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Sample records for rapid onset runs

  1. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))

    1990-06-25

    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.

  2. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  3. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running

    OpenAIRE

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Company, Joseph M.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Christian K.; Roberts, Michael D.; Booth, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated wi...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

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    ... parkinsonism have been diagnosed with anxiety, social phobias, depression, and seizures. It is unclear whether these disorders are related to the genetic changes that cause rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism . Related ...

  5. Hierarchical vs degenerate 2HDM. The LHC run 1 legacy at the onset of run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, G.C. [Sussex Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Huber, S.J.; Mimasu, K.; No, J.M. [Sussex Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-15

    Current discussions of the allowed two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) parameter space after LHC Run 1 and the prospects for Run 2 are commonly phrased in the context of a quasi-degenerate spectrum for the new scalars. Here we discuss the generic situation of a 2HDM with a non-degenerate spectrum for the new scalars. This is highly motivated from a cosmological perspective since it naturally leads to a strongly first order electroweak phase transition that could explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. While constraints from measurements of Higgs signal strengths do not change, those from searches of new scalar states get modified dramatically once a non-degenerate spectrum is considered.

  6. Western equine encephalitis with rapid onset of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G

    1977-11-01

    A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.

  7. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

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    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  8. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Ruegsegger

    Full Text Available In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05 between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  9. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Company, Joseph M; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Christian K; Roberts, Michael D; Booth, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  10. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism.

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    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging.

  11. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

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    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  12. A probabilistic assessment of the rapidity of PETM onset.

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    Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Hull, Pincelli M; Kump, Lee R; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-08-25

    Knowledge of the onset duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum-the largest known greenhouse-gas-driven global warming event of the Cenozoic-is central to drawing inferences for future climate change. Single-foraminifera measurements of the associated carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise (South Atlantic Ocean) are controversial, as they seem to indicate geologically instantaneous carbon release and anomalously long ocean mixing. Here, we fundamentally reinterpret this record and extract the likely PETM onset duration. First, we employ an Earth system model to illustrate how the response of ocean circulation to warming does not support the interpretation of instantaneous carbon release. Instead, we use a novel sediment-mixing model to show how changes in the relative population sizes of calcareous plankton, combined with sediment mixing, can explain the observations. Furthermore, for any plausible PETM onset duration and sampling methodology, we place a probability on not sampling an intermediate, syn-excursion isotopic value. Assuming mixed-layer carbonate production continued at Maud Rise, we deduce the PETM onset was likely <5 kyr.Single-foraminifera measurements of the PETM carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise have been interpreted as indicating geologically instantaneous carbon release. Here, the authors explain these records using an Earth system model and a sediment-mixing model and extract the likely PETM onset duration.

  13. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

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    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

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    Chakor, Rahul Tryambak; Santosh, Nandanavana Subbareddy

    2013-07-01

    Onset of dementia before 65 years of age is termed as young-onset dementia (YOD). Very little literature exists regarding the clinical features and diagnoses of dementia in younger individuals. We present a case series of four patients of age 10 to 23 years with severe dementia within 18 months of clinical onset (rapidly progressive dementia). Three patients had generalised periodic complexes typical of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) on electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG measles antibodies. Our case series highlights that SSPE is an important cause of rapidly progressive YOD in developing countries like India.

  15. An independent elderly woman with rapid onset of coma.

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    Xu, Jindong; Yachnis, Anthony T; Malaty, Irene

    2014-08-01

    A 75-year-old woman was transferred from a local hospital because of rapid progression to coma preceded by lower back pain and recurrent falls. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis at the local hospital revealed increased protein with a slightly elevated white blood cell count. Our imaging studies revealed multiple punctate foci with nodular enhancement in the brain and multifocal cystic lesions on the chest and abdomen. The patient was empirically treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids without improvement. She died 3 days after transfer, and autopsy was performed. The differential diagnosis, pathologic findings, and final diagnosis are discussed.

  16. Sporadic rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism presenting as Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Daan J.; Koelman, Hans; Lees, Andrew J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a 38-year-old patient with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a missense mutation in the Na/K-ATPase alpha3 subunit (ATP1A3). Asymmetrical parkinsonian symptoms evolved over a year. After a stable episode of another 2.5 years, overnight he developed oromandibular dystonia and

  17. Sporadic rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism presenting as Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, DJ; Koelman, H; Lees, AJ; Tijssen, MAJ

    We report on a 38-year-old patient with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a missense mutation in the Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit (ATP1A3). Asymmetrical parkinsonian symptoms evolved over a year. After a stable episode of another 2.5 years, overnight he developed oromandibular dystonia and

  18. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

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    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  19. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  20. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  1. Considerations in selecting rapid-onset opioids for the management of breakthrough pain

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    Perelman M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Perelman, Suzan LeakeArchimedes Pharma, Bedminister, NJ, USAWe read with great interest the recent publication by Smith.1 This article provides a valuable perspective on the selection of an agent to manage breakthrough pain. Smith recognizes the importance of a fast onset-of-action and the identification by Farrar et al2 of a 33% (often ≥2 point change in the pain intensity difference as a measure of a ‘clinically important improvement’. For these reasons, Smith focuses on the various transmucosal fentanyl formulations that offer a rapid onset and he provides a nice summary of the key features of each of the available products.View original paper by Howard S Smith.

  2. The phenotypic spectrum of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and mutations in the ATPIA3 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brashear, Allison; Dobyns, William B.; Aguiar, Patricia de Carvalho; Borg, Michel; Frijns, C. J. M.; Gollamudi, Seema; Green, Andrew; Guimaraes, Joao; Haake, Bret C.; Klein, Christine; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Muenchau, Alexander; Raymond, Deborah; Riley, David; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Webb, David; Zaremba, Jacek; Bressman, Susan B.; Ozelius, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) (also known as DYT12) is characterized by the abrupt onset of dystonia and parkinsonism and is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. We obtained clinical data and sequenced the ATP1A3 gene in 49 subjects from 21 families referred with 'possible' RDP, and

  3. The phenotypic spectrum of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and mutations in the ATP1A3 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brashear, Allison; Dobyns, William B.; de Carvalho Aguiar, Patricia; Borg, Michel; Frijns, C. J. M.; Gollamudi, Seema; Green, Andrew; Guimaraes, João; Haake, Bret C.; Klein, Christine; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Münchau, Alexander; Raymond, Deborah; Riley, David; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Webb, David; Zaremba, Jacek; Bressman, Susan B.; Ozelius, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) (also known as DYT12) is characterized by the abrupt onset of dystonia and parkinsonism and is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. We obtained clinical data and sequenced the ATP1A3 gene in 49 subjects from 21 families referred with 'possible' RDP, and

  4. An improved design of water-soluble propofol prodrugs characterized by rapid onset of action.

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    Lang, Bing-Chen; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Luo, Yun; Kang, Yi; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Phosphate ester prodrugs of propofol (fospropofol, HX0969W) were designed to avoid the unsatisfactory water solubility of the parent drug. However, in previous clinical trials, there were reported prodrug side effects such as paresthesia and pruritus. The accumulation of a phosphate ester component was found to be the main culprit. To exclude this potential risk, we designed 2 amino acid propofol prodrugs (HX0969-Gly-F3, HX0969-Ala-HCl) based on the lead compound (HX0969) by introducing the amino acid group into the structures of the propofol prodrugs. We hypothesized that the improved propofol prodrugs could not only eliminate those adverse effects but also retain their rapid action and good water solubility. The lead compound HX0969 was synthesized by the sodium borohydride-iodine system. HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl were synthesized from HX0969. The solubility of fospropofol, HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl in normal saline was tested. The bioconversions from those prodrugs to propofol in different physiological media (rat plasma, rhesus monkey plasma, and rat hepatic microsomes) were determined in vitro. An in vivo test in the rats was performed to measure the 50% effective dose (ED50) of the 4 propofol prodrugs. Their action onset time and duration time were also measured after their equipotent doses were given. (1) The water solubility of fospropofol, HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl was 461.46 ± 26.40 mg/mL, 189.45 ± 5.02 mg/mL, 49.88 ± 0.58 mg/mL, and 245.99 ± 4.83 mg/mL, respectively; (2) The hydrolysis tests in both the rat plasma and the rhesus monkey plasma revealed that the 2 amino acid prodrugs released propofol to a greater extent at a more rapid rate than the 2 phosphate prodrugs during the testing period of 5 hours. All 4 prodrugs released propofol rapidly in the presence of rat hepatic enzymes; (3) Compared with the previous prodrugs (fospropofol, HX0969W), the 2 novel compounds (HX0969-Gly-F3, HX0969-Ala

  5. Identical ATP1A3 mutation causes alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism phenotypes.

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    Boelman, Cyrus; Lagman-Bartolome, Ana Marissa; MacGregor, Daune L; McCabe, Jane; Logan, Willam J; Minassian, Berge A

    2014-12-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. We present a child with topiramate-responsive alternating hemiplegia of childhood who was tested for an ATP1A3 gene mutation. Gene sequencing revealed an identical ATP1A3 mutation as in three typical adult-onset rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism cases but never previously described in an alternating hemiplegia of childhood case. The discordance of these phenotypes suggests that there are other undiscovered environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors influencing the development of alternating hemiplegia of childhood or rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

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    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  7. Syndrome of rapid onset end stage renal disease in incident Mayo Clinic chronic hemodialysis patient

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    M. A. C. Onuigbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, a full understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD-end stage renal disease (ESRD progression remains elusive. The common consensus is a predictable, linear, progressive and time-dependent decline of CKD to ESRD. Acute kidney injury (AKI on CKD is usually assumed to be transient, with recovery as the expected outcome. AKI-ESRD association in current nephrology literature is blamed on the so-called "residual confounding." We had previously described a relationship between AKI events and rapid onset yet irreversible ESRD happening in a continuum in a high-risk CKD cohort. However, the contribution of the syndrome of rapid onset-ESRD (SORO-ESRD to incident United States ESRD population remained conjectural. In this retrospective analysis, we analyzed serum creatinine trajectories of the last 100 consecutive ESRD patients in 4 Mayo Clinic chronic hemodialysis units to determine the incidence of SORO-ESRD. Excluding 9 patients, 31 (34% patients, including two renal transplant recipients, had SORO-ESRD: 18 males and 13 females age 72 (range 50-92 years. Precipitating AKI followed pneumonia (8, acutely decompensated heart failure (7, pyelonephritis (4, post-operative (5, sepsis (3, contrast-induced nephropathy (2, and others (2. Time to dialysis was shortest following surgical procedures. Concurrent renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockade was higher with SORO-ESRD - 23% versus 5%, P = 0.0113. In conclusion, SORO-ESRD is not uncommon among the incident general US ESRD population. The implications for ESRD care planning, AV-fistula-first programs, general CKD care and any associations with renal ageing/senescence warrant further study.

  8. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Golam M.I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awak...

  9. ATP1A3 Mutation in Adult Rapid-Onset Ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen J Sweadner

    Full Text Available A 21-year old male presented with ataxia and dysarthria that had appeared over a period of months. Exome sequencing identified a de novo missense variant in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Several lines of evidence suggest that the variant is causative. ATP1A3 mutations can cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP with a similar age and speed of onset, as well as severe diseases of infancy. The patient's ATP1A3 p.Gly316Ser mutation was validated in the laboratory by the impaired ability of the expressed protein to support the growth of cultured cells. In a crystal structure of Na,K-ATPase, the mutated amino acid was directly apposed to a different amino acid mutated in RDP. Clinical evaluation showed that the patient had many characteristics of RDP, however he had minimal fixed dystonia, a defining symptom of RDP. Successive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed progressive cerebellar atrophy, explaining the ataxia. The absence of dystonia in the presence of other RDP symptoms corroborates other evidence that the cerebellum contributes importantly to dystonia pathophysiology. We discuss the possibility that a second de novo variant, in ubiquilin 4 (UBQLN4, a ubiquitin pathway component, contributed to the cerebellar neurodegenerative phenotype and differentiated the disease from other manifestations of ATP1A3 mutations. We also show that a homozygous variant in GPRIN1 (G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1 deletes a motif with multiple copies and is unlikely to be causative.

  10. The onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid recognition of visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    In 2 experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (ocular lexical decision task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye movement responses on a sequence of 4 words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a metalinguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest observable effect (divergence point [DP]) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time. Together, these distributional effects of semantic priming suggest that the influence of the prime increases when target processing is more effortful. This effect does not require that the task include a metalinguistic judgment; manipulation of the task goals across experiments affected the overall response speed but not the location of the DP or the overall distributional pattern of the priming effect. These results are more readily explained as the result of a retrospective, rather than a prospective, priming mechanism and are consistent with compound-cue models of semantic priming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Reperfusion does not improve impaired rapid-onset cortical plasticity in patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

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    Jonathan List

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA has been associated with impaired cognition in patients, but its effect on rapid-onset cortical plasticity is not known. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA in patients with severe ICA stenosis reduces stroke risk, but the impact on cognition or physiology of the respective hemisphere remains controversial. METHODS/RESULTS: 16 patients with severe stenosis of the ICA and 16 age and sex matched controls were included. Rapid-onset cortical plasticity was assessed using the paired-associative stimulation (PAS protocol. PAS models long-term synaptic potentiation in human motor cortex, combining repetitive stimulation of the peripheral ulnar nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. Cognitive status was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. In patients, verbal learning and rapid-onset cortical plasticity were significantly reduced as compared to controls. Identical follow-up tests in 9 of the 16 patients six months after CEA revealed no improvement of cognitive parameters or cortical plasticity. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased rapid-onset cortical plasticity in patients with severe stenosis of the ICA was not improved by reperfusion. Thus, other strategies known to increase plasticity should be tested for their potential to improve cortical plasticity and subsequently cognition in these patients.

  12. Characteristics of early- and late-onset rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junying; Zhang, Jihui; Du, Lina; Li, Zhe; Li, Yun; Lei, Fei; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Kushida, Clete A; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    To investigate demography and clinic and polysomnographic characteristics in Chinese rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients across onset ages. Ninety consecutive patients fulfilling the criteria for RBD were recruited for study in our sleep center. Patients were separated into early- and late-onset groups according to age when symptoms began (50 years, respectively). Ninety age- and gender-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All subjects were interviewed for their clinical history, completed an RBD questionnaire, and underwent an overnight video polysomnography assessment. Demographics, comorbidities, scores on the RBD questionnaire, sleep architecture, and EMG activity were compared between the patients and controls and between the early- and late-onset groups. Of all RBD patients, 63 were male, and mean age of RBD onset was 54.3±15.7 years. In 25 patients (28%), RBD was secondary and associated with neurodegenerative disease, narcolepsy or antidepressant use. Twenty-three patients (26%) had early-onset RBD and 67 (74%) were in the late-onset group. RBD patients had significantly more comorbidities, dreams and dream-enacting behaviors, and poorer sleep quality than did controls. The early-onset group had a high proportion of females (48%) and an increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy. The early-onset group also had fewer movements, lower EMG activity during REM sleep, and better sleep quality when compared to the late-onset group. EMG activity was positively correlated with age of onset. The mean follow-up time was 1.57±0.82 years, and four patients in the late-onset group were subsequently diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases. Stratifying patients into early and late-onset RBD revealed different characteristics from those previously described as typical for RBD. EMG activity during REM sleep was positively correlated with age of onset. We suggest that it will be valuable to explore the relationship

  13. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

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    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  14. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  15. Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

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    Dominique Endres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures.Case presentationHere, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction. She developed rapid onset symptoms, including apathy, verbal depletion up to a stuporous state, severe working memory deficits, evidence of primitive reflexes, disturbed Luria’s three-step test, and micturition disorder. Analysis of her cerebrospinal fluid was normal. The serum analyses showed increased antithyroid (antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. In the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, supratentorial deep and peripheral white matter lesions were found; the electroencephalography showed intermittent slowing, and the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depicted medial and superior dorsolateral frontal hypometabolism. Several different psychopharmacological therapeutic approaches with various neuroleptics, antidepressants, and high doses of lorazepam were unsuccessful. Due to the organic alterations, including increased antithyroid antibodies, HE was suspected. Against expectations, treatment with high-dose corticosteroids proved to be ineffective and was associated with worsening symptoms. However, escalated treatment with plasmapheresis over 5 days led to significant improvement in all reported symptoms and in psychometric testing. The neuropsychological improvement was stable over a 6-month follow-up period, and the FDG-PET normalized.ConclusionThis case report reveals that (1 HE can mimic rapid onset dementia with predominantly frontal dysfunction; (2 this

  16. Sex differences in the effect of wheel running on subsequent nicotine-seeking in a rat adolescent-onset self-administration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-04-01

    Wheel running attenuates nicotine-seeking in male adolescent rats; however, it is not known if this effect extends to females. To determine if wheel running during abstinence would differentially attenuate subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Male (n = 49) and female (n = 43) adolescent rats self-administered saline or nicotine (5 μg/kg) under an extended access (23-h) paradigm. Following the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for an abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2 h/day. Subsequently, nicotine-seeking was examined under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Due to low levels of nicotine-seeking in females in both wheel groups, additional groups were included that were housed without access to a running wheel during abstinence. Females self-administered more nicotine as compared to males; however, within males and females, intake did not differ between groups prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, males and females that self-administered nicotine showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction. Wheel running during abstinence attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction in males. In females, access to either locked or unlocked wheels attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction. While responding was reinstated by cues in both males and females, levels were modest and not significantly affected by exercise in this adolescent-onset model. While wheel running reduced subsequent nicotine-seeking in males, access to a wheel, either locked or unlocked, was sufficient to suppress nicotine-seeking in females.

  17. A case of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural crest tumor: ROHHADNET syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Ayhan; Catli, Gonul; Bayram, Erhan; Koroglu, Tolga; Olgun, Hatice Nur; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Hiz, Ayse Semra; Cakmakci, Handan; Bober, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disorder that mimics both common obesity and genetic obesity syndromes along with several endocrine disorders during early childhood. We aim to present the clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, and treatment outcomes of a patient with ROHHAD syndrome. In this case report, we describe a 26-month-old boy who was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea and cyanosis and was suspected to have ROHHAD syndrome due to his rapid-onset obesity and alveolar hypoventilation. A thoracal and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed to demonstrate a possible accompanying neural crest tumor and it provided a yet asymptomatic retroperitoneal ganglioneuroblastoma. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as ROHHADNET syndrome. Because of the high prevalence of cardiorespiratory arrest and probability of accompanying tumors, early recognition of ROHHAD syndrome is important. To prevent presumptive mortality and morbidity, ROHHAD syndrome should be considered in all cases of rapid and early-onset obesity associated with hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions.

  18. Large Pre- and Postexercise Rapid-Acting Insulin Reductions Preserve Glycemia and Prevent Early- but Not Late-Onset Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Walker, Mark; Trenell, Michael I.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Bracken, Richard M.; Bain, Stephen C.; West, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the acute and 24-h glycemic responses to reductions in postexercise rapid-acting insulin dose in type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After preliminary testing, 11 male patients (24 ± 2 years, HbA1c 7.7 ± 0.3%; 61 ± 3.4 mmol/mol) attended the laboratory on three mornings. Patients consumed a standardized breakfast (1 g carbohydrate ⋅ kg−1 BM; 380 ± 10 kcal) and self-administered a 25% rapid-acting insulin dose 60 min prior to performing 45 min of treadmill running at 72.5 ± 0.9% VO2peak. At 60 min postexercise, patients ingested a meal (1 g carbohydrate ⋅ kg−1 BM; 660 ± 21 kcal) and administered a Full, 75%, or 50% rapid-acting insulin dose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured for 3 h postmeal. Interstitial glucose was recorded for 20 h after leaving the laboratory using a continuous glucose monitoring system. RESULTS All glycemic responses were similar across conditions up to 60 min postexercise. After the postexercise meal, blood glucose was preserved under 50%, but declined under Full and 75%. Thence at 3 h, blood glucose was highest under 50% (50% [10.4 ± 1.2] vs. Full [6.2 ± 0.7] and 75% [7.6 ± 1.2 mmol ⋅ L−1], P = 0.029); throughout this period, all patients were protected against hypoglycemia under 50% (blood glucose ≤3.9; Full, n = 5; 75%, n = 2; 50%, n = 0). Fifty percent continued to protect patients against hypoglycemia for a further 4 h under free-living conditions. However, late-evening and nocturnal glycemia were similar; as a consequence, late-onset hypoglycemia was experienced under all conditions. CONCLUSIONS A 25% pre-exercise and 50% postexercise rapid-acting insulin dose preserves glycemia and protects patients against early-onset hypoglycemia (≤8 h). However, this strategy does not protect against late-onset postexercise hypoglycemia. PMID:23514728

  19. Late-onset running biphasically improves redox balance, energy- and methylglyoxal-related status, as well as SIRT1 expression in mouse hippocampus.

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    Stefano Falone

    Full Text Available Despite the active research in this field, molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced beneficial effects on brain physiology and functions are still matter of debate, especially with regard to biological processes activated by regular exercise affecting the onset and progression of hippocampal aging in individuals unfamiliar with habitual physical activity. Since such responses seem to be mediated by changes in antioxidative, antiglycative and metabolic status, a possible exercise-induced coordinated response involving redox, methylglyoxal- and sirtuin-related molecular networks may be hypothesized. In this study, hippocampi of CD1 mice undergoing the transition from mature to middle age were analyzed for redox-related profile, oxidative and methylglyoxal-dependent damage patterns, energy metabolism, sirtuin1 and glyoxalase1 expression after a 2- or 4-mo treadmill running program. Our findings suggested that the 4-mo regular running lowered the chance of dicarbonyl and oxidative stress, activated mitochondrial catabolism and preserved sirtuin1-related neuroprotection. Surprisingly, the same cellular pathways were negatively affected by the first 2 months of exercise, thus showing an interesting biphasic response. In conclusion, the duration of exercise caused a profound shift in the response to regular running within the rodent hippocampus in a time-dependent fashion. This research revealed important details of the interaction between exercise and mammal hippocampus during the transition from mature to middle age, and this might help to develop non-pharmacological approaches aimed at retarding brain senescence, even in individuals unfamiliar with habitual exercise.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in young- and older-onset Parkinson disease: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, R; Yadav, R; Pal, P K

    2014-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is common in Parkinson disease (PD). To determine the frequency of clinically probable RBD (cpRBD) in young-onset (21 to 40 years; OOPD) and characterize its pattern. A total of 156 patients with PD (YOPD-51, OOPD-105) were clinically examined and the presence of RBD was diagnosed using the minimal criteria for diagnosis of RBD (International Classification of Sleep Disorders, ICSD-1). RBD screening questionnaire based on the minimal criteria was used. The bed-partners were also interviewed with Mayo sleep questionnaire. Other scales included Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS III), Hoehn & Yahr stage, Mini Mental Status Examination, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleep Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. cpRBD was diagnosed in 30 (19.2%) patients, majority being OOPD rather than YOPD (86.7% vs. 13.3%; P=0.01). The frequency of RBD was significantly higher (P=0.016) in OOPD (24.8%) compared to those with YOPD (7.8%). Most often (72.4%) RBD occurred after the onset of parkinsonian symptoms. RBD was independently associated with higher global PSQI scores, total ESS scores and total PDSS scores after adjusting for the effects of age, gender, Hoehn & Yahr stage and duration of illness. Patients with RBD were older with later-onset motor symptoms, a more advanced stage, poorer sleep quality, and more frequent daytime sleepiness. Older-onset PD had a higher frequency of RBD than young-onset PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of red light running camera enforcement in Cedar Rapids and developing guidelines for selection and use of red light running countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Red light running (RLR) is a problem in the US that has resulted in 165,000 injuries and 907 fatalities annually. In Iowa, RLR-related crashes make up 24.5 percent of all crashes and account for 31.7 percent of fatal and major injury crashes at signa...

  2. Rapid-onset antidepressant efficacy of glutamatergic system modulators: the neural plasticity hypothesis of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Jing, Liang; Toledo-Salas, Juan-Carlos; Xu, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Depression is a devastating psychiatric disorder widely attributed to deficient monoaminergic signaling in the central nervous system. However, most clinical antidepressants enhance monoaminergic neurotransmission with little delay but require 4-8 weeks to reach therapeutic efficacy, a paradox suggesting that the monoaminergic hypothesis of depression is an oversimplification. In contrast to the antidepressants targeting the monoaminergic system, a single dose of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces rapid (within 2 h) and sustained (over 7 days) antidepressant efficacy in treatment-resistant patients. Glutamatergic transmission mediated by NMDARs is critical for experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning, processes that can be modified indirectly by the monoaminergic system. To better understand the mechanisms of action of the new antidepressants like ketamine, we review and compare the monoaminergic and glutamatergic antidepressants, with emphasis on neural plasticity. The pathogenesis of depression may involve maladaptive neural plasticity in glutamatergic circuits that may serve as a new class of targets to produce rapid antidepressant effects.

  3. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strom

    Full Text Available Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c. infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001 which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of familial cherubism characterized by early onset and rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortellaro, Carmen; Bello, Lucilla; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Pucci, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign maxillary bone dysplasia of childhood, usually showing an autosomically dominant inheritance with variable penetrance and spontaneously resolving after puberty. Only maxillary bones are affected and develop pseudocystic osteolytic lesions. This article presents an early and rapidly evolving familial case of cherubism. The 3-year-old child underwent conservative curettage of lesions, with a conservative approach that allowed a normal permanent dentition in adolescence. Family history revealed that the father had been treated for similar lesions between 14 and 21 years of age, but the late treatment caused edentulism. In conclusion, although cherubism represents a benign and localized maxillary dysplasia, it requires prompt surgical but conservative treatment and careful follow-up to avoid permanent lesions, that is, malocclusion and/or edentulism.

  5. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Rapid onset of comorbidity of common mental disorders: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, R; Bijl, R V; ten Have, M; Beekman, A T F; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    In a cohort of subjects with no history of psychopathology, we determined a 3-year incidence and the risk factors of comorbid and pure mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a longitudinal community study in which 4796 adults were interviewed in 1996, 1997 and 1999 with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Of 2869 cases at risk, 10.8% developed an incident disorder within 3 years, of which 16.1% was comorbid. Neuroticism, childhood trauma and parental psychiatric history were more strongly associated with comorbid than with pure disorders. No differences emerged in events occurring in the first year after baseline, but events in the period thereafter showed markedly stronger associations with comorbidity and pure mood disorder than with pure anxiety and substance use disorder. Functional disability was also linked more strongly to comorbidity and pure mood disorder. Clear risk factors exist for the rapid onset of comorbidity. Interventions are needed to prevent rapid comorbidity in subjects who recently developed a primary disorder.

