; Gibbons, C E; Ricketts, D M


    More than 3000 open fractures occur in UK each year. They require early assessment and meticulous treatment in order to avoid devastating complications. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic Surgeons Working Party recommend that an instant photograph be taken of an open wound prior to the application of a dressing. The dressing can then remain undisturbed until the definitive surgical debridement is performed in theatre. Such practice reduces nosocomial infection. Fifty-one accident and emergency departments were surveyed by the means of a telephone questionnaire. Forty-one percent were unable to photograph an open fracture wound. A further 20% had no access to a camera outside of office hours. The cheap, simple and effective recommendations of the Working party are not being followed.

  5. Photographic Poster at the Art Education


    Tomanová, Jana


    ANOTATION This thesis examines a discourse of photography and poster, with the aim to join these two phenomena into a single summary theory and create their general characteristics. The work searches for intersections between photography and graphic design/poster and applies them in the theory of poster creation. In the didactic part, the theoretical principles are introduced into teaching art classes at primary schools. The same approach is applied in the artwork itself. Keywords: Photograph...

  6. The Greatest Photographers of the Twentieth Century


    David Galenson


    A survey of textbooks reveals that scholars consider Alfred Stieglitz to have been the greatest photographer of the twentieth century, followed in order by Walker Evans, Cindy Sherman, Man Ray, and Eugène Atget. Stieglitz, Evans, and Atget were experimental artists, who were committed to realism, whereas Man Ray and Sherman were conceptual innovators, who constructed images to express ideas. During much of the twentieth century, photography was dominated by the experimental approach and aesth...

  7. Rapid response tools and datasets for post-fire modeling: linking Earth Observations and process-based hydrological models to support post-fire remediation (United States)

    Miller, M. E.; Billmire, M.; Elliot, W. J.; Endsley, K. A.; Robichaud, P. R.


    Preparation is key to utilizing Earth Observations and process-based models to support post-wildfire mitigation. Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property and municipal water supplies. Increased runoff and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern. Remediation plans and treatments must be developed and implemented before the first major storms in order to be effective. One of the primary sources of information for making remediation decisions is a soil burn severity map derived from Earth Observation data (typically Landsat) that reflects fire induced changes in vegetation and soil properties. Slope, soils, land cover and climate are also important parameters that need to be considered. Spatially-explicit process-based models can account for these parameters, but they are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are difficult to set up and require spatially-explicit inputs (digital elevation models, soils, and land cover). Our goal is to make process-based models more accessible by preparing spatial inputs before a fire, so that datasets can be rapidly combined with soil burn severity maps and formatted for model use. We are building an online database ( /) for the continental United States that will allow users to upload soil burn severity maps. The soil burn severity map is combined with land cover and soil datasets to generate the spatial model inputs needed for hydrological modeling of burn scars. Datasets will be created to support hydrological models, post-fire debris flow models and a dry ravel model. Our overall vision for this project is that advanced GIS surface erosion and mass failure prediction tools will be readily available for post-fire analysis using spatial information from a single online site.

  8. Given time: biology, nature and photographic vision. (United States)

    Garlick, Steve


    The invention of photography in the early 19th century changed the way that we see the world, and has played an important role in the development of western science. Notably, photographic vision is implicated in the definition of a new temporal relation to the natural world at the same time as modern biological science emerges as a disciplinary formation. It is this coincidence in birth that is central to this study. I suggest that by examining the relationship of early photography to nature, we can gain some insight into the technological and epistemological underpinnings of biological vision. To this end, this article is primarily concerned with the role of photographic technology in the genealogy of biological vision. I argue that photography has always been ambiguously located between art and science, between nature and culture, and between life and death. Hence, while it may be a technological expression of the scientific desire to know and to control nature, photographic vision has continually disrupted and frustrated the ambitions of biological technoscience. The technovision of early biological science illustrates that the elusive temporality of nature has always been central to the production of knowledge of life.

  9. Personal photograph enhancement using internet photo collections. (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Gao, Jizhou; Wang, Oliver; Georgel, Pierre; Yang, Ruigang; Davis, James; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc


    Given the growth of Internet photo collections, we now have a visual index of all major cities and tourist sites in the world. However, it is still a difficult task to capture that perfect shot with your own camera when visiting these places, especially when your camera itself has limitations, such as a limited field of view. In this paper, we propose a framework to overcome the imperfections of personal photographs of tourist sites using the rich information provided by large-scale Internet photo collections. Our method deploys state-of-the-art techniques for constructing initial 3D models from photo collections. The same techniques are then used to register personal photographs to these models, allowing us to augment personal 2D images with 3D information. This strong available scene prior allows us to address a number of traditionally challenging image enhancement techniques and achieve high-quality results using simple and robust algorithms. Specifically, we demonstrate automatic foreground segmentation, mono-to-stereo conversion, field-of-view expansion, photometric enhancement, and additionally automatic annotation with geolocation and tags. Our method clearly demonstrates some possible benefits of employing the rich information contained in online photo databases to efficiently enhance and augment one's own personal photographs.

  10. Analyzing Forest Inventory Data from Geo-Located Photographs (United States)

    Toivanen, Timo; Tergujeff, Renne; Andersson, Kaj; Molinier, Matthieu; Häme, Tuomas


    Forests are widely monitored using a variety of remote sensing data and techniques. Remote sensing offers benefits compared to traditional in-situ forest inventories made by experts. One of the main benefits is that the number of ground reference plots can be significantly reduced. Remote sensing of forests can provide reduced costs and time requirement compared to full forest inventories. The availability of ground reference data has been a bottleneck in remote sensing analysis over wide forested areas, as the acquisition of this data is an expensive and slow process. In this paper we present a tool for estimating forest inventory data from geo-located photographs. The tool can be used to estimate in-situ forest inventory data including estimated biomass, tree species, tree height and diameter. The collected in-situ forest measurements can be utilized as a ground reference material for spaceborne or airborne remote sensing data analysis. The GPS based location information with measured forest data makes it possible to introduce measurements easily as in-situ reference data. The central projection geometry of digital photographs allows the use of the relascope principle [1] to measure the basal area of stems per area unit, a variable very closely associated with tree biomass. Relascope is applied all over the world for forest inventory. Experiments with independent ground reference data have shown that in-situ data analysed from photographs can be utilised as reference data for satellite image analysis. The concept was validated by comparing mobile measurements with 54 independent ground reference plots from the Hyytiälä forest research station in Finland [2]. Citizen scientists could provide the manpower for analysing photographs from forests on a global level and support researchers working on tasks related to forests. This low-cost solution can also increase the coverage of forest management plans, particularly in regions where possibilities to invest on

  11. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand. (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki


    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  12. Photographs of "the Sun City": a registry of exposure and concealment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvana Kelly Marques da Silva


    Full Text Available Among the different media the photograph stands out as an important visual document that establishes the tension between concealment and revelation, crucial to understanding the social and imaginary aspects. The most important relation between photography and tourism is precisely in both don´t being the picture of society, but rather, they are a representation and fragmented memory, capable of continuous interpretations. Photographs are circumscribed by definite social and cultural issues, as there are from a process of creation and assembly consisting of choices and decisions about what deserves to be photographed. This paper discuss the role of photographs of Natal City concatenated to tourism, searching for what is specific that contributed to the construction of tourist landscape in the Natal city and analyzing the ideological elements that motivated its materialization in the spaces of the city. The photographs of Fatos e Fotos magazine published in 1968 will be analyzed through iconographic and iconological observation suggested by Kossoy (2003, 2006, 2009 and directed by dialectical reading of José de Souza Martins (2009, who claims photography’s mediation in the interests immersed at the social life, resulting by the dynamic expression of the exposure, a result of presences and absences that reveal the denials and contradictions of the real world. Finally, means that the landscapes do not exist in themselves while a fixed space, but were consolidated through the discourses and images linked to the hegemonic logic of the capitalist society.

  13. STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station Remote Manipulator System (United States)


    This is a Space Shuttle STS-100 mission onboard photograph. Astronaut Scott Parazynski totes a Direct Current Switching Unit while anchored on the end of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm. The RMS is in the process of moving Parazynski to the exterior of the Destiny laboratory (right foreground), where he will secure the spare unit, a critical part of the station's electrical system, to the stowage platform in case future crews will need it. Also in the photograph are the Italian-built Raffaello multipurpose Logistics Module (center) and the new Canadarm2 (lower right) or Space Station Remote Manipulator System.

  14. Digital Restoration from Start to Finish How to repair old and damaged photographs

    CERN Document Server



    Digital Restoration: Start to Finish 2nd edition guides you step-by-step through the entire process of restoring old photographs and repairing new ones using Adobe Photoshop, Picture Window, and now Elements. Nothing is left out, from choosing the right hardware and software and getting the photographs into the computer, to getting the finished photo out of the computer and preserving it for posterity.  LEARN HOW TO: Scan faded and damaged prints or films Improve snapshots with Shadow/Highlight adjustment Correct uneven exposure Fix color and skin tones quickly with Curves, plug-ins, a

  15. Geologic map of the northern Crisium region. [from Apollo 17 metric photographs (United States)

    Wilhelms, D. E.


    Apollo 17 metric photographs provide the best available coverage for geologic interpretation of northern Mare Crisium and the northern Crisium basin. One region in particular, between Alhazen Crater and longitude 66 E, had previously been covered very poorly. The Apollo 17 photographs provide excellent monoscopic as well as stereoscopic viewing because of the favorably low sun illuminations (15 deg to 49 deg). These new photographic data allow the geology of the basin, the mare, and other nearby terrains to be reevaluated. This reexamination, together with data from continuing moon-wide photogeologic studies and analyses of returned rocks from Apollo landing sites, has produced a simple evolutionary picture of the region, expressed by fewer map units and explained by fewer basic processes than previously thought necessary.

  16. Program for the management of photographic records of immovable cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Snežana


    Full Text Available Being a different technical and technological process from the one using film and emulsion, digital photography requires a completely different approach of the heritage protection service in order to comply with the existing legislation on the one hand, and to create a well-organised and lasting digital photo archive on the other. In addition to resolving the issue of organisation in developing the program, the database for filing and systematising the digital photographic recordings, compatibility has been achieved with the existing, classical, organisation of the Institute's photographic records, opening up the possibility of digitising and entering into the database the photographs recorded or reproduced in different media, which would result in an integrated photo archive documenting the condition of and changes underwent by the built heritage of Belgrade.

  17. Rapid Exercise-Induced Mobilization of Dendritic Cells Is Potentially Mediated by a Flt3L- and MMP-9-Dependent Process in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx


    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, one exercise bout induces a substantial increase in the number of circulating leukocytes, while their function is transiently suppressed. The effect of one exercise bout in multiple sclerosis (MS is less studied. Since recent evidence suggests a role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of one combined endurance/resistance exercise bout on the number and function of DC in MS patients and healthy controls. Our results show a rapid increase in the number of DC in response to physical exercise in both MS patients and controls. Further investigation revealed that in particular DC expressing the migratory molecules CCR5 and CD62L were increased upon acute physical activity. This may be mediated by Flt3L- and MMP-9-dependent mobilization of DC, as demonstrated by increased circulating levels of Flt3L and MMP-9 following one exercise bout. Circulating DC display reduced TLR responsiveness after acute exercise, as evidenced by a less pronounced upregulation of activation markers, HLA-DR and CD86, on plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC, respectively. Our results indicate mobilization of DC, which may be less prone to drive inflammatory processes, following exercise. This may present a negative feedback mechanism for exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammation.

  18. Adsorption characteristics of methyl blue onto magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by the rapid combustion process (United States)

    Liu, Ruijiang; Shen, Xiangqian; Yang, Xinchun; Wang, Qiuju; Yang, Fang


    Magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the rapid combustion process and their microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, EDX, and VSM. The as-prepared magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized with about 16 nm grains and specific magnetization of 46.0 Am2/kg. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of methyl blue onto the magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature were investigated. The kinetics data related to the adsorption of methyl blue from aqueous solutions are in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model in a range of initial concentration of 50-300 mg/L. By comparison of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson models for adsorption isotherms of methyl blue, the Temkin model (correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.9912) and Redlich-Peterson model (correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.9963) can be used to evaluate the methyl blue adsorption isotherm at room temperature. The adsorption capacity of methyl blue onto magnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles reaches the maximum value at pH 3.

