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Sample records for rapid neuroendocrine responses

  1. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  2. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2002-06-01

    Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Here we discuss the key elements of the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species-specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops. Over- or underproduction of cortisol can result in the devastating diseases of Cushing's and Addison's, respectively, but less severe dysregulation of the HPA axis can still have adverse health consequences. These include the deposition of visceral fat as well as cardiovascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis). Thus, chronic stress with its physical and psychological ramifications remains a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. To date, treatments have been based on the existing knowledge concerning the brain areas and neurobiological substrates that subserve the stress response. Thus, the CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its

  3. Altered Neuroendocrine Immune Responses, a Two-Sword Weapon against Traumatic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan; Yang, Xuetao; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The immune system is not only modulated by the neuroendocrine system, but also can modulate the biological functions of the neuroendocrine system. The interactive linkage of these three systems precipitates the complicated space-time patterns for the courses of traumatic inflammation. Recently, compelling evidence indicates that the network linkage pattern that initiating agents of neuroendocrine responses, regulatory elements of immune cells and effecter targets for immune regulatory molecules arouse the resistance mechanism disorders, which supplies the beneficial enlightenment for the diagnosis and therapy of traumatic complications from the view of translational medicine. Here we review the alternative protective and detrimental roles as well as possible mechanisms of the neuroendocrine immune responses in traumatic inflammation.

  4. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  5. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  6. Rapid effects of deep brain stimulation reactivation on symptoms and neuroendocrine parameters in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, P P; Figee, M; Endert, E; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P R; Storosum, J G; Denys, D; Fliers, E

    2016-01-26

    Improvement of obsessions and compulsions by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often preceded by a rapid and transient mood elevation (hypomania). In a previous study we showed that improvement of mood by DBS for OCD is associated with a decreased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the time course of rapid clinical changes following DBS reactivation in more detail and to assess their association with additional neuroendocrine parameters. We included therapy-refractory OCD patients treated with DBS (>1 year) and performed a baseline assessment of symptoms, as well as plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, growth hormone, copeptin and homovanillic acid. This was repeated after a 1-week DBS OFF condition. Next, we assessed the rapid effects of DBS reactivation by measuring psychiatric symptom changes using visual analog scales as well as repeated neuroendocrine measures after 30 min, 2 h and 6 h. OCD, anxiety and depressive symptoms markedly increased during the 1-week OFF condition and decreased again to a similar extent already 2 h after DBS reactivation. We found lower plasma prolactin (41% decrease, P=0.003) and TSH (39% decrease, P=0.003) levels during DBS OFF, which increased significantly already 30 min after DBS reactivation. The rapid and simultaneous increase in TSH and prolactin is likely to result from stimulation of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which may underlie the commonly observed transient mood elevation following DBS.

  7. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  8. Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: variables affecting response rates and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Sanjay; Johnson, Marcella M; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; McRae, Stephen E; Hicks, Marshall E; Rao, Sujaya; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Yao, James C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE...

  9. Neuroendocrine stress responses predict catecholamine-dependent working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2018-01-01

    It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Multiple neuroendocrine responses to chronic social stress: interaction between individual characteristics and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormède, P; Lemaire, V; Castanon, N; Dulluc, J; Laval, M; Le Moal, M

    1990-06-01

    After four weeks of individual housing, male Wistar rats (selected for high or low spontaneous aggressiveness by multiple round-robin encounters) were housed three per cage and submitted to four weeks of chronic social stress consisting of changing membership in the social groups by daily rotation of the animals among cages every day according to a random permutation procedure. In addition, half the males in each condition were housed with three females. Each environmental condition triggered different neuroendocrine changes. Cohabitation with females increased the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, including enlargement of adrenals and increased circulating corticosterone levels. On the other hand, daily rotation of the rats between different social groups activated part of the sympathetic nervous system, such as increased phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity in the adrenals. The level of aggressiveness, however, had no direct influence but interacted with environmental factors on such neuroendocrine measures as circulating testosterone or plasma renin activity. These results indicate that during chronic stress, there is no single, unique response by the animal, but a highly complex set of neuroendocrine changes, dependent on the interaction between individual characteristics (the level of aggressiveness is an example) and situational factors.

  11. Circadian variation in neuroendocrine response to L-dopa in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Larrosa, Oscar; Granizo, Juan José; de la Llave, Yolanda; Hening, Wayne A

    2004-06-15

    To investigate circadian changes in dopaminergic function by means of a neuroendocrine challenge (growth hormone and prolactin responses to an acute oral administration of L-dopa) in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and controls. Randomized administration of the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge. Sleep disorders laboratory at a 500-bed academic hospital. Twelve patients diagnosed with idiopathic RLS and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Following a comprehensive evaluation that included nocturnal polysomnographic study, all participants underwent the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge on 2 occasions (11 am and 11 pm). Subjects were previously randomly assigned to the time of first challenge (11 am or 11 pm). On each occasion, subjects took 200 mg of L-dopa (plus 50 mg carbidopa) by mouth. Blood was drawn 20 minutes and 5 minutes before administration of the drug, as well as 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 102, and 120 minutes after administration. Prechallenge levels of plasma values of growth hormone or prolactin did not differ in the 2 subject groups. Following only the nighttime administration of L-dopa, RLS patients manifested a more pronounced inhibition of prolactin release and an increase in growth hormone secretion. Prolactin plasma levels were significantly correlated to the periodic limb movement index on the polysomnogram. These findings may reflect enhanced circadian variations in dopaminergic function and support an increased sensitivity at night of dopamine receptors in patients with RLS.

  12. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroendocrine and behavioral response to social confrontation: residents versus intruders, active versus passive coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Karl; Wotjak, Carsten T; Landgraf, Rainer; Engelmann, Mario

    2005-01-01

    We investigated in the present study the neuroendocrine correlates in intruder and resident rats of a social confrontation. Adult male Wistar rats (intruders) were introduced into the home cage of a well-trained resident to induce characteristic agonistic interactions including physical attacks prior to separation by a wire mesh. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the intrahypothalamic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were monitored via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters and microdialysis probes aimed at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), respectively. Based on the behavioral data collected during the 30-min confrontation, intruders and residents were additionally classified into two different subgroups: intruders which showed almost no freezing behavior (active copers) versus those showing pronounced freezing behavior (passive copers) and residents which were either predominantly aggressive or non-aggressive. The neuroendocrine data show that social confrontation caused a significantly increased secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into plasma in both intruder subgroups, independently of their coping strategy. In contrast, plasma ACTH in residents was increased in response to social confrontation in non-aggressive animals only, whereas aggressive residents failed to mount an ACTH response. Interestingly, plasma AVP decreased in response to social confrontation in active intruders. As measured in microdialysates, the two groups of residents and passive intruders failed to show significant changes of intra-PVN release of AVP. In contrast, an increased release of this neuropeptide within the PVN could be monitored for active intruders. The data of the present study suggest that the different interpretation of an aversive encounter results in differences in the neuroendocrine response and intrahypothalamic vasopressinergic signaling in intruders versus residents.

  14. Effect of yoga on sleep quality and neuroendocrine immune response in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that distress and accompanying neuroendocrine stress responses as important predictor of survival in advanced breast cancer patients. Some psychotherapeutic intervention studies have shown have modulation of neuroendocrine-immune responses in advanced breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yoga on perceived stress, sleep, diurnal cortisol, and natural killer (NK cell counts in patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: In this study, 91 patients with metastatic breast cancer who satisfied selection criteria and consented to participate were recruited and randomized to receive “integrated yoga based stress reduction program” (n = 45 or standard “education and supportive therapy sessions” (n = 46 over a 3 month period. Psychometric assessments for sleep quality were done before and after intervention. Blood draws for NK cell counts were collected before and after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected for three consecutive days before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance on postmeasures using respective baseline measure as a covariate. Results: There was a significant decrease in scales of symptom distress (P < 0.001, sleep parameters (P = 0.02, and improvement in quality of sleep (P = 0.001 and Insomnia Rating Scale sleep score (P = 0.001 following intervention. There was a decrease in morning waking cortisol in yoga group (P = 0.003 alone following intervention. There was a significant improvement in NK cell percent (P = 0.03 following intervention in yoga group compared to control group. Conclusion: The results suggest modulation of neuroendocrine responses and improvement in sleep in patients with advanced breast cancer following yoga intervention.

  15. Rapid development of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma despite transcervical thymectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhalapathy Sadacharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic neuroendocrine (NE tumors are a rare manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1. They are malignant and aggressive tumors and form a major cause of mortality in MEN-1. Transcervical thymectomy (TCT at the time of parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT in MEN-1 usually prevents thymic NE tumors. We report a 56-year-old nonsmoker male with sporadic MEN-1 who presented with thymic NE carcinoma developing rapidly within a span of 8 months after subtotal parathyroidectomy and TCT for PHPT. We present a brief review of literature on this rare NE malignancy, focusing on its occurrence despite TCT. This case highlights the fact that thymic NE carcinoma may develop even after TCT in MEN-1. Regular surveillance for these aggressive thymic NE tumors is mandatory even after TCT in MEN-1 setting.

  16. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  17. The effects of hydrotherapy on anxiety, pain, neuroendocrine responses, and contraction dynamics during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanner, Charles J; Swanson, Melvin; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Newton, Edward R

    2010-07-01

    Hydrotherapy (immersion or bathing) is used worldwide to promote relaxation and decrease parturient anxiety and pain in labor, but the psychophysiological effects of this intervention remain obscure. A pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to examine the effects of hydrotherapy on maternal anxiety and pain, neuroendocrine responses, plasma volume shift (PVS), and uterine contractions (CXs) during labor. Correlations among variables were examined at three time points (preimmersion and twice during hydrotherapy). Eleven term women (mean age 24.5 years) in spontaneous labor were immersed to the xiphoid in 37 degrees C water for 1 hr. Blood samples and measures of anxiety and pain were obtained under dry baseline conditions and repeated at 15 and 45 min of hydrotherapy. Uterine contractions were monitored telemetrically. Hydrotherapy was associated with decreases in anxiety, vasopressin (V), and oxytocin (O) levels at 15 and 45 min (all ps hydrotherapy for women with high baseline pain as for those with low baseline pain. beta-endorphin (betaE) levels increased at 15 min but did not differ between baseline and 45 min. During immersion, CX frequency decreased. A positive PVS at 15 min was correlated with contraction duration. Hydrotherapy during labor affects neuroendocrine responses that modify psychophysiological processes.

  18. Central Mechanisms Underlying Variability in the Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria Møller

    . The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) also plays an important role in the neuroendocrine stress response by controlling CRF release in hypothalamus. The transmission of 5-HT and CRF are under feedback control of glucocorticoids and interact with the stress response by affecting processes...... in the limbic system. In fish, the telencephalon contains regions that are functional homologues to the mammalian limbic system including amygdala and hippocampus. However, the involvement of this brain region in the regulation of the hypothalamicpituitary- interrenal (HPI) axis, the homologue of the mammalian...... glucocorticoid in fish, and if these effects were related to changes in neurochemistry and gene expression in the telencephalon of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results showed that chronic stress affected HPI axis reactivity and serotonergic neurochemistry in the telencephalon. Moreover, effects...

  19. Serotonergic and dopaminergic neuroendocrine responses of male depressive patients before and after a therapeutic ECT course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markianos, Manolis; Hatzimanolis, John; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2002-08-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depressive illness, even for patients who do not respond to antidepressant drugs. According to the prevailing neurophysiological hypotheses for depression, it can be expected that an ECT therapeutic course modulates the responsivity of central neurotransmitter systems, but the results up to now have been inconclusive. To test such hypotheses, we studied possible changes in the serotonergic and in dopaminergic systems' responsivity in 11 male patients with major depression by performing neuroendocrine challenge tests before and after a therapeutic ECT course. Serotonergic responsivity was assessed by measuring the prolactin and cortisol responses to i. v. administration of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine (CMI test), and dopaminergic responsivity by measuring the prolactin responses to the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol (HAL test), administered intramuscularly. The prolactin and cortisol responses during the first and the last ECT of the course (8 to 13 sessions) were also assessed. The CMI and HAL tests were also performed in 13 male healthy subjects. The prolactin responses to CMI were significantly blunted in the patient group compared to the control group, and remained unaltered at the end of the ECT course, although the depressive symptomatology was substantially reduced from 27.8 +/- 7.1 to 4.8 +/- 2.3 points in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The cortisol responses to CMI were blunted before the ECT course compared to controls, but not after the course: there was a moderate increase of cortisol at + 30 min in the CMI test after the ECT course compared to that before ECT (p = 0.05). The prolactin and cortisol responses to the electrical stimulus during the first and the last ECT were identical. The strong therapeutic effect of ECT in depression, observed already at the end of the course, is not a result of considerable modifications in central serotonergic or

  20. Food cues do not modulate the neuroendocrine response to a prolonged fast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Marieke; Wijngaarden, Marjolein A; Bizino, Maurice B; van der Grond, Jeroen; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; van Buchem, Mark A; Jazet, Ingrid M; Pijl, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. In this randomized, crossover intervention study, healthy young men (n = 12) fasted twice for 60 h; once in the presence and once in the absence of food-related visual and odorous stimuli. At baseline and on the last morning of each intervention, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. During the OGTT, blood was sampled and a functional MRI scan was made. The main effects of prolonged fasting were: (1) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels; (2) downregulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis; (3) reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased glucose and insulin responses to glucose ingestion; (4) altered hypothalamic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to the glucose load (particularly during the first 20 min after ingestion); (5) increased resting energy expenditure. Exposure to food cues did not affect these parameters. This study shows that 60 h of fasting in young men (1) decreases the hypothalamic BOLD signal in response to glucose ingestion; (2) induces glucose intolerance; (3) increases resting energy expenditure, and (4) downregulates the pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes. Exposure to visual and odorous food cues did not alter these metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to nutrient deprivation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  2. Effect of maternal restraint stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during days 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necr...

  3. Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David

    2012-12-01

    Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The medial amygdala modulates body weight but not neuroendocrine responses to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; Jones, K; Packard, B A; Herman, J P

    2010-01-01

    Stress pathologies such as depression and eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa) are associated with amygdalar dysfunction, which are linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis hyperactivity. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), a key output nucleus of the amygdaloid complex, promotes HPA axis activation to acute psychogenic stress and is in a prime position to mediate the deleterious effects of chronic stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study tests the hypothesis that the MeA is necessary for the development of maladaptive physiological changes caused by prolonged stress exposure. Male rats received bilateral ibotenate or sham lesions targeting the MeA and one half underwent 2 weeks of chronic variable stress (CVS) or served as home cage controls. Sixteen hours post CVS, all animals were exposed to an acute restraint challenge. CVS induced thymic involution, adrenal hypertrophy, and attenuated body weight gain and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. Consistent with previous literature, lesions of the MeA dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone after 30 min of exposure to acute restraint stress. However, this effect was independent of CVS exposure, suggesting that the MeA may not be critical for modulating neuroendocrine responses after chronic HPA axis drive. Interestingly, lesion of the MeA modestly exaggerated the stress-induced attenuation of weight gain. Overall, the data obtained suggest that the MeA modulates the neuroendocrine responses to acute but not chronic stress. In addition, the data suggest that the MeA may be an important neural component for the control of body weight in the face of chronic stress.

  5. A Unique "Angiotensin-Sensitive" Neuronal Population Coordinates Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular, and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2017-03-29

    Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately

  6. Expression of p53 protein in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs) are aggressive, rapidly proliferating tumors. Therapeutic response to current chemotherapy regimens is usually short lasting. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and potential clinical importance of immunoreac...