  7. "ATP1A3" Mutations in Infants: A New Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism Phenotype Characterized by Motor Delay and Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Allison; Mink, Jonathan W.; Hill, Deborah F.; Boggs, Niki; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stacy, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Light, Laney S.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Morrison, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    We report new clinical features of delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia in two young children with mutations (R756H and D923N) in the "ATP1A3" gene. In adults, mutations in "ATP1A3" cause rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) with abrupt onset of fixed dystonia. The parents and children were examined and videotaped, and…

  8. A single dose of histamine-receptor antagonists before downhill running alters markers of muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Matthew R; Romero, Steven A; Sieck, Dylan C; Mangum, Joshua E; Luttrell, Meredith J; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    Histamine contributes to elevations in skeletal muscle blood flow following exercise, which raises the possibility that histamine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response to exercise. We examined the influence of antihistamines on postexercise blood flow, inflammation, muscle damage, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in a model of moderate exercise-induced muscle damage. Subjects consumed either a combination of fexofenadine and ranitidine (blockade, n = 12) or nothing (control, n = 12) before 45 min of downhill running (-10% grade). Blood flow to the leg was measured before and throughout 120 min of exercise recovery. Markers of inflammation, muscle damage, and DOMS were obtained before and at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. At 60 min postexercise, blood flow was reduced ~29% with blockade compared with control (P histamine-receptor blockade reduced postexercise blood flow, had no effect on the pattern of inflammatory markers, increased serum creatine kinase concentrations, attenuated muscle strength loss, and reduced pain perception following muscle-damaging exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Histamine appears to be intimately involved with skeletal muscle during and following exercise. Blocking histamine's actions during muscle-damaging exercise, via common over-the-counter antihistamines, resulted in increased serum creatine kinase, an indirect marker of muscle damage. Paradoxically, blocking histamine's actions attenuated muscle strength loss and reduced perceptions of muscle pain for 72 h following muscle-damaging exercise. These results indicate that exercise-induced histamine release may have a broad impact on protecting muscle from exercise-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  10. Modafinil Induces Rapid-Onset Behavioral Sensitization and Cross-Sensitization with Cocaine in Mice: Implications for the Addictive Potential of Modafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Berro, Laís F; Yokoyama, Thaís S; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Bizerra, Carolina S; Procópio-Souza, Roberta; Hashiguchi, Debora; Figueiredo, Lilian A; Costa, Jose L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Longo, Beatriz M

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg) induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16, 32, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4 h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine), in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4 h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.

  11. MODAFINIL INDUCES RAPID-ONSET BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND CROSS-SENSTIZATION WITH COCAINE IN MICE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADDICTIVE POTENTIAL OF MODAFINIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Wuo-Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine, in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.

  12. Modafinil Induces Rapid-Onset Behavioral Sensitization and Cross-Sensitization with Cocaine in Mice: Implications for the Addictive Potential of Modafinil

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Wuo-Silva; Daniela Fukushiro; André Hollais; Renan Baldaia; Elisa Kawamoto; Berro, Lais F. [UNIFESP; Thais Yokoyama; Leonardo Lopes-Silva; Carolina Bizerra; Roberta Procópio-Souza; Debora Hashiguchi; Lilian Figueiredo; Costa,José L.; Roberto Frussa-Filho; Beatriz Monteiro Longo

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of dru...

  13. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram

    2014-01-01

    -onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...... 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood...... that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence...

  14. Numerical analysis of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling: dependence of the saturation scale on nuclear size and rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Albacete, J L; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of including a running coupling constant in high-density QCD evolution. For fixed coupling constant, QCD evolution preserves the initial dependence of the saturation momentum $Q_s$ on the nuclear size $A$ and results in an exponential dependence on rapidity $Y$, $Q^2_s(Y) = Q^2_s(Y_0) \\exp{[ \\bar\\alpha_s d (Y-Y_0) ]}$. For the running coupling case, we re-derive analytical estimates for the $A$- and $Y$-dependences of the saturation scale and test them numerically. The $A$-dependence of $Q_s$ vanishes $\\propto 1/ \\sqrt{Y}$ for large $A$ and $Y$. The $Y$-dependence is reduced to $Q_s^2(Y) \\propto \\exp{(\\Delta^\\prime\\sqrt{Y+X})}$ where we find numerically $\\Delta^\\prime\\simeq 3.2$, approximately 12% smaller than analytical estimates. In contrast to previous analytical work, we find a marked difference between the anomalous dimension $1-\\gamma$ governing the large transverse momentum behaviour of the gluon distribution for fixed coupling ($\\gamma \\simeq 0.65$) and for running coupling ($\\gam...

  15. Chemical cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation in the emergency department using vernakalant hydrochloride achieves safe and rapid restoration of sinus rhythm and facilitates same day discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, P; Gilligan, P; Mahon, P; Sheahan, R

    2017-11-01

    Vernakalant hydrochloride is a rapid-acting antiarrhythmic drug licensed in the EU since 2010 for the conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation with proven efficacy and safety when compared with placebo and amiodarone in randomized clinical trials. The aim of our study was to determine the feasibility of same day discharge (following 2 h monitoring) from the emergency department after successful cardioversion using vernakalant hydrochloride. Patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation treated in the emergency department of a large Dublin academic teaching hospital. Patients received a maximum of two weight based 10 min infusions of vernakalant. Hypotensive events (>30% initial blood pressure), arrhythmias, conversion rates, and time to conversion were recorded. Sinus rhythm was restored in 35 out of 42 patients (83%) in an average of 8.8 min (median 8 min), average CHA2DS2-VASc of 0.92, HAS-BLED of 0.21 and average symptoms duration of 12 h. There were no hypotensive or arrhythmogenic events. 41 out of 42 patients were discharged after 2 h of monitoring. Vernakalant hydrochloride has provided a quick, safe, and practical means of achieving rapid restoration of sinus rhythm in our ED population with stable recent-onset AF who would otherwise not have undergone routine electrically cardioversion and same day discharge.

  16. Rapid onset of antidepressant action: a new paradigm in the research and treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Salvadore, Giacomo; Luckenbaugh, David A; Manji, Husseini K; Zarate, Carlos A

    2008-06-01

    Current therapeutics of depression are similar in their time to antidepressant action and often take weeks to months to achieve response and remission, which commonly results in considerable morbidity and disruption in personal, professional, family, and social life, as well as risk for suicidal behavior. Thus, treatment strategies presenting a rapid improvement of depressive symptoms--within hours or even a few days--and whose effects are sustained would have an enormous impact on public health. This article reviews the published data related to different aspects of rapid improvement of depressive symptoms. Literature for this review was obtained through a search of the MEDLINE database (1966-2007) using the following keywords and phrases: rapid response, antidepressant, time to, glutamate, sleep, therapeutics, latency, and depression. The data obtained were organized according to the following topics: clinical relevance and time course of antidepressant action, interventions showing evidence of rapid response and its potential neurobiological basis, and new technologies for better understanding rapid anti-depressant actions. A limited number of prospective studies evaluating rapid antidepressant actions have been conducted. Currently, only a few interventions have been shown to produce antidepressant response in hours or a few days. The neurobiological basis of these rapid antidepressant actions is only now being deciphered. Certain experimental treatments can produce antidepressant response in a much shorter period of time than existing medications. Understanding the molecular basis of these experimental interventions is likely to lead to the development of improved therapeutics rather than simply furthering our knowledge of current standard antidepressants.

  17. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dieting OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  18. Mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met in Na+, K+-ATPase, Associated with Familial Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, Interfere with Na+ Interaction by Distinct Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Vilsen, Bente

    The Na+, K+-ATPase plays key roles in brain function. Recently, missense mutations in the Na+, K+-ATPase were found associated with familial rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (FRDP). We have characterized the functional consequences of FRDP mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met. Both mutations lead...... function of the side chain, as well as its exact position, is critical for Na+ and ouabain binding. The effects of substituting Phe785 could be explained by structural modeling, demonstrating that Phe785 participates in a hydrophobic network between three transmembrane segments. Thr618 is located...

  19. Mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met in Na+, K+-ATPase, Associated with Familial Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, Interfere with Na+ Interaction by Distinct Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Vilsen, Bente

    The Na+, K+-ATPase plays key roles in brain function. Recently, missense mutations in the Na+, K+-ATPase were found associated with familial rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (FRDP). Here, we have characterized the functional consequences of FRDP mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met. Both mutations...... that the aromatic function of the side chain, as well as its exact position, is critical for Na+ and ouabain binding. Structural modeling demonstrates that substitution of Phe785 disturbs its participation in a hydrophobic network between three transmembrane segments. It also indicates that the Thr618Met mutation...

  20. Melatonin produces a rapid onset and prolonged efficacy in reducing depression-like behaviors in adult rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoran; Wang, Mengting; Wang, Yiqiang; Lian, Bo; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Gang; Li, Qi; Sun, Lin

    2017-03-06

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the rapidity and duration of melatonin as an antidepressant in a rat model of depression. The rats were subjected to a six-week period of unpredictable mild stress followed by melatonin treatment. Three groups of rats were included in this study: Controls (CON - no stress exposure), Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUS) and CUS followed by melatonin (MT). Stressors consisted of exposure to rotation on a shaker, placement in a chamber maintained at 4°C, lights off for 3h, lights on overnight, exposure to an aversive odor, 45° tilted cages, food and water deprivation and crowding and isolated housing. Subsequently, the saline vehicle (CUS) or melatonin was administered at a dose of 10mg/kg for 14days period. Body weight and behavioral tests were used to evaluate depression-like behavior and its recovery following melatonin treatment. While body weight increases were significantly lower in rats exposed to CUS versus CON, body weights of the MT group increased significantly following melatonin treatment as compared with the CUS group. With regard to results obtained with behavioral assays indicative of depression, rapid and long-term functional recoveries in depression were observed in the MT as compared to the CUS group. The results indicate that not only does melatonin induce an antidepressant-like action within this rat model of depression, but does so with a rapid onset and prolonged efficacy. As most current treatments for depression require an extended period of administration, our current results suggest that melatonin may prove to be a particularly effect agent to promote a rapid onset and prolonged behavioral benefits in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biosciences and Bioengineering; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Cellular and Structural Biology

    1995-12-31

    Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly ramped E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.

  2. EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation. Electroencephalograms. Rapid eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomoka; Ogilvie, Robert D; Murphy, Timothy I; Ferrelli, Anthony V

    2003-02-01

    To be the first to compare EEG power spectra during sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) and sleep onset NREM periods (NREMP) in normal individuals and relate this to dream appearance processes underlying these different types of sleep periods. Eight healthy undergraduates spent 7 consecutive nights in the sleep lab including 4 nights for SOREMP elicitation using the Sleep Interruption Technique. This enabled us to control preceding sleep processes between SOREMP and NREMP. EEG power spectra when participants did and did not report 'dreams' were compared between both types of sleep. Sleep stages, subjective measurements including dream property scores, sleepiness, mood, and tiredness after awakenings were also examined to determine their consistency with EEG findings. Increased alpha EEG activities (11.72-13.67 Hz) observed mainly in the central area were related to the absence of SOREMP dreams and appearance of NREMP dreams. Analyses of sleep stages combining two studies (16 participants) also supported the Fast Fourier Transform findings, showing that when dreams were reported there were decreased amounts of stage 2 and increased stage REM in SOREMP and increased stage W in NREMP. SOREMP dreams were more bizarre than NREMP dreams. Participants felt more tired after SOREMP with dreams than without dreams, while the opposite was observed after NREMP episodes. EEG power spectra patterns reflected different physiological mechanisms underlying generation of SOREMP and NREMP dreams. The same relationships were also reflected by sleep stage analyses as well as subjective measurements including dream properties and tiredness obtained after awakenings. This study not only supports the hypothesized relationships between REM mechanisms and REM dreams as well as arousal processes and NREM dreams, it also provides a new perspective to dream research due to its unique techniques to awaken participants and collect REM dreams during experimentally induced SOREMP.

  3. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal late onset sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, Marre; Peters, Remco P H; Catsburg, Arnold; Rubenjan, Anna; Broeke, Ferdi J; van den Dungen, Frank A M; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; van Furth, A Marceline; Kõressaar, Triinu; Remm, Maido; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Bos, Martine P

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of late onset sepsis (LOS), a severe condition with high prevalence in preterm infants, is hampered by the suboptimal sensitivity and long turnaround time of blood culture. Detection of the infecting pathogen directly in blood by PCR would provide a much more timely result. Unfortunately, PCR-based assays reported so far are labor intensive and often lack direct species identification. Therefore we developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay tailored to LOS diagnosis which is easy-to-use, is applicable on small blood volumes and provides species-specific results within 4h. Species-specific PCR assays were selected from literature or developed using bioinformatic tools for the detection of the most prevalent etiologic pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. and Serratia marcescens. The PCR assays showed 100% specificity, full coverage of the target pathogens and a limit of detection (LOD) of ≤10CFUeq./reaction. These LOD values were maintained in the multiplex format or when bacterial DNA was isolated from blood. Clinical evaluation showed high concordance between the multiplex PCR and blood culture. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex PCR that allows the direct detection of the most important bacterial pathogens causing LOS in preterm infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome may have a hypothalamus-periaqueductal gray localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cristelle; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Das, Lena; Menon, Anuradha P; Vasanwala, Rashida; Lam, Joyce C M; Ng, Zhi Min; Ling, Simon Robert; Chan, Derrick W S; Choong, Chew Thye; Liew, Wendy K M; Thomas, Terrence

    2015-05-01

    Anatomical localization of the rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome has proved elusive. Most patients had neuroimaging after cardiorespiratory collapse, revealing a range of ischemic lesions. A 15-year-old obese boy with an acute febrile encephalopathy had hypoventilation, autonomic dysfunction, visual hallucinations, hyperekplexia, and disordered body temperature, and saltwater regulation. These features describe the ROHHAD syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis, elevated neopterins, and oligoclonal bands, and serology for systemic and antineuronal antibodies was negative. He improved after receiving intravenous steroids, immunoglobulins, and long-term mycophenolate. Screening for neural crest tumors was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain early in his illness showed focal inflammation in the periaqueductal gray matter and hypothalamus. This unique localization explains almost all symptoms of this rare autoimmune encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid onset of iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency in a patient with cystic fibrosis-related liver disease treated with inhaled corticosteroids and a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Wynton C; Britton, LaCrecia J; Gardner, Jay; Jackson, Tracy; Gutierrez, Hector

    2011-07-01

    To report the rapid onset of adrenal insufficiency and subsequent development of Cushing syndrome precipitated by a CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interaction that may have been enhanced by the presence of cystic fibrosis (CF)-related liver disease. A 9-year-old girl with CF and cirrhosis experienced a decline in lung function that led to a diagnosis of asthma. After initiation of asthma therapy with inhaled fluticasone 110 μg/actuation, the patient experienced improvement in lung function to baseline. Seven weeks after the initiation of inhaled fluticasone, she developed vaginal candidiasis and was prescribed fluconazole 100 mg/day, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Three days after starting fluconazole, she developed polyuria and polydipsia and was found to have severe hyperglycemia, which led to the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Fluticasone was discontinued, and the patient's adrenal function normalized. Patients with CF are commonly prescribed complex medication regimens that may affect drug metabolism. CYP3A4 inhibitors may significantly decrease metabolic clearance in patients using chronic inhaled corticosteroids. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome has been reported in patients with CF treated concomitantly, and for extended duration, with inhaled corticosteroids and CYP3A4 inhibitors. This case highlights rapid onset of adrenal insufficiency in a patient with CF-related liver disease treated briefly with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Use of the Horn drug interaction probability scale indicates that the interaction between fluticasone and fluconazole was probable. CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions represent a significant risk in patients treated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids. The presence of clinically significant CF-related liver disease may enhance this risk.

  6. Rapid onset of treatment effects on psychosis, depression, and mania in patients with acute exacerbation of schizoaffective disorder following treatment with oral extended-release paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Bossie, Cynthia A; Patel, Hiren; Alphs, Larry

    2016-03-15

    Patients with schizoaffective disorder (SCA) experience complicated interplays of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms. Paliperidone extended-release (pali ER) tablets have been shown to be efficacious in these patients, but treatment response has not been studied relative to the onset of effects for these symptom domains. In a pooled analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, the onset of treatment effects with oral pali ER was evaluated by symptom domain (psychosis, depression, mania) in patients with an acute SCA exacerbation. Subjects were categorized as having prominent psychotic (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score >70), depressive (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 score ≥16), or manic (Young Mania Rating Scale score ≥16) symptoms at baseline. Of the 614 patients in these analyses, 597 (97.2%), 411 (66.9%), and 488 (79.5%) had prominent psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms at baseline, respectively. Pali ER treatment was associated with rapid and significant improvement of all three symptom domains versus placebo within 1 week of initiation, regardless of whether treatment was given as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. Adverse events were similar to those reported in the original published studies. This post hoc analysis of two phase 3 trials requires confirmation in prospective studies. This pooled analysis suggests that treatment with pali ER is associated with rapid control of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms in patients with SCA. Its findings support the benefit of pali ER as a primary treatment for the management of SCA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid onset of perfused blood vessels after implantation of ECFCs and MPCs in collagen, PuraMatrix and fibrin provisional matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patrick; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Bischoff, Joyce

    2015-05-01

    We developed an in vivo vascularization model in which human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) form blood vessel networks when co-injected (ECFC + MPC) into nude mice in rat tail type I collagen, bovine fibrin or synthetic peptide PuraMatrix matrices. We used three approaches to determine the onset of functional vascularization when ECFC + MPC suspended in these matrices were implanted in vivo. The first was immunohistochemistry to detect vessels lined by human endothelial cells and filled with red blood cells. The second was in vivo vascular staining by tail vein injection of a mixture of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for human endothelium, and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GS-IB4 ), a lectin specific for rodent endothelium. The third approach employed contrast-enhanced ultrasound to measure the perfusion volumes of implants in individual animals over time. Human endothelial-lined tubular structures were detected in vivo on days 1 and 2 after implantation, with perfused human vessels detected on days 3 and 4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed significant perfusion of ECFC + MPC/collagen implants on days 1-4, at up to 14% perfused vascular volume. ECFC + MPC implanted in fibrin and PuraMatrix matrices also supported perfusion at day 1, as assessed by ultrasound (at 12% and 23% perfused vascular volume, respectively). This model demonstrates that ECFC + MPC suspended in any of the three matrices initiated a rapid onset of vascularization. We propose that ECFC + MPC delivered in vivo provide a means to achieve rapid perfusion of tissue-engineered organs or for in situ tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles; de la Llera, Juan Carlos; Lara, Luis E; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2011-10-19

    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile's southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours (ref. 1) and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  9. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    ATP1A3 mutations have now been recognized in infants and children presenting with a diverse group of neurological phenotypes, including Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and most recently, Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Existing literature on ATP1A3-related disorders in the pediatric population were reviewed, with attention to clinical features and associated genotypes among those with RDP, AHC, or CAPOS syndrome phenotypes. While classically defined phenotypes associated with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes are distinct, common elements among ATP1A3-related neurological disorders include characteristic episodic neurological symptoms and signs that vary in severity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Affected children typically present in the context of an acute onset of paroxysmal, episodic neurological symptoms ranging from oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, paralysis, dystonia, ataxia, seizure-like episodes, or encephalopathy. Neurodevelopmental delays or persistence of dystonia, chorea, or ataxia after resolution of an initial episode are common, providing important clues for diagnosis. The phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders continues to expand beyond the distinct yet overlapping phenotypes in patients with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes. ATP1A3 mutation analysis is appropriate to consider in the diagnostic algorithm for any child presenting with episodic or fluctuating ataxia, weakness or dystonia whether they manifest persistence of neurological symptoms between episodes. Additional work is needed to better identify and classify affected patients and develop targeted treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of rapid-onset oral fentanyl formulations vs. oral morphine for cancer-related breakthrough pain: a meta-analysis of comparative trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Ravi; Fullarton, John R; Bennett, Michael I

    2013-10-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is widely recognized as a clinically significant complication of chronic cancer pain. With most BTcP episodes peaking in intensity within a few minutes and lasting for approximately 30 minutes, speed of onset is crucial for effective pain management. Although the last decade has seen the development of a number of rapid-onset fentanyl preparations, BTcP is still typically managed by supplemental or rescue doses of the patient's around-the-clock medication, such as oral morphine. Importantly, although the fentanyl preparations, such as fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT), sublingual fentanyl citrate orally disintegrating tablet (ODT), and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate lozenge (OTFC), have all been proven to be efficacious in clinical studies, oral morphine has never been specifically tested in BTcP, other than as a comparator in studies of OTFC and fentanyl pectin nasal spray. To determine the relative contributions to pain relief from oral morphine and the fentanyl preparations using placebo as a common comparator. Relevant studies were identified by review of the literature and used in a mixed-treatment meta-analysis to indirectly compare fentanyl preparations, morphine, and placebo for the treatment of BTcP. Analysis incorporating the five relevant studies identified revealed that although the fentanyl preparations provide superior pain relief vs. placebo in the first 30 minutes after dosing (FBT provided an 83% probability of superior pain relief, ODT 66%, and OTFC 73% vs. placebo), oral morphine performed little better than placebo (56% probability). This mixed-treatment analysis suggests that FBT, ODT, and OTFC might provide more efficacious treatment options than oral morphine for BTcP. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A mouse model for inducible overexpression of Prdm14 results in rapid-onset and highly penetrant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L. Carofino

    2013-11-01

    PRDM14 functions in embryonic stem cell (ESC maintenance to promote the expression of pluripotency-associated genes while suppressing differentiation genes. Expression of PRDM14 is tightly regulated and typically limited to ESCs and primordial germ cells; however, aberrant expression is associated with tumor initiation in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. Here, we describe the generation of a Cre-recombinase-inducible mouse model for the spatial and temporal control of Prdm14 misexpression [ROSA26 floxed-stop Prdm14 (R26PR]. When R26PR is mated to either of two Cre lines, Mx1-cre or MMTV-cre, mice develop early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with median overall survival of 41 and 64 days for R26PR;Mx1-cre and R26PR;MMTV-cre, respectively. T-ALL is characterized by the accumulation of immature single-positive CD8 cells and their widespread infiltration. Leukemia is preceded by a dramatic expansion of cells resembling hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid-committed progenitors prior to disease onset, accompanied by a blockage in B-cell differentiation at the early pro-B stage. Rapid-onset PRDM14-induced T-ALL requires factors that are present in stem and progenitor cells: R26PR;dLck-cre animals, which express Prdm14 starting at the double-positive stage of thymocyte development, do not develop disease. PRDM14-induced leukemic cells contain high levels of activated NOTCH1 and downstream NOTCH1 targets, including MYC and HES1, and are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Greater than 50% of human T-ALLs harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1; thus, our model carries clinically relevant molecular aberrations. The penetrance, short latency and involvement of the NOTCH1 pathway will make this hematopoietic R26PR mouse model ideal for future studies on disease initiation, relapse and novel therapeutic drug combinations. Furthermore, breeding R26PR to additional Cre

  12. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Casrouge, Armanda; Huot, Nicolas; Passaes, Caroline; Lécuroux, Camille; Essat, Asma; Boufassa, Faroudy; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Angin, Mathieu; Gärtner, Kathleen; Garcia-Tellez, Thalía; Booiman, Thijs; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D.; Roques, Pierre; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Vaslin, Bruno; Dereudre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Ghislain, Mathilde; Rouzioux, Christine; Lambotte, Olivier; Albert, Matthew L.; Goujard, Cécile; Kootstra, Neeltje; Meyer, Laurence; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10. PMID:27509048

  13. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  14. Aberrant Purkinje cell activity is the cause of dystonia in a shRNA-based mouse model of Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Rachel; Tewari, Ambika; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2015-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the sodium pump are responsible for Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP). A pharmacologic model of RDP replicates the most salient features of RDP, and implicates both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder; dystonia is associated with aberrant cerebellar output, and the parkinsonism-like features are attributable to the basal ganglia. The pharmacologic agent used to generate the model, ouabain, is selective for sodium pumps. However, close to the infusion sites in vivo it likely affects all sodium pump isoforms. Therefore, it remains to be established whether selective loss of α3-containing sodium pumps replicates the pharmacologic model. Moreover, while the pharmacologic model suggested that aberrant firing of Purkinje cells was the main cause of abnormal cerebellar output, it did not allow the scrutiny of this hypothesis. To address these questions RNA interference using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) delivered via adeno-associated viruses (AAV) was used to specifically knockdown α3-containing sodium pumps in different regions of the adult mouse brain. Knockdown of the α3-containing sodium pumps mimicked both the behavioral and electrophysiological changes seen in the pharmacologic model of RDP, recapitulating key aspects of the human disorder. Further, we found that knockdown of the α3 isoform altered the intrinsic pacemaking of Purkinje cells, but not the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Therefore, acute knockdown of proteins associated with inherited dystonias may be a good strategy for developing phenotypic genetic mouse models where traditional transgenic models have failed to produce symptomatic mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Advani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT, such as door-to-needle (DTN times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320 treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol. Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results: In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03, a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01 and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p Conclusions: The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers.

  16. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  17. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  18. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  19. Running Club

    CERN Document Server

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  20. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  2. Running Club

    CERN Document Server

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  4. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  5. Systematic review on the rapidity of the onset of action of topical treatments in the therapy of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A; Starke, G; Rosumeck, S; Nast, A

    2014-03-01

    The time until a patient achieves a relevant improvement during the treatment of a skin disease is important for selecting a therapy, but has been largely neglected in reviews and guidelines. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the time until the onset of action (TOA) of topical acne treatments. The primary outcome was the TOA defined as the time until a 25% reduction in the mean number of inflammatory lesions had been achieved. A systematic literature search in Medline and Embase was carried out. Clinical trials that evaluated head-to-head comparisons of treatments in patients suffering from mild-to-moderate papulopustular acne were included. Abstract and full-text screening and data extraction were done independently by two investigators. With respect to inflammatory lesions, different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) or adapalene did not seem to influence the TOA. BPO seemed to act more quickly than isotretinoin and tretinoin. Adapalene showed a shorter TOA than isotretinoin. Conflicting results were seen when comparing adapalene with tretinoin, with a tendency for adapalene to be faster. Clindamycin/BPO seemed to act more quickly than adapalene. Inconsistent results were seen for the comparison of clindamycin/BPO and BPO alone with a slight indication of a shorter TOA for clindamycin/BPO. Adapalene/BPO and clindamycin/BPO showed comparable TOA. When interpreting the data, the different study designs and the limited study quality need to be taken into account. Further research is needed to identify treatments that offer an early onset of action and possibly help to optimize patients' adherence. TOA should be considered as an additional outcome in acne trials.

  6. Sudden Onset, Rapidly Expansile, Cervical Cystic Hygroma in an Adult: A Rare Case with Unusual Presentation and Extensive Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dokania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic hygroma (CH is a benign infiltrative malformation of the lymphatic channels. We report a case of a 28-year-old Indian female who presented with rapidly enlarging right sided neck swelling over the posterior triangle since 5 days. Complete resection of CH is sometimes not amenable because of its infiltrative nature and involvement of surrounding vital structures. However, in our patient successful complete surgical resection was undertaken. The MRI findings of our patient were consistent with brachial cleft cyst; this posed a challenge in the diagnosis of CH. The histopathological analysis of the resected mass confirmed CH. CH is rare in adults and such an acute presentation is exceptionally atypical. History of prior trauma and infection are known etiological factors for adult CH; these were conspicuously absent in our patient. CH should be considered in the differentials of rapidly enlarging cystic swelling of posterior region of neck in adults. Optimal and timely management is necessary to achieve a favorable prognosis. Therefore, we report a case of rapidly enlarging cervical CH in an adult along with extensive literature review to have a better understanding regarding epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, optimal management, and prognosis of such a rare entity in adults.