  19. Rapid and efficient treatment of wastewater with high-concentration heavy metals using a new type of hydrogel-based adsorption process. (United States)

    Zhou, Guiyin; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Tang, Yanhong; Luo, Shenglian


    In this study, a new type of double-network hydrogel sorbent was developed to remove heavy metals in wastewater. The amino-functionalized Starch/PAA hydrogel (NH2-Starch/PAA) could be conducted in a wide pH and the adsorption process could rapidly achieve the equilibrium. The adsorption capacity got to 256.4mg/g for Cd(II). Resultantly, even though Cd(II) concentration was as high as 180mg/L, the Cd(II) could be entirely removed using 1g/L sorbent. Furthermore, the desirable mechanical durability of the adsorbent allowed easy separation and reusability. In the fixed-bed column experiments, the treatment volume of the effluent with a high Cd(II) concentration of 200mg/L reached 2400BV (27.1L) after eight times cycle. The NH2-Starch/PAA overcame the deficiency of conventional sorbents that could not effectively treat the wastewater with relatively high metal concentrations. This work provides a new insight into omnidirectional enhancement of sorbents for removing high-concentration heavy metals in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology. (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R


    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28; target: 0.9-1.3 This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  1. Preferences for photographic art among hospitalized patients with cancer. (United States)

    Hanson, Hazel; Schroeter, Kathryn; Hanson, Andrew; Asmus, Kathryn; Grossman, Azure


    To determine the preferences of patients with cancer for viewing photographic art in an inpatient hospital setting and to evaluate the impact of viewing photographic art. Quantitative, exploratory, single-group, post-test descriptive design incorporating qualitative survey questions. An academic medical center in the midwestern United States. 80 men (n = 44) and women (n = 36) aged 19-85 years (X = 49) and hospitalized for cancer treatment. Participants viewed photographs via computers and then completed a five-instrument electronic survey. Fatigue, quality of life, performance status, perceptions of distraction and restoration, and content categories of photographs. Ninety-six percent of participants enjoyed looking at the study photographs. The photographs they preferred most often were lake sunset (76%), rocky river (66%), and autumn waterfall (66%). The most rejected photographs were amusement park (54%), farmer's market vegetable table (51%), and kayakers (49%). The qualitative categories selected were landscape (28%), animals (15%), people (14%), entertainment (10%), imagery (10%), water (7%), spiritual (7%), flowers (6%), and landmark (3%). Some discrepancy between the quantitative and qualitative sections may be related to participants considering water to be a landscape. The hypothesis that patients' preferences for a category of photographic art are affected by the psychophysical and psychological qualities of the photographs, as well as the patients' moods and characteristics, was supported. Nurses can play an active role in helping patients deal with the challenges of long hospital stays and life-threatening diagnoses through distraction and restoration interventions such as viewing photographic images of nature. Nurses can use photographic imagery to provide a restorative intervention during the hospital experience. Photographic art can be used as a distraction from the hospital stay and the uncertainty of a cancer diagnosis. Having patients view

  2. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.


    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  3. In-situ X-Ray Analysis of Rapid Thermal Processing for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Closing the Gap between Production and Laboratory Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    For materials synthesis, it is well known that the material final state may not reach equilibrium and depends on the synthetic process. In particular, processes that quickly remove the available energy from the material may leave it in a metastable state and the metastability may actually impart desirable functional properties. By its very nature, Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is ideally suited to produce such metastable materials. However, metastability and the dynamics of reaching a metastable state are poorly understood, since this is best accomplished through in situ monitoring. In this regard, RTP is particularly challenging as the processing time are very short (seconds to minutes). As a result, there is only poor understanding, and hence use, of RTP in industry. This is potentially a cost-increasing limitation, because RTP can decrease cost by decreasing processing time, and as such, increase throughput and decrease the total thermal budget of processing - a significant cost. RTP is already being used for key processing steps in PV technologies. With silicon wafer PV, it is used for establishing electrical contact between the Ag metal grid and the silicon (known as firing). In this process, a silicon wafer with deposited metal/frit in a grid pattern is heated rapidly to temperatures between 750 and 800 ºC. The processing time when the temperature is held above 600ºC is short (<5 seconds). This process has historically been optimized empirically and it is unclear how the thermal processing affects formation of the final contact between the metal and the silicon. In the case of thin-film PV, RTP has been demonstrated in the process of making absorber layers, i.e. CIGS and CZTS. Use of RTP can reduce the processing time from 10s of minutes to seconds, reducing the thermal budget and increasing the throughput significantly. The conversion from precursor material to final PV material is not well understood, and most of the process optimization is done

  4. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.


    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  5. Adobe Photoshop Elements 11 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip


    To coincide with some of the biggest changes in Photoshop Elements for years, Philip Andrews completely revises his bestselling title to include all the new features of this release. See how the new interface works alongside new tools, techniques and workflows to make editing, enhancing and sharing your pictures easier than ever. And as always, he introduces the changed and improved features with colorful illustrations and the clear step-by-step instruction that has made his books the go-to titles for photographers the world over. ????In this edition Andrews highlights followi

  6. Digital image forensics for photographic copying (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Fang, Yanmei


    Image display technology has greatly developed over the past few decades, which make it possible to recapture high-quality images from the display medium, such as a liquid crystal display(LCD) screen or a printed paper. The recaptured images are not regarded as a separate image class in the current research of digital image forensics, while the content of the recaptured images may have been tempered. In this paper, two sets of features based on the noise and the traces of double JPEG compression are proposed to identify these recaptured images. Experimental results showed that our proposed features perform well for detecting photographic copying.

  7. Adobe Photoshop CS6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin


    Renowned Photographer and Photoshop hall-of-famer, Martin Evening returns with his comprehensive guide to Photoshop. This acclaimed work covers everything from the core aspects of working in Photoshop to advanced techniques for refined workflows and professional results. Using concise advice, clear instruction and real world examples, this essential guide will give you the skills, regardless of your experience, to create professional quality results. A robust accompanying website features sample images, tutorial videos, bonus chapters and a plethora of extra resources. Quite simply, this is

  8. iPad for digital photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick


    Discover innovative ways to strengthen your photography business with your iPad Many photographers are turning to the flexible, easy-to-use tools of the iPad and relying on them to wear a variety of hats in their photography business. Whether portable portfolio, editing tool, payment-tracking system, or appointment calendar, the iPad melds together the best attributes of the cell phone and a laptop computer and this unique book highlights them all. With this helpful resource, you'll learn how to get the most out of your iPad to not only improve your business but also enhance your p

  9. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin


    With the new edition of this proven bestseller, Photoshop users can master the power of Photoshop CS5 with internationally renowned photographer and Photoshop hall-of-famer Martin Evening by their side.  In this acclaimed reference work, Martin covers everything from the core aspects of working in Photoshop to advanced techniques for professional results. Subjects covered include organizing a digital workflow, improving creativity, output, automating Photoshop, and using Camera RAW. The style of the book is extremely clear, with real examples, diagrams, illustrations, and step-by-step ex

  10. Influences of rapid thermal process on solution-deposited Ti-silicate/Si films: Phase segregation, composition and interface changes, and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon Yong [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Geun Chul; Choi, Ju Yun [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Jin [KLA-Tencor Corporation, 1 Technology Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035 (United States); Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Young Dong [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungsub [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jun Hyung, E-mail: [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Jinho, E-mail: [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Ti-silicate/Si films were synthesized using a solution deposition route, and the effects of a rapid thermal process (RTP) on the microstructure, chemical bonding state, and interfacial layer (IL) properties were investigated and correlated to the permittivity of the films. The precursor solution was prepared from Ti(IV)-isopropoxide and tetraethylorthosilicate, spin-coated on HF-treated Si substrates, dried, pyrolyzed (400 °C), and subjected to the RTP at 700 °C–1000 °C. The Ti-silicate film consisted of Ti-rich and Si-rich silicates after the pyrolysis and phase segregation became significant as the RTP temperature increase. The silicates segregated into TiO{sub 2}-like nanocrystals and Si-richer silicate at up to 850 °C, and the TiO{sub 2}-like nanocrystals grew remarkably while the Si-richer silicate was converted into nearly pure SiO{sub 2} at 1000 °C. In addition, the Ti content in the Ti-silicate layer decreased due to Ti out-diffusion to the IL and substrate. Based on HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and SIMS analyses, we suggest a model of phase segregation with Ti diffusion and demonstrate that the Ti diffusion can be a critical issue in applications of Ti-silicate/Si systems, in addition to other well-known phenomena, including phase segregation, TiO{sub 2} precipitation, or interface properties. - Highlights: • Role of RTP on microstructure and properties of Ti-silicate film was investigated. • Phase segregation and Ti diffusion varied with the RTP. • Effects of the Ti diffusion on the dielectric properties were firstly investigated. • The Ti diffusion seemed to be one of the critical issues in the film applications. • New phase segregation model with Ti diffusion was suggested.

  11. The dream-lag effect: Selective processing of personally significant events during Rapid Eye Movement sleep, but not during Slow Wave Sleep. (United States)

    van Rijn, E; Eichenlaub, J-B; Lewis, P A; Walker, M P; Gaskell, M G; Malinowski, J E; Blagrove, M


    Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5-7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from REM sleep at home. The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation of PSEs into REM dreams collected at home, but not for MDAs or MCs. No dream-lag effect was found for SWS dreams, or for REM dreams collected in the lab after SWS awakenings earlier in the night. In experiment 2, the 44 participants recorded reports of their spontaneously recalled home dreams over the 10 nights following the instrumental awakenings night, which thus acted as a controlled stimulus with two salience levels, high (sleep lab) and low (home awakenings). The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation into home dreams of references to the experience of being in the sleep laboratory, but only for participants who had reported concerns beforehand about being in the sleep laboratory. The delayed incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, an alternative emotion processing or emotional impact of events account, distinct from memory consolidation, is supported by the finding that SWS dreams do not evidence the dream-lag effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Process Evaluation to Assess Contextual Factors Associated With the Uptake of a Rapid Response Service to Support Health Systems’ Decision-Making in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Mijumbi-Deve


    Full Text Available Background Although proven feasible, rapid response services (RRSs to support urgent decision and policymaking are still a fairly new and innovative strategy in several health systems, more especially in low-income countries. There are several information gaps about these RRSs that exist including the factors that make them work in different contexts and in addition what affects their uptake by potential end users. Methods We used a case study employing process evaluation methods to determine what contextual factors affect the utilization of a RRS in Uganda. We held in-depth interviews with researchers, knowledge translation (KT specialists and policy-makers from several research and policy-making institutions in Uganda’s health sector. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis to develop categories and themes about activities and structures under given program components that affected uptake of the service. Results We identified several factors under three themes that have both overlapping relations and also reinforcing loops amplifying each other: Internal factors (those factors that were identified as over which the RRS had full [or almost full] control; external factors (factors over which the service had only partial influence, a second party holds part of this influence; and environmental factors (factors over which the service had no or only remote control if at all. Internal factors were the design of the service and resources available for it, while the external factors were the service’s visibility, integrity and relationships. Environmental factors were political will and health system policy and decision-making infrastructure. Conclusion For health systems practitioners considering RRSs, knowing what factors will affect uptake and therefore modifying them within their contexts is important to ensure efficient use and successful utilization of the mechanisms.

  13. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  14. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin


    During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

  15. The Framing Safety Project: photographs and narratives by battered women. (United States)

    Frohmann, Lisa


    This article describes the Framing Safety Project that the author developed to do collaborative, community action/education research with battered women about the meaning of safety in their lives. The project is built on the use of participant-generated photographs and photo-elicitation interviews as methods for exploring with women, in support group settings, the meanings of violence in their lives and their approaches to creating safer spaces. Although visual sociologists have used variations of these methods, particularly to study the experiences of children, the author combines them in a uniquely feminist approach that leads from the women's photography and interviews to a community education and action component. The author describes the process of developing and implementing this project with Mexican and South Asian immigrant women and discusses the ways in which its methodological approach serves to amplify the voices of silenced women, and to offer opportunities for community education and social action.