  7. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  8. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  9. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: Tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  10. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Azeredo; Marina Machado; António Afonso; Camino Fierro-Castro; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Lluis Tort; Manuel Gesto; Marta Conde-Sieira; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Eva Kreuz; Sven Wuertz; Helena Peres; Aires Oliva-Teles; Benjamin Costas

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  11. The neuroendocrine response of luteinizing hormone to estrogen administration in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L

    1986-09-01

    The neuroendocrine response of LH to estrogen administration may be related to sexual dimorphism of the brain, and therefore, homosexual and especially transsexual individuals may differ from heterosexual individuals in their responses. This study failed to find such differences among groups of female heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transsexuals. Specifically, after single dose estrogen administration, all subjects had an initial decline in serum LH levels, followed by a brisk rise of equal magnitude. Among males, the type of response was less uniform. After an initial fall in serum LH levels, the individual responses varied. In 12 of 23 male homosexuals, 10 of 15 male heterosexuals, and all 6 genetic male transsexuals studied, serum LH levels remained below pretreatment levels. In the remaining 11 male homosexuals and 5 of the heterosexuals, serum LH levels increased to values exceeding those before treatment, resembling the response found in the 3 groups of women. Those homosexual and heterosexual men with a rise in serum LH levels to above pretreatment values also had the greatest fall in testosterone levels after estrogen administration, while these same men had the lowest testosterone response to hCG stimulation. I conclude from these results that 1) the similarity of LH responses to estrogen administration in all groups of women studied does not support a theory of brain androgenization as a factor in the establishment of gender identity of sexual orientation; and 2) individual differences in men in the type of LH response to estrogen administration can be satisfactorily explained by endocrine factors, such as Leydig cell function, and need not be related to gender identity, sexual orientation, or other possible causes.

  12. Epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress response by adult life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, B.C.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.; Henckens, M.J.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder,

  13. Terminal neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate carcinoma cells in response to increased intracellular cyclic AMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Y J; Pirnia, F; Fang, W G; Kang, W K; Sartor, O; Whitesell, L; Ha, M J; Tsokos, M.; Sheahan, M D; Nguyen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Recent clinicopathologic studies have shown that many prostatic adenocarcinomas express focal neuroendocrine differentiation and that neuroendocrine differentiation is most apparent in advanced anaplastic tumors. While studying growth-regulatory signal transduction events in human prostate carcinoma cell lines, we found that in two of four cell lines, the androgen-sensitive line LNCaP and the highly metastatic androgen-independent line PC-3-M, elevation of cAMP through addition of cAMP analog...

  14. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, M.; Afonso, A.

    2017-01-01

    the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2x dietary requirement level) or a control...... diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity......, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led...

  15. mTOR inhibitors response and mTOR pathway in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletta, Simona; Partelli, Stefano; Rubini, Corrado; Nann, Dominik; Doria, Andrea; Marinoni, Ilaria; Polenta, Vanessa; Di Pasquale, Carmelina; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Perren, Aurel; Falconi, Massimo; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However, the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. This study was aimed to identify the possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance. The response to Everolimus in vitro was associated with an active AKT/mTOR pathway and seemed to be associated with a greater clinical aggressiveness. In addition, a patient sensitive to Everolimus in vitro was sensitive to this drug in vivo also and showed a positive p-AKT immunohistochemistry (IHC) at tissue level. Similarly, a patient resistant to Everolimus treatment after surgery was not sensitive to the drug in vitro and had a negative p-AKT IHC staining. Therefore, present data confirm that P-NET primary cultures may be considered a model for testing medical treatment efficacy and that IHC characterization of p-AKT might help in identifying human P-NET who can benefit from Everolimus treatment. These data encourage conducting a prospective multicenter study involving different groups of P-NET patients treated with Everolimus. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  17. Impact of the gut microbiota on the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabot Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex microbial ecosystem, the gut microbiota, whose collective genome coding capacity exceeds that of the host genome. The gut microbiota is nowadays regarded as a full organ, likely to contribute to the development of pathologies when its dynamic balance is disrupted (dysbiosis. In the last decade, evidence emerged that the gut microbiota influences brain development and function. In particular, comparisons between germ-free and conventional laboratory rodents showed that the absence of the gut microbiota exacerbates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA system reactivity to stress and alters the anxiety-like behaviour. Furthermore, the dysfunctions observed in germ-free animals can be corrected if the gut microbiota is restored in early life but not in adulthood, suggesting a critical period for microbiota imprinting on the responsiveness to stress. The modes of action are still to be deciphered. They may involve transport of neuroactive bacterial metabolites to the brain through the bloodstream, stimulation of the vagus nerve or of entero-endocrine cells, or modulation of the immune system and, consequently, of the inflammatory status. The discovery that the gut microbiota regulates the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress paves the way for the hypothesis that gut microbiota dysbioses could contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety-related disorders. In this regard, treatments of anxiety-prone rodent strains with probiotics or antibiotics aimed at modifying their gut microbiota have shown an anxiolytic-like activity. Clinical trials are now needed to know if results obtained in preclinical studies can translate to humans.

  18. Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Carlo; Manteca, Xavier; Cuenca, Rafaela; del Mar Alcalá, Maria; Alba, Aurora; Lavín, Santiago; Pastor, Josep

    2010-09-15

    To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.

  19. Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses and brain pattern of c-fos induction associated with audiogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, S; Watson, S J

    1997-08-01

    The present study determined simultaneously the behavioural, neuroendocrine and regional brain activity, using semi-quantitative analysis of c-fos mRNA induction, produced by 30 min of auditory stimulation at different white noise intensities (background 60 dB, 70, 80, 90 and 105 dBA), in rats. Only the highest noise intensities (90 and 105 dB) significantly increased corticosterone release after 30 min stimulation. Behaviourally, the 105 dB noise condition reliably reduced overall activity, and moderate noise intensities (70 and 80 dB) increased sleeping time. Three distinct patterns of c-fos mRNA induction were observed. First, following exposure to the experimental cages, a wide pattern of brain activation was obtained in experimental animals irrespective of noise intensity presentation, compared to the naive rats. Second, a number of auditory structures (cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus and the medial division of the medial geniculate body) displayed a clear intensity-dependent increase in c-fos induction. Third, compared to all other conditions, the stressed rats (90 and 105 dB conditions) displayed significantly higher c-fos induction in relatively few areas. Particularly intense c-fos induction was observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, especially its anterior medial and ventral aspects, the septohypothalamic nucleus, the ventral lateral septum, the ventral portion of the dentate gyrus, a number of hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral preoptic area, the medial preoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus, the median raphe and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The involvement of a number of these structures in a specific audiogenic stress responsive circuit is discussed.

  20. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  2. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level) or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together with a high

  3. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  4. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  5. Spouses’ Attachment Pairings Predict Neuroendocrine, Behavioral, and Psychological Responses to Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lindsey A.; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeBuse, Casey J.; Powers, Sally I.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated how spouses’ attachment styles jointly contributed to their stress responses. Newlywed couples discussed relationship conflicts. Salivary cortisol indexed physiological stress; observer-rated behaviors indexed behavioral stress; self-reported distress indexed psychological stress. Multilevel modeling tested predictions that couples including one anxious and one avoidant partner or two anxious partners would show distinctive stress responses. As predicted, couples with anxious wives and avoidant husbands showed physiological reactivity in anticipation of conflict: Both spouses showed sharp increases in cortisol, followed by rapid declines. These couples also showed distinctive behaviors during conflict: Anxious wives had difficulty recognizing avoidant husbands’ distress, and avoidant husbands had difficulty approaching anxious wives for support. Contrary to predictions, couples including two anxious partners did not show distinctive stress responses. Findings suggest that the fit between partners’ attachment styles can improve understanding of relationships by specifying conditions under which partners’ attachment characteristics jointly influence individual and relationship outcomes. PMID:23773048

  6. Neuroendocrine response to CRF stimulation in veterans with and without PTSD in consideration of war zone era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Yehuda, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been observed in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which differ from those observed in other veteran groups, raising the possibility that there is a unique neuroendocrine profile in this group of veterans. This study seeks to further characterize the effects of PTSD, military cohort (Vietnam, 1991 Gulf War, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)), and their interaction on the neuroendocrine response to synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulation. 51 male veterans were studied consisting of 21 from the Vietnam era, 16 from the Gulf War era, and 14 from the OEF/OIF era. 16 of these veterans were deployed to a war zone and had chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 25 were deployed to a war zone and did not have chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 were not deployed to a war zone and did not have PTSD (non-exposed). The participants underwent the CRF stimulation test in the afternoon (approximately 2:00 p.m.), which measures the integrity and sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured at baseline and at intervals over a 2h period following intravenous administration of 1 μg/kg of ovine CRF (o-CRF, max 100 μg). In a small subset of participants, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) were also assessed. There was a significant group by era interaction in the response of ACTH to CRF, in addition to a main effect of group (PTSD+, PTSD-, non-exposed). The interaction reflected that group differences were only evident in the Gulf War cohort; among Gulf War era veterans, the PTSD+ group had higher elevations in ACTH levels following CRF than the PTSD- group and the non-exposed group. Additionally, the peak change in ACTH was associated with a self-reported environmental exposure (pyridostigmine bromide ingestion) which has been found to be linked to the excess morbidity found in

  7. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  8. Dynamics of neuroendocrine stress response: bistability, timing, and control of hypocortisolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria; Chou, Tom; Kim, Lae

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates numerous physiological processes. Disruptions in its activity are correlated with stress-related diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. We characterize ``normal'' and ``diseased'' states of the HPA axis as basins of attraction of a dynamical system describing the inhibition of peptide hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), by circulating glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). Our model includes ultradian oscillations, CRH self-upregulation of CRH release, and distinguishes two components of negative feedback by cortisol on circulating CRH levels: a slow direct suppression of CRH synthesis and a fast indirect effect on CRH release. The slow regulation mechanism mediates external stress-driven transitions between the stable states in novel, intensity, duration, and timing-dependent ways. We find that the timing of traumatic events may be an important factor in determining if and how the hallmarks of depressive disorders will manifest. Our model also suggests a mechanism whereby exposure therapy of stress disorders may act to normalize downstream dysregulation of the HPA axis.

  9. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  10. Perioperative stress in dogs undergoing elective surgery: evaluation of the Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) for the control of behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Siracusa, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 7 de gener de 2011 This clinical study is composed of two different trials. In the first we investigated and described the perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy and ovariohysterectomy. In the second trial we evaluated the efficacy of a commercial dog synthetic appeasing pheromone for the control of the perioperative stress response. The aim of this trial is to describe the behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress r...

  11. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Edward Lewis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The vgf gene (non-acronymic is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68kDa precursor polypeptide which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific pro-hormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles and in this mini-review we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction and cognition.

  12. Rapid response systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Hamming, Annette; de Jonge, Evert; Fikkers, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-three (approximately 80%) of the 81 hospitals that responded to a survey sent to all hospitals in The Netherlands with nonpediatric intensive care units had a rapid response system (RRS) in place or were in the final process of starting one. Among many other findings regarding RRS

  13. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  14. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium (177Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE were conside...

  15. A clinical and radiological objective tumor response with somatostatin analogs (SSA in well-differentiated neuroendocrine metastatic tumor of the ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Divitiis C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chiara De Divitiis,1 Claudia von Arx,2 Roberto Carbone,3 Fabiana Tatangelo,4 Elena di Girolamo,5 Giovanni Maria Romano,1 Alessandro Ottaiano,1 Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone,3 Rosario Vincenzo Iaffaioli,1 Salvatore Tafuto1 On behalf of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS Center of Excellence Multidisciplinary Group for Neuroendocrine Tumors in Naples (Italy 1Department of Abdominal Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Endoscopy, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G Pascale”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs are typically used to treat the symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, but they are not used as the primary treatment to induce tumor shrinkage. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a symptomatic metastatic NET of the ileum. Complete symptomatic response was achieved after 1 month of treatment with SSAs. In addition, there was an objective response in the liver, with the disappearance of secondary lesions noted on computed tomography scan after 3 months of octreotide treatment. Our experience suggests that SSAs could be useful for downstaging and/or downsizing well-differentiated NETs, and they could allow surgery to be performed. Such presurgery therapy could be a promising tool in the management of patients with initially inoperable NETs. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumor, somatostatin analogs, octreotide, metastatic tumor of the ileum, radiological tumor response

  16. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  17. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  18. Neuroendocrine and immune responses to a cognitive stress challenge in veterans with and without PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien S. de Kloet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: PTSD has been associated with altered hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal-axis (HPA-axis, immune and sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive stress on these systems in PTSD patients and controls. Methods: The subjective units of distress score (SUDS, NK-cell response, plasma levels of noradrenalin and ACTH in response to cognitive stress were assessed in male veterans with PTSD (n=15 and age, region and year of deployment matched veterans without psychopathology (n=15. Results: The challenge induced an increase in SUDS, noradrenalin, ACTH and NK-cell response in both groups. Baseline levels of ACTH were lower in PTSD patients. The test was experienced as more stressful by PTSD patients and resulted in an augmented ACTH response in patients. The noradrenalin and NK-cell responses showed no group differences. The ACTH response correlated with the severity of symptoms in patients, and the noradrenalin response correlated with the ACTH and NK-cell response in controls, but not in patients. Discussion: PTSD patients experience more distress and present with an exaggerated pituitary response to this stressor. In addition, our results suggest an altered interaction between the HPA-axis, SNS and immune system in PTSD.

  19. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  20. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  1. PACAP: A master regulator of neuroendocrine stress circuits and the cellular stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Stroth, Nikolas; Holighaus, Yvonne; Ait-Ali, Djida; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP is an informational molecule released from stress-transducing neurons. It exerts post-synaptic effects required to complete hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) and hypothalamo-splanchnico-adrenomedullary (HSA) circuits activated by psychogenic and metabolic stressors. PACAP-responsive (in cell culture models) and PACAP-dependent (in vivo) transcriptomic responses in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary upon activation of these circuits have been identif...

  2. Response of the nitrergic system to activation of the neuroendocrine stress axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Jou Cortina eChen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful stimuli causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which rapidly releases high concentrations of glucocorticoid stress hormones, resulting in increased cellular metabolism and spontaneous oxygen and nitrogen radical formation. High concentrations of nitrogen radicals, including nitric oxide, cause damage to cellular proteins in addition to inhibiting components of the mitochondrial transport chain, leading to cellular energy deficiency. During stress exposure, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide production reduces indicators of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present an overview of the current literature on stress-evoked changes in the nitrergic system, particularly within neural tissue.

  3. Neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune functions during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in monosodium L-glutamate-damaged, hyperadipose male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  5. Neuroendocrine modulation of the inflammatory response in common carp: adrenaline regulates leukocyte profile and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepka, M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory responses have to be carefully controlled, as high concentrations and/or prolonged action of inflammation-related molecules (e.g. reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines) can be detrimental to host tissue and organs. One of the potential regulators of the

  6. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  7. Neuroendocrine Response to School Load in Prepubertal Children: Focus on Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsdorfer, D; Hlavacova, N; Vondrova, D; Argalasova, L; Sevcikova, L; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-08-31

    At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam). In the whole sample, the condition with exam was associated with higher cortisol and lower testosterone concentrations in saliva compared to the condition without exam. The activity of salivary alpha-amylase increased at the end of the exam. Anxious children showed higher concentrations of aldosterone and lower activity of alpha-amylase compared to children with low trait anxiety. Cortisol levels were higher in anxious children in the first morning samples before starting the lessons. Children with high and low trait anxiety did not differ in extraversion, neuroticism, as well as non-verbal intelligence and school success. Thus, the anxious children at school showed a more rapid decrease of anticipatory stress-induced cortisol concentrations, higher aldosterone levels, and lower alpha-amylase activities compared to non-anxious children. These changes, particularly high concentrations of aldosterone in children with high trait anxiety, may have an impact on their psychophysiological development.