  7. Genomic epidemiology of the Haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S K; Pearson, Ofori; Hicks, Nathan; Agrawal, Sonia; Sanjar, Fatemeh; Galens, Kevin; Daugherty, Sean; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Rene S; Price, Lance B; Upadhyay, Bishnu P; Shakya, Geeta; Fraser, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul S

    2014-11-04

    For centuries, cholera has been one of the most feared diseases. The causative agent Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne Gram-negative enteric pathogen eliciting a severe watery diarrheal disease. In October 2010, the seventh pandemic reached Haiti, a country that had not experienced cholera for more than a century. By using whole-genome sequence typing and mapping strategies of 116 serotype O1 strains from global sources, including 44 Haitian genomes, we present a detailed reconstructed evolutionary history of the seventh pandemic with a focus on the Haitian outbreak. We catalogued subtle genomic alterations at the nucleotide level in the genome core and architectural rearrangements from whole-genome map comparisons. Isolates closely related to the Haitian isolates caused several recent outbreaks in southern Asia. This study provides evidence for a single-source introduction of cholera from Nepal into Haiti followed by rapid, extensive, and continued clonal expansion. The phylogeographic patterns in both southern Asia and Haiti argue for the rapid dissemination of V. cholerae across the landscape necessitating real-time surveillance efforts to complement the whole-genome epidemiological analysis. As eradication efforts move forward, phylogeographic knowledge will be important for identifying persistent sources and monitoring success at regional levels. The results of molecular and epidemiological analyses of this outbreak suggest that an indigenous Haitian source of V. cholerae is unlikely and that an indigenous source has not contributed to the genomic evolution of this clade. In this genomic epidemiology study, we have applied high-resolution whole-genome-based sequence typing methodologies on a comprehensive set of genome sequences that have become available in the aftermath of the Haitian cholera epidemic. These sequence resources enabled us to reassess the degree of genomic heterogeneity within the Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype and to refine boundaries and

  8. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  9. Young-Onset Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Parkinson's? › Young Onset Parkinson's Young-Onset Parkinson's 1. Symptoms 2. How Is Young-Onset PD ... of the foot Why Is Distinguishing Young-Onset Parkinson's Important? Socially, people who are affected by PD ...

  10. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  12. What is 'early onset dementia'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koho

    2009-06-01

    There are two types of dementia with early onset: (i) presenile dementias; and (ii) senile dementias with early onset. Most patients who develop dementia before 65 years of age have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The remainder are likely to have vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia, head injury, alcohol intoxication, or metabolic disorder. Presenile dementias, caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, usually occur in patients of presenile and are rarely seen in patients of senile age. Although the factors responsible for the accelerated onset of the illness are not fully known, genetic abnormalities appear to be important in some types of presenile dementia, such as frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Conversely, senile dementias such as sporadic AD and VaD commonly occur in patients of senile age. These disorders may also occur in patients of presenile age, although less frequently. Alzheimer's disease was originally classified as a 'presenile dementia'. Since the 1980s, 'senile dementia of Alzheimer type' (SDAT) and 'Alzheimer's disease' have been considered to belong to the same pathological entity and both are now known as 'dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT)' or merely 'Alzheimer's disease'. Rapid progression of cognitive impairment with neuropsychological syndromes and neurological symptoms has been considered a characteristic of early onset AD. However, recently, neurological symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, seizures, and myoclonic convulsions have been reported to occur infrequently in early onset AD, although language problems and visuospatial dysfunctions are common. There are at least three dominant genes that have been identified in cases of familial Alzheimer's disease with early onset, namely the amyloid precursor gene (APP), and the genes encoding presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2). Therefore, genetic abnormalities are important

  13. Age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essen, Emma von; Dreber, Anna; Ranehill, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Education has important short and long run implications for individual outcomes. In this paper we explore the association between age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes in a sample of Swedish girls. Previous research suggests that girls that mature earlier perform worse in school compared...

  14. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Children in day-care centres are at a higher risk. • Breast-feeding less than 3 months. Other conditions which may mimic acute purulent otitis media should be considered when evaluating a patient with a running ear.These are listed in Table I. To outrun the running ear all these facts should be kept in mind when evaluating ...

  15. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runne...

  16. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runne...

  17. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  18. The relationship between negative addiction to running and running ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between negative addiction to running and running enjoyment amongst black Zulu-speaking South African runners: an exploratory study. ... running history and the importance placed by the participant on the running activity were shown to play a role in both running dependence and enjoyment processes.

  19. Departure from the onset-onset rule

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Siu

    1994-01-01

    Using a signal-detection task, the generality of Turvey's (1973) onset-onset rule was tested in four experiments. After seeing, in succession, (1) one or two letters (target display), (2) a multiletter detection display, and (3) a mask display, subjects decided whether or not the letter or letters in the target display reappeared in the succeeding detection display at different levels of detection-display duration in various situations. The subjects' sensitivity was inconsistent with the onse...

  20. Rapid screening of mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder by automated size-exclusion SPE-UPLC-MS/MS and quantification of matrix effects over the whole chromatographic run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu

    2015-04-15

    An automated, size-exclusion solid phase extraction (SPE)-UPLC-MS/MS protocol without pre-treatment of samples was developed to screen for four mycotoxins (OTA, ZEN, AFB1, and AFM1) in liquid milk and milk powder. Firstly, a mixed macropore-silica gel cartridge was established as a size-exclusion SPE column. The proposed methodology could be a candidate in green analytical chemistry because it saves on manpower and organic solvent. Permanent post-column infusion of mycotoxin standards was used to quantify matrix effects throughout the chromatographic run. Matrix-matched calibration could effectively compensate for matrix effects, which may be caused by liquid milk or milk powder matrix. Recovery of the four mycotoxins in fortified liquid milk was in the range 89-120% and RSD 2-9%. The LOD for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.05-2 ng L(-1) and 0.25-10 ng kg(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.1-5 ng L(-1) and 0.5-25 ng kg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  2. Running Like Crazy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rushin, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven years and four wives later, [Jerry Dunn] is still running. On Jan. 8,1995, Dunn paused near the nine-mile mark of the Walt Disney World Marathon in Orlando to marry, in front of Cinderella's Castle, fellow runner Elaine Doll...

  3. Running the rat race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASA Refresher Course Texts: Running the rat race. 74. 2014;20(1) ... and feelings of existential despair which characterise the human condition, to emerge as they are today: whole, satisfied, well .... Pure efficiency only exists on paper. In the ...

  4. Optimizing Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widule, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    The optimization of step length and step rate (frequency) is essential for sprinters. This article analyzes data that compare step rate and step length to height, as a function of running speed, for ten elite runners. How results of such analyses can be used in training runners is also discussed. (IAH)

  5. Age of onset or age at assessment-that is the question: Estimating newly incident alcohol drinking and rapid transition to heavy drinking in the United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui G; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Anthony, James C

    2017-10-15

    Age-specific incidence estimates are important and useful facts in psychiatric epidemiology, but incidence estimation can be challenging. Methods artifacts are possible. In the United States, where the minimum legal drinking age is 21 years, recent cross-sectional field research on 12- to 25-year-olds applied conventional "age-at-assessment" approaches (AAA) for incidence estimation based on 12-month recall. Estimates disclosed unexpected nonlinear patterns in age-specific incidence estimates for both drinking onset and for transitioning from first drink to heavy drinking. Here, our aim is to draw attention to an "age of onset" (AOO) alternative to AAA approaches and to verify whether the AOO approach also discloses nonlinearity. Yearly data are from U.S. nationally representative samples drawn and assessed for National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014, with standardized audio computer-assisted self-interview assessments for drinking outcomes. Both AAA and AOO approaches show nonlinearities, with an unexpected dip in drinking incidence rates after age 18 and before the age 21 minimum legal drinking age. The AOO and the AAA approaches disclosed similar age-specific patterns. We discuss advantages of the AOO approach when nonlinear incidence patterns can be anticipated, but we conclude that the AAA approach has not created an artifactual nonlinear pattern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  7. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  8. [Childhood-onset mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Blume-Peytavi, U; Maurer, M

    2012-02-01

    Mastocytoses are a group of rare diseases characterized, in most cases, by a benign proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in different tissues. In children, mastocytosis affects usually exclusively the skin and differs in many aspects from adult-onset mastocytosis. Except for diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis, which is an uncommon subtype of childhood-onset mastocytosis, involvement of the bone marrow or additional extracutaneous organs is rarely seen in children. The prognosis of childhood-onset mastocytosis is usually very good. Compared to adult patients who most commonly experience chronic-stable or slowly progressive disease, mastocytosis in children is mostly transient and self-limiting. In this review, we present and discuss the subtypes of childhood-onset mastocytosis, recent advances in the understanding of their pathogenesis as well as similarities and differences between adult- and childhood-onset mastocytosis.

  9. Adult-onset unilateral disabling pansclerotic morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarshlata Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM is a rare, severe, and mutilating form of morphea, involving the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscle, and even bone. It is usually seen before the age of 14 years, with the patient complaining of arthralgia and stiffness at the time of onset. We report a case of unilateral adult-onset DPM with sparing of the face. Within a few months of onset, painful contracture deformities of the hand, elbow, and shoulder joints developed, impairing the patient′s normal daily activities. We are reporting this case because of the unusual presentation: DPM in an adult, with history of trauma in childhood and rapid onset of complications, is rare.

  10. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  11. Young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R

    2013-09-01

    Young-onset dementia is a neurologic syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of a detailed medical history, a collateral history, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as young-onset dementia and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in young-onset dementia. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of young-onset dementia with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. PDU Run 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  13. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  14. Similar Running Economy With Different Running Patterns Along the Aerial-Terrestrial Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Gimenez, Philippe; Mourot, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    No unique or ideal running pattern is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into 2 categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare the RE of aerial and terrestrial runners. Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n = 29) or terrestrial (n = 29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations. RE, muscle activity, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters of both groups were measured during a 5-min run at 12 km/h on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max) and peak treadmill speed (PTS) were assessed during an incremental running test. No differences were observed between aerial and terrestrial patterns for RE, V̇O 2 max, and PTS. However, at 12 km/h, aerial runners exhibited earlier gastrocnemius lateralis activation in preparation for contact, less dorsiflexion at ground contact, higher coactivation indexes, and greater leg stiffness during stance phase than terrestrial runners. Terrestrial runners had more pronounced semitendinosus activation at the start and end of the running cycle, shorter flight time, greater leg compression, and a more rear-foot strike. Different running patterns were associated with similar RE. Aerial runners appear to rely more on elastic energy utilization with a rapid eccentric-concentric coupling time, whereas terrestrial runners appear to propel the body more forward rather than upward to limit work against gravity. Excluding runners with a mixed running pattern from analyses did not affect study interpretation.

  15. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  16. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  17. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  18. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  19. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  20. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00207984

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  1. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  2. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Pullinen, T; Candau, R; Avela, J; Huttunen, P; Komi, P V

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyzed. Blood samples were drawn to analyze serum creatine kinase activity (S-CK), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and blood lactate (B-La). A video analysis was performed (200 frames x s(-1)) to investigate running mechanics. A kinematic arm was used to determine the external work of each subject. The results of the present study demonstrate that after the marathon, a standardized 5-min submaximal running test resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate (P marathon, while sTnI and S-CK values increased (P marathon, respectively. With regard to the running kinematics, a minor increase in stride frequency and a similar decrease in stride length were observed (P running economy cannot be explained by changes in running mechanics. Therefore, it is suggested that the increased physiological loading is due to several mechanisms: increased utilization of fat as an energy substrate, increased demands of body temperature regulation, and possible muscle damage.

  4. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  5. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  6. Kenyan dominance in distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Henrik B

    2003-09-01

    Critical physiological factors for performance in running are maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), fractional VO(2max) utilization and running economy. While Kenyan and Caucasian elite runners are able to reach very high, but similar maximal oxygen uptake levels, the VO(2max) of black South African elite runners seems to be slightly lower. Moreover, the studies of black and white South African runners indicate that the former are able to sustain the highest fraction of VO(2max) during long distance running. Results on adolescent Kenyan and Caucasian boys show that these boys are running at a similar percentage of VO(2max) during competition. Kenyan elite runners, however, appear to be able to run at a high % of VO(2max) which must then have been achieved by training. A lower energy cost of running has been demonstrated in Kenyan elite runners and in untrained adolescent Kenyan boys compared to their Caucasian counterparts. In agreement with this are the results from studies on black South African elite runners who have shown similar low energy costs during running as the Kenyan elite runners. The good running economy cannot be explained by differences in muscle fibre type as they are the same in Kenyan and Caucasian runners. The same is true when comparing untrained adolescent Kenyan boys with their Caucasian counterparts. A difference exists in BMI and body shape, and the Kenyans long, slender legs could be advantageous when running as the energy cost when running is a function of leg mass. Studies comparing the response to training of Kenyans and Caucasians have shown similar trainability with respect to VO(2max), running economy and oxidative enzymes. Taken all these data together it appears that running at a high fractional VO(2max) and having a good running economy may be the primary factors favouring the good performance of endurance athletes rather than them having a higher VO(2max) than other elite runners. In addition to having the proper genes to shape

  7. Myocardial perfusion after marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Laaksonen, Marko S; Luotolahti, Matti; Laine, Hanna; Takala, Teemu O; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effects of acute prolonged exercise (marathon running) on cardiac function and myocardial perfusion. Cardiac dimensions and function were measured in seven endurance-trained men using echocardiography before and repeatedly after marathon (42.2 km) running (at 10 min, 150 min, and 20 h). Myocardial perfusion and perfusion resistance were measured using positron emission tomography and 15O-H2O before and 85-115 min after running. Echocardiographic indices showed only mild and clinically non-significant changes in cardiac function after running. Rate-pressure-corrected basal myocardial perfusion (0.89+/-0.13 vs. 1.20+/-0.32 mL min(-1) g(-1), P=0.04) was increased after running. Also, adenosine-stimulated perfusion tended to be higher (3.67+/-0.81 vs. 4.47+/-0.52 mL min(-1) g(-1), P=0.12) and perfusion resistance during adenosine stimulation was significantly lower after running (26+/-6 vs. 18+/-3 mmHg min g mL(-1), P=0.03). Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was significantly increased after running. These results show that marathon running does not cause marked changes in cardiac function in healthy men. Basal perfusion was increased after exercise, probably reflecting changes in fuel preferences to increased use of FFAs. Strenuous exercise also seems to enhance coronary reactivity, which could thereby serve as a protective mechanism to vascular events after exercise.

  8. Young-Onset Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R.

    2013-01-01

    Young-onset dementia (YOD) is an neurological syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of detailed medical history, collateral history from an informant, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of YOD is extensive and includes early-ons...

  9. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the exposure to running is pre-fixed in the running schedules and thereby conditioned by design. Time-to-event models will be used for analytical purposes. DISCUSSION: ProjectRun21 will examine if particular subgroups of runners with certain running experiences and running paces seem to sustain more running...

  10. Wheel running in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-07

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  11. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy Despite Biomechanical Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 years. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners over the age of 65 years retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Methods Fifteen young and fifteen older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s−1. We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e. metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. Results There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2–9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (p=0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10–20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (p=0.002) and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (prunning economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency, and therefore may make everyday activities easier. PMID:26587844

  12. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy despite Biomechanical Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M; Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D

    2016-04-01

    Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 yr. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners older than 65 yr retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Fifteen young and 15 older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s(-1). We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e., metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2% to 9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (P = 0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10% to 20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (P = 0.002), and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (P economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency and, therefore, may make everyday activities easier.

  13. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio de Oliveira Assumpção

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days, have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max. However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max. Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  14. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  15. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  16. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  17. Effects of prolonged running performed at the intensity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation, on maximum isokinetic strength in active non-athletic individuals Efeitos da corrida prolongada realizada na intensidade correspondente ao início do acúmulo do lactato no sangue na força máxima isocinética em indivíduos ativos não atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Denadai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of prolonged continuous running performed at the intensity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, on the peak torque of the knee extensors, analyzed in relation to different types of contraction and movement velocities in active individuals. METHOD: Eight men (23.4 ± 2.1 years; 75.8 ± 8.7 kg; 171.1 ± 4.5 cm participated in this study. First, the subjects performed an incremental test until volitional exhaustion to determine the velocity corresponding to OBLA. Then, the subjects returned to the laboratory on two occasions, separated by at least seven days, to perform five maximal isokinetic contractions of the knee extensors at two angular velocities (60 and 180º.s-1 under eccentric and concentric conditions. Eccentric peak torque (EPT and Concentric peak torque (CPT were measured at each velocity. One session was performed after a standardized warm-up period (5 min at 50% VO2max. The other session was performed after continuous running at OBLA until volitional exhaustion. These sessions were conducted in random order. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in CPT only at 60º.s-1 (259.0 ± 46.4 and 244.0 ± 41.4 N.m. However, the reduction in EPT was significant at 60º.s-1 (337.3 ± 43.2 and 321.7 ± 60.0 N.m and 180º.s-1 (346.1 ± 38.0 and 319.7 ± 43.6 N.m. The relative strength losses after the running exercise were significant different between contraction types only at 180º.s-1. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that, in active individuals, the reduction in peak torque after prolonged continuous running at OBLA may be dependent on the type of contraction and angular velocity.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da corrida contínua prolongada realizada na intensidade correspondente ao início do acúmulo do lactato no sangue (OBLA sobre o torque máximo dos extensores do joelho analisado em diferentes tipos de contração e

  18. How to run 100 meters?

    CERN Document Server

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: a system of ordinary differential equations, based on Newton's second law and energy conservation, is coupled to the condition of optimizing the time to run a fixed distance. We show that the monotony of the velocity curve vs time is the opposite of that of the oxygen uptake (V O2) vs time. Since the oxygen uptake is monotone increasing for a short run, we prove that the velocity is exponentially increasing to its maximum and then decreasing. For longer races, the oxygen uptake has an increasing start and a decreasing end and this accounts for...

  19. Effect Of Running Shoes on Foot Impact During Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Running is part of almost every sport, and requires a great amount of stamina, endurance, mental toughness and overall strength. At every step, the foot experiences ground reaction forces necessary to support the motion of the body. With the advancements in shoe technology, running shoes have grown in popularity among runners, as well as non-runners, because they reduce the risk of injuries from the impact felt by the foot. The purpose of this report is to analyze the effect of running shoes on impact forces on the foot. This is achieved through the use of three force pads fixed at different locations on the foot The force measured by each sensor is then used to estimate the vertical ground reaction force, using the sensors' calibrations equations . Based on the ground reaction force, the effective mass corresponding to the momentum change occurring during the transient phase of the impact is estimated. The results show that running at 9 miles per hour without running shoes generates an effective mass of (14....

  20. Early onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Halim; Borazanci, Aimee; Ait Ben Haddou, Elhachmia; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Korniychuk, Elena; Jaffe, Stephen L; Minagar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive faculties and occurrence of behavioral abnormalities which interfere with an individual's activities of daily living. Dementing disorders usually affect elderly individuals but may occur in individuals younger than 65 years (early-onset dementia or EOD). EOD is often misdiagnosed or its diagnosis is delayed due to the fact that it has a more varied differential diagnosis than late-onset dementia. EOD affects individuals at the height of their career and productivity and produces devastating consequences and financial loss for the patient's family as well as society. EOD is not uncommon and is diagnosed in up to a third of patients presenting with dementia. Most importantly, some of the causes of EOD are curable which makes the need for a specific and timely diagnosis crucial. The present chapter presents a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of EOD and provides readers with the clinical and neuroimaging features of these disorders as well as important considerations for their diagnostic evaluation. Specifically, the nuances of assessing the history and examination are discussed with careful attention to the various methods of cognitive and behavioral evaluation. A step-wise approach to diagnostic testing is followed by a discussion of anatomical localization, which often aids in identifying specific etiologies. Finally, in order to organize the subject for the reader, the various etiologies are grouped under the general categories of vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, immune-mediated, neoplastic/metastatic, and neurodegenerative.

  1. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2017-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  2. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry......BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  3. Younger Onset Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Janet; Duncan, Cathy; Grootemaat, Pamela; Capell, Jacquelin; Samsa, Peter; Westera, Anita

    2016-12-01

    This literature review focused on the experience, care, and service requirements of people with younger onset dementia. Systematic searches of 10 relevant bibliographic databases and a rigorous examination of the literature from nonacademic sources were undertaken. Searches identified 304 articles assessed for relevance and level of evidence, of which 74% were academic literature. The review identified the need for (1) more timely and accurate diagnosis and increased support immediately following diagnosis; (2) more individually tailored services addressing life cycle issues; (3) examination of the service needs of those living alone; (4) more systematic evaluation of services and programs; (5) further examination of service utilization, costs of illness, and cost effectiveness; and (6) current Australian clinical surveys to estimate prevalence, incidence, and survival rates. Although previous research has identified important service issues, there is a need for further studies with stronger research designs and consideration of the control of potentially confounding factors.

  4. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  5. The relationship between negative addiction to running and running ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For black South African runners, both intrinsic and achievement running enjoyment sources were more motivating than extrinsic or non-achievement factors. Extrinsic and achievement factors were more motivating for black South African runners compared to Macpherson's (1998) sample of white runners. These results ...

  6. How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion.

  7. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  8. Bremen Workshop : Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Schlütter, F.

    The objective of the workshop was a comparison between the prototype and the laboratory measurements. the emphasis is put on comparison between recorded run-up levels. Three enclosed reports present measurements and results from University of Ghent (UG)/ FCCD, Flanders Hydraulics (FH) and Aalborg...... University, respectively. These three reports have served as basis for the comparisons carried out during the workshop....

  9. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  10. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...

  11. Running free: embracing a healthy lifestyle through distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard; Holloway, Immy

    2010-11-01

    Sport and leisure activity contribute to both health and quality of life. There is a dearth of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of active people, so the aim of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the experiences of one particular group of active leisure participants, distance runners, and to highlight the associated health and well-being benefits that result from participating in this increasingly popular form of active leisure. In doing so, this paper will briefly explore the potential opportunities and implications for sport and leisure policy and provision, and highlight examples of how distance running could positively contribute towards government objectives linked to tackling obesity levels, healthy living and physical well-being. It is suggested that similar benefits also exist across other forms of physical activity, exercise and sport. Qualitative methods of enquiry were adopted to understand the nature of the social world of long distance runners through interviews and observations, which were thematically analyzed. One of the key themes emerging from the data was the desire to embrace a healthy lifestyle, which then led to the emergence of four main sub-themes. The first was linked to the importance of seeking self-esteem and confirmation through running; second, an investigation of a selection of negative aspects associated with exercise addiction; third, the need to exercise among sport and leisure participants; and finally, an understanding of the concept of the 'running body'. Cautionary notes also identified negative aspects associated with exercise and physical activity. The findings highlight the potential role that distance running can play as an easily accessible and enjoyable leisure activity, one that can help facilitate increased participation in exercise and physical activity as an integral part of an active and healthy lifestyle.

  12. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers develop due to rapidly chang...

  13. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive

  14. The ATLAS RunTimeTester

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS RunTimeTester is a job based software test system. The RunTimeTester runs jobs, and optional tests on the job outputs. Job and test results are reported via a web site. The system currently runs $\\approx$ 8000 jobs daily, and the web site receives $\\approx$ 25K hits a week. This note provides an overview of the system.

  15. Using AMPERE to Identify and Characterize Onsets of Birkeland Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Data from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) was used to study the development of the global Birkeland currents. The integrated total current was used to identify onsets of Birkeland currents preceded by periods of quiescence. Onset events were identified automatically by requiring quiescence for three hours preceding onset, an increase of a specified total current within 40 minutes, and sustained enhanced total current for 30 minutes. Three ranges of total current increase were chosen representing equal numbers of events: 1 to 1.2 MA; 1.2 to 1.5 MA, and greater than 1.5 MA. A Fermi function fit to the total current was used to identify an objective onset time used in superposed epoch analysis. The current onsets are closely correlated with enhancements of magnetospheric forcing as indicated by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BZ and the solar wind electric field. The dayside current quiescent baseline is seasonally dependent but the time profile preceding and through onset is consistent for all seasons. The average nightside total current baseline and onset profile are independent of season. The nightside onset is delayed relative to the increase of the dayside current and is 2.8 times more rapid than the dayside current increase. The fit AMPERE magnetic perturbations and radial currents were averaged to determine the average spatial development of the currents. While the dayside patterns of Birkeland currents depend on the IMF as expected for convection dependence on IMF BY, the nightside current distributions develop consistently regardless of the sign of the IMF BY and display a persistent Harang discontinuity signature. The analyses reveal that the development and intensification of nightside currents corresponds to strengthening of the currents at all local times. Unexpectedly, the strongest nightside onset occurs first in the post-midnight sector and not near the average sub-storm onset local time.

  16. A river runs through it

    OpenAIRE

    F P J G Lafeber

    2010-01-01

    A river runs through it is een waar gebeurd verhaal over twee jongens, Norman en Paul, die in het begin van de 20ste eeuw opgroeiden in landelijk Montana (Amerika). Norman is in zijn jeugd een gereserveerde persoonlijkheid, terwijl Paul een rebelse ondeugd is. Beiden hebben echter een grote liefde voor vliegvissen. Het verhaal, gedeeltelijk autobiografisch, is geschreven in 1976 door Norman Maclean1. Er is geen Nederlandse vertaling. Wel is het boek in 1992 verfilmd onder regie van Robert Red...

  17. Strategies to improve running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  18. Running is rewarding and antidepressive

    OpenAIRE

    Brené, Stefan; Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Åberg, Elin; Mathé, Aleksander A; Olson, Lars; Werme, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Natural behaviors such as eating, drinking, reproduction and exercise activate brain reward pathways and consequently the individual engages in these behaviors to receive the reward. However, drugs of abuse are even more potent to activate the reward pathways. Rewarding behaviors and addictive drugs also affect other parts of the brain not directly involved in the mediation of reward. For instance, running increases neurogenesis in hippocampus and is beneficial as an antidepressant in a genet...

  19. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  20. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  1. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  2. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  3. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  4. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  5. Liver transplantion in a patient with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex induced by manganism secondary to liver failure Transplante hepático em um paciente com complexo parkinsonismo-demência rapidamente progressivo induzido por manganismo devido a insuficiência hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fabiani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral and symmetric globus-pallidus hyperintensities are observed on T1-weighted MRI in most of the patients with chronic liver failure, due to manganese accumulation. We report a 53-year-old man, with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex associated with accumulation of manganese in the brain, secondary to liver failure. A brain MRI was performed and a high signal on T1-weighted images was seen on globus-pallidus, as well as on T2-weighted images on the hemispheric white-matter. He was referred to a liver-transplantation. The patient passed away on the seventh postoperative day. Our findings support the concept of the toxic effects of manganese on the globus-pallidus. The treatment of this form of parkinsonism is controversial and liver-transplantation should not be considered as first line treatment but as an alternative one.Hiperintesidades simétricas e bilaterais dos gânglios da base são observadas em imagens de ressonância magnética encefálica (RM ponderadas em T1 na maioria dos pacientes com insuficiência hepática crônica devidas ao acúmulo de manganês. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem, com 53 anos de idade, com um complexo parkinsonismo-demência rapidamente progressivo associado com o acúmulo de manganês no cérebro, secundariamente a insuficiência hepática. Uma RM encefálica foi realizada e foram observadas imagens hiperintensas/hipersinal nas imagens ponderadas em T1 no globo pálido e, também, na substância branca dos hemisférios cerebrais ponderadas em T2. Devido à falta de resposta ao tratamento clinico optamos pelo transplante hepático. O paciente faleceu no 7º dia de PO. Nossos achados corroboram o conceito dos efeitos tóxicos do manganês nos gânglios da base/globo pálido. O tratamento desta forma de parkinsonismo é controverso e o transplante hepático não deverá ser considerada uma opção terapêutica de primeira linha, porém como um tratamento alternativo considerando-se os riscos

  6. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  7. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  8. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  9. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  10. Variable Joint Elasticities in Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Stephan; Grimmer, Sten; Lipfert, Susanne W.; Seyfarth, Andre

    In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum from Running Sprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Turban

    2010-01-01

    A case of SPM is presented in a 15-year-old male, who complained of throat pain and dyspnea while running sprints at football practice. Workup revealed SPM, and he was subsequently admitted and treated conservatively. His symptoms resolved in 2 days and he was discharged and suffered no further recurrences. In contrast to secondary pneumomediastinum, SPM is usually a benign condition although life-threatening conditions can rarely arise. Differentiating between these two conditions has important prognostic indications. There is a paucity of prospectively collected data regarding SPM, and considerable variation in recommendations concerning the extent of workup.