  16. The effect of nonprobative photographs on truthiness persists over time. (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; Newman, Eryn J; Pezdek, Kathy; Garry, Maryanne


    When making rapid judgments about the truth of a claim, related nonprobative information leads people to believe the claim-an effect called "truthiness" (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, 2012). For instance, within a matter of seconds, subjects judge the claim "The Mona Lisa has no eyebrows," to be true more often when it appears with a photograph of the Mona Lisa viewed at a distance by a person. But does truthiness persist longer than a few seconds? To determine if truthiness "sticks," we asked people to judge if each trivia claim in a series was true. Half of the claims appeared with nonprobative photos; the rest appeared alone. In a second session 48h later, people returned and made the same judgments about the same statements, but this time, all claims appeared without photos. We found that truthiness "stuck." The magnitude of the effect of photos on subjective feelings of truth was consistent over time. These results fit with those from cognitive and educational psychology, as well as with the related idea that photos make relevant information more available and familiar-and therefore feel more true-even after a delay. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The function of photographs in the relations between a teacher and children : A photograph is a symbolic artifact


    滝川, 弘人


    The old photograph is a trigger for one person's reminiscences. The aim of this study is to make viewpoints for real life-history. I compare one story between one movie's scenarios that depends on that story. The function of photographs penetrates both a story and a movie. I find intentions to get real meaning of functions of photographs. I acquire an index to investigate one old teacher who tells one's own life. An old photograph is a symbolic-artifact for retired teacher's life.

  18. A review of the issues and challenges involved in using participant-produced photographs in nursing research. (United States)

    Balmer, Claire; Griffiths, Frances; Dunn, Janet


    To discuss the issues and challenges that may occur when using participant-produced photographs in nursing research. The place of visual representation in society is increasingly being recognized and there is a growing discussion on the advantages of implementing visual methods, such as photography, in health and illness research. Integrating photographs has much potential for both nurse researchers and participants but it remains a novel method of gathering qualitative data and many aspects have had little consideration in the nursing and medical literature. This paper presents a discussion of some of the issues that may arise when using photographs as data. It draws on examples of the insights and experiences we had when we asked study participants to produce photographs to complement their interviews designed to explore their experience of living after cancer. Discussion paper This paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Disseminating this research has prompted much interest from nurses and clinical staff. This paper should highlight some of the factors that may need to be addressed before employing such a novel method, thus ensuring the research process is positive and the outcome relevant for all parties. Examples are used here to illustrate practical, ethical and philosophical issues around the research plan, creating and interpreting photographic data, confidentiality and copyright and analysing and disseminating photographs produced for research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Time-series photographs of the sea floor in western Massachusetts Bay, version 2, 1989-1993 (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Lange, William N.


    Time-series photographs of the sea floor were obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed in western Massachusetts Bay at LT-A (42° 22.6' N, 70° 47.0' W; nominal water depth of 32 m; fig. 1) from December 1989 through September 2005. The photographs provide time-series observations of physical changes of the sea floor, near-bottom water turbidity, and life on the sea floor. Several reports present these photographs in digital form (table 1). This report, U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 265, Version 2.0, contains the photographs obtained from December 1989 to October 1996, adding to (and replacing) Version 1 of Data Series 265 (Butman and others, 2007a) that contained photographs from 1989 through 1993. Data Series 266 (Butman and others, 2008b) contains photographs obtained from October 1996 through September 2005. The photographs are published in separate reports because the data files are too large for distribution on a single DVD. These reports present the photographs, originally collected on 35-mm film, in digital form to enable easy viewing and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The photographs, obtained every 4 or every 6 hours, are presented as individual photographs (in .png format) and as a movie (in .avi format). The time-series photographs taken at LT-A were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study to understand the transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay (Bothner and Butman, 2007). This long-term study was carried out by the USGS in partnership with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) ( and with logistical support from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Long-term oceanographic observations help to identify the processes causing bottom sediment resuspension and transport and provide data for developing and testing numerical models. The observations document seasonal and interannual changes in currents, hydrography

  20. Green Lightning Channels From the Chaiten Volcano in Chile Photographed By Carlos Gutierrez May 2-3, 2008 (United States)

    Few, A. A.


    The two photographs containing the green lightning channels appeared on the web site (The Big Picture, June 4, 2008). These web photographs were of limited resolution (176 Kb) making the interpretation of the green channels difficult. The agent for Gutierrez, Landov LLC, made available the two photographs as high resolution digital photographs (1.4 Mb and 1.5 Mb) that appear on the poster. Upon close examination of the green channels it is possible to exclude negative discharges or their remnants as being the source of the green channels; negative discharges require white-hot ionization processes at the leading tip of the channel. There are several examples of the white negative channels on the photographs. The green channels might be positive streamers. In thunderstorms positive streamers propagate within the negative charged region of the cloud collecting electrons, which are supplied to the connected negative discharge channel, hence they are not observed in thunderstorms. They can be detected and mapped inside the thunderstorm from observations of their electromagnetic radiations. Positive streamers are cooler than negative discharges because electrons are convergent on the leading tip of the positive streamer maintaining its conductivity. For the negative leading tips the electrons are divergent and new electrons must be generated by hot ionization processes. A close examination reveals that the green channels track the edge of the ash cloud, which if a positive streamer would indicate a negative surface charge on the cloud. Most likely the green color results from excited oxygen atoms returning to the ground state and emitting a green photon. This is the process that produces the green aurora, and if this produces green lightning, it places several constraints on the conditions of the channel. The two photographs below are selected clips from the much larger photographs; these show the green lightning channels.

  1. Assessment of the emotional responses produced by exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food in patients affected by eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorini, Alessandra; Griez, Eric; Petrova, Anna; Riva, Giuseppe


    ... compare these two conditions. To test whether virtual stimuli are as effective as real stimuli, and more effective than photographs in the anxiety induction process, we tested the emotional reactions to real food (RF), virtual reality (VR...

  2. International photographic classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. (United States)

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Kawasaki, Ryo; Jonas, Jost B; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Klaver, Caroline C W; Moriyama, Muka; Shinohara, Kosei; Kawasaki, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Mai; Meuer, Stacy; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Yasuda, Miho; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Sugano, Akira; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin


    To develop a classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. Development and evaluation of a classification system for myopic maculopathy based on observational case series. A comprehensive set of myopic macular lesions was defined via literature review and through consensus meetings among retinal specialists and clinician scientists. A classification of myopic maculopathy was formulated based on fundus photographs and a modified Delphi process and consensus. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility, assessed as agreement (%) and weighted kappa values, were evaluated. One hundred retinal photographs with myopia and myopic macular lesions were selected from case series at the High Myopia Clinic of the Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. We defined 5 categories of myopic maculopathy including "no myopic retinal degenerative lesion" (Category 0), "tessellated fundus" (Category 1), "diffuse chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 2), "patchy chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 3), and "macular atrophy" (Category 4). Three additional features to supplement these categories were defined as "plus" lesions, namely, lacquer cracks, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and Fuchs spot. Posterior staphyloma was considered as a further, important sign of myopic retinopathy. The intraobserver agreement was ≥85% and the corresponding weighted kappa statistic was ≥0.6 between observations. After a brief training session, interobserver kappa statistics reached the predefined satisfactory level (≥0.4), considered as above moderate agreement. We propose a classification system for myopic maculopathy that was found to be reproducible. Applying a uniform classification in different studies will facilitate communication and comparison of findings from clinical trials and epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Uranium-series isotopes to understand processes of rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings: an example from Basse-Terre, French Guadeloupe (United States)

    Ma, Lin


    Lin Ma1, Yvette Pereyra1, Peter B Sak2, Jerome Gaillardet3, Heather L Buss4 and Susan L Brantley5, (1) University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States, (2) Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, United States, (3) Institute de Physique d Globe Paris, Paris, France, (4) University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, (5) Pennsylvania State University Main Campus, University Park, PA, United States Uranium-series isotopes fractionate during chemical weathering and their activity ratios can be used to determine timescales and rates of soil formation. Such soil formation rates provide important information to understand processes related to rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings, especially with respect to their fertility and erosion. Recent studies also highlighted the use of U-series isotopes to trace and quantify atmospheric inputs to surface soils. Such a process is particularly important in providing mineral nutrients to ecosystems in highly depleted soil systems such as the tropical soils. Here, we report U-series isotope compositions in thick soil profiles (>10 m) developed on andesitic pyroclastic flows in Basse-Terre Island of French Guadeloupe. Field observations have shown heterogeneity in color and texture in these thick profiles. However, major element chemistry and mineralogy show some general depth trends. The main minerals present throughout the soil profile are halloysite and gibbsite. Chemically immobile elements such as Al, Fe, and Ti show a depletion profile relative to Th while elements such as K, Mn, and Si show a partial depletion profile at depth. Mobile elements such as Ca, Mg, and Sr have undergone intensive weathering at depths, and an addition profile near the surface, most likely related to atmospheric inputs. (238U/232Th) activity ratios in one soil profile from the Brad David watershed in this study ranged from 0.374 to 1.696, while the (230Th/232Th) ratios ranged from 0.367 to 1.701. A decrease of (238U/232Th) in the

  4. Photographs and Classroom Response Systems in Middle School Astronomy Classes (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan


    In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new…

  5. Using Photographs and Diagrams to Test Young Children's Mass Thinking (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea


    This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…

  6. 44 CFR 15.12 - Photographs and other depictions. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photographs and other depictions. 15.12 Section 15.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... other depictions at the NETC. (1) Photographs may be taken inside classroom or office areas of the NETC...

  7. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  8. Evaluation of Genotoxic Effect of Photographic Effluent Using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased need to keep graphic records of events has led to the use of photography in investigation and surveys and hence increased photographic activities. Toxicological survey of photographic effluents has received little attention in Nigeria, though the constituents have been shown to be very toxic. This study ...

  9. The Preservation and Care of Photographic Records in Heritage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current preoccupation with digitisation and the availability of digital imagery has opened up the discourse of the preservation of conventional photographic records. As conventional photographic records, equipment and materials seem to be disappearing, making way for digital technologies, the need for the physical ...

  10. Colorimetric control of photographic prints: the problem of fluorescence (United States)

    Witt, Klaus


    The colorimetric control of photographic prints is an important issue of color reproduction quality. Concentration series of the three photographic dyes Yellow, Magenta and Cyan on photographic paper are very often measured without considering the optical quality of the substrate. However, this substrate, the photographic paper, produces problems for colorimetry because it emits luminenscent light from optical brighteners. Many instruments used in colorimetry are not adapted to measure such an output correctly. Here, an experimental investigation is presented which quantifies systematic shifts of spectral curves and colorimetric values of photographic paper and dyes for various measuring parameters. Several spectrophotometers equipped with different sources for irradiation such as Tungsten halogen lamp, Xenon flash lamp, D65 simulator, and two Xenon lamps with adjustable UV-filter were referenced against the results of two-monochromator spectrophotometer. In the photographic paper the largest color-difference extended to approximately 10 CIELAB-units between irradiation by a Tungsten halogen and a Xenon lamp. These differences diminished with increasing concentration of the photographic dyes, however, did not die away at the highest concentration of the dyes used. The correct colorimetric values for D65 irradiation were halfway between those for the two former lamps and near to measures received from Xenon lamp irraditoin with adjustable UV-filter. Therefore, such spectrophotometers may be used for colorimetric control of photographic prints to attain an accuracy below 3 CIELAB units, or else, two measurements with a Tungsten halogen and a Xenon lamp should be averaged.

  11. Building a rapid response team. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard


    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  12. Analysis of the process of evaluation of plans of arcoterapia volumetric (Rapid Arc) with an array of detectors; Analisis del proceso de evaluacion de planes de arcoterapia volumetrica (RapidArc) con una matrix de detectores MatriXXEvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Martin Rincon, C.; Saez Beltran, M.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Cons Perez, N.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Sena Espinel, E.