  8. Response, survival, and long-term toxicity after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Anna; Brunner, Philippe; Marincek, Nicolas; Briel, Matthias; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Mäcke, Helmut R; Rochlitz, Christoph; Müller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2011-06-10

    To investigate response, survival, and safety profile of the somatostatin-based radiopeptide (90)yttrium-labeled tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid modified Tyr-octreotide ([(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC) in neuroendocrine cancers. In a clinical phase II single-center open-label trial, patients with neuroendocrine cancers were treated with repeated cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Each cycle consisted of a single intravenous injection of 3.7GBq/m(2) body-surface [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Additional cycles were withheld in case of tumor progression and/or permanent toxicity. Overall, 1,109 patients received 2,472 cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC (median, two; range, one to 10 cycles per patient). Of the 1,109 patients, 378 (34.1%) experienced morphologic response; 172 (15.5%), biochemical response; and 329 (29.7%), clinical response. During a median follow-up of 23 months, 491 patients (44.3%) died. Longer survival was correlated with each: morphologic (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.56; median survival, 44.7 v 18.3 months; P TOC treatment in a large cohort. Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC is associated with longer survival. Somatostatin receptor imaging is predictive for both survival after [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment and occurrence of renal toxicity.

  9. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ruipeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lannutti, John J., E-mail: lannutti.1@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9 ± 0.12 s while the t{sub 95} for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79 ± 0.23 s and 2.29 ± 0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50 °C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern–Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES–PCL core–shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. Highlights: • Nanofiber-based structures can self-report localized oxygen concentrations. • Ideal for tissue engineering as they allow close interaction of cells. • Nanofiber-incorporated oxygen-sensitive probes provide a perfectly linear response. • Photobleaching is largely eliminated by the use of PES–PCL core

  10. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  11. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  12. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    The essential amino acid l-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment...... for aquaculture. Fish were given feed containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 times the Trp content in normal feed for one week. Subsequently, the fish were reintroduced to feed containing the lowest Trp level, corresponding to standard commercial feed for a number of days prior to exposure to an acute confinement stressor....... Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...

  13. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  14. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. THE EFFICACY OF PREGABALIN AS A PREMEDICANT IN ATTENUATING NEUROENDOCRINE STRESS RESPONSE DURING GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN ELECTIVE SURGERIES: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Muthukrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Pregabalin in the dose of 150 mg given per orally one hour before elective surgeries can attenuate the neuroendocrine stress response due to induction and intubation. Better surgical skills and techniques have got a major role in attenuating neuroendocrine stress response more than the conventional anaesthetic interventions.

  16. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  17. Agile Science Planning: Rapid Response Re-planning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop autonomous rapid response to science observations in missions targeting small bodies in fly-by mode where observing and reaction time is precious.

  18. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  19. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  20. Rapid Detection of Cellular Response to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan R

    2005-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  1. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  2. Rapid Detection of Cellular Responses to Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Our program objective is to develop simple and rapid methods for detecting, at a cellular level, individual responses to environmental stresses elaborated by exposure to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses...

  3. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide funds to...

  4. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide match for...

  5. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  6. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  7. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Giancarlo

    2008-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms that originate from pluripotent stem cells or differentiated neuroendocrine cells, mostly localized in the bronchus, lungs, or gastroenteropancreatic tract. This issue reviews the results achieved with PET. The potential applications of the most commonly used receptor or metabolic positron-emitter radiopharmaceuticals in the field of NET to stage or restage disease, to detect unknown primary tumor, and to assess and monitor therapy response to different kind of treatments are analyzed. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Schevernels, Hanne; Hopf, Jens-Max; Stoppel, Christian M; Krebs, Ruth M

    2014-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.

  10. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  12. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  13. Response of some elite cocoyam varieties to cocoyam rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment on the response of some elite cocoyam varieties to cocoyam rapid multiplication technology was carried out in 2012 and 2013 at the Research field of the National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike. Treatment comprised M1, M2 (microcormels from colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp respectively); ...

  14. Performance of the efferent limb of a rapid response system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emilie M; Petersen, Asger

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of outcomes following a medical emergency team (MET) call using a modified version of the multidisciplinary audit and evaluation of outcomes of rapid response (MAELOR) tool, and to evaluate its usefulness in monitoring the performance of the efferent limb...

  15. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  16. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  17. Assessment of predictors of response and long-term survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.; Thompson, M.; Johnston, V.; Eu, P. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Collins, M.; Herschtal, A. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Michael, M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    To review the response and outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate chemoradionuclide therapy (LuTate PRCRT) in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors with uncontrolled symptoms or disease progression. A total of 68 patients (39 men; 17 - 76 years of age) who had completed an induction course of at least three cycles of LuTate PRCRT between January 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed. Ten patients were treated for uncontrolled symptoms and 58 had disease progression despite conventional treatment. The majority had four induction LuTate cycles (median treatment duration 5 months and cumulative activity 31 GBq), and 63 patients had concomitant 5-FU radiosensitizing infusional chemotherapy. Factors predicting overall survival were assessed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of those treated for uncontrolled symptoms, 70 % received benefit maintained for at least 6 months after treatment. Among patients with progressive disease 68 % showed stabilization or regression on CT, 67 % on molecular imaging and 56 % biochemically up to 12 months after treatment; 32 patients died. Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 year were 72.1 % and 52.1 %, respectively. Median overall survival was not estimable at a median follow-up of 60 months (range 5 - 86 months). Nonpancreatic primary sites, dominant liver metastases, lesion size <5 cm and the use of 5-FU chemotherapy were statistically significantly associated with objective response. A disseminated pattern and a high disease burden (whole-body retention index) were associated with an increased risk of death. Objective biochemical, molecular imaging and CT responses were all associated with longer overall survival. A high proportion of patients with progressive NET or uncontrolled symptoms received therapeutic benefit from LuTate with concomitant 5-FU chemotherapy. The achievement of objective biochemical, molecular or CT responses within 12 months was

  18. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  19. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  20. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian M. Saffer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/.

  1. Conditioned Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Stress Responsiveness Accompanying Behavioral Passivity and Activity in Aged and in Young Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Buwalda, B.; Bouws, G.A.H.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Maes, F.W.; Bohus, B.

    1992-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma epinephrine (E), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured in 3-month- and 24-month-old male Wistar rats exposed to a conditioned emotional stress response (CER) paradigm and a conditioned defensive burying (CDB)

  2. Rapid-Response Impulsivity: Definitions, Measurement Issues, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Fink, Latham H.; Wing, Victoria C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Lane, Scott D; Schutz, Christian; Swann, Alan C.; Lejuez, C.W.; Clark, Luke; Moeller, F. Gerard; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity in the context of these conditions is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response-impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Expert...

  3. Nicolaus Copernicus and the rapid vascular responses to aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Meyer, Matthias R

    2015-08-01

    For decades, rapid steroid responses initiated by membrane receptors have been a primary research focus. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is activated by 17β-estradiol and participates in functional crosstalk with other steroid receptors. With reference to the physician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), who used rigorous scientific approaches to shift paradigms and change dogma, we discuss whether GPER can also be considered an aldosterone receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  5. Development of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Sarah; Stewart, Iain; Placzek, Marysia

    2016-03-15

    The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual. Here, we summarize studies that begin to reveal how different territories and cell types within the neuroendocrine hypothalamus are assembled in an integrated manner to enable function, thus supporting the organism's ability to survive and thrive. We discuss how signaling pathways and transcription factors dictate the appearance and regionalization of the hypothalamic primordium, the maintenance of progenitor cells, and their specification and differentiation into neurons. We comment on recent studies that harness such programmes for the directed differentiation of human ES/iPS cells. We summarize how developmental plasticity is maintained even into adulthood and how integration between the hypothalamus and peripheral body is established in the median eminence and neurohypophysis. Analysis of model organisms, including mouse, chick and zebrafish, provides a picture of how complex, yet elegantly coordinated, developmental programmes build glial and neuronal cells around the third ventricle of the brain. Such conserved processes enable the hypothalamus to mediate its function as a central integrating and response-control mediator for the homeostatic processes that are critical to life. Early indications suggest that deregulation of these events may underlie multifaceted pathological conditions and dysfunctional physiology in humans, such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who is responsible...

  7. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    -term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized...... to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results Change in CorAUCtotal showed...... no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in Cor...

  8. Escitalopram and Neuroendocrine Response in Healthy First-Degree Relatives to epressed Patients – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were...... randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results: Change in Cor......AUCtotal showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration...

  9. Escitalopram and Neuroendocrine Response in Healthy First-Degree Relatives to Depressed Patients – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan; Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Hilsted, Linda; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results Change in CorAUCtotal showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUCtotal, rho = −0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUCtotal. Conclusion The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00386841 PMID:21738622

  10. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  12. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  13. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  14. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  15. Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Shift work is commonly associated with disturbed life rhythms, resulting in chronic exposure to circadian desynchronization and sleep restriction. Epidemiological data have shown that shift workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. In this review, we will explore how observed increases in neuroendocrine stress, non-specific immune responses and pro-oxidative status could act as biological mediators for these damaging health risks in shift workers. To explain these risks, compelling evidence from laboratory studies links circadian misalignment but also sleep restriction to disruptions in the neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress systems. Assessment of neuroendocrine, oxidative and immune stress in the shift worker population is still a limited and novel field, which may have considerable clinical relevance. Finally, we will consider the potential benefits of a countermeasure, such as napping, in minimizing the neuroendocrine and immune stress and cardiovascular risk imposed by shift work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  17. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  18. The special relationship: glia-neuron interactions in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Prevot, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Natural fluctuations in physiological conditions require adaptive responses involving rapid and reversible structural and functional changes in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits that control homeostasis. Here, we discuss the data that implicate hypothalamic glia in the control of hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits, specifically neuron-glia interactions in the regulation of neurosecretion as well as neuronal excitability. Mechanistically, the morphological plasticity displayed by distal processes of astrocytes, pituicytes and tanycytes modifies the geometry and diffusion properties of the extracellular space. These changes alter the relationship between glial cells of the hypothalamus and adjacent neuronal elements, especially at specialized intersections such as synapses and neurohaemal junctions. The structural alterations in turn lead to functional plasticity that alters the release and spread of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and gliotransmitters, as well as the activity of discrete glial signalling pathways that mediate feedback by peripheral signals to the hypothalamus. An understanding of the contributions of these and other non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic neuroendocrine function is thus critical both to understand physiological processes such as puberty, the maintenance of bodily homeostasis and ageing and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for dysfunctions of these processes, such as infertility and metabolic disorders.

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  20. Interventional treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Hansen, C.P.; Stadil, F.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases s....... The symptomatic response rate is 90% with a mean duration of two years. Liver transplantation should be restricted to very few and highly selected patients without extrahepatic disease. Recurrence is inevitable in nearly all patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8......Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases...

  1. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-01-01

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of “neuroendocrine self-peptides” has been proposed, together with the definition of “neuroendocrine self.” Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic

  2. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Balderston

    Full Text Available The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  3. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Schultz, Douglas H; Baillet, Sylvain; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  4. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Brief, Rapid Response, Parenting Interventions Within Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Broom, Matthew A; Zand, Debra H

    2015-08-20

    Opportunities created by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act along with the increased prevalence of pediatric behavioral and mental health concerns provide new challenges for pediatric health care providers. To address these matters, providers need to change the manner by which they provide health care to families. A novel approach is providing brief, rapid response, evidence-based parenting interventions within the pediatric primary care setting. Family-focused parenting programs support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of improving mental health via supports in pediatric primary care to maximize the social and psychological well-being of families. A considerable body of research indicates that parenting interventions reduce the severity and frequency of disruptive behavior disorders in children and provide support to parent by bolstering parental resilience and improving overall family functioning. Providing these services within the pediatric primary care setting addresses the need for fully integrated health services that are family-centered and easily accessible.

  6. Rapid enzymatic response to compensate UV radiation in copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Souza

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR causes physical damage to DNA, carboxylation of proteins and peroxidation of lipids in copepod crustaceans, ubiquitous and abundant secondary producers in most aquatic ecosystems. Copepod adaptations for long duration exposures include changes in behaviour, changes in pigmentation and ultimately changes in morphology. Adaptations to short-term exposures are little studied. Here we show that short-duration exposure to UVR causes the freshwater calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus gracilis, to rapidly activate production of enzymes that prevent widespread collateral peroxidation (glutathione S-transferase, GST, that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3, and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE. None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses provides useful information on how organisms respond to environmental stressors acting on short time scales.

  7. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deborah, Leishman, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Eeckhout, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  8. Rapid response to syphilis outbreak among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily B Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outbreak of syphilis, i.e., 16 cases of rapid plasma reagin (RPR reactive cases of syphilis was reported in Community Based Organization (CBO Sahyog of Surat, India, from April to August 2014. The aim of the study was to find risk factors and take immediate actions to prevent spread. Materials and Methods: Outbreak investigation of 16 Female Sex Workers of CBO Sahyog in Surat who were found Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA positive from April to August 2014; was carried out. Clinico-epidemiological and laboratory-based evidence for different sexually transmitted infections (STIs conducted at Government Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Surat. Root cause analysis (RCA of index case was carried out. Results: Desk review for the past 3 years data of STI revealed total STI cases as 88 (2011, 95 (2012, and 130 (2013, of which 4, 2, and 2 found RPR reactive, respectively. Data from April to August 2014 revealed 16 RPR reactive cases and confirmed by TPHA. On examination, one had ulcerative cervical lesion, rest did not have any symptoms of syphilis. Eleven had vaginal/cervical discharge, 11 had lower abdominal pain. A total of 11 had unprotected sex, 7 encountered condom tear in the past 6 months, and 5 reported sexual violence. Seven had sexual activity under influence of alcohol. Laboratory investigation revealed two as HIV-positive. RPR reactivity reported highest (9 out of 16 from same area of hotspot. RCA of probable index case revealed factors responsible as violence and nonuse of condoms. Conclusions: Outbreak investigation revealed one probable index case. All 16 treated with injection Penidure. Violence or condom tear is responsible for the spread. Crisis management team should be strengthened.

  9. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium ((177)Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites

  10. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium (177Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites of

  11. The Deployable Operations Group: A Model for a National Unified Interagency Rapid Response Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    .... Since the attacks, nationwide preparedness efforts have established numerous federal rapid response teams, which are coordinated during a federal interagency response under the National Incident Management System...

  12. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Rapid Response Team Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Won Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background To ensure patient safety and improvements in the quality of hospital care, rapid response teams (RRTs have been implemented in many countries, including Korea. The goal of an RRT is early identification and response to clinical deterioration in patients. However, there are differences in RRT systems among hospitals and limited data are available. Methods In Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the St. Mary’s Advanced Life Support Team was implemented in June 2013. We retrospectively reviewed the RRT activation records of 287 cases from June 2013 to December 2016. Results The median response time and median modified early warning score were 8.6 minutes (interquartile range, 5.6 to 11.6 minutes and 5.0 points (interquartile range, 4.0 to 7.0 points, respectively. Residents (35.8% and nurses (59.1% were the main activators of the RRT. Interestingly, postoperative patients account for a large percentage of the RRT activation cases (69.3%. The survival rate was 83.6% and survival was mainly associated with malignancy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and the time from admission to RRT activation. RRT activation with screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call in terms of the intensive care unit admission rate and length of hospital stay after RRT activation. Conclusions Malignancy was the most important factor related to survival. In addition, RRT activation with patient screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call. Further studies are needed to determine the effective screening criteria and improve the quality of the RRT system.

  13. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  14. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  16. Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bzorek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy.

  17. Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yin; Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Myschetzky, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising...... clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following...... treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy....

  18. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  19. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  20. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  1. Neuroendocrine effects of cytokines in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, C

    1993-01-01

    The necessity ot maintain and/or restore homeostasis is an essential feature of mammals. This requires complex interactions between body cells, such as those from the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and in particular implies that the occurrence of immune activation be conveyed to the brain. It is now widely recognized that following infection, injury or inflammation, some immune cells (particularly macrophages) produce polypeptides called cytokines, interleukins or lymphokines /48/. These proteins provide the basis for intercellular communication between leukocytes (hence the name "interleukins") and mediate the immunoinflammatory responses (in particular T and B lymphocyte proliferation) /4,177/. In addition, interleukins (IL) can enter the general circulation and reach cells of the neuroendocrine axes, a phenomenon which represents one arm of the bidirectional communication links between the immune and the endocrine systems /25/. The early events which take place after presentation of an antigen (the so-called "acute-phase response" /89/) include metabolic and endocrine changes, such as changes in the circulating levels of insulin, TSH, GH, LH and ACTH, as well as adrenal and gonadal steroids /7,14/. This article reviews our present state of knowledge with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes of the rodent in response to interleukins.