  12. ATLAS Run II Exotics Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While Standard Model is in a good shape especially after Higgs boson discovery, there are a lot of questions beyond SM. The ATLAS detector is performing about 50 Exotics searches addressed these questions. This talk is discussing some of them with datasets collected during the 2015-2016 LHC run from 3 fb^-1 to 18 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy . Results on searches for resonances decaying into vector boson or fermions, for vector like quarks, for dark matter, and for other new phenomena using these data will be presented.

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators in ATLAS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MBTS) delivered the primary triggers for selecting events from real LHC collisions with the smallest bias for the low luminosity LHC RunI fills from 2009-2013 (proton-proton, lead-lead and lead-proton collisions). Similarly, for the next RunII of LHC (2015-2018) MBTS will provide key ingredients for the first physics measurements at the new LHC proton-proton collisions energies (charge multiplicity, proton-proton cross section, rapidity gap measurements, ...) and in general for low luminosity LHC fills. After more than $25$\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions delivered during RunI of LHC, MBTS detectors have been substantially upgraded for the RunII of LHC (starting in 2015). The upgrade strategy will be presented showing the scintillator replacement, the modified read out scheme, the optical measurements on RunI scintillators assessing the degradation due to the dose received and how the new simulation is being implemented to take into accounts all the modific...

  15. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  16. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  17. Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M; Short, Susan E; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gubjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R; Vink, Jacqueline M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H; Balmforth, Anthony J; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W; Boyd, Heather A; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hewitt, John K; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M; Mathias, Rasika A; McNeil, Daniel W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F; Marazita, Mary L; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nöthen, Markus M; Penninx, Brenda W; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanders, Alan R; Schwartz, Ann G; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H-Erich; Amos, Christopher I; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G; Stevens, Victoria L; Stitzel, Jerry A; Weiss, Robert B; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Primary data. Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.

  18. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  19. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  20. Run-up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Leen; Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations....

  1. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  2. Oil shale project: run summary for small retort Run S-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandholtz, W.A.; Ackerman, F.J.; Bierman, A.; Kaehler, M.; Raley, J.; Laswell, B.H.; Tripp, L.J. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    Results are reported on retort run S-11 conducted to observe the effects of combustion retorting with undiluted air at relatively rapid burn (retorting) rates and to provide a base case for retorting small uniform shale (Anvil Points master batch -2.5 +- 1.3 cm) with undiluted air. It was found that a 0.6 m/sup 3//m/sup 2//minute superficial gas velocity gave an average rate of propagation of the combustion peak of about 2.7 m/day and an average maximum temperature on the centerline of the rubble bed of 1003/sup 0/C. Oil yield was 93 percent of Fischer assay. For small uniform shale particles (-2.5 + 1.3 cm) it is concluded that only small losses in yield (92 percent vs 96 percent in Run S-10) result from high retorting rates. Maximum temperature considerations preclude going to higher rates with undiluted air. Without diluent, a larger air flux would give excessive bed temperatures causing rock melting and potential closure to gas flow. In experimental retorts, another problem of excessive temperatures is potential damage to metal walls and in-situ sensors. No advantage is seen to using recycled off-gas as a combustion gas diluent. Inert diluents (e.g. nitrogen or steam) may be necessary for process control, but the fuel values in the off-gas should best be used for energy recovery rather than burned in the retort during recycle. Another consideration from model calculations is that the use of recycle gas containing fuel components retards the retorting rate and so is undesirable. No further recycle experiments are planned as the results of this run proved satisfactory.

  3. ATLAS Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillator upgrade for LHC RunII

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MBTS) delivered the primary triggers for selecting events from real LHC collisions with the smallest bias for the low luminosity LHC RunI fills from 2009-2013 (proton-proton, lead-lead and lead-proton collisions). MBTS also will provide key ingredients for the first RunII physics measurements at the new LHC proton-proton collisions energies (charge multiplicity, proton-proton cross section, rapidity gap measurements, ...). After more than 25fb-1 of proton-proton collisions delivered during RunI of LHC, MBTS detectors have been substantially upgraded for the RunII of LHC (starting in 2015). The upgrade strategy will be presented showing the scintillator replacement, the modified read out scheme, the optical measurements on RunI scintillators assessing the degradation due to the dose received and how the new simulation is being implemented to take into accounts all the modifications foreseen for RunII.

  4. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  5. Running-in of rolling contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with running-in of the pure rolling contact situation operating in the boundary lubrication regime, so that normal plastic deformation due to the contact between asperities is the main aspect. The change of the surface topography during the running-in process and the run-in

  6. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  7. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  8. Future Intent to Run and Running Performance of Students Exposed to a Traditional versus an Autonomy Supportive Motivational Running Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study's primary purpose was to investigate whether an autonomy supportive motivational climate in a running program would increase future running intent among high school students. A secondary purpose was to examine whether the program would increase individual performance in the Cooper 12-minute run. Methods. Students participated in a 4-month running intervention program which included four timed runs, one per month, and a future intent questionnaire prior to the start of the timed runs and following the last run. Results. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA revealed significance regarding future intent ( at both schools. Factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated differences between the runs at both schools (. Paired samples -tests were conducted to look at significance with paired runs. Results revealed significance in two of the six pairs at the treatment school, notably between the first and last timed runs (. Only one pair was found to be significant ( with the control school. Conclusion. At both schools, the overall number of laps increased as well as future intent to run scores. The results do not support evidence of a greater effect from the autonomy supportive environment over a traditional environment.

  9. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  10. Tissue vibration in prolonged running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-01-04

    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are multiple runs better than one?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2001-01-04

    This paper investigates whether it is better to use a certain constant amount of computational resources in a single run with a large population, or in multiple runs with smaller populations. The paper presents the primary tradeoffs involved in this problem and identifies the conditions under which there is an advantage to use multiple small runs. The paper uses an existing model that relates the quality of the solutions reached by a GA with its population size. The results suggest that in most cases a single run with the largest population possible reaches a better solution than multiple isolated runs. The findings are validated with experiments on functions of varying difficulty.

  12. REINVENTING THE WHEEL: Comparison of Two Wheel Cage Styles for Assessing Mouse Voluntary Running Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Tanya; Harfmann, Brianna D; Esser, Karyn A; Schroder, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-21

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different labs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differs depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to higher greater running distance/day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus, investigators need to report wheel cage type/ wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies.

  13. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems.

  14. Is an onset vortex important for monsoon onset over Kerala?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sankar, S.; Reason, C.

    Inter-annual variability in the formation of the mini warm pool [sea-surface temperature (SST) more than 30 degrees C] over the south eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) and its role in the formation of the monsoon onset vortex (MOV) has been examined using...

  15. Onset detection in polyphonic music

    OpenAIRE

    Efraimsson, Nils

    2017-01-01

    In music analysis, the beginning of events in a music signal (i.e. sound onset detection) is important for such tasks as sound segmentation, beat recognition and automatic music transcription. The aim of the present work was to make an algorithm for sound onset detection with better performance than other state-of-the-art1 algorithms. Necessary theoretical background for spectral analysis on a sound signal is given with special focus on the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the effects ...

  16. Hierarchical process modeling : Describing within-run and between-run variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fox, J.P.; Betlem, B.H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Run-to-run variability is a common problem for modeling batch-wise and semi-continuous operated processes. Although observed reactor runs show the same trends in process behaviour, each specific reactor run also shows its own characteristics. Until now, available modeling methods were unable to

  17. A State-Run Enterprise: A Bane or a Boon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjune KIM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the less than 70 years since Korean liberation, Korea has grown to be one of the world's top five ship-owning countries in 2014. This can be attributed to a few factors such as government policy, Korea Shipping Corporation (KSC, hereafter and merchant marine officers. This paper will expound the true motivations of the establishment and the privatization of KSC in 1950 and in 1968, respectively. KSC, as Korea's national shipping company, sailed along a very unusual course of development. It was established in 1950 not to foster and develop Korea's shipping industry but to help alleviate the financial burdens of the fledgling Korean government. The main cause of privatizing KSC in 1968 was a purely political decision, not an economic one as it overlapped with the rapid growth period of the shipping industry in the world, as well as in Korea. In sum, KSC, a state-run enterprise, was a bane in the short run but a boon in the long run for both the Korean government and Korea's shipping industry. If we can believe KSC followed the ordinary sailing route as a state-run enterprise, we might develop a new opinion that the national shipping company might be a financial burden in a short period, but various benefits over a long period.

  18. Observations of Running Penumbral Waves Emerging in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, T. G.; Wenda, Cao; Jiangtao, Su; Jie, Chen; Xinjie, Mao; Yuanyong, Deng; Robert, Erdélyi

    2018-01-01

    We present results from the investigation of 5 minute umbral oscillations in a single-polarity sunspot of active region NOAA 12132. The spectra of TiO, Hα, and 304 Å are used for corresponding atmospheric heights from the photosphere to lower corona. Power spectrum analysis at the formation height of Hα – 0.6 Å to the Hα center resulted in the detection of 5 minute oscillation signals in intensity interpreted as running waves outside the umbral center, mostly with vertical magnetic field inclination >15°. A phase-speed filter is used to extract the running wave signals with speed v ph > 4 km s‑1, from the time series of Hα – 0.4 Å images, and found twenty-four 3 minute umbral oscillatory events in a duration of one hour. Interestingly, the initial emergence of the 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are noticed closer to or at umbral boundaries. These 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are observed for the first time as propagating from a fraction of preceding running penumbral waves (RPWs). These fractional wavefronts rapidly separate from RPWs and move toward the umbral center, wherein they expand radially outwards suggesting the beginning of a new umbral oscillatory event. We found that most of these umbral oscillatory events develop further into RPWs. We speculate that the waveguides of running waves are twisted in spiral structures and hence the wavefronts are first seen at high latitudes of umbral boundaries and later at lower latitudes of the umbral center.

  19. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  20. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  1. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  2. Bioenergetic constraints on tactical decision making in middle distance running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Whipp, B

    2002-01-01

    Background: The highest velocity that a runner can sustain during middle distance races is defined by the intersection of the runner's individual velocity-time curve and the distance-time curve. The velocity-time curve is presumably fixed at the onset of a race; however, whereas the race distance is ostensibly fixed, the actual distance-time curve is not. That is, it is possible for a runner to run further than the race distance if he or she runs wide on bends in track races. In this instance, the point of intersection of the individual velocity-time curve and the distance-time curve will move downwards and to the right, reducing the best average velocity that can be sustained for the distance. Methods: To illustrate this point, the race tactics used by the gold and silver medallists at 800 m and 5000 m in the Sydney Olympics were analysed. The paths taken by the runners were carefully tracked and the total distance they covered during the races and the average velocity they sustained over the distances they actually covered were calculated. Results: In both the Olympic 800 m and 5000 m finals, for example, the winner was not the runner who ran at the highest average velocity in the race. Rather, the winners of these races were able to husband their metabolic resources to better effect by running closer to the actual race distance. Conclusions: Race results in middle distance running events are dependent not just on the energetic potential of the runners at the start of the race and their strategy for pace allocation, but also on the effect of their tactical approach to positioning on the total distance covered in the race. Middle distance runners should be conscious of minimising the distance covered in races if they wish to optimise their performance. PMID:11916890

  3. Psychiatric onset of multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a patient with psychotic disorder as onset of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In this patient, a 26-year-old female, neurological examination revealed only minor abnormalities. As cranial CT scan was normal, her psychosis was diagnosed as psychogenic. Literature on

  4. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  5. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Brown, P.; Morris, H. R.; Lees, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in

  6. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M.; McGowan, Craig P.; McDermott, William J.; Beale, Matthew T.; Kram, Rodger; Herr, Hugh M.

    2010-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSP) emulate the spring-like behaviour of biological limbs during human running, but little research has examined the mechanical means by which amputees achieve top speeds. To better understand the biomechanical effects of RSP during sprinting, we measured ground reaction forces (GRF) and stride kinematics of elite unilateral trans-tibial amputee sprinters across a range of speeds including top speed. Unilateral amputees are ideal subjects because each amputee's affected leg (AL) can be compared with their unaffected leg (UL). We found that stance average vertical GRF were approximately 9 per cent less for the AL compared with the UL across a range of speeds including top speed (p amputee sprinters. We infer that RSP impair force generation and thus probably limit top speed. Some elite unilateral trans-tibial amputee sprinters appear to have learned or trained to compensate for AL force impairment by swinging both legs rapidly. PMID:19889694

  7. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; McGowan, Craig P; McDermott, William J; Beale, Matthew T; Kram, Rodger; Herr, Hugh M

    2010-04-23

    Running-specific prostheses (RSP) emulate the spring-like behaviour of biological limbs during human running, but little research has examined the mechanical means by which amputees achieve top speeds. To better understand the biomechanical effects of RSP during sprinting, we measured ground reaction forces (GRF) and stride kinematics of elite unilateral trans-tibial amputee sprinters across a range of speeds including top speed. Unilateral amputees are ideal subjects because each amputee's affected leg (AL) can be compared with their unaffected leg (UL). We found that stance average vertical GRF were approximately 9 per cent less for the AL compared with the UL across a range of speeds including top speed (p amputee sprinters. We infer that RSP impair force generation and thus probably limit top speed. Some elite unilateral trans-tibial amputee sprinters appear to have learned or trained to compensate for AL force impairment by swinging both legs rapidly.

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  9. Wave Run-Up on Rubble Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van de Walle, Bjorn; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Seven sets of data for wave run-up on a rubble mound breakwater were combined and re-analysed, with full-scale, large-scale and small-scale model test results being taken into account. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru-2%/Hm0 was considered, where R u-2% is the wave run-up height exceeded by 2......% of the wave run-up events and Hm0 is the significant wave height. The wave run-up data sets were compared and a clear influence of the spectral shape, characterised by the spectral width parameter epsilon, on wave run-up was noticed: high values of epsilon correspond to high values of Ru-2%/Hm0 and vice versa...... or rip-rap with a slope steeper than 1 : 2, surging waves and a JONSWAP-type wave spectrum....

  10. Below-knee amputee running gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, R M; Miller, D I; Burgess, E M

    1982-04-01

    The running ability of ten unilateral below-knee amputees was examined by analyzing the temporal and length characteristics of their running strides and the angular displacement patterns of their intact and prosthetic limbs. Six of the individuals tested were able to run and in several cases their locomotor patterns were similar to those of non-amputees. The running gait of three of the amputee runners, however, did contain one particular undesirable element namely an excessively straight residual knee during at least a portion of support on the prosthesis. Although several explanations could be postulated to account for this tendency, we believe that it could be eliminated with training and possible prosthetic modification. Results of the study, while attesting to the fact that many lower extremity amputees can run, also suggested directions in which research efforts can and are being focused to facilitate their running performance.

  11. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Running has become popular in recent years, and numerous runners utilize wearable technologies in order to improve their run training. This paper investigates the development and trends in technologies used for run training, and describes how these are changing from solely focusing...... on the performance (e.g. pace) to having an additional focus on the technique (e.g. foot strike type). Based on this investigation, we present a design space for run-training technologies. By plotting existing technologies onto the design space, we argue that there has been limited attention on how to utilize...... technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  12. Impact of Seated and Standing Bicycle Riding Position on Subsequent Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L; Ewers, Brendon J; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J; Shafat, Amir

    This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride frequency and length, and onset and duration of quadriceps and hamstrings activity were obtained at the end of a three-minute control run and at minutes 0, 2, & 4, of running after cycling transition. Repeated Measures ANOVA (condition X minute; p = 0.05) found control was significantly different than minute 0 for stride frequency and length, but not for minimum or maximum knee angle. EMG duration at minute 4 was less than all other time points for both quadriceps and hamstrings. Onset of muscle activity was not different for hamstring or quadriceps. Heart rate and RPE both increased over 15 minutes after transition and were higher for SEAT than ALT, however, there was no interaction (minute by position) for either variable. Results indicated changes in stride rate and length following cycling occur, but disappear within two minutes after the transition to running and do not differ between postures. Changes in duration of muscle activity may be related to changes in stride. Also HR and RPE differ between the SEAT and ALT cycling positions and over time.

  13. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2017-01-01

    In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particula...

  14. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  15. Friction Mapping as a Tool for Measuring the Elastohydrodynamic Contact Running-in Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    friction coefficient of the 2 mating surfaces drops rapidly. The running-in process depends on numerous contact conditions and material properties...state friction coefficient and surface morphology, once the running-in process is complete, does not depend significantly on the ramp direction, nor...Fig. 3 Three-dimensional surface plot of the traction coefficient ( friction coefficient) as a function of entrainment velocity and slip (top) and

  16. Onset and spreading patterns of lower motor neuron involvements predict survival in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura-Kiyono, Chieko; Kimura, Fumiharu; Ishida, Simon; Nakajima, Hideto; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Sugino, Masakazu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-11-01

    To define patterns of spread through the order of lower motor neuron involvement (first, second or third order), relationships between interval or sites of affected areas from onset to involvement of a second region, and prognosis, including 5 year survival, normal preservation of motor function at onset of respiratory symptoms and cumulative occurrence of each region and direction of spread. 150 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) underwent follow-up at 3 month intervals until the appearance of respiratory symptoms. Symptom appearances were determined using the revised version of the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Median survival with combined type onset (two regions simultaneously) was shorter (18 months) than with bulbar onset (26 months, p=0.01). The interval from onset to involvement of the second region correlated significantly with survival, independent of particular combinations. 5 year survival rate was 21% for lower limb onset, 18% for upper limb onset and 16% for bulbar onset. No patient with a rapid spread pattern (two regions within 3 months from onset) survived >5 years. Early manifestations of bulbar symptoms within 1 year were associated with worse survival (pspread longitudinally to adjacent regions. Bulbar function remained preserved in 27%, lower limb function in 10% and upper limb function in 2.7%. The interval between onset and involvement of the second region is an important predictor of survival. The data support the contiguous anatomical propagation of lower motor neuron involvement in sporadic ALS.

  17. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher; Cocoma, John Paul; Roberts, Victor David

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  18. The Dynamic Control of Kiss-And-Run and Vesicular Reuse Probed with Single Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Yulong; Tsien, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Vesicular secretion of neurotransmitter is essential for neuronal communication. Kiss-and-run is a mode of membrane fusion and retrieval without the full collapse of the vesicle into the plasma membrane and de novo regeneration. The significance of kiss-and-run during efficient neurotransmission has remained in doubt. We developed an approach for loading individual synaptic vesicles with single quantum dots. Their size and pH-dependent photoluminescence change allowed us to distinguish kiss-and-run from full-collapse fusion and to track single vesicles through multiple rounds of kiss-and-run and reuse, without perturbing vesicle cycling. Kiss-and-run dominated at the beginning of stimulus trains, reflecting the preference of vesicles with high release probability. Its incidence was increased by rapid firing, a response appropriate to meet the dynamic demands of neurotransmission. PMID:19213879

  19. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Grahm C.; Edke, Mangesh

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion. PMID:22723628

  20. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Grahm C; Edke, Mangesh; Griffin, Timothy M

    2012-08-15

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion.

  1. Cocoa and Objective-C Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Build solid applications for Mac OS X, iPhone, and iPod Touch, regardless of whether you have basic programming skills or years of programming experience. With this book, you'll learn how to use Apple's Cocoa framework and the Objective-C language through step-by-step tutorials, hands-on exercises, clear examples, and sound advice from a Cocoa expert. Cocoa and Objective-C: Up and Running offers just enough theory to ground you, then shows you how to use Apple's rapid development tools -- Xcode and Interface Builder -- to develop Cocoa applications, manage user interaction, create great UIs,

  2. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T

    2017-07-24

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  3. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2017-08-01

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  4. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T.; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key points Running in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  5. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  6. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  7. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  8. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  9. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  10. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  11. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  12. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  13. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  14. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  15. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T. Ridge, Tyler Standifird, Jessica Rivera, A. Wayne Johnson, Ulrike Mitchell, Iain Hunter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group, while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group. All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15% was significant (p = 0.015. Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Early-onset glaucoma Early-onset glaucoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  17. Equilibrium at a bottleneck when long-run and short-run scheduling preferences diverge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, S.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the use of a Vickrey road bottleneck in the context of repetitive scheduling choices, distinguishing between long-run and short-run scheduling preferences. The preference structure reflects that there is a distinction between the (exogenous) 'long-run preferred arrival time', which would

  18. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  19. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm−2 s−1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb−1 has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV between year of 2010 to 2012. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started with approximately 3.9 fb-1 and 35.6 fb-1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, number of read-out samples for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four with keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Ar...

  20. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  1. ALICE ITS: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and recent operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion colli- sions is the main goal of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) plays a key role in the study of short-living hadrons through the primary and sec- ondary vertex reconstruction. The system is composed of two innermost layers of pixel detectors, two middle layers of drift detectors and two outermost layers of strip detectors. The ITS covers the central pseudo-rapidity range of | h | < 0.9 and the distance from the beam line ranges from 3.9 cm for the innermost layer to 43 cm for the outermost layer. During the Run1 data taking period, the ITS contributed with tracking and charged particle identification capabilities, as well as a contribution to the definition of the Level 0 trigger signal. In particular at low p T the event reconstruction relies on the ITS performance as tracks do not reach the outer tracking detectors. In this contribution, after a brief description of the de...

  2. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  3. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...... surface. NS3 is used to simulate the wave run-up due to a regular wave to calculate the maximum wave run-up around a cylinder. The aim of this paper is shown the calculations of NS3 code and compared with the data obtained from the large scale test performed in Grossen Wellenkanal (GWK...

  4. Effect of Body-Weight-Support Running on Lower-Limb Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Michael; Fleming, Neil; Eberman, Lindsey; Games, Kenneth; Vaughan, Jeremiah

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Body-weight-support (BWS) running is increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of its effects on running mechanics. Objectives To determine the effect of increasing BWS on lower-limb biomechanics during lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill running. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners completed 15 randomized trials on an LBPP treadmill at 5 levels of BWS and 3 velocities (1-minute trials with 3-minute recovery). Knee and ankle kinematic data were recorded continuously via electrogoniometry. Synchronous in-shoe plantar-pressure data identified stride onset and quantified foot-segment forces. Data were recorded during the final 30 seconds of each trial and averaged over 10 consecutive stride cycles. Results Higher levels of BWS resulted in significantly (PSports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):784-793. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6503.

  5. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  6. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Guđbjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  7. Run 16, eIPM Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dawson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jao, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Three problems with the eIPMs were corrected during the 2015 summer shutdown. These involved ac coupling and 'negative profiles', detector 'dead zone' created by biasing, and gain control on ramp. With respect to Run 16, problems dealt with included gain depletion on horizontal MCP and rf pickup on profile signals; it was found that the MCP was severely damaged over part of the aperture. Various corrective measures were applied. Some results of these measured obtained during Run 16 are shown. At the end of Run 16 there was a three-­day beam run to study polarized proton beams in the AGS. Attempts to minimize beam injection errors which increase emittance by using the eIPMs to measure the contribution of injection mismatch to the AGS output beam emittance are recounted. .

  8. Are there limits to running world records?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevill, Alan M; Whyte, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    ... records could reach their asymptotic limits some time in the future. Middle- and long-distance running world record speeds recorded during the 20th century were modeled using a flattened S-shaped logistic curve...

  9. Marathon running for amateurs: Benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkule, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    ...) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged cases with a belief that more intense exercise will give incremental health benefits...

  10. ALFA detector before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00188264; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system are also described

  11. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  12. Input data to run Landis-II

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location...

  13. Wave run-up and overtopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    Overview of methods to design wave run-up and overtopping for dikes and other sloping structures for regular and irregular breaking waves. Summary of experimental data and suggestions for design formulae. English translation of: Golfoploop en golfoverslag -

  14. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Sprint cycling significantly improved intermittent run performance, VO2max and peak power output at VO2max. Sprint cycling training is suitable for intermittent sports athletes but separate speed and COD training should be included.

  15. The Indian Summer Monsoon onset revisited: new approach based on the analysis of historical wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Paulina; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gómez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon onset is one of the meteorological events most anticipated in the world. Due to its relevance for the population, the India Meteorological Department has dated the onset over the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula (Kerala) since 1901. The traditional method to date the onset was based in the judgment of skilled meteorologist and because of this, the method was considered subjective and not adequate for the study of long-term changes in the onset. A new method for determining the monsoon onset based solely on objective criteria has been in use since 2006. Unfortunately, the new method relies -among other variables- on OLR measurements. This requirement impedes the construction of an objective onset series before the satellite era. An alternative approach to establish the onset by objective methods is the use of the wind field. During the last decade, some works have demonstrated that the changes in the wind direction in some areas of the Indian Ocean can be used to determine the monsoon onset rather precisely. However, this method requires precise wind observations over a large oceanic area which has limited the periods covered for such kind of indices to those of the reanalysis products. In this work we present a new approach to track the Indian monsoon onset based solely on historical wind direction measurements taken onboard ships. Our new series provides an objective record of the onset since the last decade of the 19th century and perhaps more importantly, it can incorporate any new historical wind record not yet known in order to extend the series length. The new series captures quite precisely the rapid precipitation increase associated to the monsoon onset, correlates well with previous approaches and it is robust against anomalous (bogus) onsets. Although no significant trends in the onset date were detected, a tendency to later than average onsets during the 1900-1925 and 1970-1990 periods and earlier than average onsets between

  16. RHIC polarized proton performance in run-8.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag,C.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Barton, D.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Helical spin rotators at these two interaction regions were used to control the spin orientation of both beams at the collision points. Physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8.

  17. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  18. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  19. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

  20. Delta FosB regulates wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werme, Martin; Messer, Chad; Olson, Lars; Gilden, Lauren; Thorén, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Brené, Stefan

    2002-09-15

    DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates in a region-specific manner in the brain after chronic perturbations. For example, repeated administration of drugs of abuse increases levels of DeltaFosB in the striatum. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of spontaneous wheel running, as a model for a natural rewarding behavior, on levels of DeltaFosB in striatal regions. Moreover, mice that inducibly overexpress DeltaFosB in specific subpopulations of striatal neurons were used to study the possible role of DeltaFosB on running behavior. Lewis rats given ad libitum access to running wheels for 30 d covered what would correspond to approximately 10 km/d and showed increased levels of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens compared with rats exposed to locked running wheels. Mice that overexpress DeltaFosB selectively in striatal dynorphin-containing neurons increased their daily running compared with control littermates, whereas mice that overexpress DeltaFosB predominantly in striatal enkephalin-containing neurons ran considerably less than controls. Data from the present study demonstrate that like drugs of abuse, voluntary running increases levels of DeltaFosB in brain reward pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaFosB in a distinct striatal output neuronal population increases running behavior. Because previous work has shown that DeltaFosB overexpression within this same neuronal population increases the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, results of the present study suggest that DeltaFosB may play a key role in controlling both natural and drug-induced reward.

  1. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  2. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  3. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; De Vos, Leen

    2005-01-01

    investigating run-up heights and run-up distribution on different offshore windturbine foundations due to regular and irregular waves. The influence of wave steepness, wave height and water depth on the run-up on a monopile foundation is investigated. The run-up on a cone foundation is compared with the run...

  4. Depression of home cage wheel running: a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T; Morgan, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    The development of new anti-migraine treatments is limited by the difficulty inassessing migraine pain in laboratory animals. Depression of activity is one of the few diagnostic criteria formigraine that can be mimicked in rats. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis thatdepression of home cage wheel running is a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine painin rats. Adult female rats were implanted with a cannula to inject allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) onto the dura to induce migraine pain, as has been shown before. Rats recovered from implantation surgery for 8 days in cages containing a running wheel. Home cage wheel running was recorded 23 h a day. AITC and the migraine medication sumatriptan were administered in the hour prior to onset of the dark phase. Administration of AITC caused a concentration-dependent decrease in wheel running that lasted 3 h. The duration and magnitude of AITC-induced depression of wheel running was consistent following three repeated injections spaced 48 h apart. Administration of sumatriptan attenuated AITC-induced depressionof wheel running when a large dose (1 mg/kg) was administered immediately following AITC administration. Wheel running patterns did not change when sumatriptan was given to naïve rats. These data indicate that home cage wheel running is a sensitive, reliable, and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in the rat.