    The objective of this work is to analyze this procedure, comparing the results obtained with the dose level exported of planner, processed taking into account the size of the detectors and the separation between them. In addition, dose level calculated with its original resolution is compared with the measure made with radiochromic film. (Author)

  13. Photograph-aided assessment of clutter in hoarding disorder: is a picture worth a thousand words? (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Nordsletten, Ashley E; Billotti, Danielle; Mataix-Cols, David


    Clutter impeding the normal use of living spaces is a landmark feature of hoarding disorder (HD) but can also be present in other conditions. The assessment of clutter ideally requires home visits, although such assessments are sometimes not feasible. This study examined whether photographs from patients' homes can assist in the diagnostic process. Thirty-two professionals with experience with hoarding cases were shown pictures from the inside of 10 houses and asked to decide whether the house belonged to a person with HD, a person with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or a healthy collector. Participants also rated different features of the room appearing in each picture (overall amount of possessions, tidiness, functionality, number of different classes of items, and cleanliness). Sensitivity for the HD and collectors' pictures was high, whereas sensitivity for the OCD pictures was substantially lower. Specificity was high for all groups. Rooms belonging to HD individuals were rated as significantly more cluttered, more untidy, less functional, containing a higher number of different classes of items, and being less clean than the rooms from the remaining groups. Photographs may be used to assist clinicians in determining the presence of clinically significant levels of clutter in the event a home visit is not feasible. Although differential diagnosis will usually not be possible from photographs alone, examination of certain characteristics of the environment might provide useful diagnostic clues. Combined with a thorough psychopathological interview, the use of photographs may increase the clinician's confidence in the diagnosis of HD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Liminal transformations: folding the surface of the photograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Dados


    Full Text Available At once a material object and a multitude of paths, the photograph is a useful place to begin thinking about the threshold. In the photograph we might dwell on the nuances of the threshold, its ability to be an ‘inbetween’ and a gateway to a ‘beyond’ simultaneously. Indeed, the photograph offers both possibilities. The work of Bhabha, Benjamin and Sontag elucidates this slippage. In this uncertainty, ‘inbetween’ and ‘beyond’ signal another productive intersection.  The liminality of the threshold marks this terrain as a spatial transgression that ushers in a temporal disjuncture. The threshold is a shadow zone, as ordinary as a stairwell and as transformative as a breakthrough. In attempting to map the threshold, the paper borrows from Deleuze and Marks on enfolding and unfolding as a means through which knowledge becomes accessible, or remains concealed. To some extent, mapping the threshold is a process that begins unfolding from the discussion of surface, gaze and perception. Yet despite these markers, mapping the threshold of photographs proves difficult and elusive. In this respect, Wittgenstein’s notion of ‘seeing aspects’ helps explain the way that the threshold always exceeds our attempts at mapping and defies perception. The paper examines this impasse through the ‘fold of the surface’, an action which transgresses the flatness of the image without altering it. Perhaps this is the closest we can be to the threshold without holding it.À la fois objet matériel et multitude de chemins, la photographie est un lieu privilégié pour commencer à réfléchir sur le seuil. Dans la photo, nous pouvons nous attarder sur les nuances du seuil, son caractère simultané d’« entre-deux » et de portail vers un « au-delà » en même temps. En effet, la photo offre en effet ces deux possibilités. Les travaux de Bhabha, Benjamin et Sontag éclaircissent ce glissement. Dans cet incertain, l’« entre-deux » et

  15. 78 FR 5207 - Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination... general exclusion order prohibiting importation of infringing LED photographic lighting devices and... importation of certain LED photographic lighting devices and components thereof that infringe certain claims...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewiak Ireneusz


    Full Text Available Available on the commercial market are a number of algorithms that enable assigning to pixels of a monochrome digital image suitable colors according to a strictly defined schedule. These algorithms have been recently used by professional film studios involved in the coloring of archival productions. This article provides an overview on the functionality of coloring algorithms in terms of their use to improve the interpretation quality of historical, black - and - white aerial photographs. The analysis covered intuitive (Recolored programs, as well as more advanced (Adobe After Effect, DaVinci Resolve programs. The use of their full functionality was limited by the too large information capacity of aerial photograph images. Black - and - white historical aerial photographs, which interpretation quality in many cases does not meet the criteria posed on photogrammetric developments, require an increase of their readability. The solution in this regard may be the process of coloring images. The authors of this article conducted studies aimed to determine to what extent the tested coloring algorithms enable an automatic detection of land cover elements on historical aerial photographs and provide color close to the natural. Used in the studies were archival black - and - white aerial photographs of the western part of Warsaw district made available by the Main Centre of Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation , the selection of which was associated with the presence in this area of various elements of land cover, such as water, forests, crops, exposed soils and also anthropogenic objects. In the analysis of different algorithms are included: format and size of the image, degree of automation of the process, degree of compliance of the result and processing time. The accuracy of the coloring process was different for each class of objects mapped on the photograph. The main limitation of the coloring process created shadows of anthropogenic objects

  17. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston


    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  18. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  19. STS-112 Onboard Photograph of ISS (United States)


    This view of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by an STS-112 crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during rendezvous and docking operations. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  20. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph (United States)


    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  1. Electro-photographic-model-based halftoning (United States)

    Goyal, Puneet; Gupta, Madhur; Shaked, Doron; Staelin, Carl; Fischer, Mani; Shacham, Omri; Jodra, Rodolfo; Allebach, Jan


    Most halftoning algorithms assume there is no interaction between neighboring dots or if there is, it is additive. Without accounting for dot-gain effect, the printed image will not have the appearance predicted by the halftoning algorithm. Thus, there is need to embed a printer model in the halftoning algorithm which can predict such deviations and develop a halftone accordingly. The direct binary search (DBS) algorithm employs a search heuristic to minimize the mean squared perceptually filtered error between the halftone and continuous-tone original images. We incorporate a measurementbased stochastic model for dot interactions of an electro-photographic printer within the iterative DBS binary halftoning algorithm. The stochastic model developed is based on microscopic absorptance and variance measurements. We present an efficient strategy to estimate the impact of 5×5 neighborhood pixels on the central pixel absorptance. By including the impact of 5×5 neighborhood pixels, the average relative error between the predicted tone and tone observed is reduced from around 21% to 4%. Also, the experimental results show that electrophotography-model based halftoning reduces the mottle and banding artifacts.

  2. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings (United States)


    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  3. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper J. Erkelens


    Full Text Available Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective.

  4. A Survey on the Acceptance and the Use of HDR Photography Among Croatian Photographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Strgar Kurecic


    Full Text Available The emerging field of high dynamic range (HDR imaging is directly linked to diverse existing disciplines such as radiometry, photometry, colorimetry and colour appearance - each dealing with specific aspects of light and its perception by humans. Although the idea is not new, it has not been widely used until just a few years ago when digital cameras gained popularity and the computers processing power increased significantly. Now this photographic technique is widely spread and used, but even more often – misused. A research was conducted by means of a questionnaire in order to get some actual information about how Croatian photographers see the HDR photography and how they employ it. The results of the survey proved that indeed a great interest exists in the technique, but that many photographers are scared away from the HDR photography because of the misconception that the artificial look is an unavoidable side effect of the HDR processing. The fact is, however, that the final HDR image is a result of the tone mapping process and post-corrections and adjustments, entirely dependent on the photographer’s intent and vision, as well as his understanding of various adjustments available. The results of the questionnaire have also pointed out to other widely spread misconceptions which are discussed in this paper.

  5. Painter 12 for photographers creating painterly images step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Martin


    Transform your photographs into stunning works of art with this fully updated, authoritative guide to the all-new Painter 12. Whether you are new to Painter or a seasoned pro wanting to go further with your digital art, Painter 12 for Photographers will show you how to get the most of Corel's powerful painting software. Starting with the basics and moving on to cover brushes, textures, cloning, toning, and other effects, Martin Addison will help you master the techniques needed to transform photographs into beautiful painterly images. Packed with vivid images to illustrate what can be achieve

  6. Integrating patient digital photographs with medical imaging examinations. (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Senthil; Bhatti, Pamela; Arepalli, Chesnal D; Salama, Mohamed; Provenzale, James M; Tridandapani, Srini


    We introduce the concept, benefits, and general architecture for acquiring, storing, and displaying digital photographs along with medical imaging examinations. We also discuss a specific implementation built around an Android-based system for simultaneously acquiring digital photographs along with portable radiographs. By an innovative application of radiofrequency identification technology to radiographic cassettes, the system is able to maintain a tight relationship between these photographs and the radiographs within the picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. We provide a cost analysis demonstrating the economic feasibility of this technology. Since our architecture naturally integrates with patient identification methods, we also address patient privacy issues.

  7. Refracted Gazes: A Woman Photographer during Mandate Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Nachabe


    This paper explores the relationship between modernity and femininity as manifest through the women’s activity, gaze and attire in Marie al-Khazen as well as other photographs taken in the Middle East region between the 1930s and the 1940s. Al-Khazen and the women represented in the photographs of this period were part of a cosmopolitan sensibility that reveals the Middle East region to be far more international than one might have imagined. Caught between projecting a self-image of the cosmopolitan woman and one of the traditional bedouin, these photographs provide a rich field for tracking the ambiguities of the modern.

  8. Matthew Murray Photographs and interviews Tribute Bands and Acts, photographed in Birmingham and the Black Country


    Murray, Matthew


    POPPELGANGER!\\ud A Tribute to Tribute Bands: \\ud Photographs by Matthew Murray\\ud \\ud \\ud Did you know that you can see 'Christina Aguilera' performing in Redditch,\\ud 'Eminem' in Stourbridge, or even 'Freddie Mercury' at The Hunters Moon pub\\ud in Nechells, Birmingham? Matthew Murray's irresistible photos capture the urge to break out of our humdrum daily lives by dressing up in spandex and bursting into song, to wild applause. His witty exhibition affectionately portrays the lucky few that ...

  9. Incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing environment and in poultry products and their rapid confirmation by multiplex PCR.


    Lawrence, L M; Gilmour, A


    The incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing plant and in raw and cooked poultry products was determined over a 6-month period. Within the raw and cooked poultry processing environments, 46% (36 of 79) and 29% (51 of 173) of the samples contained Listeria spp. while 26% (21 of 79) and 15% (27 of 173) contained L. monocytogenes, respectively. Various sites within the processing environment were found to be consistently positive for L. monocytogenes througho...

  10. Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) test: A new measure of rapid picture naming for concussion. (United States)

    Cobbs, Lucy; Hasanaj, Lisena; Amorapanth, Prin; Rizzo, John-Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Serrano, Liliana; Raynowska, Jenelle; Rucker, Janet C; Jordan, Barry D; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J


    This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test. A convenience sample (n=20, age 34±10) underwent MULES and K-D (spiral bound, iPad versions). Administration order was randomized; MULES tests were audio-recorded to provide objective data on temporal variability and ranges of picture naming responses. Scores for the best of two trials for all tests were 40-50s; average times required to name each MULES picture (0.72±0.14s) was greater than those needed for each K-D number ((spiral: 0.33±0.05s, iPad: 0.36±0.06s, 120 numbers), psystems than more commonly used rapid number naming tasks. Rapid picture naming may require additional processing devoted to color perception, object identification, and categorization. Both tests rely on initiation and sequencing of saccadic eye movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Geolocation, Surface Roughness, and Photographs (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines various ancillary data (geolocation, surface roughness, and photographs) collected for the Iowa Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) study...

  12. SAFARI 2000 Landscape Photographs of Kalahari Transect, Mongu, Skukuza Sites (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains Global Positioning System (GPS) imprinted landscape photographs at 100-m intervals along the Large Grid Transects at Kalahari...

  13. SAFARI 2000 Landscape Photographs of Kalahari Transect, Mongu, Skukuza Sites (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Global Positioning System (GPS) imprinted landscape photographs at 100-m intervals along the Large Grid Transects at Kalahari Transect sites...