  2. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  3. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  4. Compensatory activation of Akt in response to mTOR and Raf inhibitors - a rationale for dual-targeted therapy approaches in neuroendocrine tumor disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Kathrin; Rüden, Janina von; Brand, Stephan; Göke, Burkhard; Lichtl, Jennifer; Spöttl, Gerald; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have established a link between aberrant PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling and neuroendocrine tumor disease. In this study, we comparatively investigate the antitumor potential of novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting mTOR (RAD001), mTOR/PI(3)K (NVP-BEZ235) and Raf (Raf265) on human NET cell lines of heterogeneous origin. All inhibitors induced potent antitumor effects which involved the induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest. However, the dual mTOR/PI(3)K inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was more efficient compared to the single mTOR inhibitor RAD001. Consistently, NVP-BEZ235 prevented the negative feedback activation of Akt as observed after treatment with RAD001. Raf265 inhibited Erk1/2 phosphorylation but strongly induced Akt phosphorylation and VEGF secretion, suggesting the existence of a compensatory feedback loop on PI3K-Akt signaling. Finally, combined treatment with RAD001 or NVP-BEZ235 and Raf265 was more efficient than single treatment with either kinase inhibitor. Together, our data provide a rationale for dual targeting of PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling in NET disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  6. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  7. Neuroendocrine Function After Hypothalamic Depletion of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Matia B; Loftspring, Matthew; de Kloet, Annette D; Ghosal, Sriparna; Jankord, Ryan; Flak, Jonathan N; Wulsin, Aynara C; Krause, Eric G; Zhang, Rong; Rice, Taylor; McKlveen, Jessica; Myers, Brent; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Herman, James P

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoids act rapidly at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to inhibit stress-excitatory neurons and limit excessive glucocorticoid secretion. The signaling mechanism underlying rapid feedback inhibition remains to be determined. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the canonical glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) is required for appropriate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Local PVN GR knockdown (KD) was achieved by breeding homozygous floxed GR mice with Sim1-cre recombinase transgenic mice. This genetic approach created mice with a KD of GR primarily confined to hypothalamic cell groups, including the PVN, sparing GR expression in other HPA axis limbic regulatory regions, and the pituitary. There were no differences in circadian nadir and peak corticosterone concentrations between male PVN GR KD mice and male littermate controls. However, reduction of PVN GR increased ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute, but not chronic stress, indicating that PVN GR is critical for limiting neuroendocrine responses to acute stress in males. Loss of PVN GR induced an opposite neuroendocrine phenotype in females, characterized by increased circadian nadir corticosterone levels and suppressed ACTH responses to acute restraint stress, without a concomitant change in corticosterone responses under acute or chronic stress conditions. PVN GR deletion had no effect on depression-like behavior in either sex in the forced swim test. Overall, these findings reveal pronounced sex differences in the PVN GR dependence of acute stress feedback regulation of HPA axis function. In addition, these data further indicate that glucocorticoid control of HPA axis responses after chronic stress operates via a PVN-independent mechanism.

  8. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  9. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  11. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress.

  12. Rapid Time Response: A solution for Manufacturing Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respond time in manufacturing give the major impact that able to contribute too many manufacturing issues. Based on two worst case scenario occurred where Toyota in 2009 made a massive vehicles call due to car complexity of 11 major models and over 9 million vehicles. The recalls cost at least $2 billion in cost of repair, lost deals and result in lost 5% of its market share in United State of America, while A380 was reported on missing target in new production and leads to delayed market entry due to their weak product life cycle management (PLM. These cases give a sign to all industries to possess and optimize the facilities for better traceability in shortest time period. In Industry 4.0, the traceability and time respond become the factors for high performance manufacturing and rapid time respond able to expedite the traceability process and strengthen the communication level between man, machine and management. The round trip time (RTT experiment gives variant time respond between two difference operating system for intra and inter-platform signal. If this rapid time respond is adopted in any manufacturing process, the delay in traceability on every issue that lead to losses can be successfully avoided.

  13. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Functional techniques are playing a pivotal role in the imaging of cancer today. Our aim was to compare, on a head-to-head basis, 3 functional imaging techniques in patients with histologically verified neuroendocrine tumors: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In......-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide, scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and (18)F-FDG PET. METHODS: Ninety-six prospectively enrolled patients with neuroendocrine tumors underwent SRS, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET on average within 40 d. The functional images were fused with low......-positive, of which 3 were also (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy-positive, giving a combined overall sensitivity of 96%. SRS also exceeded (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET based on the number of lesions detected (393, 185, and 225, respectively) and tumor subtypes. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was superior to (18)F...

  14. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  15. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...

  16. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  17. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  18. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  20. Development of Multiple Big Data Analytics Platforms with Rapid Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem of the integration of multiple platforms is how to adapt for their own computing features so as to execute the assignments most efficiently and gain the best outcome. This paper introduced the new approaches to big data platform, RHhadoop and SparkR, and integrated them to form a high-performance big data analytics with multiple platforms as part of business intelligence (BI to carry out rapid data retrieval and analytics with R programming. This paper aims to develop the optimization for job scheduling using MSHEFT algorithm and implement the optimized platform selection based on computing features for improving the system throughput significantly. In addition, users would simply give R commands rather than run Java or Scala program to perform the data retrieval and analytics in the proposed platforms. As a result, according to performance index calculated for various methods, although the optimized platform selection can reduce the execution time for the data retrieval and analytics significantly, furthermore scheduling optimization definitely increases the system efficiency a lot.

  1. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  2. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  3. Rapid Calculation of EMI Responses of Metallic Objects and Implementation in Inversion Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulsen, Keith

    2003-01-01

    .... Nonetheless, signal inversion schemes are impeded by a lack of rapid means for calculating the responses of possible target types in a great variety of depths and dispositions relative to the sensor...

  4. The frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Selim M H; Goodwill, Joseph; Lim, Eric; Yap, Yoong K; Wells, Athol U; Hansell, David M; Davis, Peter; Selim, Abdel-Ghani; Abdel-Ghani, Syed; Goldstraw, Peter; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NEH) in resected neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas and to study its relationship to selected clinical parameters. Random blocks without tumour from resected typical carcinoids (TCs, n = 46), atypical carcinoids (ACs, n = 14), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs, n = 18), small cell carcinomas (SCLCs, n = 22), adenocarcinomas (ADENOs, n = 26) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, n = 18) were stained for CD56 and evaluated for linear proliferations, cell aggregates (>4 CD56+ cells), and tumourlets (<5 mm with basement membrane invasion). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of NEH in all neuroendocrine tumours (TC/AC/LCNEC/SCLC, 35/100, 35%) (P = 0.009) when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas (ADENO/SCC, 6/44, 14%) and in the frequency of NEH in TC (21/46, 46%) versus all other tumours (AC/LCNEC/SCLC/SCC/ADENO, 20/98, 20%) (P = 0.001). There was increased frequency of NEH in peripheral TCs (8/13, 62%) compared with central TCs (14/33, 43%) (P = 0.33). There was no association between smoking history and NEH. Clinical and imaging data showed no evidence of an increased frequency of obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with NEH. NEH is significantly increased in the background lung of neuroendocrine tumours when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, supportive data for NEH having neoplastic potential.

  5. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  6. Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, G; Chamoux, A

    2004-10-10

    This study presents the biological responses to shiftwork in two groups of workers with different shiftwork rotas. Biological responses were studied by recording the heart rate and the changes in the circadian profile of salivary cortisol over 24 h (RIA assays). Various items were recorded through questionnaires aimed at determining self appreciation of sleep quantity, stress, health, satisfaction at work and in private lives. Thirty two male subjects aged from 23 to 56, working for the same company, having given their informed consent, took part in the study. The study was carried out under realistic conditions (at the work place) under the control of an occupational physician. Sixteen day-workers (8 am-6 pm) served as a reference group. Eight shiftworkers included in alternate schedules (morning M 4 am-12 am, evening E 12 am-8 pm, night N 8 pm-4 am) according to a system M, S, N 3/2, (3 work, 2 rest) and eight according to a system 7/5 (3M/2S/2N/5R, 2/3/2/5, 2/2/3/5) constituted the groups of shiftworkers respectively named 3/2 and 7/5. All subjects had comparable ages and BMIs. Shiftworkers expressed a higher stress level and frequency of health problems and a lower satisfaction at work than the control. Among the three groups, the 7/5 group had the best health and fitness score and was in need of less sleep. Heart rate was not affected by shift work. Conversely, consistent changes appeared in cortisol circadian profiles, the greatest changes appearing for the night shift and among the two groups of shiftworkers, more particularly for the 7/5 group. These changes correlated with self-perceived constraints of work and showed the difficulties of adaptation to shiftwork.

  7. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Teng; Xian Wang; Xiaojun Wang; Honglei Gou; Lihui Ren; Tingting Wang; Yun Wang; Yuetong Ji; Huang, Wei E.; Jian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular populat...

  8. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-03-08

    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  10. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  11. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  12. Stimulus and response priming in rapid serial visual presentation : Evidence for a dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the capacity demands of stimulus and response priming in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Three targets were presented in a stream of visual symbols: The first two (T1 and T2) required an unspeeded manual response at the end of the trial, but the third

  13. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K eSasse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on HPA axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid and cardiovascular (tachycardia response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across multiple response

  14. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  15. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Svendstrup; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  16. Increased percentages of regulatory T cells are associated with inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychological stress and poorer health status in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia

    2016-05-01

    The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.

  17. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, James L; Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Healthy participants (n=54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to "control" (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing

  18. Rapid response seismic networks in Europe: lessons learnt from the L'Aquila earthquake emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Strollo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The largest dataset ever recorded during a normal fault seismic sequence was acquired during the 2009 seismic emergency triggered by the damaging earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy. This was possible through the coordination of different rapid-response seismic networks in Italy, France and Germany. A seismic network of more than 60 stations recorded up to 70,000 earthquakes. Here, we describe the different open-data archives where it is possible to find this unique set of data for studies related to hazard, seismotectonics and earthquake physics. Moreover, we briefly describe some immediate and direct applications of emergency seismic networks. At the same time, we note the absence of communication platforms between the different European networks. Rapid-response networks need to agree on common strategies for network operations. Hopefully, over the next few years, the European Rapid-Response Seismic Network will became a reality.

  19. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ocular Adnexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamanouchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our findings in a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC of the lacrimal gland and a case of primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC of the eyelid. An 86-year-old man noticed a swelling of the left upper eyelid three months earlier. We performed excision biopsy and histopathological examination indicated that he had a primary NEC of the left lacrimal gland. He underwent chemotherapy followed by excision including the clinically visible margins and 50 Gy radiotherapy of the surgical margins. He had neither recurrence nor metastasis for 6 months since the last radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man noticed a nodule in the right upper eyelid and was referred to our hospital because the size was increasing rapidly. A complete surgical excision of the margins of the tumor was performed with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. The final diagnosis was a primary MCC of the right upper eyelid. After surgery, he underwent 50 Gy radiotherapy on the neck to prevent metastasis. No recurrence or metastasis was found for two years. Although primary NEC of the ocular adnexa is extremely rare, the tumor has high malignancy and readily metastasizes. Thus, combined therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy is needed for complete management of NEC.

  20. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Vasopressin in Resting and Mild Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1993-01-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of subcutaneously administered AVP (6 mug/kg b.wt.) were determined in resting conditions and after the mild stress of transportation to and placement in a novel environment. In resting conditions, systemic administration of AVP caused a rapid increase in blood

  1. The rapid response team nurse's role in end-of-life discussions during critical situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Rapid response teams have been in existence in hospitals over the past decade. This team call may offer life-saving interventions that save lives but, in some cases, may prolong the dying process. There are times in which the rapid response team nurse and the intensive care nurses need to have an understanding of the families' perception of what is occurring and manage this situation through communication, empathy, and information sharing. The nurse must be involved during discussions surrounding end-of-life decisions. The nurse also has a role in supporting the family through this difficult time of making a decision to withhold life-supporting measures.

  2. Rapid response to changing environments during biological invasions: DNA methylation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Li, Shiguo; Ni, Ping; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2017-12-01

    Dissecting complex interactions between species and their environments has long been a research hot spot in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The well-recognized Darwinian evolution has well-explained long-term adaptation scenarios; however, "rapid" processes of biological responses to environmental changes remain largely unexplored, particularly molecular mechanisms such as DNA methylation that have recently been proposed to play crucial roles in rapid environmental adaptation. Invasive species, which have capacities to successfully survive rapidly changing environments during biological invasions, provide great opportunities to study molecular mechanisms of rapid environmental adaptation. Here, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique in an invasive model ascidian, Ciona savignyi, to investigate how species interact with rapidly changing environments at the whole-genome level. We detected quite rapid DNA methylation response: significant changes of DNA methylation frequency and epigenetic differentiation between treatment and control groups occurred only after 1 hr of high-temperature exposure or after 3 hr of low-salinity challenge. In addition, we detected time-dependent hemimethylation changes and increased intragroup epigenetic divergence induced by environmental stresses. Interestingly, we found evidence of DNA methylation resilience, as most stress-induced DNA methylation variation maintained shortly (~48 hr) and quickly returned back to the control levels. Our findings clearly showed that invasive species could rapidly respond to acute environmental changes through DNA methylation modifications, and rapid environmental changes left significant epigenetic signatures at the whole-genome level. All these results provide fundamental background to deeply investigate the contribution of DNA methylation mechanisms to rapid contemporary environmental adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Performance of 177Lu-DOTATATE-based peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: a multiparametric response evaluation correlating with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Pradeep; Ranade, Rohit; Ostwal, Vikas; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Goel, Mahesh; Basu, Sandip

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP-NET) and correlate it with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics. Fifty patients (M : F 33 : 17, age: 26-71 years) with histopathologically confirmed metastatic/inoperable NETs who had undergone at least three cycles of PRRT with Lu-DOTATATE were included in the analysis. As part of the pretreatment evaluation, they underwent either Tc-HYNIC TOC (n=40)/Ga-DOTATATE PET (n=10) or fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT). Response was assessed after three and five cycles PRRT on the basis of three parameters: (a) symptomatic and subjective scale, (b) biochemical tumor marker level, and (c) objective imaging (F-FDG/Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, Tc-HYNIC TOC, ceCT), and was categorized using predefined criteria (detailed in methods). Stable disease on imaging assessment with response on symptomatic or biochemical tumor marker scales or both were included in the responder group. The study population was broadly classified into (a) metastatic GEP-NET with known primary (n=43 i.e. 86%), which was further subclassified according to the site of primary and (b) those with unknown primary (n=7 i.e. 14%). Symptomatic response: 96% of patients showed a symptomatic response or improvement in health-related quality of life, irrespective of tumor proliferation index, dual tracer imaging characteristics, and response or progression of disease in the scan. Biochemical tumor marker response: 83% of scan responders showed a decrease, 10% showed a stable value, and 7% showed an increase in tumor marker levels. Among the scan nonresponders, 67% patients showed a corresponding increase in the tumor marker level, 22% patient showed a decrease, whereas 11% showed stable values. Scan response: 31 out of total 50 patients (62%) showed a partial scan response with either a

  4. Mid-term effects of serial sleep deprivation therapy implemented in cognitive-behavioral treatment on the neuroendocrine response to clomipramine in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundermann, Bernd; Strate, Peter; Hemmeter-Spernal, Julia; Huber, Martin Tobias; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2009-04-01

    While data dealing with neurobiological effects of sleep deprivation (SD) are mainly restricted to the acute effects of a single night, only few studies have investigated mid-term effects after repeated SD. We therefore examined the clinical and hormonal characteristics of depressive patients before and after serial SD to determine potential sustained effects, focusing especially on serotoninergic functions. One tool to investigate serotoninergic dysfunction in depression is the use of serotoninergic agents to stimulate hormonal secretion, which is assumed to normalize during a clinically effective therapy. Eighteen drug-free inpatients with unipolar major depression received cognitive-behavioral treatment for three weeks and - according to a randomized control design - additional SD therapy (six nights of total SD within three weeks, separated by nights of recovery sleep) or no SD therapy (control group). Serotoninergic function was assessed by measuring cortisol and prolactin in response to intravenously administered clomipramine (12.5mg) before and after the treatment period. The post-treatment challenge test was performed three days after the last SD night. Apart from of a transient overnight improvement of mood induced by SD, both groups showed a comparable clinical course during the three-week treatment period. Compared to the control group, the SD-treated patients exhibited significantly decreased pre-stimulation cortisol levels and significantly increased cortisol responses to clomipramine, whereas no treatment effects were observed for prolactin. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the mid-term effects of serial SD therapy lead to a normalization of serotoninergic dysfunction, although an obvious impact on clinical symptoms was not detected.