  5. Not Just Running: Coping with and Managing Everyday Life through Road-Running

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Simon

    2014-01-01

    From the external form, running looks like running. Yet this alikeness masks a hugely divergent practice consisting of different movements, meanings and experiences. In this paper I wish to shed light upon some of these different ‘ways of running’ and in turn identify a range of the sometimes surprising, sometimes significant and sometimes banal benefits that road-running can gift its practitioners beyond simply exercise and physical fitness. Drawing on an innovative mapping and ethnographic ...

  6. A prospective study of running injuries: the Vancouver Sun Run "In Training" clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunton, J E; Ryan, M B; Clement, D B; McKenzie, D C; Lloyd-Smith, D R; Zumbo, B D

    2003-06-01

    Seventeen running training clinics were investigated to determine the number of injuries that occur in a running programme designed to minimise the injury rate for athletes training for a 10 km race. The relative contributions of factors associated with injury were also reported. A total of 844 primarily recreational runners were surveyed in three trials on the 4th, 8th, and 12th week of the 13 week programme of the "In Training" running clinics. Participants were classified as injured if they experienced at least a grade 1 injury-that is, pain only after running. Logistic regression modelling and odds ratio calculation were performed for each sex using the following predictor variables: age, body mass index (BMI), previous aerobic activity, running frequency, predominant running surface, arch height, running shoe age, and concurrent cross training. Age played an important part in injury in women: being over 50 years old was a risk factor for overall injury, and being less than 31 years was protective against new injury. Running only one day a week showed a non-significant trend for injury risk in men and was a significant risk factor in women and overall injury. A BMI of > 26 kg/m(2) was reported as protective for men. Running shoe age also significantly contributed to the injury model. Half of the participants who reported an injury had had a previous injury; 42% of these reported that they were not completely rehabilitated on starting the 13 week training programme. An injury rate of 29.5% was recorded across all training clinics surveyed. The knee was the most commonly injured site. Although age, BMI, running frequency (days a week), and running shoe age were associated with injury, these results do not take into account an adequate measure of exposure time to injury, running experience, or previous injury and should thus be viewed accordingly. In addition, the reason for the discrepancy in injury rate between these 17 clinics requires further study.

  7. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over onset values by ~60 min into the expansion phase. A rudimentary inspection of the concurrent auroral evolution suggests that the duration of the flow reduction following substorm onset is dependent on the strength and duration of the expansion phase aurora and its associated conductivity enhancement.

  8. Habitual Minimalist Shod Running Biomechanics and the Acute Response to Running Barefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Darragh, Ian A J; Divekar, Nikhil V; Lamberts, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether habitual minimalist shoe runners present with purported favorable running biomechanithat reduce running injury risk such as initial loading rate. Eighteen minimalist and 16 traditionally cushioned shod runners were assessed when running both in their preferred training shoe and barefoot. Ankle and knee joint kinetics and kinematics, initial rate of loading, and footstrike angle were measured. Sagittal ankle and knee joint stiffness were also calculated. Results of a two-factor ANOVA presented no group difference in initial rate of loading when participants were running either shod or barefoot; however, initial loading rate increased for both groups when running barefoot (p=0.008). Differences in footstrike angle were observed between groups when running shod, but not when barefoot (minimalist:8.71±8.99 vs. traditional: 17.32±11.48 degrees, p=0.002). Lower ankle joint stiffness was found in both groups when running barefoot (p=0.025). These findings illustrate that risk factors for injury potentially differ between the two groups. Shoe construction differences do change mechanical demands, however, once habituated to the demands of a given shoe condition, certain acute favorable or unfavorable responses may be moderated. The purported benefits of minimalist running shoes in mimicking habitual barefoot running is questioned, and risk of injury may not be attenuated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-10-02

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  11. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  12. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk–run transition speed with incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the ‘compass gait’, a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal—at walking speeds—owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical compass gait vaulting to include inclines, and find good agreement with previous observations of changes in walk–run transition speed (approx. 1% per 1% incline). We measured step length and frequency for humans walking either on the level or up a 9.8 per cent incline and report preferred walk–run, walk–compliant-walk and maximum walk–run transition speeds. While the measured ‘preferred’ walk–run transition speed lies consistently below the predicted maximum walking speeds, and ‘actual’ maximum walking speeds are clearly above the predicted values, the onset of compliant walking in level as well as incline walking occurs close to the predicted values. These findings support the view that normal human walking is constrained by the physics of vaulting, but preferred absolute walk–run transition speeds may be influenced by additional factors. PMID:23325739

  14. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk-run transition speed with incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2013-04-23

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the 'compass gait', a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal-at walking speeds-owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical compass gait vaulting to include inclines, and find good agreement with previous observations of changes in walk-run transition speed (approx. 1% per 1% incline). We measured step length and frequency for humans walking either on the level or up a 9.8 per cent incline and report preferred walk-run, walk-compliant-walk and maximum walk-run transition speeds. While the measured 'preferred' walk-run transition speed lies consistently below the predicted maximum walking speeds, and 'actual' maximum walking speeds are clearly above the predicted values, the onset of compliant walking in level as well as incline walking occurs close to the predicted values. These findings support the view that normal human walking is constrained by the physics of vaulting, but preferred absolute walk-run transition speeds may be influenced by additional factors.

  15. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A; Samozino, Pierre; Descombe, Fabrice; Pinay, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y; Pasqualini, Marion; Rupp, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness) were determined at 12 km·h(-1) at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS) were assessed using visual analog scales. Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p 6 on a 10-cm scale) with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p biomechanics and lower limb muscle functional capabilities toward a more dynamic behavior compared to control session. However, wearing compression sleeves did not affect performance and exercise-induced DOMS, while it minimized Achilles tendon pain immediately after running.

  16. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  17. CDF Run I B physics results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.

    2001-03-08

    The CDF Run I B physics program has been very successful, making numerous measurements over a wide variety of B physics topics. Measurements have included masses and lifetimes; discovery of the B{sub c}; B{sub s} {r_arrow} J/{psi}{phi} polarization; B{sup 0} {leftrightarrow} {bar B}{sup 0} mixing; sin (2{beta}); and rare decay limits. Recent results include a search for {Lambda}{sub b} {r_arrow} {Lambda}{gamma} and a study of B{sup 0} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K(*){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} decays. The tools and experience developed during Run I are quite valuable as CDF enters Run II.

  18. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; van Oeveren, Ben; Francke, Agnieta; Zijlstra, Patrick; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby unclear. The present study investigates the use of foot contact time (CT) for running speed estimations, which potentially can be used in addition to the global positioning system (GPS) in situations where GPS performance is limited. CT was measured with tri axial inertial sensors attached to the feet of 14 runners, during natural over ground outdoor running, under optimized conditions for GPS. The individual relationships between running speed and CT were established during short runs at different speeds on two days. These relations were subsequently used to predict instantaneous speed during a straight line 4 km run with a single turning point halfway. Stopwatch derived speed, measured for each of 32 consecutive 125m intervals during the 4 km runs, was used as reference. Individual speed-CT relations were strong (r2 >0.96 for all trials) and consistent between days. During the 4km runs, median error (ranges) in predicted speed from CT 2.5% (5.2) was higher (Pruns were adequately monitored with both methods: CT and GPS respectively explained 85% and 73% of the total speed variance during 4km runs. In conclusion, running speed estimates bases on speed-CT relations, have acceptable accuracy and could serve to backup or substitute for GPS during tarmac running on flat terrain whenever GPS performance is limited.

  19. New Physics at the LHC: results and Run II perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kajomovitz, Enrique; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The talk gives an overview of selected Run-1 results on searches for New Physics from the ATLAS and CMS experiments. A short outlook of the Run-2 schedule and some prospects for Run-2 sensitivity reach for New Physics

  20. Overeducation: A Short or Long Run Phenomenon for Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubb, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether overeducation is a short-run or long-run phenomenon for individuals. Finds that for some individuals overeducation is not just a short-run phenomenon, but a permanent, multiyear phenomenon. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  1. Health related aspects of PA & sport/running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Johan de Jong

    2015-01-01

    The lecture presents an overview of the positive but also the negative health related aspects of running. An deeper insight will be offered when it comes to running, especially the mass running events.

  2. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. DATA SOURCES Primary data. STUDY SELECTION Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. DATA EXTRACTION Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Sta...

  3. The NLstart2run study: running related injuries in novice runners : Running related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Hardlopen is wereldwijd een populaire sport welke vaak wordt beoefend voor de positieve gezondheidseffecten. Er is echter een keerzijde. Hardlopers worden vaak geplaagd door blessures. Een probleem waar veelal beginners tegenaan lopen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de NLstart2run studie, een onderzoek

  4. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2011-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...... stress levels and an increase of contact area. An asperity model simulating a running-in process of rough surfaces with lengthy protractions in the rolling direction was investigated. After a limited range of only about 104 contact events a state of very low deformation rate was found....

  5. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2010-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...... stress levels and an increase of contact area. An asperity model simulating a running-in process of rough surfaces with lengthy protractions in the rolling direction was investigated. After a limited range of only about 104 contact events a state of very low deformation rate was found....

  6. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  7. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  8. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  9. MODERNIZATION OF TRACKED VEHICLE RUNNING GEARS

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Korobkin; A. Ya. Kotlobai; V. P. Boikov; A. A. Kotlobai; V. F. Tamelo

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains some proposals pertaining  to modernization of tracked vehicle running gears, bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension, methodology  for bench-tests and description of test-bench equipment which is applied for testing bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension. Test results of a hydro-pneumatic spring with parameter stabilization system are given in the paper.The paper presents  description of tracked vehicle running gears with bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension which is equipped with a system...

  10. MODERNIZATION OF TRACKED VEHICLE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Korobkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains some proposals pertaining  to modernization of tracked vehicle running gears, bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension, methodology  for bench-tests and description of test-bench equipment which is applied for testing bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension. Test results of a hydro-pneumatic spring with parameter stabilization system are given in the paper.The paper presents  description of tracked vehicle running gears with bogie hydro-pneumatic suspension which is equipped with a system for stabilizing a road clearance. Testing results of the gears being part of a test mule are cited in the paper.

  11. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  12. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  13. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  14. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  15. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity...

  16. A running controller for a powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amanda M; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a running controller for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis. The running controller was implemented on a powered prosthesis prototype and evaluated by a transfemoral amputee subject running on a treadmill at a speed of 2.25 m/s (5.0 mph). The ability of the prosthesis and controller to provide the salient features of a running gait was assessed by comparing the kinematics of running provided by the powered prosthesis to the averaged kinematics of five healthy subjects running at the same speed. This comparison indicates that the powered prosthesis and running controller are able to provide essential features of a healthy running gait.

  17. Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exercise, like running, is good for overall health and, specifically, our hearts, lungs, muscles, bones, and brains. However, some people are concerned about the impact of running on longterm joint health. Does running lead to higher rates of arthritis in knees and hips? While many researchers find that running protects bone health, others are concerned that this exercise poses a high risk for age-related changes to hips and knees. A study published in the June 2017 issue of JOSPT suggests that the difference in these outcomes depends on the frequency and intensity of running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(6):391. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0505.

  18. Colt: an experiment in wormhole run-time reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Ray; Athanas, Peter M.; Musgrove, Mark

    1996-10-01

    Wormhole run-time reconfiguration (RTR) is an attempt to create a refined computing paradigm for high performance computational tasks. By combining concepts from field programmable gate array (FPGA) technologies with data flow computing, the Colt/Stallion architecture achieves high utilization of hardware resources, and facilitates rapid run-time reconfiguration. Targeted mainly at DSP-type operations, the Colt integrated circuit -- a prototype wormhole RTR device -- compares favorably to contemporary DSP alternatives in terms of silicon area consumed per unit computation and in computing performance. Although emphasis has been placed on signal processing applications, general purpose computation has not been overlooked. Colt is a prototype that defines an architecture not only at the chip level but also in terms of an overall system design. As this system is realized, the concept of wormhole RTR will be applied to numerical computation and DSP applications including those common to image processing, communications systems, digital filters, acoustic processing, real-time control systems and simulation acceleration.

  19. Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R

    2009-11-11

    One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira), other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira), but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.

  20. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  1. Comparison of Running Economy Values While Wearing No Shoes, Minimal Shoes, and Normal Running Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrum, Robbie G; Connors, Ryan T; Coons, John M; Fuller, Dana K; Morgan, Don W; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    Cochrum, RG, Connors, RT, Coons, JM, Fuller, DK, Morgan, DW, and Caputo, JL. Comparison of running economy values while wearing no shoes, minimal shoes, and normal running shoes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 595-601, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in running economy (RE) at 50 and 70% of each subject's velocity at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) across barefoot and 2 mass, stack height, and heel-to-toe-drop controlled footwear conditions (minimal shoes and normal running shoes) in 9 recreational distance runners (mean age 26.8 ± 6.8 years). Over 3 days, subjects ran in one of the footwear conditions while RE (oxygen consumption) and step frequency were measured at each speed with a 5-minute rest between each trial. A 2-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) and Bonferroni-adjusted follow-up analyses revealed that RE was not significantly different across footwear conditions at either speed. However, those running barefoot exhibited a higher step frequency than when running in minimal (50%, p = 0.007; and 70%, p running in minimal versus standard footwear (70% only, p = 0.007). Thus, RE is not affected by footwear or running barefoot in those with experience running in minimal-type footwear. Significant adjustments in step frequency when alternative footwear was introduced may help explain why RE was statistically maintained during each footwear and speed condition across but not between subjects. Therefore, determination of footwear for the enhancement of RE should be based on individual physical characteristics and preferences rather than a global recommendation of an economical running shoe.

  2. Book Review: HTML5: Up and Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cyzyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Pilgrim's HTML5: Up and Running was one of the first books published on the subject. If you’re looking for a really good, well-written, entertaining, concise overview of what’s going on right this very minute with HTML5 technologies and techniques, this is a good book to have.

  3. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  4. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-12-27

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth.

  5. Effects of Running on Depressed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Sprinkle, R. Leo

    1983-01-01

    Reviews three conceptual models of depression: (1) aggression-turned-inward; (2) object-loss; and (3) negative cognitive set, and measured the effects of group treatment emphasizing running. The reactive depression levels of adults (N=8) who ran noncompetitively for 4 weeks dropped by a significant amount. The social dimension was an important…

  6. Daytime running lights : its safety evidence revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospective in-depth accident studies from several countries confirm that human perception errors are the main causal factor in road accidents. The share of accident types which are relevant for the effect of daytime running lights (DRL), such as overtaking and crossing accidents, in the total of

  7. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  8. Marathon running for amateurs: Benefits and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Burkule

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The habitual level of physical activity of the human race has significantly and abruptly declined in the last few generations due to technological developments. The professional societies and government health agencies have published minimum physical activity requirement guidelines to educate the masses about the importance of exercise and to reduce cardiovascular (CV and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged cases with a belief that more intense exercise will give incremental health benefits. Experts have cautioned the nonathlete amateurs about the "exercise paradox" and probable deleterious effects of high-intensity prolonged exercise on CV and musculoskeletal system. The epidemiological studies suggest a "reverse J shaped" relationship between running intensity and CV mortality. The highest benefits of reduction in CV and all-cause mortality are achieved at a lower intensity of running while the benefits tend to get blunted at a higher intensity of running. The physicians should have a balanced discussion with the amateur runners training for a marathon, about risks and benefits of high-intensity exercise, and should evaluate them to rule out the occult coronary disease.

  9. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  10. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  11. Biomechanics of running with rocker shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W; Hijmans, Juha M

    2017-01-01

    Load reduction is an important consideration in conservative management of tendon overuse injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy. Previous research has shown that the use of rocker shoes can reduce the positive ankle power and plantar flexion moment which might help in unloading the Achilles tendon. Despite this promising implication of rocker shoes, the effects on hip and knee biomechanics remain unclear. Moreover, the effect of wearing rocker shoes on different running strike types is unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanics of the ankle, knee and hip joints and the role of strike type on these outcomes. Randomized cross-over study. In this study, 16 female endurance runners underwent three-dimensional gait analysis wearing rocker shoes and standard shoes. We examined work, moments, and angles of the ankle, knee and hip during the stance phase of running. In comparison with standard shoes, running with rocker shoes significantly (pshoes significantly increased the positive work (14%), extension moment peak (6%), and extension moment impulse (12%). These findings indicate that although running with rocker shoes might lower mechanical load on the Achilles tendon, it could increase the risk of overuse injuries of the knee joint. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  13. Evaluation of Barefoot Running in Preadolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilianidis Theophilos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The literature shows few studies on shod and unshod running performance in athletes, with most limited to laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate preadolescent 1000 m running performance when barefoot and in running spikes or training shoes. Methods. A sample of 22 boys and 21 girls aged 10.6 ± 1.1 years was recruited. Anthropometric data and VO2max were recorded when completing the three study protocols in a counter balanced design. Student’s t tests were applied to compare mean 1000 m finish times while ANOVA was used to evaluate sex differences between the protocols. Pearson's correlation analysis measured interactions between the finish times, anthropometric variables, and VO2max. Results. Running performance with spikes (4.58 min was significantly better than with training shoes (5.21 min and barefoot (5.18 min. Male 1000 m times were overall better than the females. A substantial effect of VO2max and body fat on performance was found in all protocols. Conclusions. Preadolescent endurance performance was not significantly different between training shoes and barefoot; this may serve as an incentive for future research on the training of developmental age runners.

  14. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    General for Podiatry and oversees recruitment, assignments, and career progression for the podiatry career field. After completing his residency...gait impossible.” Podiatry Management (March 1999): 50-69. Saxton, Ken, and Roy M. Wallack. Barefoot Running Step by Step. Minneapolis, MN: Fair Winds

  15. Tau isolation study for CMS run2

    CERN Document Server

    Stefko, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Final report on study of hadronic tau fake rate behavior for $H\\rightarrow \\tau \\tau$ analysis of CMS run2 data. Differences between same-sign and opposite-sign events were studied, and Monte Carlo simulation was compared with experimental data.

  16. Dynamics of a stochastically driven running sandpile

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, T; Eckhardt, B

    1994-01-01

    We analyze in detail a one-dimensional stochastically driven running sandpile. The dynamics shows three different phases, depending on the on-site relaxation rate and stochastic driving rate. Two phases are characterized by the presence of travelling waves. The third shows algebraic relaxation.

  17. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  18. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  19. DO RUNNING SHOES PROTECT ALL RUNNERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E.J. Spurgeon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Running is a prevalent physical activity in today's health-conscious society. Over the course of a 1-mile run an individual will make approximately 1600 footstrikes. At the time of contact between foot and ground, impact forces and pronation place large stresses on the structures of the lower extremity. Exposure to repeated impact loading is linked to the development of runners' injuries, including joint degeneration and osteoarthritis (Dekel and Weissman, 1978. Pronation increases the stress in joints, muscles and tendons and is also connected to runners' injuries (James et al., 1978; Denoth, 1986; Stacoff et al., 1988. To prevent injury, running shoes are designed to reduce both impact forces and pronation. However, these innovations in shoe design might not benefit all runners. There are two main groups of runners: rearfoot strikers and midfoot strikers. Rearfoot strikers make initial ground contact with their heel, whereas midfoot strikers make initial ground contact with the mid-region of their foot. Eighty percent of runners are rearfoot strikers with the remainder being midfoot strikers (Kerr et al., 1983. So far, running shoe research has been focused only on rearfoot strikers. Thus, there is a good understanding of the shoe design requirements for these runners. For example, research has shown that the hardness and geometry of shoe-soles can be modified to reduce impact forces and pronation in rearfoot strikers (Luethi and Stacoff, 1987; Nigg and Morlock, 1987. Conversely, midfoot strikers have received no attention from running shoe research. This suggests that there is little understanding of the available techniques to reduce impact forces and pronation in these runners. Indeed, research has shown more pronation in midfoot strikers than in rearfoot strikers for the same shoe (De Wit et al., 1995. Hence, midfoot strikers might be running in poorly designed shoes which predispose them to injury. Do running shoes protect all runners

  20. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  1. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  2. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology.

  3. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  4. The diagnosis of young-onset dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Warren, Jason D

    2010-01-01

    A diagnosis of dementia is devastating at any age but diagnosis in younger patients presents a particular challenge. The differential diagnosis is broad as late presentation of metabolic disease is common and the burden of inherited dementia is higher in these patients than in patients with late-onset dementia. The presentation of the common degenerative diseases of late life, such as Alzheimer's disease, can be different when presenting in the fifth or sixth decade. Moreover, many of the young-onset dementias are treatable. The identification of causative genes for many of the inherited degenerative dementias has led to an understanding of the molecular pathology, which is also applicable to later-onset sporadic disease. This understanding offers the potential for future treatments to be tailored to a specific diagnosis of both young-onset and late-onset dementia. PMID:20650401

  5. Asymptotics of QCD traveling waves with fluctuations and running coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Extending the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation independently to running coupling or to fluctuation effects due to pomeron loops is known to lead in both cases to qualitative changes of the traveling-wave asymptotic solutions. In this paper we study the extension of the forward BK equation, including both running coupling and fluctuations effects, extending the method developed for the fixed coupling case [E. Brunet, B. Derrida, A.H. Mueller, S. Munier, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 056126, cond-mat/0512021]. We derive the exact asymptotic behavior in rapidity of the probabilistic distribution of the saturation scale.

  6. The influence of a new sole geometry while running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  7. Lower serum ceruloplasmin levels correlate with younger age of onset in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Kersi J; Friedman, Joyce K; Vincent, Andrea S; Ross, Elliott D

    2008-12-01

    Ceruloplasmin functions as a ferroxidase in iron metabolism. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by an increase in brain iron. We postulated that lower circulating ceruloplasmin levels in PD would result in rapid brain iron accumulation and an earlier age of onset. Consecutive PD patients were separated into subgroups with younger ( 60, n = 29), and compared to non-PD controls (n = 40). A one-way ANOVA comparing ceruloplasmin levels showed a very robust effect [F(2,128) = 46.4, p copper and ferritin, available in most patients, did not differ between the PD subgroups. Younger-onset PD patients have significantly lower levels of serum ceruloplasmin compared to those with older-onset PD. Ceruloplasmin may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of younger-onset PD patients and merits further study.

  8. Effects of treadmill running and fatigue on impact acceleration in distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, José Antonio; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana Belloch, Salvador; Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of treadmill running on impact acceleration were examined together with the interaction between running surface and runner's fatigue state. Twenty recreational runners (11 men and 9 women) ran overground and on a treadmill (at 4.0 m/s) before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a 30-minute run at 85% of individual maximal aerobic speed. Impact accelerations were analysed using two lightweight capacitive uniaxial accelerometers. A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance showed that, in the pre-fatigue condition, the treadmill running decreased head and tibial peak impact accelerations and impact rates (the rate of change of acceleration), but no significant difference was observed between the two surfaces in shock attenuation. There was no significant difference in acceleration parameters between the two surfaces in the post-fatigue condition. There was a significant interaction between surface (treadmill and overground) and fatigue state (pre-fatigue and post-fatigue). In particular, fatigue when running overground decreased impact acceleration severity, but it had no such effect when running on the treadmill. The effects of treadmill running and the interaction need to be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies that use a treadmill in their experimental protocols, and when prescribing physical exercise.

  9. Impact of Climate Change on the Characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional climate modeling system, known as PRECIS (Providing REgional Climate for Impact Studies, developed by Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK, is applied for Indian subcontinent to assess the impact of climate change on the summer monsoon onset characteristics. The present day simulation (1961–1990 with PRECIS is evaluated for the characteristics of onset over Kerala, southernmost part of India, where the monsoon sets in over Indian landmass. The meteorological parameters like precipitation, outgoing long wave radiation (OLR, and low level winds are analysed to study the monsoon onset over Kerala. The model is able to capture the sudden and sharp increase of rainfall associated with the onset. The rapid built-up of convective activity over the southeastern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is well represented by the model. PRECIS simulations, under scenarios of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and sulphate aerosols, are analysed to study the likely changes in the onset characteristics in future, towards the end of present century (2071–2100. The analysis does not indicate significant difference in the mean onset dates in A2 and B2 scenarios. However, the variability of onset date is likely to be more towards the end of the 21st century especially in A2 scenario.

  10. Phase-locked onset detectors for monaural sound grouping and binaural direction finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leslie

    2002-05-01

    Locating sound sources is an important task for animals. IIDs and ITDs are normally used to provide information about the instantaneous direction of sound received at the ears. In a reverberating environment, this may differ from the direction of the sound source. However the IID and ITD always provide information about sound source direction at onset, since onsets always arrive from the shortest, direct path. Binaural recordings were filtered using a gammatone filterbank, converted to a phase-locked spike code, and passed to a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron through a rapidly depressing synapse. This provides a phase-locked onset detector in each bandpassed channel. Nearly coincident onsets from different channels in each ear were grouped. IIDs and ITDs were computed when grouped onsets in both ears occur at almost the same time. ITDs were converted to azimuth geometrically: IIDs were converted using the impulse response at each ear. The results show that even in a reverberating environment, sound direction can be found from a single onset. Wideband and long sounds provide better results. Multiple sound sources can be accommodated. The system exhibits the precedence effect since a second onset (without intermediate offset) will be ignored because the depressing synapses will not have recovered.

  11. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  12. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  13. Sex Differences in Knee Flexion Angle During a Rapid Change of Direction While Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Christopher L; Gray, Aaron M; Brown, David; Smith, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    Females experience greater overall rates of athletic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. The specific mechanisms of the predisposition remain unclear. Modeling of knee kinematics has shown that the more extended the knee joint, the greater the strain on the ACL. The authors hypothesized that female athletes would have a lesser degree of knee flexion than male athletes at initial ground contact while performing change-of-direction cutting maneuvers. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty female and 20 male high school soccer athletes with at least 1 year of experience were recruited for the study. Athletes were excluded if they had a history of any major lower limb injury or current knee pain causing a reduction in training and/or competition. Reflective markers were attached at the greater trochanter of the femur, the lateral epicondyle of the knee, and the lateral malleolus of the ankle to enable motion capture. Each athlete performed 6 change-of-direction maneuvers in random order in front of 2 cameras. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine differences between the sexes from the motion data captured; P angles between male and female participants at the 90° and 135° cutting angles. At 90°, males and females showed initial contact knee flexion angles (mean ± SD) of 39.0° ± 6.8° and 29.3° ± 6.2°, respectively (P angles of 56.4° ± 6.9° and 49.7° ± 7.0°, respectively (P = .0036). At 135°, males and females showed mean initial contact knee flexion angles of 36.8° ± 7.9° and 29.7° ± 7.8°, respectively (P = .0053), and mean maximum flexion angles of 60.7° ± 8.1° and 51.6° ± 9.4°, respectively (P = .0017). The research conducted is intended to foster an awareness of injury disposition in female athletes and guide future endeavors to develop, test, and implement a proactive approach in lowering female noncontact athletic ACL injury rates. This project adds to the literature as wider side-cut maneuvers (≥90°) were studied, as compared with previous studies using small side-cut angles (<90°), offering a model for alternative sports actions.

  14. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  15. Run-up distributions of waves breaking on sloping walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Distributions of run-up are calculated by assigning to each individual wave in an irregular wave train a run-up value according to Hunt's formula. The use of this formula permits a normalization of the run-up in such a way that the run-up distributions are independent of slope angle, mean wave

  16. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events. ...