  14. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  15. Martin Parr in Mexico: Does Photographic Style Translate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Gleason


    Full Text Available This study analyzes Martin Parr’s 2006 photobook, Mexico. Parr is a British documentary photographer best known for a direct photographic style that reflects upon “Englishness.”Mexico is his attempt to understand this foreign country via his camera. Mexico, as a research subject, is not a problem to solve but an opportunity to understand a photographer’s work. Parr’s Mexico photography (technique, photographic content, and interest in globalization, economics, and culture is compared to his previous work to explain how Parr uses fashion and icons to represent a culture or class. This article argues Parr’s primary subjects, heads/hats, food, and Christs, are photographed without excessive aesthetic pretensions so that the thrust of Parr’s message about globalization can be more evident:Mexico maintains many of its traditions and icons while adopting American brands.

  16. Ultraviolet photographic pyrometer used in rocket exhaust analysis (United States)

    Levin, B. P.


    Ultraviolet photographic pyrometer investigates the role of carbon as a thermal radiator and determines the geometry, location, and progress of afterburning phenomena in the exhaust plume of rocket engines using liquid oxygen/RP-1 as propellant.

  17. Evaluation of North Water spring ice cover from satellite photographs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aber, P.G; Vowinckel, E


    Satellite photographs for two years (March-September) have been used to study ice cover in the polynya called "North Water", and to determine whether reliable ice maps can be made from satellite data without computer analysis...

  18. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.


    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  19. Colonial Copyright and the Photographic Image: Canada in the Frame


    Hatfield, Philip


    Under Colonial Copyright Law, the British Museum Library acquired a substantial collection of Canadian photographs between 1895 and 1924, taken by a variety ofamateurs and professionals across Canada. Due to the agency of individual photographers, the requirements of copyright legislation and the accumulating principleof the archive, the Collection displays multiple geographies and invites variousinterpretations. Chapter 1 discusses the development of Colonial Copyright Law and its ...



    N. A. Degotinsky; V. R. Lutsiv


    Subject of Research. Westudied a method of estimating the object distance on the basis of its single defocused photograph. The method is based on the analysis of image defocus at the contour points corresponding to borders of photographed objects. It is supposed that the brightness drop in not defocused image of border can be simulated with an ideal step function – the Heaviside function. Method. The contours corresponding to local maxima of brightness gradient are detected in the initial ima...



    Stoney, Elisabeth


    Photography was pronounced dead in the 1980s following the widespread introduction of digital cameras. At the time it was considered among photographic historians that the innovation of the digital pixel, that element that allowed for endless cloning and manipulation of the image, was the defining factor of the new photographic technology. My paper argues that digital photography, in its radical difference from the technologies of chemical-based photography, needs to be theorised within the c...

  2. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes (United States)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.


    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c) 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  3. Survey of absence. The use of photographic data for the survey of temporary art exhibitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ballarin


    Full Text Available Modern Art Exhibitions succeeded in conveying long-lasting ideas and meanings despite their ephemeral nature. Art history and Museum studies recently started to focus on the Exhibition as a medium, requiring precise graphic reconstructions of exhibit designs for critical and theoretical purposes. Exhibitions were rarely designed through graphic devices such as the project; they were usually a result of improvisation processes. In this sense, photographs are the only documents for graphic reconstructions of temporary art spaces. Nevertheless, the photographic datum has been over-edited in its span of life for more than one reason: it requires a critical approach to be used as a source. The use of digital tools for photography can lead to satisfactory results when applied to humanities.

  4. Spectroscopic and light stability behaviour of photographic dyes at oil aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Parmar, C K


    Azamethine dyes are used in the silver-halide colour photographic process to record the yellow, magenta, and cyan components of an image. Compared with other dye classes, these particular dyes possess short singlet excited state lifetimes and low triplet state quantum yields, making them resilient to destructive photochemistry. However, in normal daylight conditions these dyes are still prone to degradation, which is noticeable after a number of years. This thesis examines the photophysical characteristics of two pyrazolotriazole azamethine (PT) dye isomers in dilute solutions and at oleophilic-aqueous interfaces, and also investigates the role of the large surface-area-to- volume ratio in photographic dispersions in dye fade mechanisms. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy as well as steady-state and time-resolved evanescent wave-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (EWIFS) have been used as an analytical tool to probe the changes in dye behaviour in oleophilic-aqueous interfacial regions. Studies show that a...

  5. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics. (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra


    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  6. Picture Perfect: Using Photographic Previews to Enhance Realia Collections for Library Patrons and Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejah Thoris Rubel


    Full Text Available Like many academic libraries, the Ferris Library for Information, Technology, and Education (FLITE acquires a range of materials, including learning objects, to best suit our students’ needs. Some of these objects, such as the educational manipulatives and anatomical models, are common to academic libraries but others, such as the tabletop games, are not. After our liaison to the School of Education, Kristy Motz, discovered some accessibility issues with Innovative Interfaces' Media Manager module, we decided to examine all three of our realia collections to determine what our goals in providing catalog records and visual representations would be. Once we concluded that we needed photographic previews to both enhance discovery and speed circulation service, choosing processing methods for each collection became much easier. This article will discuss how we created enhanced records for all three realia collections including custom metadata, links to additional materials, and photographic previews.

  7. Exploring safety and quality in a hemodialysis environment with participatory photographic methods: a restorative approach. (United States)

    Marck, Patricia; Molzahn, Anita; Berry-Hauf, Rhonda; Hutchings, Loretta Gail; Hughes, Susan


    This study used principles and methods of good ecological restoration, including participatory photographic research methods, to explore perceptions of safety and quality in one hemodialysis unit. Using a list of potential safety and quality issues developed during an initial focus group, a practitioner-led photo walkabout was conducted to obtain photographs of the patient care unit and nurses' stories (photo narration) about safety and quality in their environment. Following a process of iterative coding, photos were used to discuss preliminary themes in a photo elicitation focus group with four additional unit staff The major themes identified related to clutter, infection control, unit design, chemicals and air quality, lack of storage space, and health and safety hazards (including wet floors, tripping hazards from hoses, moving furniture/chairs). The visual methods engaged researchers and unit nurses in rich dialogue about safety in this complex environment and provides an ongoing basis for monitoring and enhancing safety.

  8. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs. (United States)

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav


    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the "right" information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  9. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs (United States)

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav


    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for. PMID:26205265

  10. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ennis


    Full Text Available With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  11. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F Mission) Onboard Photograph (United States)


    While instruments on the pallets in the payload bay observed the universe, biological experiments were performed in the middeck of the Shuttle Orbiter Challenger. Studying life processes in a microgravity environment can shed new light on the functioning of biological systems on Earth. These investigations can also help us understand how living organisms react to prolonged weightlessness. One such experiment was the vitamin D metabolites and bone demineralization experiment. This investigation measured the vitamin d metabolite levels of crew members to gain information on the cause of bone demineralization and mineral imbalance that occur during prolonged spaceflight as well as on Earth. Research into the biochemical nature of vitamin D has shown that the D-metabolites play a major role in regulating the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. One major function of the most biologically active vitamin D metabolite is to regulate the amount of calcium absorbed from the diet and taken out of bones. This investigation had two phases. The first was the developmental phase, which included extensive testing before flight, and the second, or final phase, involved the postflight analysis of the crew's blood samples. This photograph shows a blood draw test kit and centrifuge used for the experiment aboard the Spacelab-2. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities of all Spacelab missions.

  12. Photographic analysis of human posture: a literature review. (United States)

    do Rosário, José Luís Pimentel


    The study of posture is not an easy task, mainly because postural assessment is still scientifically inaccurate. Photographs of bipedalism in the frontal and sagittal planes are one of the most widely used methods for this assessment. The aim of this literature review was to determine which anatomical markers authors of scientific papers have taken to minimize the chances of error in measurements. The Medline and Lilacs databases were searched for the period from 2002 to 2012, with the following keywords: "postura"; "posture" and "postural." A number of studies have shown a reasonable correlation between radiographic measurements and the placement of markers. It appears possible to use photography as a form of scientific assessment since the anatomical landmarks are well chosen. The markers that were suggested in this review: malleolus; posterior calcaneal tuberosity; fibular head; tibial tuberosity; greater trochanter of the femur; anterior angle and/or posterior lateral edge of the acromion; spinous processes (particularly C7); inferior angle of the scapula; sternum manubrium; mental protuberance; and the intertragic notch. Iliac spines, both anterior superior and posterior superior, should only be used with lean subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jemi Florinabel


    Full Text Available A speedy recovery of damaged digitized photographs based on orientation driven multi structure morphology is proposed. The recovery order plays an important factor for human visualization and hence it is guided by the orientation of edges at the surrounding known regions of the missing domain. The image is edge detected by thresholding the image gradient along the eight possible orientations. These eight edge images are represented as eight edge planes. The edge-plane-sliced information is used twice manifold for reconstructing the regions within the missing part, as well as for guiding the integration that follows. The damaged regions are morphologically eroded using the structuring elements of corresponding orientations dictated by the edge-planes. The resultant filled image is obtained using local isotopic driven integration. The novelty of our approach is to explicitly specify the direction of filling herby ensuring ease in convergence in different orientations and then streamlining the process to guarantee complete and natural look. By implementing region-filling through morphological erosion, several pixels instead of one can be restored at every inpainting step, making the method faster than many traditional texture synthesis inpainting algorithms and successfully recovers images with better Peak Signal to Noise ratios even for massive damages.

  14. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  15. 46 CFR 386.17 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial... § 386.17 Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Such photographs for news... Court Order or rule prohibits, photographs for news purposes may be taken in entrances, lobbies, foyers...

  16. 31 CFR 700.9 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or... Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes may be taken on the property only with the prior permission of the Director. Taking photographs of...

  17. 32 CFR 228.11 - Restrictions on the taking of photographs. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on the taking of photographs. 228... photographs. In order to protect the security of the Agency's facilities, photographs may be taken on... photographs includes the use of television cameras, video taping equipment, and still or motion picture...

  18. Yearbook Photographs Fall into Some Rather Simple, Yet Important Areas That All Staffers Should Know. (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.


    Explains that yearbook photographs can be grouped into various divisions, including candids, group photographs, portraits, and illustration/studio-type photographs. Provides important photographer guidelines for each group. Concludes with some overall suggestions on understanding photojournalism and how it relates to creating a better yearbook.…

  19. Rapid and Effective Electrical Conductivity Improvement of the Ag NW-Based Conductor by Using the Laser-Induced Nano-Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Lee


    Full Text Available To date, the silver nanowire-based conductor has been widely used for flexible/stretchable electronics due to its several advantages. The optical nanowire annealing process has also received interest as an alternative annealing process to the Ag nanowire (NW-based conductor. In this study, we present an analytical investigation on the phenomena of the Ag NWs’ junction and welding properties under laser exposure. The two different laser-induced welding processes (nanosecond (ns pulse laser-induced nano-welding (LINW and continuous wave (cw scanning LINW are applied to the Ag NW percolation networks. The Ag NWs are selectively melted and merged at the junction of Ag NWs under very short laser exposure; these results are confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, focused-ion beam (FIB, electrical measurement, and finite difference time domain (FDTD simulation.

  20. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet. (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jingna; Wu, Yi; Li, Ying; Mo, Xuemei; Chen, Wei; Xie, Bing; Qiu, Mingguo


    This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model) and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB) could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test); the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  1. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao


    Full Text Available This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test; the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  2. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  3. A rapid process of Yba2Cu3O7-δ thin film fabrication using trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition with polyethylene glycol additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Feng; Shi, Kai


    Trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition (TFA-MOD) is a promising technique to fabricate YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting films. However, its slow pyrolysis process, which usually takes more than 10 h, constitutes a barrier for industrial production. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG...

  4. Development of rubber forming as a rapid thermoforming technique for continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Quality control by process control. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robroek, L.M.J.


    The principal goal of the thesis is twofold: the understanding of the fundamental deformation processes of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics during a manufacturing cycle of two- or three-dimensional products made from flat laminates; and the development of an efficient thermoforming technique for manufacturing high quality thermoplastic composite products. (Copyright (c) 1994 by L.M.J. Robroek, Structures and Materials Laboratory.)