  5. Normal Evoked Response to Rapid Sequences of Tactile Pulses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ganesan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disorder diagnosed behaviorally, with many documented neurophysiological abnormalities in cortical response properties. While abnormal sensory processing is not considered core to the disorder, most ASD individuals report sensory processing abnormalities. Yet, the neurophysiological correlates of these abnormalities have not been fully mapped. In the auditory domain, studies have shown that cortical responses in the early auditory cortex in ASD are abnormal in multiple ways. In particular, it has been shown that individuals with ASD who were also language impaired, have abnormal cortical auditory evoked responses to rapid, but not slow, sequences of tones. Here, we tested the somatosensory domain in ASD for abnormalities in rapid processing of tactile pulses, to determine whether abnormalities there parallel those observed in the auditory domain. Specifically, we tested the somatosensory cortex response to a sequence of two tactile pulses with different (short and long temporal separation. We analyzed the responses in cortical space, in primary somatosensory cortex. As expected, we found no group difference in the evoked response to pulses with long temporal separation. Contrary to findings in the auditory domain and to our hypothesis, we also found no group differences in the evoked responses to the sequence with a short temporal separation. These results suggest that rapid temporal processing deficits in ASD are not generalized across multiple sensory domains, and are unlikely to underlie the behavioral somatosensory abnormalities observed in ASD.

  6. Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome Accompanies Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bertani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a small percentage of pancreatic neoplasia (10% (1. Diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours is difficult, especially if the tumours are small and nonfunctional. CT scans, MRI, and nuclear scans are sufficiently sensitive assessment tools for tumours with diameters of at least 2 cm; otherwise, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques is less than 50% (2. Myasthenia gravis (MG is a heterogeneous neuromuscular junction disorder that is primarily caused when antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors (Ab-AchR. MG can develop in conjunction with neoplasia, making MG a paraneoplastic disease. In those cases, MG is most commonly associated with thymomas and less frequently associated with extrathymic malignancies. The mechanism underlying this paraneoplastic syndrome has been hypothesized to involve an autoimmune response against the tumour cells (3. No published reports have linked malignant pancreatic diseases with MG. Here, we report the case of a young woman, negative for Ab-AchR, with a neuroendocrine tumour in the pancreatic head, who experienced a complete resolution of her MG-like syndrome after surgical enucleation of the tumour.

  7. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and bio......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...

  8. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila; Artiko Vera; Pavlović Smiljana; Šobić-Šaranović Dragana; Obradović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT) methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1) somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide) or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC); 2) noradrenaline a...

  9. Value and challenges of conducting rapid response research on wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Lentile; P. Morgan; C. Hardy; A. Hudak; R. Means; R. Ottmar; P. Robichaud; E. Kennedy Sutherland; J. Szymoniak; F. Way; J. Fites-Kaufman; S. Lewis; E. Mathews; H. Shovik; K. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid Response Research is conducted during and immediately after wildland fires, in coordination with fire management teams, in order to collect information that can best be garnered in situ and in real-time. This information often includes fire behavior and fire effects data, which can be used to generate practical tools such as predictive fire models for managers....

  10. Financial consequences of the implementation of a rapid response system on a surgical ward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmes, F.; Schoonhoven, L.; Mintjes, J.; Adang, E.M.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Rapid response systems (RRSs) are recommended by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and implemented worldwide. Our study on the effects of an RRS showed a non-significant decrease in cardiac arrest and/or unexpected death from 0.5% to 0.25%. Unplanned intensive

  11. Voortekenen van verandering : Ervaringen met het implementeren van een rapid response-systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Smetsers; Hans van der Hoeven; Friede Simmes; Michael Edwards; Daan Sep; Maurice Peters

    2008-01-01

    Snel inspelen op veranderingen in de vitale functies van patiënten, levert een hoop winst op. Minder sterfgevallen en ook minder blijvende schade. In het UMC St Radboud heeft men dit streven met een rapid response-systeem in praktijk gebracht.

  12. Outcomes Associated With the Nationwide Introduction of Rapid Response Systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Brunsveld-Reinders, Anja H.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.; Adams, Rob; de Maaijer, Paul F.; Fikkers, Bernard G.; Tangkau, Peter; de Jonge, Evert; van Putten, M. A.; Kerkhoven, C.; Braber, A.; Schoonderbeek, F. J.; Kors, B. M.; Sep, D. P.; Vermeijden, J. W.; van der Weijden, P. K. C.; Koenders, S.; Meertens, M.; Brunsveld-Reinders, A. H.; Hoeksema, M.

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of implementation of a rapid response system on the composite endpoint of cardiopulmonary arrest, unplanned ICU admission, or death. Pragmatic prospective Dutch multicenter before-after trial, Cost and Outcomes analysis of Medical Emergency Teams trial. Twelve hospitals

  13. Outcomes Associated With the Nationwide Introduction of Rapid Response Systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludikhuize, J.; Brunsveld-Reinders, A.H.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Smorenburg, S.M.; Rooij, S.E. De; Adams, R.; Maaijer, P.F. de; Fikkers, B.G.; Tangkau, P.; Jonge, E. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of implementation of a rapid response system on the composite endpoint of cardiopulmonary arrest, unplanned ICU admission, or death. DESIGN: Pragmatic prospective Dutch multicenter before-after trial, Cost and Outcomes analysis of Medical Emergency Teams trial.

  14. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... eRulemaking Portal, or (3) by filing paper copies. Comments and reply comments may be filed...

  15. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...

  16. Evaluation of a hospice rapid response community service: a controlled evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Claire

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most people faced with a terminal illness would prefer to die at home, less than a third in England are enabled to do so with many dying in National Health Service hospitals. Patients are more likely to die at home if their carers receive professional support. Hospice rapid response teams, which provide specialist palliative care at home on a 24/7 on-call basis, are proposed as an effective way to help terminally ill patients die in their preferred place, usually at home. However, the effectiveness of rapid response teams has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of patient, carer and cost outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial. The primary outcome for the quantitative evaluation for patients is dying in their preferred place of death. Carers’ quality of life will be evaluated using postal questionnaires sent at patient intake to the hospice service and eight months later. Carers’ perceptions of care received and the patient’s death will be assessed in one to one interviews at 6 to 8 months post bereavement. Service utilisation costs including the rapid response intervention will be compared to those of usual care. Discussion The study will contribute to the development of the evidence base on outcomes for patients and carers and costs of hospice rapid response teams operating in the community. Trial registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN32119670.

  17. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  18. [EGFR-expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, C; Winter, B U

    2006-03-01

    15 cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (carcinoid-tumorlets, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia/DIPNECH) and 20 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (10 carcinoid tumors, 5 large cell neuroendocrine, and 5 small cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, = HER-1). All cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia exhibited a maximum EGFR expression (score 3 in 100% of cells) showing predominantly membranous, partly cytoplasmic staining. 4 ot the 10 carcinoid tumors were strongly positive for EGFR, whereas the other 6 were EGFR-negative. A total of 90% of large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were negative for EGFR. Overexpression of EGFR in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might be significant for the pathogenesis of these lesions. As DIPNECH is characterized by clinical signs and symptoms including mild cough and obstructive functional impairment, a specific antagonistic therapeutic trial could aim at blocking EGFR/HER-1 or its subsequent signal transduction pathway.

  19. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  20. A nationwide web-based automated system for early outbreak detection and rapid response in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and to transmit that information either in real-time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country.

  1. Psychological and neuroendocrine reactivity to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study used the ostracism detection theory to investigate how ostracism impacts individuals in two ways: (1) immediate poststressor needs, mood, ruminative thoughts, and desire to affiliate, and (2) short-term affective and cortisol reactivity. A total of 58 college students were randomly assigned to the inclusion or ostracism conditions of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game. Immediately following the experimental manipulation, ostracized participants reported more thwarted psychological need states, more negative mood, and fewer positive ruminative thoughts, relative to their included counterparts. Ostracized participants reported a greater interest in affiliating with others in online or in-person settings. In the short-term, ostracized males reported more hostility than included males, although the scores were within expected norms for most males. There was no relation between Cyberball condition and gender across time for depression, anxiety, or positive affect. Approximately 20 min after the onset of the stressor, women in the luteal phase and women taking oral contraceptives in the ostracized group displayed higher cortisol than their counterparts in the included group. Relative to baseline, however, cortisol did not reliably increase after the onset of the stressor. Ostracized females taking oral contraceptives showed the greatest decline in cortisol, compared to included oral contraceptive users. Overall, results suggest that most of the negative effects of ostracism are immediate and limited to psychological, not neuroendocrine, responses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Management of neuroendocrine tumors of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Krystallenia; Angelousi, Anna; Boutzios, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2017-12-04

    Neuroendocrine neoplams (NENs) are mostly relatively indolent malignancies but a significant number have metastatic disease at diagnosis mainly to the liver. Although in the majority of such cases the primary origin of the tumor can be identified, in approximately 11-22% no primary tumor is found and such cases are designated as NENs of unknown primary origin (UPO). This has significant therapeutic implications with respect to potentially resectable hepatic disease and/or application of appropriate medical therapy, either chemotherapeutic agents or targeted treatment, as the response to various treatments varies according to the origin of the primary tumor. This lack of tumor specific orientated treatment may also account for the relatively poorer prognosis of NENs of UPO compared to metastatic NENs with a known primary site. In the majority of cases the primary tumors are located in the small bowel and the lung, but a number may still elude detection. Occasionally the presence of a functional syndrome may direct to the specific tissue of origin but in the majority of cases a number of biochemical, imaging, histopathological and molecular modalities are utilized to help identify the primary origin of the tumor and direct treatment accordingly. Several diagnostic algorithms have recently been developed to help localize an occult primary tumor; however, in a number of cases no lesion is identified even after prolonged follow-up. It is expected that the delineation of the molecular signature of the different NENs may help identify such cases and provide appropriate treatment.

  3. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lin; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaojun; Gou, Honglei; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yun; Ji, Yuetong; Huang, Wei E; Xu, Jian

    2016-10-19

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%. Moreover, the ramanomes upon six chemical compounds from three categories, including antibiotics of ampicillin and kanamycin, alcohols of ethanol and n-butanol and heavy metals of Cu(2+) and Cr(6+), were analyzed and 31 marker Raman bands were revealed which distinguish stress-responses via cytotoxicity mechanism and variation of inter-cellular heterogeneity. Furthermore, specificity, reproducibility and mechanistic basis of ramanome were validated by tracking stress-induced dynamics of metabolites and by contrasting between cells with and without genes that convey stress resistance. Thus ramanome enables rapid prediction and mechanism-based screening of cytotoxicity and stress-response programs at single-cell resolution.

  4. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sustaining Health Care Interventions to Achieve Quality Care: What We Can Learn From Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolldorf, Deonni P

    Rapid response team (RRT) adoption and implementation are associated with improved quality of care of patients who experience an unanticipated medical emergency. The sustainability of RRTs is vital to achieve long-term benefits of these teams for patients, staff, and hospitals. Factors required to achieve RRT sustainability remain unclear. This study examined the relationship between sustainability elements and RRT sustainability in hospitals that have previously implemented RRTs.

  6. Nurses' perceptions of simulation-based interprofessional training program for rapid response and code blue events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Lenzmeier, Carissa R; Ogden, Paul E; Lambden, Mary Pat; Sanford, Pamela; Herrick, Judy; Song, Juhee; Pliego, Jose F; Colbert, Colleen Y

    2012-01-01

    Following completion of an interprofessional simulation program for rapid response and code blue events, we explored hospital unit nurses' perspectives of the training, through a mixed-methods analysis. The results of this study advocate for the use of simulation training in preparing nurses and promoting communication among team members, effective teamwork, and early recognition of clinically deteriorating patients. This study provides support for the implementation and continued use of simulation interprofessional programs in hospital settings.

  7. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  8. A rapid challenge protocol for determination of non-specific bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Nielsen, N H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... well to a non-cumulative standard protocol and could be terminated either within 10 min or within 20 inhalations. The results of this new challenge procedure enables us to predict the responsiveness to inhaled histamine precisely enough to separate patients into hyperreactive or normal reactive...

  9. Rapid bedrock uplift in the Antarctic Peninsula explained by viscoelastic response to recent ice unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nield, Grace A.; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995 several ice shelves in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula have collapsed and triggered ice-mass unloading, invoking a solid Earth response that has been recorded at continuous GPS (cGPS) stations. A previous attempt to model the observation of rapid uplift following the 2002 breakup......×1017–2×1018 Pas – much lower than previously suggested for this region. Combining the LARISSA time series with the Palmer cGPS time series offers a rare opportunity to study the time-evolution of the low-viscosity solid Earth response to a well-captured ice unloading event....

  10. Rapid adaptive evolution of photoperiodic response during invasion and range expansion across a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jennifer; Mogi, Motoyoshi; O'Donnell, Deborah; DeCotiis, Mark; Toma, Takako; Armbruster, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Abstract Understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to spatiotemporal environmental variation is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. This issue also has important implications for anticipating biological responses to contemporary climate warming and determining the processes by which invasive species are able to spread rapidly across broad geographic ranges. Here, we compare data from a historical study of latitudinal variation in photoperiodic response among Japanese and U.S. populations of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus with contemporary data obtained using comparable methods. Our results demonstrated rapid adaptive evolution of the photoperiodic response during invasion and range expansion across ∼15° of latitude in the United States. In contrast to the photoperiodic response, size-based morphological traits implicated in climatic adaptation in a wide range of other insects did not show evidence of adaptive variation in Ae. albopictus across either the U.S. (invasive) or Japanese (native) range. These results show that photoperiodism has been an important adaptation to climatic variation across the U.S. range of Ae. albopictus and, in conjunction with previous studies, strongly implicate the photoperiodic control of seasonal development as a critical evolutionary response to ongoing contemporary climate change. These results also emphasize that photoperiodism warrants increased attention in studies of the evolution of invasive species.

  11. Rapid effects of olopatadine hydrochloride on the histamine-induced skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Keisuke; Koga, Tetsuya; Moroi, Yoichi; Urabe, Kazunori; Furue, Masutaka

    2002-11-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines that are used for treating allergic disorders such as urticaria, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. We examined the inhibitory effects of this drug on the flare and wheal responses induced by histamine iontophoresis at 30, 60, and 90 min after oral administration in a double-blind, cross-over, and placebo-controlled study. Olopatadine hydrochloride significantly inhibited the histamine-induced flare and wheal responses as early as 60 min after oral administration when compared with placebo. Significant inihibitory effects of olopatadine hydrochloride on the itch responses were seen at 90 min after administration. Thus, olopatadine hydrochloride exhibited a very rapid and potent antihistamine effect on the histamine-induced skin responses.

  12. DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Trigolosova

    2014-01-01

    early disability and death of patients with neuroendocrine diseases.

  13. Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wagner, Ludwig; Brandt Sørensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    , synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids. Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas...