  17. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  18. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...... with a separate regression estimating the degree of persistence in the endogenous regressor. Importantly, our estimator can overcome a particular violation of the exclusion restriction that can arise when there is a time gap between the instrument and the endogenous explanatory variable. We apply our results...

  19. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    against service transit times and railway asset productivity. Methods to investigate the quality of supplement time allocation are necessary to reduce the behavioral response and the waste of resources. This is a preliminary study that investigates train delay data from the year 2014 supplied by Rail Net......Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  20. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-06-15

    We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m({mu}=m) =160.0{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} GeV. (orig.)

  1. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  2. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  3. Running with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Amanda H; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a running control architecture for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that enables a transfemoral amputee to run with a biomechanically appropriate running gait and to intentionally transition between a walking and running gait. The control architecture consists firstly of a coordination level controller, which provides gait biomechanics representative of healthy running, and secondly of a gait selection controller that enables the user to intentionally transition between a running and walking gait. The running control architecture was implemented on a transfemoral prosthesis with powered knee and ankle joints, and the efficacy of the controller was assessed in a series of running trials with a transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, treadmill trials were conducted to assess the extent to which the coordination controller provided a biomechanically appropriate running gait. Separate trials were conducted to assess the ability of the user to consistently and reliably transition between walking and running gaits.

  4. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  5. Run-time Energy Management for Mobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to limited energy resources, mobile computing requires an energy-efficient a rchitecture. The dynamic nature of a mobile environment demands an architecture that allows adapting to (quickly) changing conditions. The mobile has to adapt d ynamically to new circumstances in the best suitable manner. The hardware and so ftware architecture should be able to support such adaptability and minimize the energy consumption by making resource allocation decisions at run-time. To make these decisio...

  6. Marathon running for amateurs: Benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Burkule

    2016-01-01

    The habitual level of physical activity of the human race has significantly and abruptly declined in the last few generations due to technological developments. The professional societies and government health agencies have published minimum physical activity requirement guidelines to educate the masses about the importance of exercise and to reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged c...

  7. PHENIX plans for RHIC low energy run

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2009-01-01

    PHENIX plans for low energy running are presented. Current detector setting makes it possible to measure dielectron spectra down to sqrt(s_NN)=39GeV, and photon/high pT hadron spectra down to below sub-injection energy (sqrt(s_NN)=5-10GeV). The upgrade of the trigger scheme after the installation of VTX detector will enable PHENIX to fully explore the sub-injection energy regime, starting 2011.

  8. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Žiga Kozinc; Nejc Sarabon

    2017-01-01

    Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased groun...

  9. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masami; Odagiri, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takeshi; Murayama, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Unuma, Kana; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Morimoto, Sachio; Kurebayashi, Nagomi

    2013-01-01

    Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210) (DCM mouse), which results in frequent death with a t(1/2) of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day). At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: 5 km/day). In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die.

  10. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF or sudden cardiac death (SCD. Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210 (DCM mouse, which results in frequent death with a t(1/2 of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day. At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: 5 km/day. In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die.

  11. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    consecutive patients admitted to hospital with first onset AF from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2009. The patients were divided into two groups, recent onset AF defined as AF defined as AF > 48 hours. Spontaneous conversion occurred in 54%, (n = 203; 95% CI: 49 - 59......%). In the group with first onset AF 48 hours. Logistic regression analysis identified duration of AF as a highly significant predictor of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm (OR 5.9; 95% CI; 4.0 - 8.6, P

  12. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  13. The Run-Up of Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, S.; Bravo, F. J.; Fuentes, M.; Matias, M.; Medina, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes in subduction zones are liable to produce tsunamis that can cause destruction and fatalities. The Run-up is a geophysical parameter that quantifies damage and if critical facilities or population are exposed to. Here we use the coupling for certain subduction regions measured by different techniques (Potency and GPS observations) to define areas where large earthquakes can occur. Taking the slab 1.0 from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), we can define the geometry of the area including its tsunamigenic potential. By using stochastic earthquakes sources for each area with its maximum tsunamigenic potential, we calculate the numerical and analytical run-up for each case. Then, we perform a statistical analysis and calculate the envelope for both methods. Furthermore, we build an index of risk using: the closest slope to the shore in a piecewise linear approach (last slopecriteria) and the outputsfrom tsunami modeling. Results show that there are areas prone to produce higher run-up than others based on the size of the earthquake, geometrical constraints of the source, tectonic setting and the coast last slope. Based on these results, there are zones that have low risk index which can define escape routes or secure coastal areas for tsunami early warning, urban and planning purposes when detailed data is available.

  14. Constructing predictive models of human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Horst-Moritz; Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John; Ludwig, Christian; Reger, Johann; Seyfarth, Andre

    2015-02-06

    Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict future motions. We construct SLIP control models using data-driven Floquet analysis, and show how these models may be used to obtain predictive models of human running with six additional states comprising the position and velocity of the swing-leg ankle. Our methods are general, and may be applied to any rhythmic physical system. We provide an approach for identifying an event-driven linear controller that approximates an observed stabilization strategy, and for producing a reduced-state model which closely recovers the observed dynamics. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements for improvement of running capacity. : Physiological and biomechanical evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Gullstrand, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Running is included in a large number of sports and one of the most well investigated modes of locomotion in both physiology and biomechanics. This thesis focuses on how some new methods from both areas may be used to capture running capacity in mid-distance and distance running from laboratory and field recordings. Measurement of running economy is included and defined as oxygen uptake at a given submaximal velocity in a steady-state condition. Running economy...

  16. Oil shale project run summary for small retort Run S-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Sandholtz, W.A.; Raley, J.H.; Laswell, B.H. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    A combustion run using sidewall heaters to control heat loss and computer control to set heater power were conducted to study the effectiveness of the heater control system, compare results with a one-dimensional retort model when radial heat loss is not significant, and determine effects of recycling off-gas to the retort (by comparison with future runs). It is concluded that adequate simulation of in-situ processing in laboratory retorts requires control of heat losses. (JRD)

  17. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylactic ankle taping: influence on treadmill-running kinematics and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sally; Braun, William A

    2014-02-01

    Prophylactic ankle taping (PAT) is commonly used in sport. Prophylactic ankle taping may restrict ankle motion, which would affect the kinetic chain and alter gait. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PAT on lower extremity (LE) kinematics and running economy during treadmill running. Twelve recreational runners (9 women, 3 men; M ± SD age = 31.33 ± 8.04 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.81 m, mass = 61.84 ± 9.38 kg) completed two 20-minute running sessions (PAT and no tape: control [CON]) at a self-selected pace. Before each run, reflective markers were placed along the right side of the body. Sagittal plane kinematic data (60 Hz) were captured 4 times, and expired gases were measured for 2-minute after each video capture during both trials. Stride frequency, stride length, LE kinematic variables at initial contact and end contact (EC) were calculated. Cardiorespiratory variables and heart rate were also measured. Running economy was normalized to oxygen uptake per unit body mass per kilometer (milliliter per kilogram per kilometer) as running speeds varied. At EC, the PAT hip angle significantly decreased (p = 0.01) by 3.82°, whereas CON decreased by 0.85°. The range of motion tended to decrease over the 20-minute run (p = 0.08). Heart rate significantly increased over time (6.7%) but was not different between conditions. Prophylactic ankle taping did not significantly affect the physiological measures associated with the metabolic cost of treadmill running or the other kinematic variables. These findings suggest that the hip angle continued to decrease during the PAT condition at push-off in recreational runners without impacting the metabolic cost of transport.

  19. Short-run and long-run effects of unemployment on suicides: does welfare regime matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Pawel; Zhukovska, Kateryna

    2017-10-18

    Disentangling the immediate effects of an unemployment shock from the long-run relationship has a strong theoretical rationale. Different economic and psychological forces are at play in the first moment and after prolonged unemployment. This study suggests a diverse impact of short- and long-run unemployment on suicides in liberal and social-democratic countries. We take a macro-level perspective and simultaneously estimate the short- and long-run relationships between unemployment and suicide, along with the speed of convergence towards the long-run relationship after a shock, in a panel of 10 high-income countries. We also account for unemployment benefit spending, the share of the population aged 15-34, and the crisis effects. In the liberal group of countries, only a long-run impact of unemployment on suicides is found to be significant (P = 0.010). In social-democratic countries, suicides are associated with initial changes in unemployment (P = 0.028), but the positive link fades over time and becomes insignificant in the long run. Further, crisis effects are a much stronger determinant of suicides in social-democratic countries. Once the broad welfare regime is controlled for, changes in unemployment-related spending do not matter for preventing suicides. A generous welfare system seems efficient at preventing unemployment-related suicides in the long run, but societies in social-democratic countries might be less psychologically immune to sudden negative changes in their professional lives compared with people in liberal countries. Accounting for the different short- and long-run effects could thus improve our understanding of the unemployment-suicide link.

  20. CMS Pixel Detector: Operational Experience and Run1 to Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070830

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Pixel detector is at the centre of the CMS experiment and is made of three barrel layers and four endcap disks. It is essential for the reconstruction of track seeds and secondary vertices. Some aspects of the CMS Pixel detector operations during the first LHC run are presented. The work carried out during the first long shutdown of LHC (LS1) to prepare the detector for Run 2 and the plan for 2015 operations are also described.

  1. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; running speed. HM runners also demonstrated higher initial knee stiffness during the impact phase compared with LM runners, which was associated with an earlier peak knee flexion velocity, and both were relatively unchanged by running speed. In contrast, LM runners had higher knee stiffness during the slightly later weight acceptance phase and the disparity was amplified with increases in speed. It was concluded that initial knee joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by lower thigh muscle activation after touch down, higher initial knee stiffness, and greater estimates of energy return, with adaptations being increasingly evident at faster running speeds. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, prunning velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  3. A comparison of running kinetics in children with and without genu varus: A cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero

    Full Text Available Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet in children. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine differences in ground reaction forces, loading rate, impulses, and free moment values during running in children with and without genu varus.Thirty-six boys aged 9-14 volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided in two age-matched groups (genu varus versus healthy controls. Body weight adjusted three dimensional kinetic data (Fx, Fy, Fz were collected during running at preferred speed using two Kistler force plates for the dominant and non-dominant limb.Individuals with knee genu varus produced significantly higher (p = .01; d = 1.09; 95% body weight adjusted ground reaction forces in the lateral direction (Fx of the dominant limb compared to controls. On the non-dominant limb, genu varus patients showed significantly higher body weight adjusted ground reaction forces values in the lateral (p = .01; d = 1.08; 86% and medial (p .05.Higher mediolateral ground reaction forces and vertical loading rate amplitudes in boys with genu varus during running at preferred running speed may accelerate the development of progressive joint degeneration in terms of the age at knee osteoarthritis onset. Therefore, practitioners and therapists are advised to conduct balance and strength training programs to improve lower limb alignment and mediolateral control during dynamic movements.

  4. Type Classification of Motorized Vehicles Red Light Running and Their Characteristics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study types of motorized vehicles red light running and their characteristics, the concept of critical distance was introduced, combining with the start and end of red light, to classify motorized vehicles red light running into three categories: deliberate and unintentional red light violation at red onset and red light violation at red end. Based on video observation data, the number of motorized vehicles that commit any of the afore-mentioned three types of red light violation was statistically analyzed, and then their characteristics under various traffic control and management conditions were explored using z-test method. The results show that the majority of red light runners at red start are deliberate, while the unintentional red light violators also share some proportion. At the end of red light, there are a few vehicles violating red light as well. Additionally, the rates of red light running are obviously varying between those three classifications of red light running under the conditions of countdown timer, automatic red light camera, green flashing device, different speed limits and peak period.

  5. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P economy and 5-km running performance.

  6. Altered Running Economy Directly Translates to Altered Distance-Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kipp, Shalaya; Spiering, Barry A; Kram, Rodger

    2016-11-01

    Our goal was to quantify if small (1%-3%) changes in running economy quantitatively affect distance-running performance. Based on the linear relationship between metabolic rate and running velocity and on earlier observations that added shoe mass increases metabolic rate by ~1% per 100 g per shoe, we hypothesized that adding 100 and 300 g per shoe would slow 3000-m time-trial performance by 1% and 3%, respectively. Eighteen male sub-20-min 5-km runners completed treadmill testing, and three 3000-m time trials wearing control shoes and identical shoes with 100 and 300 g of discreetly added mass. We measured rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and calculated metabolic rates for the treadmill tests, and we recorded overall running time for the time trials. Adding mass to the shoes significantly increased metabolic rate at 3.5 m·s by 1.11% per 100 g per shoe (95% confidence interval = 0.88%-1.35%). While wearing the control shoes, participants ran the 3000-m time trial in 626.1 ± 55.6 s. Times averaged 0.65% ± 1.36% and 2.37% ± 2.09% slower for the +100-g and +300-g shoes, respectively (P economy and slows 3000-m time-trial performance proportionally. Our data demonstrate that laboratory-based running economy measurements can accurately predict changes in distance-running race performance due to shoe modifications.

  7. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  8. Definition of phenotypic characteristics of childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Limbergen, Johan; Russell, Richard K; Drummond, Hazel E; Aldhous, Marian C; Round, Nicola K; Nimmo, Elaine R; Smith, Linda; Gillett, Peter M; McGrogan, Paraic; Weaver, Lawrence T; Bisset, W Michael; Mahdi, Gamal; Arnott, Ian D; Satsangi, Jack; Wilson, David C

    2008-10-01

    Childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be etiologically different from adult-onset IBD. We analyzed disease phenotypes and progression of childhood-onset disease and compared them with characteristics of adult-onset disease in patients in Scotland. Anatomic locations and behaviors were assessed in 416 patients with childhood-onset (276 Crohn's disease [CD], 99 ulcerative colitis [UC], 41 IBD type unclassified [IBDU] diagnosed before seventeenth birthday) and 1297 patients with adult-onset (596 CD, 701 UC) IBD using the Montreal classification. At the time of diagnosis in children, CD involved small bowel and colon (L3) in 51% (138/273), colon (L2) in 36%, and ileum (L1) in 6%; the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract (L4) was also affected in 51%. In 39%, the anatomic extent increased within 2 years. Behavioral characteristics progressed; 24% of children developed stricturing or penetrating complications within 4 years (vs 9% at diagnosis; P L1; 2% vs 31%; P L2; 15% vs 36%; P < .0001; OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21-0.46). UC was extensive in 82% of the children at diagnosis, versus 48% of adults (P < .0001; OR, 5.08; 95% CI, 2.73-9.45); 46% of the children progressed to develop extensive colitis during follow-up. Forty-six percent of children with CD and 35% with UC required immunomodulatory therapy within 12 months of diagnosis. The median time to first surgery was longer in childhood-onset than adult-onset patients with CD (13.7 vs 7.8 years; P < .001); the reverse was true for UC. Childhood-onset IBD is characterized by extensive intestinal involvement and rapid early progression.

  9. Onset in-river conductivity sonde data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Onset HOBO Model U24-01 in-river sondes were deployed to measure water temperature and electrical conductivity at each of the ISCO sampling sites at 5 min intervals....

  10. Acute onset of adult Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Holger; Kretzschmar, Benedikt; Lingor, Paul; Pauli, Silke; Schramm, Peter; Otto, Markus; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Brockmann, Knut

    2013-08-15

    Adult-onset Alexander disease (AOAD) is a rare leukoencephalopathy affecting predominantly the brainstem and cervical cord with insidious onset of clinical features. Acute onset is very rare and has yet been described only twice, to our knowledge. We report a 32-year-old hitherto healthy male who, after excessive consumption of alcohol, presented with stroke-like onset of symptoms including rigidospasticity, loss of consciousness, and bulbar dysfunction. MRI features comprised bilateral T2-hyperintensities of frontal white matter and basal ganglia as well as atrophy of medulla oblongata with a peculiar "tadpole" appearance, a pattern characteristic of AOAD. Mutation analysis of the GFAP gene revealed a heterozygous de novo 9-bp microduplication in exon 1. Adult Alexander disease may present with stroke-like features. MRI patterns of chronic neurodegenerative conditions may be recognizable even in acute neurological emergencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E; Jia, Jianping; Gauthier, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is a condition characterized by early onset dementia (age at onset family history for dementia. To date, 230 mutations in presenilin (PS1, PS2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes have been identified in EOFAD. The mutations within these three genes (PS1/PS2/APP) affect a common pathogenic pathway in APP synthesis and proteolysis, which lead to excessive production of amyloid β. Compared with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), EOFAD has some distinctive features including early age at onset, positive familial history, a variety of non-cognitive neurological symptoms and signs, and a more aggressive course. There is marked phenotypic heterogeneity among different mutations of EOFAD. Studies in presymptomatic mutation carriers reveal biomarkers abnormalities. EOFAD diagnosis is based on clinical and family history, neurological symptoms and examination, biomarker features, as well as genotyping in some cases. New therapeutic agents targeting amyloid formation may benefit EOFAD individuals.

  12. ADEM: Age at Onset and Neuropsychological Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age at onset of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM on cognitive, educational, and social functioning was evaluated in 19 children (10 < 5 years of age admitted to the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

  13. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  14. Clinical features of late-onset ankylosing spondylitis: comparison with early-onset disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Carlos; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Font, Pilar; Zarco, Pedro; Mulero, Juan; Gratacós, Jordi; Rodríguez, Carlos; Juanola, Xavier; Fernández-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Almodovar, Raquel

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is generally observed in young patients but can occur later in life or in persons ≥ 50 years of age. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features of late-onset AS in a large multicenter national cohort. We studied late-onset AS in the National Registry of Spondyloarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (REGISPONSER database) cohort (n = 1257), of whom 3.5% had onset at age ≥ 50 years versus a control group with onset at < 50 years. There were no differences between late-onset and early-onset AS according to sex and family history of spondyloarthropathies. Patients in the late-onset group more often showed involvement of the cervical spine (22.7% vs 9.7%; p = 0.03) and arthritis of the upper (13.6% vs 3.0%; p = 0.002) and lower limbs (27.3% vs 15.2%; p = 0.03) as first manifestations than did patients in the early-onset group. A higher percentage of mixed forms (axial and peripheral joint disease) during the course of the disease was also recorded in the late-onset group (50% vs 24%; p = 0.0001). Our study suggests that age at onset of AS affects the patients' presenting clinical form. Arthritis of the upper limbs requires a differential diagnosis with other conditions frequent in patients over 50 years of age, such as rheumatoid arthritis or crystal-induced arthropathy.

  15. Comparative findings in childhood-onset versus adult-onset optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rii, Tosho; Hirakata, Akito; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics of eyes with childhood-onset to those with adult-onset optic disc pit maculopathy. Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients with optic disc pit maculopathy were reviewed. The clinical characteristics, clinical history including a history of blunt trauma, ophthalmoscopic evaluations and intraoperative findings in the childhood-onset (age maculopathy. The strength of the vitreous adhesions was graded by what was required to create a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD); grade 1 = with vitreous cutter, grade 2 = by microhook or forceps and grade 3 = by forceps with removal of remnants of Cloquet's canal. The incidence of visual impairments following blunt trauma was significantly higher in childhood-onset (three of four eyes) than that of adult-onset (0 of 23 eyes, p = 0.0014). Vitreous surgery with creation of a PVD was performed in the four childhood-onset eyes and 18 adult-onset eyes after an absence of a spontaneous resolution. The grade of the vitreous adhesions was significantly higher in childhood-onset than in adult-onset eyes (p = 0.0096). An ocular trauma may provide an opportunity to detect optic disc pits. However, childhood-onset optic disc pit maculopathy was noted most commonly following blunt ocular trauma in eyes with a strong vitreous adhesion to the optic disc margin. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. The Robust Running Ape: Unraveling the Deep Underpinnings of Coordinated Human Running Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kiely

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term ‘coordination’ is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature. However, the specific neural and biological underpinnings of ‘running coordination,’ and the nature of their integration, remain poorly elaborated. Conventionally running is considered a mundane, readily mastered coordination skill. This illusion of coordinative simplicity, however, is founded upon a platform of immense neural and biological complexities. This extensive complexity presents extreme organizational difficulties yet, simultaneously, provides a multiplicity of viable pathways through which the computational and mechanical burden of running can be proficiently dispersed amongst expanded networks of conditioned neural and peripheral tissue collaborators. Learning to adequately harness this available complexity, however, is a painstakingly slowly emerging, practice-driven process, greatly facilitated by innate evolutionary organizing principles serving to constrain otherwise overwhelming complexity to manageable proportions. As we accumulate running experiences persistent plastic remodeling customizes networked neural connectivity and biological tissue properties to best fit our unique neural and architectural idiosyncrasies, and personal histories: thus neural and peripheral tissue plasticity embeds coordination habits. When, however, coordinative processes are compromised—under the integrated influence of fatigue and/or accumulative cycles of injury, overuse

  17. Cockayne syndrome with early onset of manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, D B; Marquis, P; Shertzer, M E; Burton, B K

    1982-10-01

    The Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome of growth failure and characteristic physical and pathological changes. Typically the disorder becomes manifest in the second year of life; growth and development are normal during the first year. We report presumably monozygotic twins with otherwise classic Cockayne syndrome but with a prenatal onset. Several previously described cases seem to represent a similar form of Cockayne syndrome with early onset of growth failure and development delay.

  18. The effect of a sports drink on gastroesophageal reflux during a run-bike-run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H P; Wiersma, J W; Koerselman, J; Akkermans, L M; Bol, E; Mosterd, W L; de Vries, W R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different modes of prolonged exercise and different drinks on gastroesophageal reflux and reflux-related symptoms were examined. In a cross-over design seven male triathletes performed two tests at one week intervals (50 min periods of alternately running, cycling and running at 70-75% VO2max), with supplementation of either a conventional sports drink (7% carbohydrates) or tap water. Gastroesophageal reflux (percentage time and number of periods esophageal pH < 4) was measured with an ambulant pH system before, during and after exercise. Percentage reflux time (+/- SEM) during running, cycling, running and recovery was 24.0 +/- 4.6, 8.2 +/- 4.8, 17.6 +/- 8.4 and 11.8 +/- 4.0 with carbohydrates and 7.4 +/- 2.9, 0 +/- 0, 2.4 +/- 1.4 and 0.2 +/- 0.2 with water, respectively. Reflux lasted longer during exercise as compared to the rest situation (5.6 + 1.4%), especially with carbohydrates, and lasted longer with carbohydrates than with water (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon signed rank test). In general, reflux lasted longer during running than during cycling (P < 0.05). Data on the number of reflux periods are concordant to these results. Chest pain was reported by one subject during running with carbohydrates. Heartburn during running was reported by two subjects with water and by one with carbohydrates. In conclusion, physical exercise increases gastroesophageal reflux, dependent on the mode of exercise and beverage used.

  19. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section at D0 Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agram, Jean-Laurent [Univ. of Upper Alsace, Mulhouse (France)

    2004-12-17

    This work describes the measurement of inclusive jets cross section in the DØ experiment. This cross section is computed as a function of jet transverse momentum, in several rapidity intervals. This quantity is sensitive to the proton structure and is crucial for the determination of parton distribution functions (PDF), essentially for the gluon at high proton momentum fraction. The measurement presented here gives the first values obtained for Tevatron Run II for the cross section in several rapidity intervals, for an integrated luminosity of 143 pb-1. The results are in agreement, within the uncertainties, with theoretical Standard Model predictions, showing no evidence for new physics.

  20. Off the Waterfront: The long-run impact of technological change on dock workers

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sahli, Zouheir; Upward, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how individual workers and local labour markets adjust over a long time period to a discrete and plausibly exogenous technological shock, namely the introduction of containerisation in the UK port industry. This technology, which was introduced rapidly between the mid-1960s and the late-1970s, had dramatic consequences for specific occupations within the port industry. Using longitudinal micro-census data we follow dock-workers over a 40 year period and examine the long-run c...

  1. Repair of large midline abdominal-wall hernias by a running strip of abdominal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchac, D; Kaddoura, R

    1983-09-01

    Our experience with a full-thickness running strip of abdominal skin for the treatment of large midline abdominal hernias has been very positive. The mechanical properties of the skin strip allow one to reestablish a normal anatomy by bringing the rectus muscle in contact. Clinical and histologic studies have shown that the full-thickness skin rapidly loses its epidermal components and appears to transform itself into a dense connective tissue very similar to normal aponeurosis.

  2. The effect of changes in health sector resources on infant mortality in the short-run and the long-run: a longitudinal econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2009-06-01

    While countries with higher levels of human resources for health typically have better population health, the evidence that increases in the level of human resources for health leads to improvements in population health is limited. We use a dynamic regression model to obtain estimates of both the short-run and long-term effects of changes in physicians per capita, our measure of health system resources, on infant mortality. Using a dataset of 99 countries at 5-year intervals from 1960-2000, we estimate that increasing the number of physicians by one per 1000 population (roughly a doubling of current levels of provision) decreases the infant mortality rate by 15% within 5 years and by 45% in the long-run with half the long-run gain being achieved in 15 years. We conclude that the long-run effects of heath system resources are substantially larger than previously estimated. Our results suggest, however, that countries that have delayed action on the Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant and child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015 (relative to 1990) may have difficulty meeting this goal even if they rapidly increase resources now.

  3. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  4. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, highlighting the recent move from a MC driven ID to a data-driven ID. It will include the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. Additionally, it will describe continued improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region and potential Machine Learning improvements.

  5. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we would be able to draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we would first have to also carefully exclude all the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore...

  6. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, as well as the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. The poster will include public results from ATLAS-CONF-2016-024 (2015 Electron ID Conf Note), and any potential public plot displaying the latest recommendations (Moriond 2017). Additionally, it will describe planned improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region.

  7. Event alignment, warping between running speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Douglas, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from 60 to 120 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection...... the methods on data from the fuel injection period where the largest deviations in timing occur. The idea is that we, given aligned data, can use the already developed component analysis framework for non-stationary monitoring of condition changes. It should further be noticed that the proposed warp framework...

  8. Input data to run Landis-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  9. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  10. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to...

  11. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  12. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  13. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GB...

  14. Effects of a structured midsole on spatio-temporal variables and running economy in overground running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Tobias; Kröll, Josef; Stöggl, Thomas; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    Research to enhance running performance has led to the design of a leaf spring-structured midsole shoe (LEAF). In treadmill running, it has been shown that LEAF led to an increased running economy and increased stride length (SL) through a horizontal foot shift during stance compared to a standard foam shoe (FOAM). The purpose of this study was to analyse whether (a) these findings can also be observed in overground running and (b) relations exist between spatio-temporal variables and running economy. Ten male long-distance heel-strike runners ran at their individual 2 mmol/l blood lactate speed with LEAF and FOAM in randomized order. Kinematic data were recorded with an inertial measurement unit synchronized with 2D video. Oxygen consumption was measured using an automated metabolic gas analysis system. Blood lactate was collected after each run. The strike pattern was unaffected by LEAF. SL was increased by 0.9 ± 1.1 cm (95% CI 0.2 to 1.5; p = .040; d z  = 0.76), stride rate (SR) was reduced by -0.4 ± 0.3 strides/min (95% CI -0.6 to -0.1; p = .029; d z  = 0.82) and oxygen consumption tended to be reduced by 1% (-0.4 ± 0.6 ml/min/kg; 95% CI -0.8 to 0.0; p = .082; d z  = 0.62) when running with LEAF compared to FOAM. Changes in oxygen consumption in LEAF were correlated with SL (r = 0.71; p = .022) and SR (r = -0.68; p = .031). It can be concluded that LEAF has the potential to cause small changes in spatio-temporal variables during running. Runners increasing SL and decreasing SR in response to LEAF can achieve small improvements in running economy, which is beneficial in terms of performance.

  15. Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira, other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira, but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.

  16. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity......BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...