  5. Exploration of rapid start-up of the CANON process from activated sludge inoculum in a sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR). (United States)

    Deng, Yangfan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Miao, Ying; Hu, Bo


    In this study, a laboratory-scale sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR) was employed to explore a fast start-up of completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process. Partial nitrification was achieved by controlling free ammonia concentration and operating at above 30 °C; then the reactor was immediately operated with alternating periods of aerobiosis and anaerobiosis to start the anammox process. The CANON process was successfully achieved in less than 50 d, and the total-nitrogen removal efficiency and the nitrogen removal rate were 81% and 0.14 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) respectively. Afterwards, with the increasing of ammonium loading rate a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 0.39 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) was achieved on day 94. DNA analysis showed that 'Candidatus Brocadia' was the dominant anammox species and Nitrosomonas was the dominant aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the CANON reactor. This study revealed that due to shortening the persistent and stable nitrite accumulation period the long start-up time of the CANON process can be significantly reduced.

  6. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian


    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  7. Right-Rapid-Rough (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig


    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  8. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Rolston


    Full Text Available Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system’s open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of electrode-headstage coupling using neodymium magnets.

  9. Comparing cortical auditory processing in children with typical and atypical benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Electrophysiologic evidence of the role of non-rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities. (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Boni, Antonella; Giannotta, Melania; Pini, Antonella; Russo, Angelo; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Guerra, Angelo; Lassonde, Maryse; Gobbi, Giuseppe


    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an objective measure of central auditory discrimination. MMN alterations have been shown in children with language and/or developmental disorders. In benign focal epilepsies, neuropsychological disorders are often reported and linked to interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. There are few studies reporting MMN in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and sleep IEDs. Moreover, no MMN recording has yet been reported in atypical BECTS children with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (CSWS). We retrospectively compared MMN in typical and atypical BECTS children, particularly addressing the impact of NREM sleep IEDs on auditory discrimination. Moreover, we attempted a neuropsychological characterization of patients. The MMN was recorded in 9 normal controls and 23 patients (14 typical BECTS and 9 atypical BECTS) in an oddball paradigm with syllable stimuli. MMN, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological evaluation were realized in the same testing session. Measurable MMN responses to speech stimuli were identified in both the control and patient groups. A significant difference between control and atypical BECTS children was found with respect to amplitude (p = 0.0061). Atypical BECTS also showed a lower MMN amplitude with respect to typical BECTS, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0545). Statistical comparisons between groups revealed no differences in latency. Among the neuropsychological variables, academic difficulties were significantly more prominent in the patients with atypical BECTS (p = 0.04). CSWS EEG pattern affects auditory discrimination and may have a long-lasting impact on academic skills acquisition, whereas in typical BECTS children with a lower degree of IED NREM sleep, plastic brain reorganization or the preservation of participating networks may prevent such difficulty. Early

  10. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals


    YOSHIOKA, Miyako; Matsuura, Yuichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou


    Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in...

  11. Core Across the San Andreas Fault at SAFOD - Photographs, Physical Properties Data, and Core-Handling Procedures (United States)

    Kirschner, D. L.; Carpenter, B.; Keenan, T.; Sandusky, E.; Sone, H.; Ellsworth, B.; Hickman, S.; Weiland, C.; Zoback, M.


    Core samples were obtained that cross three faults of the San Andreas Fault Zone north of Parkfield, California, during the summer of 2007. The cored intervals were obtained by sidetracking off the SAFOD Main Hole that was rotary drilled across the San Andreas in 2005. The first cored interval targeted the pronounced lithologic boundary between the Salinian terrane and the Great Valley and Franciscan formations. Eleven meters of pebbly conglomerate (with minor amounts of fine sands and shale) were obtained from 3141 to 3152 m (measured depth, MD). The two conglomerate units are heavily fractured with many fractures having accommodated displacement. Within this cored interval, there is a ~1m zone with highly sheared, fine-grained material, possibly ultracataclasite in part. The second cored interval crosses a creeping segment of a fault that has been deforming the cemented casing of the adjacent Main Hole. This cored interval sampled the fault 100 m above a seismogenic patch of M2 repeating earthquakes. Thirteen meters of core were obtained across this fault from 3186 to 3199 m (MD). This fault, which is hosted primarily in siltstones and shales, contains a serpentinite body embedded in a highly sheared shale and serpentinite-bearing fault gouge unit. The third cored interval crosses a second creeping fault that has also been deforming the cemented casing of the Main Hole. This fault, which is the most rapidly shearing fault in the San Andreas fault zone based on casing deformation, contains multiple fine- grained clay-rich fault strands embedded in highly sheared shales and lesser deformed sandstones. Initial processing of the cores was carried out at the drill site. Each core came to the surface in 9 meter-long aluminum core barrels. These were cut into more manageable three-foot sections. The quarter-inch-thick aluminum liner of each section was cut and then split apart to reveal the 10 cm diameter cores. Depending on the fragility and porosity of the rock, the

  12. Rapid formation of Ni3Sn4 joints for die attachment of SiC-based high temperature power devices using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase bonding process. (United States)

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Feng, J C; Liu, J H; Tian, H; Wang, S J


    High melting point Ni3Sn4 joints for the die attachment of SiC-based high temperature power devices was successfully achieved using an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process within a remarkably short bonding time of 8s. The formed intermetallic joints, which are completely composed of the refined equiaxial Ni3Sn4 grains with the average diameter of 2μm, perform the average shear strength of 26.7MPa. The sonochemical effects of ultrasonic waves dominate the mechanism and kinetics of the rapid formation of Ni3Sn4 joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An experimental investigation of the chopping of helicopter main rotor tip vortices by the tail rotor. Part 2: High speed photographic study (United States)

    Cary, Charles M.


    The interaction of a free vortex and a rotor was recorded photographically using oil smoke and stroboscopic illumination. The incident vortex is normal to the plane of the rotor and crosses the rotor plane. This idealized aerodynamic experiment most nearly corresponds to helicopter flight conditions in which a tip vortex from the main rotor is incident upon the tail rotor while hovering. The high speed photographs reveal important features not observed using conventional photography where the image is the time average of varying instantaneous images. Most prominent is the strong interaction between the rotor tip vortex system and the incident vortex, resulting in the roll-up of the incident vortex around the (stronger) tip vortices and the resulting rapid destabilization of the deformed incident vortex. The viscous interaction is clearly shown also. Other forms of instabilities or wave-like behavior may be apparent from further analysis of the photographs.

  14. Photographic assessment of tretinoin microsphere gel in moderate acne. (United States)

    Feldman, Steven; Nighland, Marge


    True objective measures for assessing responsiveness to acne treatments are lacking. Photographic documentation can therefore be a valuable adjunct to treatment assessment. To photographically document the ability of tretinoin microsphere gel (TMG) 0.1% in improving facial acne. A standardized photographic technique was used to assess the efficacy and tolerability of TMG 0.1% applied once nightly for 12 weeks in an open-label trial involving 30 patients (Caucasian and Hispanic) ages 11 to 40 years with moderately severe facial acne. An assessment of frontal, left-sided, and right-sided color photographs at week 12 indicated that TMG 0.1% reduced total, noninflammatory, and inflammatory acne lesion counts by 47.8%, 53.5%, and 33.2%, respectively; and produced an "excellent/ good" investigator's global evaluation (4-point scale) treatment response in 63.6% of patients. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.1% was well tolerated, and more than 63% of subjects did not exhibit cutaneous adverse effects at week 12. The standardized photographic technique proved to be a useful tool for documenting the efficacy of TMG 0.1% in consistently and significantly improving moderately severe facial acne over a 12-week treatment period.

  15. Beauty is in the eye of the photographer

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni


    On Saturday 7 August, over 200 amateur photographers took part in the first “Particle Physics Photowalk”, a photo contest organized by CERN in collaboration with DESY in Germany, Fermilab in the USA, KEK in Japan and TRIUMF in Canada. As of mid-September you will be able to discover on a dedicated website the five particle physics laboratories as seen through the lenses of the participants.   Photographers at the photowalk. The Photowalk was a unique opportunity for the participants to photograph state-of-the-art accelerators and detectors in all their beauty and complexity. At CERN, the photographers were able to visit and take pictures of Linac4, the Computing Centre, SM18 and CLIC. Photographers came to CERN from Switzerland, France, the UK and Germany (one even came from the USA just for the event). “The 48 places available for the Photowalk at CERN were snatched up within days through the dedicated website”, says Sophie Tesauri from the Communication G...

  16. The Expansion of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael


    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on decades of photographic glass plates. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format.In 2016, APDA expanded from 50 collections with about 220,000 plates to more than 55 collections and more than 340,000 plates and films. These account for more than 30% of all astronomical photographic data in the United States. The largest of the new acquisitions are the astronomical photographic plates in the Yale University collection. We present details of the newly added collections and review of other collections in APDA.

  17. Photographic observation of a natural fifth-order rainbow. (United States)

    Edens, Harald E


    A photograph has been obtained of a natural fifth-order (quinary) rainbow. The photograph was acquired on 8 August 2012 with a digital camera and a polarization filter to maximize contrast of the rainbows with the background. The quinary rainbow, together with its first supernumerary, appears in a contrast-enhanced version of the photograph as broad green and blue-violet color bands within Alexander's dark band between the primary and secondary rainbows. The red band of the quinary rainbow is obscured by the much brighter secondary rainbow. A comparison with a numerical simulation using the Debye series confirms that the color bands of the quinary rainbow appear at the expected location. The numerical simulation produces a good match with the photograph for a droplet radius of 0.46 mm. The green band of the quinary rainbow is even faintly discernible in the unprocessed photograph, suggesting that under exceptional viewing conditions the green band of the quinary rainbow may be observed visually with the aid of a polarization filter.

  18. Effects of rapid temperature rising on nitrogen removal and microbial community variation of anoxic/aerobic process for ABS resin wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Luo, Huilong; Song, Yudong; Zhou, Yuexi; Yang, Liwei; Zhao, Yaqian


    ABS resin wastewater is a high-temperature nitrogenous organic wastewater. It can be successfully treated with anoxic/aerobic (A/O) process. In this study, the effect of temperature on nitrogen removal and microbial community after quick temperature rise (QTR) was investigated. It was indicated that QTR from 25 to 30 °C facilitated the microbial growth and achieved a similar effluent quality as that at 25 °C. QTR from 25 to 35 °C or 40 °C resulted in higher effluent concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing analysis illustrated that the richness and diversity of the bacterial community was decreased as the temperature was increased. The percentage of many functional groups was changed significantly. QTR from 25 to 40 °C also resulted in the inhibition of ammonia oxidation rate and high concentration of free ammonia, which then inhibited the growth of NOB (Nitrospira), and thus resulted in nitrite accumulation. The high temperature above 35 °C promoted the growth of a denitrifying bacterial genus, Denitratisoma, which might increase N2O production during the denitrification process.

  19. Photographic Images of Refugee Spatial Encounters: Pedagogy of Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya Subedi


    Full Text Available This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near future, this photo essay project was created to serve as a curriculum about marginalized communities who are invisible in the curriculum. By using photographs, I explore three concepts that may help us examine the relationship between space and politics: (1 ideal spaces (2 violated spaces (3 damaged spaces. Lastly, by examining refugee experiences, the paper examines pedagogical approaches utilizing photographs to document oppression.

  20. Photographs from where the world is called Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ledo Andión, Ph. D.


    Full Text Available If our main goal is to reconstruct the history of photojournalism in Galicia from the photograph as part of the journalistic discourse, it leads us to confirm some uncertainties that disable a linear story by being unable to construct, much less in the case of a social institution as the press, the period leading to the Second Republic with the long years of dictatorship, nor able to extract a major influence by the photographic practices of the early years of political transition in the subsequent configuration of the role of photojournalism in the media enterprises. This study tries to establish an anthropological link between certain images, to punctuate the signification of the photographic act and, finally, to highlight the value of the act of viewing, and the photos remembered, those images that among all the other images are ours, and we recover them so that other people love them too.