  14. Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less than20 mm in diameter: is appendectomy enough? Landolsi Sana, Mannai Saber. Abstract. The appendixis the second primary site for neuroendocrine tumors. The management of incidentelly discovered neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

  15. Establishing a rapid response team (RRT) in an academic hospital: one year's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Emmanuel; Horvath, Rebecca; Shulkin, David J

    2006-09-01

    Rapid response teams and medical emergency teams have been utilized to rapidly manage seriously ill patients at risk of cardiopulmonary arrest and other high-risk conditions but have not been extensively described in the American medical literature. To describe a full year's experience of implementing a rapid response team (RRT) in an academic medical center. Retrospective analysis of our hospital's RRT database and description of the implementation process from July 2004 to July 2005. Urban, academic medical center. The RRT system was activated for 307 potentially unstable patients. The most common reasons for an RRT activation were cardiac, respiratory, and neurological conditions. At least 37% of RRT calls were for off-unit inpatients and to outpatient/common areas frequented by outpatients and visitors, whereas at least 42% occurred in inpatient units. Most RRT calls, 82.9%, occurred during daytime hours. In the opinion of RRT leaders 98% of the evaluated calls were appropriate and 85% of the RRT responses resulted in the prevention of further clinical deterioration. An RRT was introduced into an academic medical center, and the results suggested it is capable of preventing clinical deterioration in unstable patients and may have the potential to decrease the frequency of cardiac arrests. The RRT also may fill a gap in patient safety by enabling rapid triage and expedited treatment of off-unit inpatients, outpatients, and visitors. The keys to the early success of our implementation of an RRT were multidisciplinary input and improvements made in real time. (c) 2006 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs. However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry. A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations.

  17. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction: regulation of inflammation via G-protein coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Aa, van der L.M.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine- and immune systems interact in a bi-directional fashion to communicate the status of pathogen recognition to the brain and the immune response is influenced by physiological changes. The network of ligands and their receptors involved includes cytokines and chemokines,

  18. Initiation of a Multidisciplinary, Rapid Response Team to Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brett J; Pemberton, Heather; Bauer, Kenneth A; Chu, Louis M; Weinstein, Jeffrey L; Levarge, Barbara L; Pinto, Duane S

    2017-10-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can result in rapid clinical decompensation in many patients. With increasing patient complexity and advanced treatment options for PE, multidisciplinary, rapid response teams can optimize risk stratification and expedite management strategies. The Massive And Submassive Clot On-call Team (MASCOT) was created at our institution, which comprised specialists from cardiology, pulmonology, hematology, interventional radiology, and cardiac surgery. MASCOT offers rapid consultation 24 hours a day with a web-based conference call to review patient data and discuss management of patients with high-risk PE. We reviewed patient data collected from MASCOT's registry to analyze patient clinical characteristics and outcomes and describe the composition and operation of the team. Between August 2015 and September 2016, MASCOT evaluated 72 patients. Seventy of the 72 patients were admitted to our institution, accounting for 32% of all patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of PE. Average age was 62 ± 17 years with a female predominance (63%). Active malignancy (31%), recent surgery or trauma (21%), and recent hospitalization (24%) were common. PE clinical severity was massive in 16% and submassive in 83%. Patients were managed with anticoagulation alone in 65% (n = 46), systemic fibrinolysis in 11% (n = 8), catheter-directed therapy in 18% (n = 13), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 3% (n = 2), and an inferior vena cava filter was placed in 15% (n = 11). Thirteen percent (n = 9) experienced a major bleed with no intracranial hemorrhage. Survival to discharge was 89% (64% with massive PE and 93% with submassive PE). In conclusion, multidisciplinary, rapid response PE teams offer a unique coordinated approach to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scopolamine rapidly increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S

    2013-11-15

    Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and two-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and glutamate receptor inhibitors. The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid-acting antidepressant agents. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  20. Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Michał; Rydzewska, Grażyna; Foltyn, Wanda; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Poczkaj, Karolina; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

  1. Rapid Response Team Calls and Unplanned Transfers to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Stacey; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2016-01-01

    Variability in disposition of children according to the time of rapid response calls is unknown. To evaluate times and disposition of rapid response alerts and outcomes for children transferred from acute care to intensive care. Deidentified data on demographics, time and disposition of the child after activation of a rapid response, time of transfer to intensive care, and patient outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Data for rapid-response patients on time of activation of the response and unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit were compared with data on other patients admitted to the unit. Of 542 rapid responses activated, 321 (59.2%) were called during the daytime. Out of all rapid response activations, 323 children (59.6%) were transferred to intensive care, 164 (30.3%) remained on the general unit, and 19 (3.5%) required resuscitation. More children were transferred to intensive care after rapid response alerts (P = .048) during the daytime (66%) than at night (59%). During the same period, 1313 patients were transferred to intensive care from acute care units. Age, sex, risk of mortality, length of stay, and mortality rate did not differ according to the time of transfer. Mortality among unplanned transfers (3.8%) was significantly higher (P intensive care patients (1.4%). Only 25% of transfers from acute care units to the intensive care unit occurred after activation of a rapid response team. Most rapid responses were called during daytime hours. Mortality was significantly higher among unplanned transfers from acute care than among other intensive care admissions. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2017-03-07

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A Stimuli-Responsive, Binary Reagent System for Rapid Isolation of Protein Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehilla, Barrett J; Hill, John J; Srinivasan, Selvi; Chen, Yen-Chi; Schulte, Thomas H; Stayton, Patrick S; Lai, James J

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic microbeads exhibit rapid separation characteristics and are widely employed for biomolecule and cell isolations in research laboratories, clinical diagnostics assays, and cell therapy manufacturing. However, micrometer particle diameters compromise biomarker recognition, which leads to long incubation times and significant reagent demands. Here, a stimuli-responsive binary reagent system is presented that combines the nanoscale benefits of efficient biomarker recognition and the microscale benefits of rapid magnetic separation. This system comprises magnetic nanoparticles and polymer-antibody (Ab) conjugates that transition from hydrophilic nanoscale reagents to microscale aggregates in response to temperature stimuli. The binary reagent system was benchmarked against Ab-labeled Dynabeads in terms of biomarker isolation kinetics, assay speed, and reagent needs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that polymer conjugation did not significantly alter the Ab's binding affinity or kinetics. ELISA analysis showed that the unconjugated Ab, polymer-Ab conjugates, and Ab-labeled Dynabeads exhibited similar equilibrium dissociation constants (K d ), ∼2 nM. However, the binary reagent system isolated HIV p24 antigen from spiked serum specimens (150 pg/mL) much more quickly than Dynabeads, which resulted in shorter binding times by tens of minutes, or about 30-50% shorter overall assay times. The binary reagent system showed improved performance because the Ab molecules were not conjugated to large, solid microparticle surfaces. This stimuli-responsive binary reagent system illustrates the potential advantages of nanoscale reagents in molecule and cell isolations for both research and clinical applications.

  5. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  7. Midgut neuroendocrine tumor presenting with acute intestinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzoros, Ioannis; Savvala, Natalia Antigoni; Ioannidis, Orestis; Parpoudi, Styliani; Loutzidou, Lydia; Kyriakidou, Despoina; Cheva, Angeliki; Intzos, Vasileios; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-07

    Neuroendocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells and secrete various peptides and bioamines. While gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, commonly called carcinoids, account for about 2/3 of all neuroendocrine tumors, they are relatively rare. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors originate from intestinal enterochromaffin cells and represent about 1/4 of small intestine neoplasms. They can be asymptomatic or cause nonspecific symptoms, which usually leads to a delayed diagnosis. Imaging modalities can aid diagnosis and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. We present a case of a jejunal neuroendocrine tumor that caused nonspecific symptoms for about 1 year before manifesting with acute mesenteric ischemia. Abdominal X-rays revealed pneumatosis intestinalis and an abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was submitted to segmental enterectomy. Histopathological study demonstrated a neuroendocrine tumor with perineural and arterial infiltration and lymph node metastasis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient denied any adjuvant treatment.

  8. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  9. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom R.; Rosser, Nicholas J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Williams, Jack G.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Bell, Heather J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density) of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  10. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  11. FDA Approves Lutathera for Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved Lutathera® for some people with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that affect the digestive tract. On January 29, FDA approved Lutathera® for adult patients with advanced NETs that affect the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract, known as GEP-NETs.

  12. A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor diagnosed during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are increasingly being discovered. A case of PNET diagnosed and treated during the management of acute appendicitis is presented and discussed. The importance of imaging modalities in patients with acute abdominal pain is emphasized. To the best our knowledge, this is the ...

  13. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  14. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Woods, Stephen C

    2010-10-01

    Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical-weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging.

  15. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  16. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. Recent findings During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously-described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Summary Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging. PMID:20585249

  17. Rapid evolutionary responses of life history traits to different experimentally-induced pollutions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Morgan; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Lecomte, Catherine; Goussen, Benoit; Daian, Fabrice; Galas, Simon; Réale, Denis

    2014-12-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances can lead to intense selection pressures on traits and very rapid evolutionary changes. Evolutionary responses to environmental changes, in turn, reflect changes in the genetic structure of the traits, accompanied by a reduction of evolutionary potential of the populations under selection. Assessing the effects of pollutants on the evolutionary responses and on the genetic structure of populations is thus important to understanding the mechanisms that entail specialization to novel environmental conditions or resistance to novel stressors. Using an experimental evolution approach we exposed Caenorhabditis elegans populations to uranium, salt and alternating uranium-salt environments over 22 generations. We analyzed the changes in the average values of life history traits and the consequences at the demographic level in these populations. We also estimated the phenotypic and genetic (co)variance structure of these traits at different generations. Compared to populations in salt, populations in uranium showed a reduction of the stability of their trait structure and a higher capacity to respond by acclimation. However, the evolutionary responses of traits were generally lower for uranium compared to salt treatment; and the evolutionary responses to the alternating uranium-salt environment were between those of constant environments. Consequently, at the end of the experiment, the population rate of increase was higher in uranium than in salt and intermediate in the alternating environment. Our multigenerational experiment confirmed that rapid adaptation to different polluted environments may involve different evolutionary responses resulting in demographic consequences. These changes are partly explained by the effects of the pollutants on the genetic (co)variance structure of traits and the capacity of acclimation to novel conditions. Finally, our results in the alternating environment may confirm the selection of a generalist type in this

  18. Factors Leading to Rapid Response Team Interventions in Adult Medical-Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Christine M; Stuenkel, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a Rapid Response Team Intervention (RRTI) in preventing transfer to a higher level of care and decreasing in-hospital mortality has not been firmly established. This retrospective exploratory study examined differences between medical-surgical patients who had an RRTI and those who did not. Results yielded 5 statistically significant differences (P ≤ .05) between the 2 groups as well as a large variation (range, 0-238 minutes; SD = 87.73 minutes) between time of documentation of RRTI criteria to time in calling an RRTI.

  19. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    programming strongly, notably when hormonal surges occur during sensitive periods of development, so-called developmental windows of vulnerability. Stressful events occurring during the perinatal period may impinge on various aspects of the neuroendocrine programming, subsequently amending the offspring's growth, metabolism, sexual maturation, stress responses, and immune system. Such prenatal stress-induced modifications of the phenotypic plasticity of the progeny might ultimately result in the development of long-term diseases, from metabolic syndromes to psychiatric disorders. Yet, we would like to consider the outcome of this neuroendocrine programming from an evolutionary perspective. Early stressful events during gestation might indeed shape internal parameters of the developing organisms in order to adapt the progeny to its everyday environment and thus contribute to an increased reproductive success, or fitness, of the species. Moreover, parental care, adoption, or enriched environments after birth have been shown to reverse negative long-term consequences of a disturbed gestational environment. In this view, considering the higher potential for neonatal plasticity within the brain in human beings as compared to other species, long-term consequences of prenatal stress might not be as inexorable as suggested in animal-based studies published to date.

  20. Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: variable responses among freshwater microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Jae; Berges, John A; Young, Erica B

    2012-05-15

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of microalgae is a compelling indicator of toxicity of dissolved water contaminants, because it is easily measured and responds rapidly. While different chl a fluorescence parameters have been examined, most studies have focused on single species and/or a narrow range of toxins. We assessed the utility of one chl a fluorescence parameter, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), for detecting effects of nine environmental pollutants from a range of toxin classes on 5 commonly found freshwater algal species, as well as the USEPA model species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. F(v)/F(m) declined rapidly over glyphosate (glyphosate increased exponentially with concentration. F(v)/F(m) provides a sensitive and easily-measured parameter for rapid and cost-effective detection of effects of many dissolved toxins. Field-portable fluorometers will facilitate field testing, however distinct responses between different species may complicate net F(v)/F(m) signal from a community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  2. Findings of the first ANZICS conference on the role of intensive care in Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D; Hicks, P; Currey, J; Holmes, J; Fennessy, G J; Hillman, K; Psirides, A; Rai, S; Singh, M Y; Pilcher, D V; Bhonagiri, D; Hart, G K; Fugaccia, E

    2015-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) are specialised teams introduced into hospitals to improve the outcomes of deteriorating ward patients. Although Rapid Response Systems (RRSs) were developed by the intensive care unit (ICU) community, there is variability in their delivery, and consultant involvement, supervision and leadership appears to be relatively infrequent. In July 2014, the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) convened the first conference on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand. The conference explored RRSs in the broader role of patient safety, resourcing and staffing of RRTs, effect on ICU workload, different RRT models, the outcomes of RRT patients and original research projects in the area of RRSs. Issues around education and training of both ICU registrars and nurses were examined, and the role of team training explored. Measures to assess the effectiveness of the RRS and RRT at the level of health system and hospital, team performance and team effectiveness were discussed, and the need to develop a bi-national ANZICS RRT patient database was presented. Strategies to prevent patient deterioration in the 'pre-RRT' period were discussed, including education of ward nurses and doctors, as well as an overarching governance structure. The role of the ICU in deteriorating ward patients was debated and an integrated model of acute care presented. This article summarises the findings of the conference and presents recommendations on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand.

  3. Response time distributions in rapid chess: A large-scale decision making experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: 1 Response time (RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, 2 RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  4. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

  5. [Effectiveness of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) in a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campechano-López, José Miguel; Carranza-Bernal, María Lourdes; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Reyes-Gil, María Rayo

    2016-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy happens when a fertilized egg attaches somewhere outside the endometrial surface. This sort of pregnancy has an estimated incidence of 1.6 to 2 each 100 births. The main objective was to expose the effective answer of a Rapid Response Team in a case of ruptured cervical ectopic pregnancy. We also describe a clinical case of this sort of pregnancy. 37-year-old female with a two-month history of amenorrhea. The patient entered the Labor & Delivery department with hypovolemic shock secondary to vaginal bleeding. The Código Mater (Mater Code) was activated and the Rapid Response Team arrived to the L&D department. This team performed pelvic examination and detected tissue in cervix with mild bleeding. The pelvic ultrasound displayed the presence of gas and the endometrium status was normal (no gestational sac was detected). The immunologic test for pregnancy was positive. It was diagnosed cervical ectopic pregnancy and hypovolemic shock. Providing timely access to care with standardized criteria by interdisciplinary teams in all the cases of obstetric emergency avoids maternal deaths related to obstetric hemorrhage.

  6. A UAV BASED CLOSE-RANGE RAPID AERIAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Choi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  7. Neuroendocrine Tumours : From Radiomolecular Imaging to Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS eLIMOURIS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transhepatic radionuclide infusion (THRI has been introduced as a new treatment approach for unresectable liver neuroendocrine metastatic lesions with the prerequisite of a positive In-111 Pentetreotide (Octreoscan. Patients with multiple liver neuroendocrine metastases can be locally treated after selective hepatic artery catheterization and infusion of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, and in case of extra-hepatic secondary spread, after simple i.v. application. According to the world wide references, the average dose per session to each patient is 6.3±0.3 GBq (~ 160-180 mCi of In-111-DTPA-Phe1- Pentetreotide, 10-12 fold in total, administered monthly or of 4.1± 0.2 GBq (~105-116 mCi of Y-90 DOTA TOC, 3 fold in total or of 7.0 ± 0.4 GBq (~178-200 mCi of Lu-177 DOTA TATE, 4-6 fold in total (the choice of which being based on the tumor size, assessed by CT or MRI . Follow-up at monthly intervals has to be performed by means of ultrasonography (US. Treat- ment response has to be assessed according to the WHO criteria (RECIST or SWOG.