  17. Effect of motion control running shoes compared with neutral shoes on tibial rotation during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alice; Birch, Ivan; Kuisma, Raija

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether a motion control running shoe reduces tibial rotation in the transverse plane during treadmill running. An experimental study measuring tibial rotation in volunteer participants using a repeated measures design. Human Movement Laboratory, School of Health Professions, University of Brighton. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested. The group comprised males and females with size 6, 7, 9 and 11 feet. The age range for participants was 19 to 31 years. The total range of proximal tibial rotation was measured using the Codamotion 3-D Movement Analysis System. A one-tailed paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in the total range of proximal tibial rotation when a motion control shoe was worn (mean difference 1.38°, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.73, P=0.04). There is a difference in tibial rotation in the transverse plane between a motion control running shoe and a neutral running shoe. The results from this study have implications for the use of supportive running shoes as a form of injury prevention. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical features of adult-onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ayako; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Yuko; Yoshimori, Mayumi; Koyama, Takatoshi; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu

    2011-05-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with adult-onset chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV). First, we analyzed five patients (aged 28-72) diagnosed at our hospitals with EBV-infected clonally proliferating T cells. Four patients were administered cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, but no remarkable decrease of viral load was observed in three of the patients. The other patient died 19 days after initiation of CHOP treatment due to disease progression. Addition of high-dose cytarabine to the regimens of two of the patients was discontinued shortly after administration, due to the development of grade 4 pericardial effusion. Together, these regimens may be insufficient for treating adult-onset CAEBV. We next reviewed 23 adult-onset CAEBV patients, adding 18 previously reported patients to the five patients described in the present study. T cells were frequently infected (87%), whereas NK- and T-cell types are known to be almost equally prevalent in childhood-onset cases. The time duration from the onset of disease to initiation of treatment averaged 20 months. Reports showed that 12 patients died; seven patients died at an average of 8 months after initiation of treatment. Patients' disease courses seemed to be rapidly progressive and more aggressive than those of childhood-onset cases. More cases must be studied to clarify clinical features and establish an optimal treatment strategy.

  19. Severity of alcoholism in Indian males: Correlation with age of onset and family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pradeep R; Banu, Saira; Ashok, M V

    2010-07-01

    Family History of Alcoholism and earlier Age of Onset are found to predict Severity of alcoholism. Previous Indian studies in this regard have methodological issues related to the definition of alcoholism and reliability of information obtained. To study the relationship between the Age of onset/Family History and Severity of alcoholism. Consecutively admitted, 20 to 50 year old men, with alcohol-related problems at an urban teaching hospital, were recruited. After detoxification, alcohol use detection inventory test, severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire, schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry, and family interview for genetic studies were administered. Family history density was computed. Pearson's correlations, linear regression, and ANOVA tests were used. Family history density and severity of alcoholism were positively correlated. Age of onset of initiation had a significant negative correlation with severity. The effect of family history on the rapidity of development of Problem-drinking did not reach statistical significance among those with early age of onset. The variance explained by the 'family history status' and 'age of onset' for the severity of alcoholism was similar to that reported in earlier western studies. This study, with enhanced methodology, using a general hospital sample of problem drinkers concludes that the age of onset of initiation is a better predictor of severity of alcoholism, than family history of alcoholism alone. Postponing the use of alcohol till the age of 25 years could be explored as a primary prevention strategy in genetically vulnerable adolescents.

  20. Effects of a new experimental training program on V.O2max and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporis, G; Ruzic, L; Leko, G

    2008-06-01

    By testing the V.O(2max) and running performance in soccer players, the purpose of the study was to determine whether an experimental conditioning program would elicit better effects than the widely used traditional program, especially across longer distances. Laboratory measurements of maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were performed on 48 soccer players (U19) from two first league soccer teams (Experimental team, n=24; Control team n=24). Exercise intensities were calculated from heart rate maximum. Detailed training programs for both the experimental and control groups were designed for the 13-week period. The main intervention was performed in the conditioning phase where the control group performed traditional conditioning (straight-line running, with stretching exercises in the break) and the experimental group underwent a conditioning training program on designed polygon, very much akin to a real game situation; sprint-runs with or without the ball and rapid changes in direction. During the 20, 40 or 60m sprint-run the players had to perform specific ball drills depending on marked polygon station. Running performance at 60, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, 2 400 m distances and V.O(2max) were tested in the initial, transitory (week 6) and final trials. Significant improvement in 200, 400, 800, 1200, 2 400 m running performance and V.O(2max) (Ptrial. However, in this group the gained improvements quickly disappeared after the beginning of the competitive season as recorded at the final trial. Discriminant analysis revealed that the groups differed the most in the 200 m variable. The new experimental program is better suited for the enhancement of V.O(2max) and running performance in soccer players and the gained improvement lasted well into the competition season.

  1. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  2. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullé, Mikaël; Müller, Thorsten G.; Dähling, Sabrina; Jackson, Laurelle; Mahamed, Deeqa; Oom, Lance; Lustig, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses. PMID:27812216

  3. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullé, Mikaël; Müller, Thorsten G; Dähling, Sabrina; Ganga, Yashica; Jackson, Laurelle; Mahamed, Deeqa; Oom, Lance; Lustig, Gila; Neher, Richard A; Sigal, Alex

    2016-11-01

    Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses.

  4. ATLAS Trigger Menu and Performance in Run I and Prospects for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system plays a key role in the collection of data for a wide range of physics analysis. The 2012 proton run had significantly larger luminosities and pile-up than 2011, while for the proton-lead run in 2013 it was critical to select samples with low biases. To address these challenges, while maintaining or even improving performance, new algorithms have been commissioned. The trigger strategy and the main algorithms and their performance are described. For the 2015 run, the combination of a luminosity increase and an energy increase will put even larger demands on the trigger system. One new tool to address the challenges will be the addition of a topological capability in the first level of the trigger, implemented in custom electronics. The L1 topological trigger hardware and software architectures and their performance will be presented.

  5. CMS Trigger Improvements towards Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067212

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. Both systems need to provide an efficient and fast selection of events, to keep the average write-out rate below 450Hz. For Run II, the doubling of both the center of mass energy to 13 TeV and the collision rate to 40 MHz, will imply increased cross sections and out-of-time pile-up. We will present the improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet those new challenges.

  6. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Savanna Marie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  7. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  8. Mechanisms to absorb load in amputee running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Siobhan C; Wickett, Oliver; Schoeman, Marlene; Diss, Ceri E

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to determine if a shock absorbing pylon (SAP) influenced the ground reaction force characteristics and the shock absorbing mechanisms compared to a rigid pylon (Rigid) during the loading phase in running. To determine if the SAP influences the mechanisms of loading compared to the Rigid condition. A convenience sample of transtibial amputees participated in a laboratory-based study. The prosthetic set-up was randomly altered fd\\sdsd. Five recreationally active male transtibial amputees age: 18-50 years; mean mass: 86.7 ± 17.5 kg; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) volunteered from a population-based sample. They completed a within-participant-designed study assessing a SAP and a Rigid condition during running. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during two sessions following a one-week customization period. Loading rate, peak vertical and horizontal ground reaction forces and the time to each measure along with knee and hip angular displacement, absorbing powers and work done between the SAP and Rigid conditions were not systematically affected by the prosthetic condition. The effect of the SAP was minimal and inconsistent in the loading phase, with only some amputees presenting higher and others with lower values for the tested variables.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. Mechanism of and threshold biomechanical conditions for falsetto voice onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Deguchi

    Full Text Available The sound source of a voice is produced by the self-excited oscillation of the vocal folds. In modal voice production, a drastic increase in transglottal pressure after vocal fold closure works as a driving force that develops self-excitation. Another type of vocal fold oscillation with less pronounced glottal closure observed in falsetto voice production has been accounted for by the mucosal wave theory. The classical theory assumes a quasi-steady flow, and the expected driving force onto the vocal folds under wavelike motion is derived from the Bernoulli effect. However, wavelike motion is not always observed during falsetto voice production. More importantly, the application of the quasi-steady assumption to a falsetto voice with a fundamental frequency of several hundred hertz is unsupported by experiments. These considerations suggested that the mechanism of falsetto voice onset may be essentially different from that explained by the mucosal wave theory. In this paper, an alternative mechanism is submitted that explains how self-excitation reminiscent of the falsetto voice could be produced independent of the glottal closure and wavelike motion. This new explanation is derived through analytical procedures by employing only general unsteady equations of motion for flow and solids. The analysis demonstrated that a convective acceleration of a flow induced by rapid wall movement functions as a negative damping force, leading to the self-excitation of the vocal folds. The critical subglottal pressure and volume flow are expressed as functions of vocal fold biomechanical properties, geometry, and voice fundamental frequency. The analytically derived conditions are qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable in view of reported measurement data of the thresholds required for falsetto voice onset. Understanding of the voice onset mechanism and the explicit mathematical descriptions of thresholds would be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment

  11. Mechanism of and threshold biomechanical conditions for falsetto voice onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Shinji

    2011-03-07

    The sound source of a voice is produced by the self-excited oscillation of the vocal folds. In modal voice production, a drastic increase in transglottal pressure after vocal fold closure works as a driving force that develops self-excitation. Another type of vocal fold oscillation with less pronounced glottal closure observed in falsetto voice production has been accounted for by the mucosal wave theory. The classical theory assumes a quasi-steady flow, and the expected driving force onto the vocal folds under wavelike motion is derived from the Bernoulli effect. However, wavelike motion is not always observed during falsetto voice production. More importantly, the application of the quasi-steady assumption to a falsetto voice with a fundamental frequency of several hundred hertz is unsupported by experiments. These considerations suggested that the mechanism of falsetto voice onset may be essentially different from that explained by the mucosal wave theory. In this paper, an alternative mechanism is submitted that explains how self-excitation reminiscent of the falsetto voice could be produced independent of the glottal closure and wavelike motion. This new explanation is derived through analytical procedures by employing only general unsteady equations of motion for flow and solids. The analysis demonstrated that a convective acceleration of a flow induced by rapid wall movement functions as a negative damping force, leading to the self-excitation of the vocal folds. The critical subglottal pressure and volume flow are expressed as functions of vocal fold biomechanical properties, geometry, and voice fundamental frequency. The analytically derived conditions are qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable in view of reported measurement data of the thresholds required for falsetto voice onset. Understanding of the voice onset mechanism and the explicit mathematical descriptions of thresholds would be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of voice diseases

  12. Economic barriers to implementation of innovations in health care: is the long run-short run efficiency discrepancy a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adang, Eddy M M; Wensing, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Favourable cost-effectiveness of innovative technologies is more and more a necessary condition for implementation in clinical practice. But proven cost-effectiveness itself does not guarantee successful implementation. The reason for this is a potential discrepancy between long run efficiency, on which cost-effectiveness is based, and short run efficiency. Long run and short run efficiency is dependent upon economies of scale. This paper addresses the potential discrepancy between long run and short run efficiency of innovative technologies in healthcare, explores diseconomies of scale in Dutch hospitals and suggests what strategies might help to overcome hurdles to implement innovations due to that discrepancy.

  13. How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background. Usain Bolt holds the current world record for a 100-m run, 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed. Can the world’s fastest men become faster still? The correct answer is likely “Yes”. Methods. We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting pro...

  14. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  15. Red-light running violation prediction using observational and simulator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham; Dingus, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, 683 people were killed and an estimated 133,000 were injured in crashes due to running red lights in 2012. To help prevent/mitigate crashes caused by running red lights, these violations need to be identified before they occur, so both the road users (i.e., drivers, pedestrians, etc.) in potential danger and the infrastructure can be notified and actions can be taken accordingly. Two different data sets were used to assess the feasibility of developing red-light running (RLR) violation prediction models: (1) observational data and (2) driver simulator data. Both data sets included common factors, such as time to intersection (TTI), distance to intersection (DTI), and velocity at the onset of the yellow indication. However, the observational data set provided additional factors that the simulator data set did not, and vice versa. The observational data included vehicle information (e.g., speed, acceleration, etc.) for several different time frames. For each vehicle approaching an intersection in the observational data set, required data were extracted from several time frames as the vehicle drew closer to the intersection. However, since the observational data were inherently anonymous, driver factors such as age and gender were unavailable in the observational data set. Conversely, the simulator data set contained age and gender. In addition, the simulator data included a secondary (non-driving) task factor and a treatment factor (i.e., incoming/outgoing calls while driving). The simulator data only included vehicle information for certain time frames (e.g., yellow onset); the data did not provide vehicle information for several different time frames while vehicles were approaching an intersection. In this study, the random forest (RF) machine-learning technique was adopted to develop RLR violation prediction models. Factor importance was obtained for different models and different data sets to show how differently the factors influence the

  16. The psychological benefits of recreational running: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects.

  17. Running-based pica and taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2017-11-09

    Running in an activity wheel generates pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats. Wheel running also results in Pavlovian conditioned avoidance of the taste solution consumed immediately before the running. Since pica has been considered a behavioral marker of nausea in rats, these findings suggest that wheel running induces nausea, which is the underlying physiological state for establishing taste avoidance. This article reports a replication of running-based pica in rats (Experiment 1) and concurrent demonstrations of running-based pica and taste avoidance in the same animals (Experiments 2 and 3). Also shown is that pica does not alleviate running-based taste avoidance (Experiment 3). Another finding is that pica is generated by a nausea-inducing lithium chloride injection but not by a pain-inducing hypertonic saline injection (Experiment 4). These results, when taken together, support the hypothesis that pica behavior generated by wheel running reflects nausea in rats.

  18. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grabowski, Alena M; McGowan, Craig P; McDermott, William J; Beale, Matthew T; Kram, Rodger; Herr, Hugh M

    2010-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSP) emulate the spring-like behaviour of biological limbs during human running, but little research has examined the mechanical means by which amputees achieve top speeds...

  19. Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Samaan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.

  20. Running Performance Differences Between Men and Women (An Update)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, C. N; Carter, R; DeRuisseau, K. C; Moffatt, R. J

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was reported in the journal Nature that the slope of improvement in the men's and women's running records, extrapolated from mean running velocity plotted against historical...

  1. Asphyxia-activated corticocardiac signaling accelerates onset of cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duan; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Liu, Tiecheng; Tian, Fangyun; Xu, Gang; Rengifo, Santiago; Choi, Sarah J.; Mathur, Abhay; Crooks, Charles P.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Wang, Michael M.; Ghanbari, Hamid; Borjigin, Jimo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which the healthy heart and brain die rapidly in the absence of oxygen is not well understood. We performed continuous electrocardiography and electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental asphyxia and analyzed cortical release of core neurotransmitters, changes in brain and heart electrical activity, and brain–heart connectivity. Asphyxia stimulates a robust and sustained increase of functional and effective cortical connectivity, an immediate increase in cortical release of a large set of neurotransmitters, and a delayed activation of corticocardiac functional and effective connectivity that persists until the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Blocking the brain’s autonomic outflow significantly delayed terminal ventricular fibrillation and lengthened the duration of detectable cortical activities despite the continued absence of oxygen. These results demonstrate that asphyxia activates a brainstorm, which accelerates premature death of the heart and the brain. PMID:25848007

  2. Wernicke's Encephalopathy Mimicking Acute Onset Stroke Diagnosed by CT Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndromes such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy may present with a sudden neurological deficit, thus mimicking acute onset stroke. Due to current emphasis on rapid admission and treatment of acute stroke patients, there is a significant risk that these stroke mimics may end up being treated with thrombolysis. Rigorous clinical and radiological skills are necessary to correctly identify such metabolic stroke mimics, in order to avoid doing any harm to these patients due to the unnecessary use of thrombolysis. Patient. A 51-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our hospital with suspicion of an acute stroke due to sudden onset dysarthria and unilateral facial nerve paresis. Clinical examination revealed confusion and dysconjugate gaze. Computed tomography (CT including a CT perfusion (CTP scan revealed bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion. The use of both clinical and radiological findings led to correctly diagnosing Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Conclusion. The application of CTP as a standard diagnostic tool in acute stroke patients can improve the detection of stroke mimics caused by metabolic syndromes as shown in our case report.

  3. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly associated with running

  4. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A.; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spri...

  5. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  6. Natural History of Infantile-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Stephen J; Coffey, Christopher S; Yankey, Jon W; Krosschell, Kristin; Arnold, W David; Rutkove, Seward B; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Reyna, Sandra P; Sakonju, Ai; Darras, Basil T; Shell, Richard; Kuntz, Nancy; Castro, Diana; Parsons, Julie; Connolly, Anne M; Chiriboga, Claudia A; McDonald, Craig; Burnette, W Bryan; Werner, Klaus; Thangarajh, Mathula; Shieh, Perry B; Finanger, Erika; Cudkowicz, Merit E; McGovern, Michelle M; McNeil, D Elizabeth; Finkel, Richard; Iannaccone, Susan T; Kaye, Edward; Kingsley, Allison; Renusch, Samantha R; McGovern, Vicki L; Wang, Xueqian; Zaworski, Phillip G; Prior, Thomas W; Burghes, Arthur H M; Bartlett, Amy; Kissel, John T

    2017-11-17

    Infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality, typically resulting in death prior to age 2. Clinical trials in this population require an understanding of disease progression and identification of meaningful biomarkers to hasten therapeutic development and predict outcomes. A longitudinal, multi-center, prospective natural history study enrolled 26 SMA infants, and 27 control infants less than six months of age. Recruitment occurred at 14 centers over 21 months within the NINDS-sponsored NeuroNEXT Network. Infant motor function scales (TIMPSI, CHOP-INTEND and AIMS) and putative physiologic and molecular biomarkers were assessed prior to 6 months of age and at 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24-months with progression, correlations between motor function and biomarkers and hazard ratios were analyzed. Motor function scores (MFS) and CMAP decreased rapidly in SMA infants, whereas MFS in all healthy infants rapidly increased. Correlations were identified between TIMPSI and CMAP in SMA infants. TIMPSI at first study visit was associated with risk of combined endpoint of death or permanent invasive ventilation in SMA infants. Post hoc analysis of survival to combined endpoint in SMA infants with 2 copies of SMN2 indicated a median age of 8 months at death (95%CI: 6,17). These data of SMA and control outcome measures delineates meaningful change in clinical trials in infantile-onset SMA. The power and utility of NeuroNEXT to provide "real world", prospective natural history data sets to accelerate public and private drug development programs for rare disease is demonstrated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  7. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  8. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  9. Onset and stability of melatonin treatment effect in childhood sleep onset insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Heijden, K.B. van der; Smits, M.G.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud and objective: To evaluate onset and stability of therapeutic effect of 4-week melatonin treatment for chronic sleep onset insomnia in elementary school-aged children. Methods: Retrospective analysis of unpublished data obtained from two previously published randomized, double-blind and

  10. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Smit, T.; van der Gaag, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The temporal relationship between the onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the onset of thyroidal Graves' disease was evaluated in 125 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroidal Graves' disease--past or present--was clinically evident in 99 patients (79%): hyperthyroidism in 3 cases.

  11. Integrating spatio-temporal environmental models for planning ski runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of ski runs and ski lifts, the action of skiing and maintenance of ski runs may cause considerable environmental impact. Clearly, for improvements to be made in the planning of ski runs in alpine terrain a good understanding of the environmental system and the response of

  12. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The rate of decline in running speed occurred at an earlier age (~ 32 years) during the running race compared with the cycling tour (~ 55 years). Conclusions. These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on ...

  13. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.134-96 Section... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.134-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban...

  14. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-12 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data as...

  15. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-08 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  16. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-86 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  17. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  18. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  19. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.1234-96 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1234-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban...

  20. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  1. Update on differences between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease and occurs worldwide in both children and adults. The estimated annual incidence among children is 2.22/100,000 and among adults is 23.2/100,000 in the United States. There is increasing understanding about differences in disease manifestations, medication use, and disease severity between those with childhood-onset SLE as compared with adult-onset SLE. Children have a more fulminant disease onset and course than adults with SLE, resulting in two to three times higher mortality. In future years, we anticipate more insight into the genetics between childhood-onset SLE and adult-onset SLE to help delineate the best therapies for both subsets of patients. PMID:23998441

  2. Prospettive per il Run 2 ad LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, Vitaliano

    2015-01-01

    With the approach of resumption of the activity of the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN, scheduled for the spring of 2015, the physicists of the ATLAS and CMS experiments are pondering the prospects that will be opened up by the increase of centre-of-mass energy from 8 to 13 TeV, after the discovery of the Higgs boson. However the results from Run 2 go, they will mark an important new chapter in the physics of fundamental interactions, making it possible to explore the region up to around 1 TeV of mass in the search for new particles that can explain dark matter and the other unresolved questions of the Standard Model.

  3. RUNNING CONDITION FRETTING MAPS OF POLYMER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Tamás Vezér

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the industrial demand, the determination of the wear behaviour of polymeric materials is an important research task. Rubbers and elastomers are used widely in contacts, where wear is the dominant failure mechanisms. Furthermore, only the material properties under large displacements were investigated in the majority of existing studies. Depending on the input physical parameters of the tribological systems small oscillations are also observed on the measured signals (due to stick-slip like effect in the contact zone of the elastomers. To describe the failure behaviour under this special condition, a novel fretting fatigue test system was developed and built on a electro-dynamical shaker in this study. The contact area were defined with some additional test, like 2D full field strain analysis, compression and creep tests. Based on the methodology developed and applied for steels and polymer composites, Running Condition Fretting Maps for two elastomer grades (HNBR and TPU were determined.

  4. Reflections on Daily Runs and Material Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and movements. Based on my felt experiences during daily runs, it analyzes these vibrant land-scapes as heterogeneous assemblages, as collectives co-constituted between human-nonhuman actors, to study the material flows that move our bodies and expose them to new organizations. It sums up, that technologies......This essay reflects on the material flows and intensive states that surround us in our everyday lives, to provide an understanding of the ways in which they permeate and affect our bodies and cause a change in them, when we are moving through a landscape alongside various materialities, rhythms......, milieus and human-nonhuman beings that lives alongside each other, have an immediate impact on each other caused by the circulating intensities within the heterogeneous collectives. We discover that changes in one context interface with changes in another, rhythms resonate and create new movements...

  5. ATLAS Distributed Computing in LHC Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Simone; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing infrastructure has evolved after the first period of LHC data taking in order to cope with the challenges of the upcoming LHC Run2. An increased data rate and computing demands of the Monte-Carlo simulation, as well as new approaches to ATLAS analysis, dictated a more dynamic workload management system (ProdSys2) and data management system (Rucio), overcoming the boundaries imposed by the design of the old computing model. In particular, the commissioning of new central computing system components was the core part of the migration toward the flexible computing model. The flexible computing utilization exploring the opportunistic resources such as HPC, cloud, and volunteer computing is embedded in the new computing model, the data access mechanisms have been enhanced with the remote access, and the network topology and performance is deeply integrated into the core of the system. Moreover a new data management strategy, based on defined lifetime for each dataset, has been defin...

  6. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from......), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than...

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF SHORT-DISTANCE RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine estimation of current sprinter-s ability, the control is necessary on the track while measuring passing times, at every five or ten meters. With these results one can determine what parts of certain races are suitable for a sprinter. Having these data, the trainer is planning and making programs for training process with the help of adequate training methods and means. The basic precondition for a regular training work is testing of all four phases: the start, acceleration, running up the lane phase and the finish. Generally speaking, all sprinters don’t have the same dynamics taking in consideration all these phases, which means that a good sprint starter isn’t necessarily good at the finish. One of the facts is that in practice one should use the least possible the numbers of phase testing but on the other hand he should be much more informed.

  8. Leg pain in the running athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Richard F; Khanuja, Harpal S; Cooley, G Robert

    2004-01-01

    Leg pain is a common complaint among recreational and professional athletes who compete in running sports. Evaluation of the individual with intermittent or constant leg pain should be well organized and inclusive. Duration of the pain, its relation to injury, intensity of the pain, and its pattern are important factors. Additionally, changes in the training regimen, its level, intensity, or duration, or in the nature of the routine are critical components of the assessment. Physical examination can help differentiate bony from soft-tissue etiologies. Studies are dictated by the differential diagnosis but include radiographs in almost all patients and selected use of other modalities. These include bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging for medial tibial stress syndrome and stress fractures and intracompartmental pressure measurements for chronic compartment syndrome. Treatment often requires either rest or a change in training regimen. Surgery for conditions such as chronic compartment syndrome frequently allows a return to preinjury activities.

  9. LHCb computing in Run II and its evolution towards Run III

    CERN Document Server

    Falabella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    his contribution reports on the experience of the LHCb computing team during LHC Run 2 and its preparation for Run 3. Furthermore a brief introduction on LHCbDIRAC, i.e. the tool to interface to the experiment distributed computing resources for its data processing and data management operations, is given. Run 2, which started in 2015, has already seen several changes in the data processing workflows of the experiment. Most notably the ability to align and calibrate the detector between two different stages of the data processing in the high level trigger farm, eliminating the need for a second pass processing of the data offline. In addition a fraction of the data is immediately reconstructed to its final physics format in the high level trigger and only this format is exported from the experiment site to the physics analysis. This concept have successfully been tested and will continue to be used for the rest of Run 2. Furthermore the distributed data processing has been improved with new concepts and techn...

  10. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who...

  11. How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as “Can the world’s fastest men become faster still?” The correct answer is likely “Yes.” We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  12. Amputee Locomotion: Ground Reaction Forces During Submaximal Running With Running-Specific Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Brian S; Hobara, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shim, Jae Kun

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with lower extremity amputation must adapt the mechanical interactions between the feet and ground to account for musculoskeletal function loss. However, it is currently unknown how individuals with amputation modulate three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) when running. This study aimed to understand how running with running-specific prostheses influences three-dimensional support forces from the ground. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations and 8 control subjects ran overground at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m/s. Ten force plates measured GRFs at 1000 Hz. Peak and average GRFs and impulses in each plane were compared between limbs and groups. Prosthetic limbs generated reduced vertical impulses, braking forces and impulses, and mediolateral forces while generating similar propulsive impulses compared with intact and control limbs. Intact limbs generated greater peak and average vertical forces and average braking forces than control subjects' limbs. These data indicate that the nonamputated limb experiences elevated mechanical loading compared with prosthetic and control limbs. This may place individuals with amputation at greater risk of acute injury or joint degeneration in their intact limb. Individuals with amputation adapted to running-specific prosthesis force production limitations by generating longer periods of positive impulse thus producing propulsive impulses equivalent to intact and control limbs.

  13. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    a full read and quality assessment, only eight studies were included in the final review. Results Inherent differences in measurements, methodologies and outcome measures in the studies, made it impossible to do a meta-analysis. Instead, we performed a descriptive assessment of the results from...... not increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common definitions of late-onset, “stress” and “traumatic life events...

  14. Investigating Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

    OpenAIRE

    Nyunt, Ohn; Wu, Joyce Y; McGown, Ivan N; Harris, Mark; Huynh, Tony; Leong, Gary M; Cowley, David M; Cotterill, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) is a monogenic and autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus with onset of the disease often before 25 years of age. It is due to dysfunction of pancreatic ß cells characterised by non-ketotic diabetes and absence of pancreatic auto-antibodies. It is frequently mistaken for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis of MODY is important as the GCK subtype has better prognosis and may not require any treatment. Subtypes HNF1A and HNF4A are sensitiv...

  15. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  16. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1% in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and pharmacologic management when approaching new-onset manic/depressive symptoms among geriatric patients.

  17. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes: e0150799

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olav Vikmoen; Truls Raastad; Olivier Seynnes; Kristoffer Bergstrøm; Stian Ellefsen; Bent R Rønnestad

    2016-01-01

      Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes...