  1. ARIADNE, a Photographic LAr TPC at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Nessi, M; Roberts, A; Smith, N A; Touramanis, C; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC


    This letter of intent describes a novel and innovative two-phase LAr TPC with photographic capabilities as an attractive alternative readout method to the currently accepted segmented THGEMs which will require many thousands of charge readout channels for kton-scale two-phase TPCs. These colossal LAr TPCs will be used for the future long-baseline-neutrino-oscillation experiments. Optical readout also presents many other clear advantages over current readout techniques such as ease of scalability, upgrade, installation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness. This technology has already been demonstrated at the Liverpool LAr facility with the photographic capturing of cosmic muon tracks and single gammas using a 40-litre prototype. We have now secured ERC funding to develop this further with the ARIADNE programme. ARIADNE will be a 1-ton two-phase LAr TPC utilizing THGEM and EMCCD camera readouts in order to photograph interactions, allowing for track reconstruction and particle identification. We are request...

  2. MUPET-Mouse Ultrasonic Profile ExTraction: A Signal Processing Tool for Rapid and Unsupervised Analysis of Ultrasonic Vocalizations. (United States)

    Van Segbroeck, Maarten; Knoll, Allison T; Levitt, Pat; Narayanan, Shrikanth


    Vocalizations play a significant role in social communication across species. Analyses in rodents have used a limited number of spectro-temporal measures to compare ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which limits the ability to address repertoire complexity in the context of behavioral states. Using an automated and unsupervised signal processing approach, we report the development of MUPET (Mouse Ultrasonic Profile ExTraction) software, an open-access MATLAB tool that provides data-driven, high-throughput analyses of USVs. MUPET measures, learns, and compares syllable types and provides an automated time stamp of syllable events. Using USV data from a large mouse genetic reference panel and open-source datasets produced in different social contexts, MUPET analyzes the fine details of syllable production and repertoire use. MUPET thus serves as a new tool for USV repertoire analyses, with the capability to be adapted for use with other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Miyako; Matsuura, Yuichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou


    Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource.

  4. Impact of ink synthesis on processing of inkjet-printed silicon nanoparticle thin films: A comparison of Rapid Thermal Annealing and photonic sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahi, E.; Blayac, S. [Centre Microélectronique de Provence/Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 880, avenue de Mimet Gardanne, 13541 (France); Borbely, A. [Science des Matériaux et des Structures/Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel Saint Etienne Cedex 2, 42023 (France); Benaben, P. [Centre Microélectronique de Provence/Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 880, avenue de Mimet Gardanne, 13541 (France)


    Inkjet printing has a high potential for cost reduction in solar cell and thermoelectric industry. This study demonstrates that silicon thin films can be produced by inkjet-printing of silicon nanoparticles followed by subsequent drying and annealing steps. Ink formulation is crucial for the sintering of the silicon nanoparticles and control of the microstructure at low temperature. Upon heating, the microstructure is modified from porous layer made of juxtaposed silicon nanoparticles to denser layer with coarser grains. This evolution is monitored by scanning electron microscopy and by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which offer a fast and precise characterization of the microstructure and chemical composition of thin films. Above a threshold temperature of 800 °C cracks appear within thin film and substrate because of the stress induced by the oxidation of the surface. An innovative sintering method, photonic annealing, is studied in order to reduce both oxidation and stress in the thin films as well as reducing processing time. Evolution of the thermal conductivity is performed by micro-Raman spectroscopy and can be tailored in a large range between ~ 1 and ~ 100 W·m{sup −1}·K{sup −1} depending on the sintering method and atmosphere. Therefore control of the microstructure evolution with applied annealing process allows tailoring of both microstructure and thermal conductivity of the silicon thin films. - Highlights: • Impact of ink synthesis on sintering (Si nanoparticle surface chemistry) • Photonic annealing of inkjet printed Si nanoparticles • Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction for thin film characterization.

  5. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - implications for cyclone induced rapid lift and TIL physico-chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, Hans; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Schumann, Ulrich [DLR IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Arnold, Frank [MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); DLR IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Simgen, Hardy; Lindemann, Siegfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank [MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pirjola, Liisa [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)


    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of polluted planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO{sub 2} and other species), which had increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important impact of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL. This impact includes particularly aerosol formation.

  6. Superconducting properties of internally stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al wires fabricated by rapid-quenched and transformed process; Naibu anteika kyunetsu kyurei{center_dot}hentai ho Nb{sub 3}Al senzai no chodendo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, K. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Kiyoshi, T.; Ito, K.; Wada, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan); Yuyama, M.; Kosuge, M. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)


    Nb{sub 3}AL wire using Ag coated by Nb as stabilizer was manufactured as trial and the critical current density Jc was examined. Compared Ag with Nb as fill-in core bar, Jc of wire using silver filament core bar was higher than one using Nb filament core. It was considered that uniform current in Ag caused to produce homogeneous solid solution. Jc also increased by about 45% following processing of decreasing area after rapid heating and quench. N value also showed at least a value above and equal to 25 at the 21 T magnetic field. (NEDO)Nb{sub 3}AL wire using Ag coated by Nb as stabilizer was manufactured as trial and the critical current density Jc was examined. Compared Ag with Nb as fill-in core bar, Jc of wire using silver filament core bar was higher than one using Nb filament core. It was considered that uniform current in Ag caused to produce homogeneous solid solution. Jc also increased by about 45% following processing of decreasing area after rapid heating and quench. N value also showed at least a value above and equal to 25 at the 21 T magnetic field. (NEDO)

  7. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.


    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  8. Real-time parallel implementation of Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain on a massively parallel machine based on multi-core DSP and Serial RapidIO interconnect (United States)

    Klilou, Abdessamad; Belkouch, Said; Elleaume, Philippe; Le Gall, Philippe; Bourzeix, François; Hassani, Moha M'Rabet


    Pulse-Doppler radars require high-computing power. A massively parallel machine has been developed in this paper to implement a Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain in real-time fashion. The proposed machine consists of two C6678 digital signal processors (DSPs), each with eight DSP cores, interconnected with Serial RapidIO (SRIO) bus. In this study, each individual core is considered as the basic processing element; hence, the proposed parallel machine contains 16 processing elements. A straightforward model has been adopted to distribute the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain. This model provides low latency, but communication inefficiency limits system performance. This paper proposes several optimizations that greatly reduce the inter-processor communication in a straightforward model and improves the parallel efficiency of the system. A use case of the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain has been used to illustrate and validate the concept of the proposed mapping model. Experimental results show that the parallel efficiency of the proposed parallel machine is about 90%.

  9. Conversation between Rock Photographer James Fortune and Grant Scott


    Scott, Grant


    Back in the 1970s, in the aftermath of political, civil, and sexual revolution all over the world, photographer James Fortune plied his trade in the backstages and VIP sections of some of the nation’s biggest music events.\\ud \\ud Beginning in his college days in the late ’60s, Fortune spent more than a decade photographing rock’n’roll icons such as Mick Jagger, Paul McCartney, Robert Plant, Jim Morrison, Elton John and countless others. His catalog of over 15,000 images from the tumultuous ’6...

  10. Clinical photograph from the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh - 1853. (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, N A


    A child with a facial defect is presented using clinical details recorded in a ward journal of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh for 1853. The entry in the journal is illustrated by a clinical photograph and a pen and ink drawing. The operation for facial reconstruction is described together with an account of post-operative course and outcome. The differential diagnoses and views on the aetiology of the patient's disorder are considered. The photograph itself is described and the historical and social background of the patient are outlined.

  11. "Her": Conversation with the photographer Isabella Borrelli Ferraiuolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraiuolo


    Full Text Available A conversation with Isabella Borrelli* about her photographic project “Her”. Isabella tells women’s body as a battlefield, the scars and wounds that transform it and she invites us to recognize its beauty. * Isabella Borrelli (Salerno, 1989, photographer. Since some years she collaborates with the Giffoni Film Festival. She took part at the Venice Biennale in 2011 with Human Waste. Winner of the photo contest Beyond the walls of Rome (2016, emerging category. .

  12. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken


    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  13. "Objects and Places” – Photographs by Alan Trachtenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chouard


    Full Text Available  “Black-and-white images of diverse scenes in America—ranging from a Mississippi ���ghost” town to rooftops in Pennsylvania to an upper New York state racetrack—are featured in a new exhibition of photographs by Yale professor Alan Trachtenberg at the Henry Koerner Center for Emeritus Faculty. The exhibit, titled “Objects and Places,” is a selection of 22 photographs that Trachtenberg made over the past 30 years using a large-format (8×10 camera.” [Excerpt from the Yale Daily Bulletin]The foll...

  14. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin


    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  15. Application of two segmentation protocols during the processing of virtual images in rapid prototyping: ex vivo study with human dry mandibles. (United States)

    Ferraz, Eduardo Gomes; Andrade, Lucio Costa Safira; dos Santos, Aline Rode; Torregrossa, Vinicius Rabelo; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of virtual three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of human dry mandibles, produced from two segmentation protocols ("outline only" and "all-boundary lines"). Twenty virtual three-dimensional (3D) images were built from computed tomography exam (CT) of 10 dry mandibles, in which linear measurements between anatomical landmarks were obtained and compared to an error probability of 5 %. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the dry mandibles and the virtual 3D reconstructions produced from segmentation protocols tested (p = 0,24). During the designing of a virtual 3D reconstruction, both "outline only" and "all-boundary lines" segmentation protocols can be used. Virtual processing of CT images is the most complex stage during the manufacture of the biomodel. Establishing a better protocol during this phase allows the construction of a biomodel with characteristics that are closer to the original anatomical structures. This is essential to ensure a correct preoperative planning and a suitable treatment.

  16. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia) (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.


    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  17. Rapid total sulphur reduction in coal samples using various dilute alkaline leaching reagents under microwave heating: preventing sulphur emissions during coal processing. (United States)

    Mketo, Nomvano; Nomngongo, Philiswa Nosizo; Ngila, Jane Catherine


    Currently in South Africa, online flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) is being utilized as one of the most effective methods for total sulphur reduction in coal samples during the combustion process. However, the main disadvantage associated with FGD is the formation of its by-products (FGD gypsum). The latter is mostly formed in low grade quality, thereby bringing secondary pollution problems and extra disposal costs. Therefore, the current study describes the development of total sulphur extraction in coal under microwave heating using different dilute alkaline solutions such as NaOH, NaOH-H2O2, NH4OH, and NH4OH-H2O2. The experimental conditions were as follows: 150 °C, 5 min and 10% (m/v or v/v) for temperature, extraction time and reagent concentration, respectively. The most effective alkaline reagent for coal desulphurisation was observed to be NaOH-H2O2 with total sulphur reduction of 55% (from the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) results). The NaOH-H2O2 reagent also showed significant morphological changes in coal as observed from the SEM images and effective demineralisation as revealed by the powder X-ray diffractometer (P-XRD) results. Additionally, desulphurisation results obtained from the developed microwave-assisted dilute alkaline extraction (MW-ADAE) method were quite comparable with the published work. The proposed total sulphur reduction method is advantageous as compared to some of the literature reported coal desulphurisation methods as it requires a short period (5 min) of time to reach its completion. Additionally, the proposed method shows excellent reproducibility (% RSD from 0.5 to 1); therefore, it can be utilized for routine analysis. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  18. Sources of uncertainty in individual monitoring for photographic,TL and OSL dosimetry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Max S.; Silva, Everton R.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The identification of the uncertainty sources and their quantification is essential to the quality of any dosimetric results. If uncertainties are not stated for all dose measurements informed in the monthly dose report to the monitored radiation facilities, they need to be known. This study aims to analyze the influence of different sources of uncertainties associated with photographic, TL and OSL dosimetric techniques, considering the evaluation of occupational doses of whole-body exposure for photons. To identify the sources of uncertainty it was conducted a bibliographic review in specific documents that deal with operational aspects of each technique and the uncertainties associated to each of them. Withal, technical visits to individual monitoring services were conducted to assist in this identification. The sources of uncertainty were categorized and their contributions were expressed in a qualitative way. The process of calibration and traceability are the most important sources of uncertainties, regardless the technique used. For photographic dosimetry, the remaining important uncertainty sources are due to: energy and angular dependence; linearity of response; variations in the films processing. For TL and OSL, the key process for a good performance is respectively the reproducibility of the thermal and optical cycles. For the three techniques, all procedures of the measurement process must be standardized, controlled and reproducible. Further studies can be performed to quantify the contribution of the sources of uncertainty. (author)