  8. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will continue a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC by Weed Warrior...

  9. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project continues a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC (NNWRC) by Weed...

  10. Exploring interprofessional practices in rapid response systems: a case study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a proposed case study protocol investigating interprofessional relationships in a rapid response system (RRS) in a socioculturally complex clinical environment. Suboptimal care of deteriorating ward patients remains a concern for many acute healthcare organisations. Despite the advent of RRSs, emergency response teams are not always used to their full potential. How and why interprofessional relationships influence practices associated with the care and management of ward patients at risk of clinical deterioration requires investigation. Theoretical and empirical literature describing case study research and RRSs. Review methods An integrative review approach of the literature, focusing on key terms relating to 'case study research' and 'rapid response system', provided context and informed development of the study protocol. A single-site mixed-method instrumental case study protocol was developed using methodological triangulation and a multi-level model to examine interprofessional relationships between a broad range of stakeholders. Concurrent data collection and analysis will occur using document review of clinical scenarios, non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Case study research is an effective method for investigating socioculturally complex clinical environments. A strength of this approach is the flexibility in the choice of methods, which allows the researcher to build the design most suitable for the subjects or phenomena being investigated. Although this flexibility may be considered a potential weakness, rigour can be achieved by application of the strategies described. Findings from this research will provide rich descriptive insights into RRS relationships and healthcare professional practices during day-to-day management of acute ward patients at risk of or experiencing clinical deterioration. Description of this structured case study research approach will also inform other researchers.

  11. Drug-Related Hyponatremic Encephalopathy: Rapid Clinical Response Averts Life-Threatening Acute Cerebral Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Arthur J; Forte, Sophie S; Bhatti, Nasir A; Gelda, Steven E

    2016-03-09

    Drug-induced hyponatremia characteristically presents with subtle psychomotor symptoms due to its slow onset, which permits compensatory volume adjustment to hypo-osmolality in the central nervous system. Due mainly to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), this condition readily resolves following discontinuation of the responsible pharmacological agent. Here, we present an unusual case of life-threatening encephalopathy due to adverse drug-related effects, in which a rapid clinical response facilitated emergent treatment to avert life-threatening acute cerebral edema. A 63-year-old woman with refractory depression was admitted for inpatient psychiatric care with a normal physical examination and laboratory values, including a serum sodium [Na+] of 144 mEq/L. She had a grand mal seizure and became unresponsive on the fourth day of treatment with the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine while being continued on a thiazide-containing diuretic for a hypertensive disorder. Emergent infusion of intravenous hypertonic (3%) saline was initiated after determination of a serum sodium [Na+] of 103 mEq/L with a urine osmolality of 314 mOsm/kg H20 and urine [Na+] of 12 mEq/L. Correction of hyposmolality in accordance with current guidelines resulted in progressive improvement over several days, and she returned to her baseline mental status. Seizures with life-threatening hyponatremic encephalopathy in this case likely resulted from co-occurring SIADH and sodium depletion due to duloxetine and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. A rapid clinical response expedited diagnosis and emergent treatment to reverse life-threatening acute cerebral edema and facilitate a full recovery without neurological complications.

  12. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  13. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1 somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC; 2 noradrenaline analogue labeled with iodine-131 or -123 (131I/123I-MIBG; or 3 99mTc(V-DMSA. Contemporary methods use PET/CT equipment for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of pharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters [fluorine-18 (18F, galium-68 (68Ga, or carbon-11 (11C]: 1 glucose analogue (18FDG; 2 somatostatin analogue (68Ga-DOTATOC/68Ga-DOTATATE/68Ga-DOTANOC; 3 aminoacid precursors of bioamines: [a dopamine precursor 18F-DOPA (6-18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine, b serotonin precursor 11C-5HTP (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan]; or 4 dopamine analogue 18F-DA (6-18F-fluorodopamine. Conventional and contemporary (PET/ CT somatostatin receptor detection showed identical high specificity (92%, but conventional had very low sensitivity (52% compared to PET/CT (97%. It means that almost every second neuroendocrine tumor detected by contemporary method cannot be discovered using conventional (classic method. In metastatic pheochromocytoma detection contemporary (PET/ CT methods (18F-DOPA and 18F-DA have higher sensitivity than conventional (131I/123I-MIBG. In medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics contemporary method (18F-DOPA is more sensitive than conventional 99mTc(V-DMSA method, and is similar to 18FDG, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. In carcinoid detection contemporary method (18F-DOPA shows similar results with contemporary somatostatin receptor detection, while for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors it is worse. To conclude, contemporary (PET/CT methods for

  14. Interaction and developmental activation of two neuroendocrine systems that regulate light-mediated skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Song, Yi N; Atkinson-Leadbeater, Karen; Yang, Jung-Lynn J; McFarlane, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion. As embryogenesis proceeds, the pineal complex/melatonin circuit becomes the dominant regulator in the dark and induces lightening of the skin of larvae. The eye/α-MSH circuit continues to mediate darkening of embryos on a black background, but we propose the circuit is shut down in complete darkness in part by melatonin acting on receptors expressed by pituitary cells to inhibit the expression of pomc, the precursor of α-MSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rapid stimulus-evoked astrocyte Ca2+ elevations and hemodynamic responses in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Barbara Lykke; Brazhe, Alexey; Jessen, Sanne Barsballe

    2013-01-01

    Increased neuron and astrocyte activity triggers increased brain blood flow, but controversy exists over whether stimulation-induced changes in astrocyte activity are rapid and widespread enough to contribute to brain blood flow control. Here, we provide evidence for stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) elevat...... brief Ca(2+) responses with a rapid onset in vivo, fast enough to initiate hemodynamic responses or influence synaptic activity.......Increased neuron and astrocyte activity triggers increased brain blood flow, but controversy exists over whether stimulation-induced changes in astrocyte activity are rapid and widespread enough to contribute to brain blood flow control. Here, we provide evidence for stimulus-evoked Ca(2......+) elevations with rapid onset and short duration in a large proportion of cortical astrocytes in the adult mouse somatosensory cortex. Our improved detection of the fast Ca(2+) signals is due to a signal-enhancing analysis of the Ca(2+) activity. The rapid stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) increases identified...

  16. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  17. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  18. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  20. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance.

  1. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Colonic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasi, Omai Al; Rifai, Ayman; Hugosson, Claes [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology, MBC 28, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sathiapalan, Rajeev; Kofide, Amani [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Tulbah, Asthma Mahmoud Mohamed [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Pathology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mehaidib, Ali [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-03-01

    A 10-year-old boy with congenital immunodeficiency (X-linked agammaglobulinaemia) presented with loss of appetite and weight, right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhoea and low-grade fever. Radiological investigations with barium follow-through, CT, PET and octreotide scans revealed a primary caecal/ascending proximal colonic mass with liver and bony metastases. Urine screen for 5HIAA was positive. Percutaneous liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. The radiological work-up and the usefulness of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of this rare paediatric tumour are discussed. The PET scan demonstrated the primary tumour and the metastatic locations more vividly than the octreotide scan, which is currently considered to be the most specific imaging modality for neuroendocrine masses. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  4. Plaque-Like Sclerodermiform Localized Mucinosis Rapidly Responsive to Topical Tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmaltz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful treatment of plaque-like sclerodermiform mucinosis using tacrolimus ointment topically. We present a 70-year-old male with a large chronic erythema and hardening of the nuchal skin and shoulder area. Subjective symptoms were a moderate pruritus and a rather disabling stiffness. A biopsy specimen revealed typical features of lichen myxedematosus. In a subsequent clinical examination, no associated illnesses such as hypothyroidism or gammopathy were found. Since no established therapy exists for this condition, and as there was a lack of response to potent topical glucocorticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.03% ointment was used off-label twice daily. Surprisingly, this resulted in a rapid, almost complete clearance of the skin within three weeks of treatment.

  5. A participatory action research pilot study of urban health disparities using rapid assessment response and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

  6. Rapid response team composition effects on outcomes for adult hospitalised patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Rose Mary; Bova, Ann Marie; LeGar, Michelle; Smith, Pauline J; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M

    2011-01-01

    Utilisation of a rapid response team (RRT) in a hospital setting has been documented in the literature. RRTs were formed to intervene quickly when the hospitalised patient first shows signs of deterioration. The purpose was to prevent failure to rescue, leading to intensive care unit transfers, cardiac arrest and mortality. To date, however, there is a lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of this intervention. The focused question, subsequent systematic review and data analysis are presented. To synthesise the best available research evidence on the impact of rapid response team composition on cardiopulmonary arrest outside the intensive care unit (ICU), unplanned transfers to ICU, in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay in hospitalised non-ICU adult medical-surgical patients and staff satisfaction. Published and unpublished literature were searched. The databases searched for studies from 1989 to 2010 were CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Mednar, New York Academy of Medicine, Proquest and PubMed. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched. Initial keywords searched were rapid response team, rapid response system, medical emergency team, medical emergency system and team composition. The studies included in the systematic review were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In absence of sufficient RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, cohort studies, observational and control trials without randomization were included. Types of participants were adults (18 years and older) hospitalised in an acute care setting, not requiring the specialized care and management of an ICU. Hospitalised paediatric patients, ICU patients, hospice or palliative care patients were excluded. JBI MAStARI Critical Appraisal Tools were used for the methodological assessment of identified studies. Data were collected specifically related to RRT intervention, study methods and design, randomization, length of intervention, data collection points and inclusion criteria

  7. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  8. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  9. Taurine, energy drinks, and neuroendocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan J; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in brain, retina, heart, and reproductive organ cells, as well as in meat and seafood. But it is also a major ingredient in popular "energy drinks," which thus constitute a major source of taurine supplementation. Unfortunately, little is known about taurine's neuroendocrine effects. The authors review the sparse data and provide a basic background on the structure, synthesis, distribution, metabolism, mechanisms, effects, safety, and currently proposed therapeutic targets of taurine. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  10. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Wen Teh; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes...

  11. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas; Mora, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease.

  12. Reactive oxygen species regulatory mechanisms associated with rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Gan, Xueqi; Zhu, Zhuoli; Yang, Yang; He, Yuting; Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.cn

    2016-02-12

    Although many previous studies have shown that refractory period-dependent memory effect of vibration stress is anabolic for skeletal homeostasis, little is known about the rapid response of osteoblasts simply derived from vibration itself. In view of the potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating differentiated activity of osteoblasts, whether and how ROS regulates the rapid effect of vibration deserve to be demonstrated. Our findings indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells underwent decreased gene expression of Runx2, Col-I and ALP and impaired ALP activity accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission immediately after vibration loading. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of ERK-Drp1 signal transduction in ROS regulatory mechanisms responsible for the rapid effect of vibration stress. - Highlights: • ROS contributed to the rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics were linked to the LMHFV-derived rapid response. • The role of ERK-Drp1 signal pathway in the LMHFV-derived osteoblast rapid response.

  13. Condition Help: A Patient- and Family-Initiated Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Elizabeth L; Rack, Laurie L; Chen, Ling-Wan; Bump, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) help in delivering safe, timely care. Typically they are activated by clinicians using specific parameters. Allowing patients and families to activate RRTs is a novel intervention. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center developed and implemented a patient- and family-initiated rapid response system called Condition Help (CH). When the CH system is activated, a patient care liaison or an on-duty administrator meets bedside with the unit charge nurse to address the patient's concerns. In this study, we collected demographic data, call reasons, call designations (safety or nonsafety), and outcome information for all CH calls made during the period January 2012 through June 2015. Two hundred forty patients/family members made 367 CH calls during the study period. Most calls were made by patients (76.8%) rather than family members (21.8%). Of the 240 patients, 43 (18%) made multiple calls; their calls accounted for 46.3% of all calls (170/367). Inadequate pain control was the reason for the call in most cases (48.2%), followed by dissatisfaction with staff (12.5%). The majority of calls involved nonsafety issues (83.4%) rather than safety issues (11.4%). In 41.4% of cases, a change in care was made. Patient- and family-initiated RRTs are designed to engage patients and families in providing safer care. In the CH system, safety issues are identified, but the majority of calls involve nonsafety issues. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:157-161.

  14. Effect of a 2-tier rapid response system on patient outcome and staff satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Vaux, Amanda; Crouch, Shannon; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Daly, Michael; Joyce, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Rapid response systems (RRS) have been recommended as a strategy to prevent and treat deterioration in acute care patients. Questions regarding the most effective characteristics of RRS and strategies for implementing these systems remain. The aims of this study were to (i) describe the structures and processes used to implement a 2-tier RRS, (ii) determine the comparative prevalence of deteriorating patients and incidence of unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission and cardiac arrest prior to and after implementation of the RRS, and (iii) determine clinician satisfaction with the RRS. A quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test design was used to assess patient related outcomes and clinician satisfaction prior to and after implementation of a 2-tier RRS in a tertiary metropolitan hospital. Primary components of the RRS included an ICU Outreach Nurse and a Rapid Response Team. Prevalence of deteriorating patients was assessed through a point prevalence assessment and chart audit. Incidence of unplanned admission to ICU and cardiac arrests were accessed from routine hospital databases. Clinician satisfaction was measured through surveys. Prevalence of patients who met medical emergency call criteria without current treatment reduced from 3% prior to RRS implementation to 1% after implementation; a similar reduction from 9% to 3% was identified on chart review. The number of unplanned admissions to ICU increased slightly from 17.4/month prior to RRS implementation to 18.1/month after implementation (p=0.45) while cardiac arrests reduced slightly from 7.5/month to 5.6/month (p=0.22) but neither of these changes were statistically significant. Staff satisfaction with the RRS was generally high. The 2-tier RRS was accessed by staff to assist with care of deteriorating patients in a large, tertiary hospital. High levels of satisfaction have been reported by clinical staff. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Octreotide long-acting repeatable in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau H

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanford Yau,1 Mustafa Kinaan,2 Suzanne L Quinn,3 Andreas G Moraitis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of California, San Francisco (Fresno Division, Fresno, CA, USA; 2Division of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Orlando VA Medical Center, Orlando, FL, USA Abstract: Over the past three decades, the incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors have gradually increased. Due to the slow-growing nature of these tumors, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Prognosis and survival are associated with location of primary lesion, biochemical functional status, differentiation, initial staging, and response to therapy. Octreotide, the first synthetic somatostatin analog, was initially used for the management of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with functional carcinoid tumors. Its commercial development over time led to long-acting repeatable octreotide acetate, a long-acting version that provided greater administration convenience. Recent research demonstrates that octreotide’s efficacy has evolved beyond symptomatic management to targeted therapy with antitumoral effects. This review examines the history and development of octreotide, provides a synopsis on the classification, grading, and staging of neuroendocrine tumors, and reviews the evidence of long-acting repeatable octreotide acetate as monotherapy and in combination with other treatment modalities in the management of non-pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with special attention to recent high-quality Phase III trials. Keywords: carcinoid, everolimus, neuroendocrine tumor, octreotide LAR, somatostatin analog, ITMO, NETTER-1, PROMID, RADIANT-2

  16. [Surgical approach of gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Bartsch, D K

    2016-04-01

    Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare but an increase in incidence has been recognized worldwide over the past 35 years. At the same time the prognosis of patients has substantially improved because the majority of these tumors can now be detected at an early stage. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach are the most frequent neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin in the gastrointestinal tract. The therapeutic management of these tumors is complicated by the fact that they must be classified not only by staging and grading but also according to their pathophysiological background (types). These types differ in biological behavior and therefore have an influence on the therapeutic concept. Because more than 90 % of duodenal NENs are often asymptomatic and are as a rule identified at a curable stage, resection of the tumor should always be the first line of therapy. The therapeutic strategies vary from local endoscopic resection (duodenotomy with excision) up to pancreas retaining duodenectomy and pylorus retaining or classical Whipple procedures. This article presents the various surgical approaches to gastric and duodenal NENs.