  18. Thermodynamical aspects of running vacuum models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Basilakos, Spyros [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Athens (Greece); Sola, Joan [Univ. de Barcelona, High Energy Physics Group, Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The thermal history of a large class of running vacuum models in which the effective cosmological term is described by a truncated power series of the Hubble rate, whose dominant term is Λ(H) ∝ H{sup n+2}, is discussed in detail. Specifically, by assuming that the ultrarelativistic particles produced by the vacuum decay emerge into space-time in such a way that its energy density ρ{sub r} ∝ T{sup 4}, the temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically calculated. For the whole class of vacuum models explored here we find that the primeval value of the comoving radiation entropy density (associated to effectively massless particles) starts from zero and evolves extremely fast until reaching a maximum near the end of the vacuum decay phase, where it saturates. The late-time conservation of the radiation entropy during the adiabatic FRW phase also guarantees that the whole class of running vacuum models predicts the same correct value of the present day entropy, S{sub 0} ∝ 10{sup 87}-10{sup 88} (in natural units), independently of the initial conditions. In addition, by assuming Gibbons¨CHawking temperature as an initial condition, we find that the ratio between the late-time and primordial vacuum energy densities is in agreement with naive estimates from quantum field theory, namely, ρ{sub Λ0}/ρ{sub ΛI} 10{sup -123}. Such results are independent on the power n and suggests that the observed Universe may evolve smoothly between two extreme, unstable, non-singular de Sitter phases. (orig.)

  19. Runs of Homozygosity in European Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Ruth; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab; Franklin, Christopher S.; Pericic, Marijana; Barac-Lauc, Lovorka; Smolej-Narancic, Nina; Janicijevic, Branka; Polasek, Ozren; Tenesa, Albert; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Farrington, Susan M.; Rudan, Pavao; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wild, Sarah H.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating individual genome-wide autozygosity is important both in the identification of recessive disease variants via homozygosity mapping and in the investigation of the effects of genome-wide homozygosity on traits of biomedical importance. Approaches have tended to involve either single-point estimates or rather complex multipoint methods of inferring individual autozygosity, all on the basis of limited marker data. Now, with the availability of high-density genome scans, a multipoint, observational method of estimating individual autozygosity is possible. Using data from a 300,000 SNP panel in 2618 individuals from two isolated and two more-cosmopolitan populations of European origin, we explore the potential of estimating individual autozygosity from data on runs of homozygosity (ROHs). Termed Froh, this is defined as the proportion of the autosomal genome in runs of homozygosity above a specified length. Mean Froh distinguishes clearly between subpopulations classified in terms of grandparental endogamy and population size. With the use of good pedigree data for one of the populations (Orkney), Froh was found to correlate strongly with the inbreeding coefficient estimated from pedigrees (r = 0.86). Using pedigrees to identify individuals with no shared maternal and paternal ancestors in five, and probably at least ten, generations, we show that ROHs measuring up to 4 Mb are common in demonstrably outbred individuals. Given the stochastic variation in ROH number, length, and location and the fact that ROHs are important whether ancient or recent in origin, approaches such as this will provide a more useful description of genomic autozygosity than has hitherto been possible. PMID:18760389

  20. Modular Control of Treadmill vs Overground Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Motorized treadmills have been widely used in locomotion studies, although a debate remains concerning the extrapolation of results obtained from treadmill experiments to overground locomotion. Slight differences between treadmill (TRD) and overground running (OVG) kinematics and muscle activity have previously been reported. However, little is known about differences in the modular control of muscle activation in these two conditions. Therefore, we aimed at investigating differences between motor modules extracted from TRD and OVG by factorization of multi-muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals. Twelve healthy men ran on a treadmill and overground at their preferred speed while we recorded tibial acceleration and surface EMG from 11 ipsilateral lower limb muscles. We extracted motor modules representing relative weightings of synergistic muscle activations by non-negative matrix factorization from 20 consecutive gait cycles. Four motor modules were sufficient to accurately reconstruct the EMG signals in both TRD and OVG (average reconstruction quality = 92±3%). Furthermore, a good reconstruction quality (80±7%) was obtained also when muscle weightings of one condition (either OVG or TRD) were used to reconstruct the EMG data from the other condition. The peak amplitudes of activation signals showed a similar timing (pattern) across conditions. The magnitude of peak activation for the module related to initial contact was significantly greater for OVG, whereas peak activation for modules related to leg swing and preparation to landing were greater for TRD. We conclude that TRD and OVG share similar muscle weightings throughout motion. In addition, modular control for TRD and OVG is achieved with minimal temporal adjustments, which were dependent on the phase of the running cycle. PMID:27064978

  1. Late-onset Pompe disease with phenotype of the limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kurbatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease, also known as type II glycogenosis, is a rare autosomal recessive disease. Two main types include early-onset Pompe disease – severe, rapidly progressive multisystem deficency, manifestating on the first year of life, and late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD, with the age of onset ranging from the first year till late adulthood. Both types are caused by the deficiency of lysosomal acid-α-glucosidase due to the mutations in GAA gene, leading to an excessive storage of glycogen in body cells. LOPD is a slowly progressive disease with a primary lesion of a skeletal, respiratory and cardiac muscles, affected in different grade, and moderately elevated сreatine kinase. It is often difficult to perform differential diagnosis with a large group of hereditary and non-hereditary myopathies. We present a case report of LOPD with signs of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

  2. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-10-17

    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid onset of hippocampal atrophy in febrile-infection related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Debra L; Grageda, Melissa R; Halstead, E Scott; Kanekar, Sangam

    2014-04-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic and usually refractory epilepsy syndrome that occurs after a febrile illness in previously normal children. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is unknown, and the diagnosis is typically made by exclusion after an exhaustive negative workup for central nervous system infections and autoimmune or metabolic disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging of patients with this condition has previously shown hippocampal abnormalities, typically found several months or longer after initial seizures. We report a previously healthy 5-year-old child who developed hippocampal atrophy by day 37 of his illness. The development of early hippocampal atrophy in this epileptic encephalopathy may provide insight into pathogenesis and highlights the need for aggressive and effective interventions early in the disease process.

  4. Visual Working Memory Modulates Rapid Eye Movements to Simple Onset Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) representations influence attention and gaze control in complex tasks, such as visual search, that require top-down selection to resolve stimulus competition. VWM and visual attention clearly interact, but the mechanism of that interaction is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that VWM representations of object features influence the spatiotemporal dynamics of extremely simple eye movements, in the absence of stimulus competition or goal-level biases. The rea...

  5. Visual working memory modulates rapid eye movements to simple onset targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Representations in visual working memory (VWM) influence attention and gaze control in complex tasks, such as visual search, that require top-down selection to resolve stimulus competition. VWM and visual attention clearly interact, but the mechanism of that interaction is not well understood. In the research reported here, we demonstrated that in the absence of stimulus competition or goal-level biases, VWM representations of object features influence the spatiotemporal dynamics of extremely simple eye movements. The influence of VWM therefore extends into the most basic operations of the oculomotor system.

  6. Rapid therapeutic response onset of a new pharmaceutical form of chloroquine phosphate 300 mg: effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanze, M F; Duru, C; Jacob, M; Bastide, J M; Lankeuh, M

    2001-03-01

    To compare the efficiency, safety and taste of two pharmaceutical forms of chloroquine phosphate 300 mg: effervescent tablets against uncoated tablets. An open randomized study with 60 adults who suffered from acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in three health centres in Nkongsamba health district, Cameroon. Mean times to fever clearance, symptoms clearance and asexual parasites clearance were longer in the uncoated tablets group: 36 h (range 24-48 h, SD = 16.8) vs. 60 h (range 24-96 h, SD = 31.2, P = 0.001) for fever clearance, 36 h (24-48 h, SD = 16.8) vs. 48 h (24-72, SD = 24, P = 0.001) for symptoms clearance and 48 h (24-72, SD = 1) vs. 72 h (48-96, SD = 24, P = 0.001) for parasitaemia clearance. Uncoated tablets took significantly longer to achieve 50% reduction of the initial asexual parasite density: (mean/SD) 19.2 h/7 vs. 52.8 h/16.8, P 0.05. The cure rate at day 7 in the two groups was similar, P > 0.05. There was no chloroquine resistance in the effervescent tablets group but one RI and one RII resistance in the uncoated tablets group. The taste of the two pharmaceutical forms was significantly different, P Effervescent tablets tasted sweet (score = 7.93), whereas uncoated tablets were bitter (score = 2.07). Effervescent tablets of chloroquine phosphate 300 mg work faster than uncoated tablets and because of their safe use and sweet taste achieve good therapeutic compliance.

  7. Comparising the Succinylcholine onset effect with Atracurium - Alfentanyl in patient underwent rapid sequence Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan Teimouri

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: According to results, use of Atra + Alfen method can replace the standard method (succinylcholine for contraindicated condition. Mild vocal cord movement and mild bucking in the Atracurium + Alfentanyl can be control by that a increase in Atracurium dose.

  8. Serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists are putative antidepressants with a rapid onset of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Guillaume; Rymar, Vladimir V; Du, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Current antidepressants are clinically effective only after several weeks of administration. Here, we show that serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) agonists reduce immobility in the forced swimming test, displaying an antidepressant potential. Moreover, a 3 day regimen with such compounds modifies rat brain p...

  9. Metabolic cost of running is greater on a treadmill with a stiffer running platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; McKerrow, Alexander D; Kohn, Tertius A

    2017-08-01

    Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO 2max ). The stiffer treadmill elicited higher oxygen consumption (C: 46.7 ± 3.8; Q: 50.1 ± 4.3 ml·kg -1 · min -1 ), energy expenditure (C: 16.0 ± 2.5; Q: 17.7 ± 2.9 kcal · min -1 ), carbohydrate oxidation (C: 9.6 ± 3.1; Q: 13.0 ± 3.9 kcal · min -1 ), heart rate (C: 155 ± 16; Q: 163 ± 16 beats · min -1 ) and rating of perceived exertion (C: 13.8 ± 1.2; Q: 14.7 ± 1.2), but lower fat oxidation (C: 6.4 ± 2.3; Q: 4.6 ± 2.5 kcal · min -1 ) (all analysis of variance treadmill comparisons P running depending on the running platform stiffness.

  10. The effects of prior weight reduction on the running wheel-induced feeding suppression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Botzang, Laura; Parfeniuk, Graham G; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2009-09-01

    Adult male rats given ad lib access to food and a running wheel show an initial feeding and weight suppression. Over 6-10 days feeding recovers, but body weight remains low. It is not clear which effect is primary, the wheel-induced feeding or weight change. To test this, rats were first restricted to 15g of food a day for 8 or 16 days to reduce their weight relative to control non-restricted rats. They were then returned to ad lib feeding and half the restricted and non-restricted control rats were introduced to the wheel either immediately (Experiment 1) or 4 days later (Experiment 2). Food intake, body weight, and wheel running were monitored throughout the experiments. At the return to ad lib feeding, prior food restriction elevated feeding. Both immediate and delayed wheel access suppressed feeding in both groups of wheel access rats compared to the appropriate control rats. Feeding history did not have a significant effect on wheel running. The wheel-induced reductions in feeding from baseline were similar in the weight reduced and normal weight animals suggesting that prior weight restriction did not prevent the onset of the wheel-induced feeding suppression. It is therefore suggested that the feeding suppression is not driven by a reduced weight set point.

  11. Age-at-Onset in Late Onset Alzheimer Disease is Modified by Multiple Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naj, Adam C.; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W.; Perry, William; Park, YoSon; Beecham, Gary W.; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S.K.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Crane, Paul K.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, Michael M.; Demirci, F. Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Larson, Eric B.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Evans, Denis; Schneider, Julie A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Morris, John C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Goate, Alison M.; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Martin, Eden R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance As APOE locus variants contribute to both risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease and differences in age-at-onset, it is important to know if other established late-onset Alzheimer disease risk loci also affect age-at-onset in cases. Objectives To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying age-at-onset, and to estimate their cumulative effect on age-at-onset variation, using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). Design, Setting and Participants The ADGC comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based datasets with data on 9,162 Caucasian participants with Alzheimer’s occurring after age 60 who also had complete age-at-onset information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most significantly associated with risk at ten confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual dataset results were combined using a random effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine if they contribute to variation in age-at-onset. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Main Outcomes and Measures Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease diagnosed per standard criteria. Results Analysis confirmed association of APOE with age-at-onset (rs6857, P=3.30×10−96), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P=7.17×10−4), BIN1 (rs7561528, P=4.78×10−4), and PICALM (rs561655, P=2.23×10−3) reaching statistical significance (P<0.005). Risk alleles individually reduced age-at-onset by 3-6 months. Burden analyses demonstrated that APOE contributes to 3.9% of variation in age-at-onset (R2=0.220) over baseline (R2=0.189) whereas the other nine loci together contribute to 1.1% of

  12. Constraints on the running of the running of the scalar tilt from CMB anisotropies and spectral distortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabass, Giovanni; Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}}

  13. Injury-free running - a utopia? Risk factors of running-related injuries in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the

  14. Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than whites (Caucasian Americans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Molina, Thomas A; Dziepak, Marissa E; Smith, Mark R

    2012-10-01

    The length of the free-running period (τ) affects how an animal re-entrains after phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Those with shorter periods adapt faster to phase advances than those with longer periods, whereas those with longer periods adapt faster to phase delays than those with shorter periods. The free-running period of humans, measured in temporal isolation units and in forced desychrony protocols in which the day length is set beyond the range of entrainment, varies from about 23.5 to 26 h, depending on the individual and the experimental conditions (e.g., temporal isolation vs. forced desychrony). We studied 94 subjects free-running through an ultradian LD cycle, which was a forced desychrony with a day length of 4 h (2.5 h awake in dim light, ~35 lux, alternating with 1.5 h for sleep in darkness). Circadian phase assessments were conducted before (baseline) and after (final) three 24-h days of the ultradian LD cycle. During these assessments, saliva samples were collected every 30 min and subsequently analyzed for melatonin. The phase shift of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) from baseline to final phase assessment gave the free-running period. The mean ± SD period was 24.31 ± .23 h and ranged from 23.7 to 24.9 h. Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period than Whites (24.18 ± .23 h, N =20 vs. 24.37 ± .22 h, N = 55). We had a greater proportion of women than men in our Black sample, so to check the τ difference we compared the Black women to White women. Again, Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period (24.18 ± .23, N = 17 vs. 24.41 ± .23, N = 23). We did not find any sex differences in the free-running period. These findings give rise to several testable predictions: on average, Blacks should adapt quicker to eastward flights across time zones than Whites, whereas Whites should adjust quicker to westward flights than Blacks. Also, Blacks should have more difficulty adjusting to night

  15. Paddys Run Streambank Stabilization Project at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Legacy Management; Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering; Homer, John [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve is a former uranium-processing plant that underwent extensive remediation pursuant to CERCLA and is now managed by the US DOE Office of Legacy Management. While remediation of buildings and soil contamination was completed in 2006, aquifer remediation is ongoing. Paddys Run is a second-order stream that runs to the south along the western side of the Fernald Preserve. The Paddys Run watershed encompasses nearly 41 km2 (16 mi2), including most of the Fernald site. Field personnel conducting routine site inspections in March 2014 observed that Paddys Run was migrating east via bank erosion into the “Pit 3 Swale,” an area of known surface-water contamination. The soil there was certified pursuant to site regulatory agreements and meets all final remediation levels. However, weekly surface-water monitoring is conducted from two puddles within the swale area, when water that exceeds the final remediation levels is present. Paddys Run had migrated east approximately 4 m (13 ft) in 2 years and was approximately 29 m (95 ft) from the sample location. This rapid migration threatened existing conditions that allowed for continued monitoring of the swale area and also threatened Paddys Run water quality. Therefore, DOE and regulators determined that the east bank of Paddys Run required stabilization. This was accomplished with a design that included the following components: relocation of approximately 145 m (475 ft) of streambed 9 m (30 ft) west, installation of a rock toe along the east bank, installation of two cross-vane in-stream grade-control structures, stabilization of a portion of the east bank using soil encapsulated lifts, and regrading, seeding, and planting within remaining disturbed areas. In an effort to take advantage of low-flow conditions in Paddys Run, construction was initiated in September 2014. Weather delays and subsurface flow within the Paddys Run streambed resulted in an interim shutdown of the project area in December 2014

  16. Social inequality in onset of mobility limitations in midlife: a longitudinal study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate if social inequality in onset of mobility limitations is present in early midlife, and to examine whether common determinants of disability account for social status differences in onset of mobility limitations in midlife. 3,586 40-and 50-year-old Danish men and women enrolled in The Danish Longitudinal Study on Work, Unemployment and Health constituted the study population. Data were collected by mailed questionnaires in 2000 and 2006. Limitations in running 100 m and in climbing two flights of stairs represented two aspects of mobility limitations. Occupational social class was applied as a measure of socioeconomic position. Among individuals reporting no limitations in 2000 social gradients in onset of mobility limitations emerged in 2006. Having a low social class at age 40 and 50 respectively was associated with higher onset of mobility limitations 6 years later, and this association was overall only partly explained by common determinants of disability: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. These results indicate that the development of mobility limitations might begin earlier in lower compared to higher social strata, and that social status differences in mobility limitations might emerge already in the forties.

  17. Development and Prevention of Running-Related Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of running on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported with conflicting results. Generally, moderate-level running is not likely detrimental to joint health. However, many factors may be associated with the increased risk of developing osteoarthritis in runners. Factors often implicated in the development of osteoarthritis comprise those that increase joint vulnerability and those which increase joint loading. It is therefore suggested that running has different effects on different people. Efforts should be made to identify those with joint vulnerability and joint loading, and measures should be taken to have those factors and/or their running programs modified to run safely. Further investigations are needed to examine the effect of running on joint health under different conditions to confirm the association between exposure to risk factors and development of osteoarthritis, as well as to validate the effectiveness of measures for preventing running-related osteoarthritis.

  18. Prediction of walk-to-run transition using stride frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Nielsen, Andreas Møller; Kristensen, Lasse Andreas Risgaard

    2018-01-01

    The transition from walking to running has previously been predicted to occur at a point where the stride frequency starts getting closer to the running attractor than to the walking attractor. The two behavioural attractors were considered to be represented by the freely chosen stride frequencies...... during unrestricted treadmill walking and running. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the predicted walk-to-run transition stride frequency. Healthy individuals (n=25) performed walking and running on a treadmill in a day-to-day test......-retest design. The two behavioral attractors were determined during walking and running at freely chosen velocities and stride frequencies. Subsequently, the walk-to-run transition stride frequency was predicted using camera recordings and a previously reported equation for prediction. The walk...

  19. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  20. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Misty; Lyon, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), particularly when diagnosed prior to the age of 13, is considered to be especially rare and severe. This article provides an in-depth look into its symptomatology, general course, long-term functioning, diagnostic criteria, and methods of assessing the disorder. It also includes discussions of the various…

  1. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.; Marck, M.A. van der; Elsen, G. van den; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the

  2. Progression of Late-Onset Stargardt Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertus, S.; Lindner, M.; Bax, N.M.; Mauschitz, M.M.; Nadal, J.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Weber, B.H.; Holz, F.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Fleckenstein, M.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of sensitive biomarkers is essential to determine potential effects of emerging therapeutic trials for Stargardt disease. This study aimed to describe the natural history of late-onset Stargardt, and demonstrates the accuracy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy

  3. Topiramate monotherapy for partial onset seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sachdeo, R C; Reife, R A; Lim, P; Pledger, G

    1997-01-01

    .... A total of 48 patients were evaluated in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. During a 56-day baseline period, patients had at least eight partial onset seizures while being treated with one or two standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs...

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however......, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients...

  5. Strangeness from SPS to FAIR: Searching for the onset of deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Volker

    2017-12-01

    Since the early days of heavy-ion physics, strangeness has been considered a sensitive probe of the state of matter created in nuclear collisions. This assessment still holds today, where we are witnessing renewed interest in collisions at moderate energies, manifested in the running or projected experimental programmes at RHIC, SPS, FAIR, and NICA. In this article, we will review the current understanding of strangeness production at lower energies and discuss how far future measurement of strange particles can contribute to understanding the properties of dense QCD matter and to the search for the onset of deconfinement.

  6. Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Hoogkamer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, several different approaches have been applied to explain the metabolic cost of uphill human running. Most of these approaches result in unrealistically high values for the efficiency of performing vertical work during running uphill, or are only valid for running up steep inclines. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the metabolic cost of uphill running, based upon our understanding of level running energetics and ground reaction forces during uphill running. In contrast to the vertical efficiency approach, we propose that during incline running at a certain velocity, the forces (and hence metabolic energy required for braking and propelling the body mass parallel to the running surface are less than during level running. Based on this idea, we propose that the metabolic rate during uphill running can be predicted by a model, which posits that (1 the metabolic cost of perpendicular bouncing remains the same as during level running, (2 the metabolic cost of running parallel to the running surface decreases with incline, (3 the delta efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the COM vertically is constant, independent of incline and running velocity, and (4 the costs of leg and arm swing do not change with incline. To test this approach, we collected ground reaction force (GRF data for eight runners who ran thirty 30-second trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–9°. We also measured the metabolic rates of eight different runners for 17, 7-minute trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–8°. During uphill running, parallel braking GRF approached zero for the 9° incline trials. Thus, we modeled the metabolic cost of parallel running as exponentially decreasing with incline. With that assumption, best-fit parameters for the metabolic rate data indicate that the efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the center of mass vertically was independent of incline and running velocity, with a value of ∼29

  7. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  9. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  10. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  11. Onset of Phloem Export from Senescent Petals of Daylily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1995-10-01

    During senescence, petals of attached daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song) flowers lost 95% sugar and 65% dry weight over the first 24 h, with 30% of dry weight loss coming from nonsugar components. Detaching flowers did not delay senescence, but halted loss of carbohydrate and amino acid, suggesting that loss in the intact state was due to phloem export. Petal autolysis occurred mainly in the interveinal parenchyma, causing vascular strands to begin separating from the petal mass. Such vascular strands still stained with tetrazolium and accumulated sucrose, indicating a retained viability. Their sucrose accumulation rates were high in comparison with those of other plant tissues, and the accumulated product was mainly sucrose. Sucrose synthesis took place in the senescent petal, and sucrose was the principal sugar in phloem exudate, whereas hydroxyproline and glutamine were the main transport amino acids. [14C]Sucrose applied to attached senescent flowers was rapidly translocated to other parts of the plant, particularly developing flower buds. Thus, onset of phloem export allowed most of the soluble carbohydrate and amino acid in the senescing flower to be retrieved by the plant. Additional salvaged material came from proteins and possibly from structural carbohydrate. Over a 12-h period, the flower switched from acting as a strong carbohydrate sink during expansion to become a strong source during senescence. This rapid reversal offers potential for phloem transport studies.

  12. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R; Damasceno, M; Cruz, R; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D J; Bertuzzi, R

    2017-10-19

    This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  13. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  14. Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN EARLY ONSET AND LATE ONSET PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Atluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, the exact aetiology of which is still unknown. The concept of early and late pre-eclampsia depending on gestational age at onset is more modern and is widely accepted that these two entities have different aetiologies and should be considered as different forms of the disease. Even though the presenting features overlap, these two entities of preeclampsia differ by biochemical markers, maternal and foetal outcomes. Aim of the Study- This study compares early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia with respect to their clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, management options, maternal and foetal outcomes which gives us an idea that these two preeclampsia subtypes have different pathological processes and a need for varied clinical approach to prevent adverse outcomes. METHODS This is a prospective comparative study conducted in JSS Hospital, Mysore from November, 2014 to June, 2016. All Antenatal cases (both booked and unbooked with gestational age ≥20 weeks between 18 yrs. and 40 yrs. of age diagnosed as preeclampsia as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria attending the outpatient department or admitted were selected and divided in to two groups, early onset preeclampsia (EOP group if gestational age at onset of preeclampsia is before 34 weeks and late onset preeclampsia if gestational age at onset is at 34 weeks or later were observed until delivery and early postpartum period and babies till early neonatal period. RESULTS A total of 158 patients at >20 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia were enrolled for this study. Early-onset Preeclampsia (EOP and Late-onset Preeclampsia (LOP had 75 and 83 pre eclamptic women respectively. Early onset group had severe clinical picture with deranged laboratory findings (Thrombocytopenia, altered liver enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH levels, urea and creatinine levels compared to

  16. Option Valuation with Long-run and Short-run Volatility Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    This paper presents a new model for the valuation of European options, in which the volatility of returns consists of two components. One of these components is a long-run component, and it can be modeled as fully persistent. The other component is short-run and has a zero mean. Our model can...... be viewed as an affine version of Engle and Lee (1999), allowing for easy valuation of European options. The model substantially outperforms a benchmark single-component volatility model that is well-established in the literature, and it fits options better than a model that combines conditional...... heteroskedasticity and Poissonnormal jumps. The component model's superior performance is partly due to its improved ability to model the smirk and the path of spot volatility, but its most distinctive feature is its ability to model the volatility term structure. This feature enables the component model to jointly...

  17. APEX: A Prime EXperiment at Jefferson Lab - Test Run Results and Full Run Plans; Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacham, James [Ohio University, JLAB

    2015-06-01

    APEX is an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Virginia, USA, that searches for a new gauge boson (A') with sub-GeV mass and coupling to ordinary matter of g' ~ (10-6 - 10⁻²)e. Electrons impinge upon a fixed target of high-Z material. An A' is produced via a process analogous to photon bremsstrahlung, decaying to an e⁺+e⁻ pair. A test run was held in July of 2010, covering mA' = 175 to 250 MeV and couplings g'/e > 10⁻³. A full run is approved and will cover mA' ~ 65 to 525 MeV and g'/e > 2.3 x 10⁻⁴, and is expected to occur sometime in 2016 or 2017.

  18. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  19. Sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset REM periods in MSLT predicts treatment response in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakatos, Panagis; Patel, Kishankumar; Thakrar, Chiraag; Williams, Adrian J; Kent, Brian D; Leschziner, Guy D

    2016-04-01

    Current treatment recommendations for narcolepsy suggest that modafinil should be used as a first-line treatment ahead of conventional stimulants or sodium oxybate. In this study, performed in a tertiary sleep disorders centre, treatment responses were examined following these recommendations, and the ability of sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test to predict treatment response. Over a 3.5-year period, 255 patients were retrospectively identified in the authors' database as patients diagnosed with narcolepsy, type 1 (with cataplexy) or type 2 (without) using clinical and polysomnographic criteria. Eligible patients were examined in detail, sleep study data were abstracted and sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods were analysed. Response to treatment was graded utilizing an internally developed scale. Seventy-five patients were included (39% males). Forty (53%) were diagnosed with type 1 narcolepsy with a mean follow-up of 2.37 ± 1.35 years. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were initially started on modafinil, and overall 59% reported complete response on the last follow-up. Twenty-nine patients (39%) had the sequence of sleep stage 1 or wake to rapid eye movement in all of their sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods, with most of these diagnosed as narcolepsy type 1 (72%). The presence of this specific sleep-stage sequence in all sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods was associated with worse treatment response (P = 0.0023). Sleep-stage sequence analysis of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test may aid the prediction of treatment response in narcoleptics and provide a useful prognostic tool in clinical practice, above and beyond their classification as narcolepsy type 1 or 2. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Running-based pica in rats. Evidence for the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Katayama, Tomomi

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary running in an activity wheel establishes aversion to paired taste in rats. A proposed mechanism underlying this taste aversion learning is gastrointestinal discomfort caused by running. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) of rats, because it is known that rats engage in pica behavior after various nausea-inducing treatments including irradiation, motion sickness, and injection of emetic drugs such as lithium chloride (LiCl). Following a demonstration of the already-known phenomenon of LiCl-based pica in Experiment 1, we successfully showed running-based pica behavior in Experiment 2 where the running treatment was compared with a non-running control treatment (i.e., confinement in a locked wheel). These results suggest that not only LiCl but also running induces nausea in rats, supporting the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.