  19. Cameras for Public Health Surveillance: A Methods Protocol for Crowdsourced Annotation of Point-of-Sale Photographs. (United States)

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Ivey, Keith C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Kirchner, Thomas R


    Photographs are an effective way to collect detailed and objective information about the environment, particularly for public health surveillance. However, accurately and reliably annotating (ie, extracting information from) photographs remains difficult, a critical bottleneck inhibiting the use of photographs for systematic surveillance. The advent of distributed human computation (ie, crowdsourcing) platforms represents a veritable breakthrough, making it possible for the first time to accurately, quickly, and repeatedly annotate photos at relatively low cost. This paper describes a methods protocol, using photographs from point-of-sale surveillance studies in the field of tobacco control to demonstrate the development and testing of custom-built tools that can greatly enhance the quality of crowdsourced annotation. Enhancing the quality of crowdsourced photo annotation requires a number of approaches and tools. The crowdsourced photo annotation process is greatly simplified by decomposing the overall process into smaller tasks, which improves accuracy and speed and enables adaptive processing, in which irrelevant data is filtered out and more difficult targets receive increased scrutiny. Additionally, zoom tools enable users to see details within photographs and crop tools highlight where within an image a specific object of interest is found, generating a set of photographs that answer specific questions. Beyond such tools, optimizing the number of raters (ie, crowd size) for accuracy and reliability is an important facet of crowdsourced photo annotation. This can be determined in a systematic manner based on the difficulty of the task and the desired level of accuracy, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Usability tests of the zoom and crop tool suggest that these tools significantly improve annotation accuracy. The tests asked raters to extract data from photographs, not for the purposes of assessing the quality of that data, but rather to

  20. Utility of a Systematic Approach to Teaching Photographic Nasal Analysis to Otolaryngology Residents. (United States)

    Robitschek, Jon; Dresner, Harley; Hilger, Peter


    Photographic nasal analysis constitutes a critical step along the path toward accurate diagnosis and precise surgical planning in rhinoplasty. The learned process by which one assesses photographs, analyzes relevant anatomical landmarks, and generates a global view of the nasal aesthetic is less widely described. To discern the common pitfalls in performing photographic nasal analysis and to quantify the utility of a systematic approach model in teaching photographic nasal analysis to otolaryngology residents. This prospective observational study included 20 participants from a university-based otolaryngology residency program. The control and intervention groups underwent baseline graded assessment of 3 patients. The intervention group received instruction on a systematic approach model for nasal analysis, and both groups underwent postintervention testing at 10 weeks. Data were collected from October 1, 2015, through June 1, 2016. A 10-minute, 11-slide presentation provided instruction on a systematic approach to nasal analysis to the intervention group. Graded photographic nasal analysis using a binary 18-point system. The 20 otolaryngology residents (15 men and 5 women; age range, 24-34 years) were adept at mentioning dorsal deviation and dorsal profile with focused descriptions of tip angle and contour. Areas commonly omitted by residents included verification of the Frankfort plane, position of the lower lateral crura, radix position, and ratio of the ala to tip lobule. The intervention group demonstrated immediate improvement after instruction on the teaching model, with the mean (SD) postintervention test score doubling compared with their baseline performance (7.5 [2.7] vs 10.3 [2.5]; P Otolaryngology residents demonstrated proficiency at incorporating nasal deviation, tip angle, and dorsal profile contour into their nasal analysis. They often omitted verification of the Frankfort plane, position of lower lateral crura, radix depth, and ala-to-tip lobule

  1. 36 CFR 1280.50 - What will I be allowed to film, photograph, or videotape for news purposes? (United States)


    ... film, photograph, or videotape for news purposes? 1280.50 Section 1280.50 Parks, Forests, and Public... film, photograph, or videotape for news purposes? (a) NARA will permit you to film, photograph, or..., photograph, or videotape if you intend to use the film, photographs, or videotape for commercial, partisan...

  2. Photographic observations of major planets and their moons in MAO NAS of Ukraine during 1961-1990 (United States)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.


    We present the results of digitizing and processing of archival observations to obtain the astrometric positions and stellar magnitudes of major planets and their satellites. The work has been done within the framework of the national project "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" on the basis of photographic observations carried out in MAO NASU. The processing of digital images and the astrometric reduction of data was made in the software package created and developed in MAO for the reduction astrometric negatives. The catalogue includes data of Saturn's moons (S2-S9), obtained using 4 telescopes in 1961-1990. The stellar catalogue TYCHO2 was used as the reference. The internal positional accuracy is ˜ 0.09 - ˜ 0.25 arcsec.The same procedure is now applying for the processing of photographic observations of Neptune, Uranus, and their moons, obtained in MAO during the same period.

  3. A computer vision system for the recognition of trees in aerial photographs (United States)

    Pinz, Axel J.


    Increasing problems of forest damage in Central Europe set the demand for an appropriate forest damage assessment tool. The Vision Expert System (VES) is presented which is capable of finding trees in color infrared aerial photographs. Concept and architecture of VES are discussed briefly. The system is applied to a multisource test data set. The processing of this multisource data set leads to a multiple interpretation result for one scene. An integration of these results will provide a better scene description by the vision system. This is achieved by an implementation of Steven's correlation algorithm.

  4. Data-reduction facility for digitizing and manipulating data from oscilloscope photographs (users guide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, B.E.; Bloomquist, D.D.; Dugan, D.W.


    It is often necessary to analyze analog data from oscilloscope photographs, strip charts, or other graphical forms. Analysis of the data may involve conversion from analog to digital information. The digital information may be mathematically processed to extract the parameters needed for proper analysis of the original graph. In the past, a data reduction facility was operated on a part-time basis by one individual. The facility has been modified and upgraded to make it suitable for more general use by staff personnel.

  5. Data Science Innovations That Streamline Development, Documentation, Reproducibility, and Dissemination of Models in Computational Thermodynamics: An Application of Image Processing Techniques for Rapid Computation, Parameterization and Modeling of Phase Diagrams (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.


    Computational thermodynamics (CT) represents a collection of numerical techniques that are used to calculate quantitative results from thermodynamic theory. In the Earth sciences, CT is most often applied to estimate the equilibrium properties of solutions, to calculate phase equilibria from models of the thermodynamic properties of materials, and to approximate irreversible reaction pathways by modeling these as a series of local equilibrium steps. The thermodynamic models that underlie CT calculations relate the energy of a phase to temperature, pressure and composition. These relationships are not intuitive and they are seldom well constrained by experimental data; often, intuition must be applied to generate a robust model that satisfies the expectations of use. As a consequence of this situation, the models and databases the support CT applications in geochemistry and petrology are tedious to maintain as new data and observations arise. What is required to make the process more streamlined and responsive is a computational framework that permits the rapid generation of observable outcomes from the underlying data/model collections, and importantly, the ability to update and re-parameterize the constitutive models through direct manipulation of those outcomes. CT procedures that take models/data to the experiential reference frame of phase equilibria involve function minimization, gradient evaluation, the calculation of implicit lines, curves and surfaces, contour extraction, and other related geometrical measures. All these procedures are the mainstay of image processing analysis. Since the commercial escalation of video game technology, open source image processing libraries have emerged (e.g., VTK) that permit real time manipulation and analysis of images. These tools find immediate application to CT calculations of phase equilibria by permitting rapid calculation and real time feedback between model outcome and the underlying model parameters.

  6. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ways of incorporating photographic images in learning and assessing high school biology: A study of visual perception and visual cognition (United States)

    Nixon, Brenda Chaumont

    This study evaluated the cognitive benefits and costs of incorporating biology-textbook and student-generated photographic images into the learning and assessment processes within a 10th grade biology classroom. The study implemented Wandersee's (2000) 20-Q Model of Image-Based Biology Test-Item Design (20-Q Model) to explore the use of photographic images to assess students' understanding of complex biological processes. A thorough review of the students' textbook using ScaleMaster R with PC Interface was also conducted. The photographs, diagrams, and other representations found in the textbook were measured to determine the percentage of each graphic depicted in the book and comparisons were made to the text. The theoretical framework that guided the research included Human Constructivist tenets espoused by Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak (2000). Physiological and cognitive factors of images and image-based learning as described by Robin (1992), Solso (1997) and Wandersee (2000) were examined. Qualitative case study design presented by Yin (1994), Denzin and Lincoln (1994) was applied and data were collected through interviews, observations, student activities, student and school artifacts and Scale Master IIRTM measurements. The results of the study indicate that although 24% of the high school biology textbook is devoted to photographic images which contribute significantly to textbook cost, the teacher and students paid little attention to photographic images other than as aesthetic elements for creating biological ambiance, wasting valuable opportunities for learning. The analysis of the photographs corroborated findings published by the Association American Association for the Advancement of Science that indicated "While most of the books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful, because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained" (Roseman, 2000, p. 2). The findings also indicate that applying the 20-Q

  8. Publishing WWII aerial photographs in geographical and library information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, E.C.H.; Missel, L.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Rip, F.I.


    The Library of the Dutch Wageningen University and Research centre houses a collection of aerial photographs taken by the Allied Air Forces. The collection is part of a project that aims to publish these images in a user friendly way so that they are accessible to a wide audience. This paper

  9. Photographic Documentation of Emerald Spreadwing at TA-3, LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foy, Bernard R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a considerable amount of suitable habitat for odonates, or dragonflies and damselflies. Few of these have been properly documented, however. With photographic documentation, the quality and size of odonate habitat on land owned by the Department of Energy will become more apparent to land managers.

  10. Kodak Picture Exchange--Online Access to Photographs and Images. (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.


    Describes the Kodak Picture Exchange that includes a database of over 200,000 photographic images collected from 28 stock photography companies in the United States that allows the user to search for images by topic. Highlights include installing the software, alternative search strategies, costs, manipulating images, and rules governing the use…

  11. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station (United States)


    One of the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery took this photograph, from the aft flight deck of the Discovery, of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit. The photo was taken after separation of the orbiter Discovery from the ISS after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange.

  12. STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station (United States)


    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, and sporting a readily visible new addition in the form of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the International Space Station was photographed following separation from the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  13. Classroom Photographs: Reframing What and How We Notice (United States)

    Oslund, Joy A.; Crespo, Sandra


    Improving the mathematical experiences of students depends on teachers' commitment and support for reflecting on and learning from their classroom teaching experience. In this article, the authors invite readers to consider using classroom photographs as tools for learning in a professional learning community (PLC) and perhaps as a stepping…

  14. Picturing Equality: Exploring Civil Rights' Marches through Photographs (United States)

    Santoli, Susan; Vitulli, Paige; Giles, Rebecca


    Exploring controversial and difficult events and issues with young children can be challenging. The Civil Rights Movement is an abstract, perhaps remote, issue for young children today. However, it is an important part of our country's history and a theme worthy of study. This article suggests ways to use photographs to explore this mature subject…

  15. Emerging memory : photographs of colonial atrocity in Dutch cultural remembrance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822892


    Emerging Memory is about cultural memory in the Netherlands of a military expedition in the Dutch East Indies in 1904, during which the colonial army made photographs of the massacred inhabitants of several villages on the island of Sumatra. Over the past century, as this study shows, these

  16. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)


    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  17. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonetheless, photography has equally been appropriated by the people to project their dignity in contrast to the images widely represented. These photographs of how the indigenes saw themselves were often kept in private collections, such as family albums. This essay attempts to look at how photography was employed ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    being inferior, poor and violent. Nonetheless, photography has equally been appropriated by the people to project their dignity in contrast to the images widely represented. These photographs of how the indigenes saw themselves were often kept in private collections, such as family albums. This essay attempts to look at.

  19. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori


    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  20. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon (United States)


    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.