  17. Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Aristides; Tolis, George

    2009-12-01

    In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs. Precocious puberty and/or male feminization is a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney complex (CNC), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), while sperm maturation and ovulation defects have been described in MAS and CNC. Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population. Awareness leading to their recognition is important especially when other endocrine abnormalities coexist, as occasionally they may even be the first manifestation of a syndrome. Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues. In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.

  18. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  19. The Climate Science Rapid Response Team - A Model for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there have been many independent initiatives which have commenced with the goal of improving communication between scientists and the larger public. These initiatives have often been motivated by the recognition that concerns amongst scientists related to the pending threats of climate change are not universally shared by the general public. Multiple studies have conclusively demonstrated that while the vast majority of climate scientists are in broad agreement that human-emitted greenhouse gases are causing increases in the Earth's temperature, the larger public is divided. Often, this divide mirrors divides on other political, societal, economic, or scientific issues. One unique approach to improve the conveyance of the state of climate-change science to the public is reflected by a self-organized effort of scientists themselves. This approach has lead to the formation of the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT). The mission of this organization is to provide accurate and rapid information on any climate-science topic to general media and governmental inquirers. The CSRRT currently consists of approximately 135 world-class climate scientists whose members cover the sub-disciplines of climate change and include not only the natural sciences but also economics and policy. Since its formation, the CSRRT has fielded approximately four inquires each week from institutions that include The Associated Press, ABC, CBS, CNN, BBC, New York Times, Time of London, National Public Radio, The Guardian, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and the U.S. Congress, among others. Members of the CSRRT have been asked to provide quotations for news stories; they have also been asked to give radio, television, or print-media interviews. Some members of the CSRRT have undergone media training to help encourage the use of jargon-free language so that clear communication with the broader public can be more successful. The response from

  20. Rapid maize leaf and immature ear responses to UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eCasati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of their sessile lifestyle, plants have evolved adaptations to environmental factors, including UV-B present in solar radiation. To gain a better understanding of the initial events in UV-B acclimation, we have analyzed a 10min to 1h time course of transcriptome responses in irradiated and shielded leaves, and immature maize ears to unravel the systemic physiological and developmental responses in exposed and shielded organs. After 10 min of UV-B exposure, 262 transcripts are changed by at least 2-fold in irradiated leaves, and this number doubles after 1h. Indicative of the rapid modulation of transcription, 130 transcripts are only changed after 10 min. This is true not only in irradiated leaves, but also in shielded tissues. After 10 min of exposure, the overlap in transcriptome changes in irradiated and shielded organs is significant; however, after 30 min of UV-B, there are only 2 transcripts showing similar UV-B regulation between the three organs; 35 are similarly regulated in both IL and SL. Therefore, at longer irradiation times, there is more specificity of responses, and these are organ-specific. We suggest that early signaling in different tissues may be elicited by common signaling pathways, while at longer exposure times responses become more specific. To identify metabolites as possible signaling molecules, we looked for compounds that increased within 5-90 min in both irradiated and shielded leaves, to explain the kinetics of profound transcript changes within 1h. We found that myoinositol is one such candidate metabolite; and we also demonstrate that if 0.1mM myoinositol is applied to leaves of greenhouse maize, some metabolites that are changed by UV-B are also changed similarly by the chemical treatment. Therefore, this metabolite can partially mimic UV irradiation.

  1. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"-A consensus conference on the afferent limb of Rapid Response Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devita, M.A.; Smith, G.B.; Adam, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patie...

  2. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"--a consensus conference on the afferent limb of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVita, Michael A; Smith, Gary B; Adam, Sheila K

    2010-01-01

    Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patient deteriora...

  3. 46. Nurses perception of rapid response team in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Mraweh Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the last 30 years, the goal of improving the survival rate for patients post cardiopulmonary arrest has remained unattainable. This apparent failure to rescue opened the door to devise new strategies to improve patient outcomes at the onset of subtle deterioration, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI introduced the Rapid Response Team (RRT as one of the six preventative steps to save lives. Nurses’ perceptions of the RRT influenced by the content and process support provided. Nurses are responsible to detect the early signs of deterioration, and activate the RRT service. The aim of this cross sectional descriptive study was to examine nurses’ perceptions about the effect of the RRT and perceived content and process support in managing patient deterioration by using mental model maintenance and building at individual, group and hospital levels in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 300 nurses were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The study findings showed that the overall perceptions about the RRT were high. There was a significant positive correlation between the frequent utilization of the RRT and the perceived content support. The analysis of the open ended questions indicated that there were more advantages to have the RRT service than disadvantages. This study suggested that RRT service is influential in improving nurses’ perceptions about managing Patients’ deterioration. Training program about RRT utilization should include both content and process support, which may enhance building and maintaining mental model.

  4. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  5. Rapid-response Sensor Networks Leveraging Open Standards and the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Lieberman, J. E.; Lewis, L.; Botts, M.; Liang, S.

    2016-12-01

    New sensor technologies provide an unparalleled capability to collect large numbers of diverse observations about the world around us. Networks of such sensors are especially effective for capturing and analyzing unexpected, fast moving events if they can be deployed with a minimum of time, effort, and cost. A rapid-response sensing and processing capability is extremely important in quickly unfolding events not only to collect data for future research.but also to support response efforts that may be needed by providing up-to-date knowledge of the situation. A recent pilot activity coordinated by the Open Geospatial Consortium combined Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards with Internet of Things (IoT) practices to understand better how to set up rapid-response sensor networks in comparable event situations involving accidents or disasters. The networks included weather and environmental sensors, georeferenced UAV and PTZ imagery collectors, and observations from "citizen sensors", as well as virtual observations generated by predictive models. A key feature of each "SWE-IoT" network was one or more Sensor Hubs that connected local, often proprietary sensor device protocols to a common set of standard SWE data types and standard Web interfaces on an IP-based internetwork. This IoT approach provided direct, common, interoperable access to all sensor readings from anywhere on the internetwork of sensors, Hubs, and applications. Sensor Hubs also supported an automated discovery protocol in which activated Hubs registered themselves with a canonical catalog service. As each sensor (wireless or wired) was activated within range of an authorized Hub, it registered itself with that Hub, which in turn registered the sensor and its capabilities with the catalog. Sensor Hub functions were implemented in a range of component types, from personal devices such as smartphones and Raspberry Pi's to full cloud-based sensor services platforms. Connected into a network

  6. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  7. Clinical review criteria and medical emergency teams: evaluating a two-tier rapid response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gordon; Fossum, Mariann; Barratt, Macey; Bucknall, Tracey

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of patients fulfilling clinical review criteria (CRC), to determine activation rates for CRC assessments, to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients who fulfilled CRC with patients who did not, and to identify the documented nursing actions in response to CRC values. A cross-sectional study using a retrospective medical record audit, in a universityaffiliated, tertiary referral hospital with a two-tier rapid response system in Melbourne, Australia. We used a convenience sample of hospital inpatients on general medical, surgical and specialist service wards admitted during a 24-hour period in 2013. Medical emergency team (MET) or code blue activation, unplanned intensive care unit admissions, hospital length of stay and inhospital mortality. For patients who fulfilled CRC or MET criteria during the 24- hour period, the specific criteria fulfilled, escalation treatments and outcomes were collected. Of the sample (N = 422), 81 patients (19%) fulfilled CRC on 109 occasions. From 109 CRC events, 66 patients (81%) had at least one observation fulfilling CRC, and 15 patients (18%) met CRC on multiple occasions. The documented escalation rate was 58 of 109 events (53%). The number of patients who fulfilled CRC and subsequent MET call activation criteria within 24 hours was significantly greater than the number who did not meet CRC (P CRC during the study period; these patients were about four times more likely to also fulfil MET call criteria. Contrary to hospital policy, escalation was not documented for about half the patients meeting CRC values. Despite the clarity of escalation procedures on the graphic observation chart, escalation remains an ongoing problem. Further research is needed on the impact on patient outcomes over time and to understand factors influencing staff response.

  8. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  10. Rapid Responsiveness to Practice Predicts Longer-Term Retention of Upper Extremity Motor Skill in Non-Demented Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; Duff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. To better understand predictors of skill acquisition in non-demented older adults, we now explore the relationship between early improvements in motor performance due to practice (i.e., rapid responsiveness) and longer-term retention of an upper extremity motor skill, and whether the extent of rapid responsiveness was associated with global cognitive status. Results showed significant improvements in motor performance within the first five (of 150) trials, and that this "rapid responsiveness" was predictive of skill retention 1 month later. Notably, the extent of rapid responsiveness was not dependent on global cognitive status, as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Thus, rapid responsiveness appears to be an important variable in longer-term neurorehabilitative efforts with older adults, regardless of their cognitive status.

  11. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  12. An improved non-contact thermometer and hygrometer with rapid response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, R.; Gardiner, T.; Finlayson, A.; Bell, S.; de Podesta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Previously (Underwood et al 2015 Meteorol. Appl. 22 830) we reported first tests of a device capable of simultaneous, non-contact, temperature and humidity (NCTAH) measurements in air. The device used an acoustic thermometer and a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS), a combination which should be capable of an extremely rapid response to changes in humidity as it does not require moisture in a solid-state matrix to equilibrate with the surrounding air. In this paper we report recent developments of the instrument focussed on reducing its response time so that it can be used as a reference instrument for assessing the response time of conventional humidity sensors. In addition, the interdependence of the temperature and humidity estimates is now accounted for in real-time using an iterative procedure, which eliminates the need for data post-processing. The TDLAS measures water molecule number density based on the transmission of an infrared beam (approximate wavelength 1360 nm) through a 0.6 m path length. The acoustic thermometer is based around a fixed-path acoustic interferometer. The improved NCTAH device now produces estimates of the water molecule number density every 20 ms and the temperature output displays an RC filter-like response, with a time constant of approximately 30 ms. The instrument has been tested in a climatic chamber through a temperature range of  -40 °C to  +40 °C and a dew point range of  -43 °C to  +38 °C, at atmospheric pressure, comparing the instrument readings with those from a calibrated hygrometer and four platinum resistance thermometers. In steady-state conditions, the instrument readings are in good agreement with the conventional sensors, with temperature differences less than 1 °C (repeatability 0.1 °C), and humidity differences mostly within 5% of mixing ratio. Under transient conditions, we demonstrate how the instrument can be used to evaluate the response times of conventional

  13. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  14. Rapid-Response Characterization of Near-Earth Asteroids Using KMTNet-SAAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Nicolas; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David E.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; van Gend, Carel; Hora, Joseph L.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2017-10-01

    We present here VRI spectrophotometry of 39 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) observed with the Sutherland, South Africa, node of the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). Of the 39 NEAs, 19 were targeted, but because of KMTNet’s large 2 deg × 2 deg field of view, 20 serendipitous NEAs were also captured in the observing fields. Our rapid-response approach meant targeted observations were performed within 44 days (median: 16 days, min: 4 days) of each NEA’s discovery date. Our broadband spectrophotometry is reliable enough to distinguish among four asteroid taxonomies and we were able to confidently categorize 31 of the 39 observed targets as either a S-, C-, X- or D-type asteroid. Our data suggest that the ratio between “stony” S-type NEAs and “not- stony” (C+X+D)-type NEAs, with H magnitudes between 15 and 25, is roughly 1:1. Additionally, we report ~1-hour light curve data for each NEA. Of the 39 targets, we were able to resolve the complete rotation period and amplitude for six and place lower limits for the remaining targets.Based on the success of this pilot study we plan to continue KMTNet observations but also make use of Lesedi, a new 1-meter remotely-operable telescope also situated in Sutherland, to perform similar spectrophotometric observations in the future. As before, we plan to target newly discovered NEAs in order to continue the rapid-response approach. With Lesedi, observations will take place throughout the year and we plan to include smaller NEAs (larger H magnitudes) in our sample. We will also increase the observed duration of each NEA to 2-3 hours so we are more likely to observe a complete rotation period for our observed NEAs.This study was facilitated by observations made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and this work is partially supported by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). This work is supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under grant

  15. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  16. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4

  17. Using Simulation to Develop Care Models for Rapid Response and Code Teams at a Satellite Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Amy R L; Snider, Julie; Marshall, Cheryl; Kramer, Kathleen; Geis, Gary L; Tegtmeyer, Ken; Gosdin, Craig H

    2017-12-01

    Our institution recently completed an expansion of an acute care inpatient unit within a satellite hospital that does not include an on-site ICU or PICU. Because of expected increases in volume and acuity, new care models for Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) and Code Blue Teams were necessary. Using simulation-based training, our objectives were to define the optimal roles and responsibilities for team members (including ICU physicians via telemedicine), refine the staffing of RRTs and code Teams, and identify latent safety threats (LSTs) before opening the expanded inpatient unit. The laboratory-based intervention consisted of 8 scenarios anticipated to occur at the new campus, with each simulation followed by an iterative debriefing process and a 30-minute safety talk delivered within 4-hour interprofessional sessions. In situ sessions were delivered after construction and before patients were admitted. A total of 175 clinicians completed a 4-hour course in 17 sessions. Over 60 clinicians participated during 2 in situ sessions before the opening of the unit. Eleven team-level knowledge deficits, 19 LSTs, and 25 system-level issues were identified, which directly informed changes and refinements in care models at the bedside and via telemedicine consultation. Simulation-based training can assist in developing staffing models, refining the RRT and code processes, and identify LSTs in a new pediatric acute care unit. This training model could be used as a template for other facilities looking to expand pediatric acute care at outlying smaller, more resource-limited facilities to evaluate new teams and environments before patient exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Tachyphylaxis of human forearm vascular responses does not occur rapidly after exposure to isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C M; Nelson, R; Deegan, R; He, H; Inagami, T; Frazer, M; Badr, K F; Wood, M; Wood, A J

    1995-06-01

    In vitro and limited in vivo data suggest that rapid desensitization of beta-adrenoceptor responses occurs after exposure to agonist. Tachyphylaxis to a beta-adrenoceptor agonist would represent a potentially important mechanism for the short-term regulation of vascular tone. The effects of a 4-hour infusion of 400 ng/min intra-arterial isoproterenol on forearm blood flow and presynaptic beta-adrenoceptor-mediated norepinephrine release were determined in eight healthy volunteers. Intra-arterial isoproterenol at 400 ng/min resulted in a significant increase in forearm blood flow in all eight subjects at all time points, with no evidence of tachyphylaxis. In fact, forearm blood flow after 4 hours of the isoproterenol infusion (22.8 +/- 3.3 mL/100 mL per minute) was significantly greater than after 7 minutes (14.6 +/- 2.8 mL/100 mL per minute), 15 minutes (15.4 +/- 2.4 mL/100 mL per minute), and 30 minutes (17.4 +/- 3.0 mL/100 mL per minute) of the infusion (P < .05). Similarly, presynaptic beta-adrenoceptor responses showed no evidence of tachyphylaxis, so forearm norepinephrine spillover values after 7 minutes (6.6 +/- 0.94 ng/min), 15 minutes (7.6 +/- 1.5 ng/min), and 4 hours (8.8 +/- 1.1 ng/min) of isoproterenol infusion were increased and similar. Minimal systemic effects were observed, and there was no evidence of tolerance, there being no difference in heart rate after 7 minutes (70.7 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 4 hours (72.2 +/- 3.6 beats per minute) of isoproterenol infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Student Accomplishments in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program: A 10-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rachel; Lechner, Breanne; Pulenzas, Natalie; Bedard, Gillian; Wong, Erin; Holden, Lori; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Szumacher, Ewa; Fenton, Gonenc; Chow, Edward; Popovic, Marko; Danjoux, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    In 1996, the Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre developed the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP). The objective of this clinic is to consult, simulate, plan, and treat patients with palliative radiotherapy on the same day. In 2004, the RRRP initiated a program to provide clinical and research experience to undergraduate students interested in health sciences. The purpose of this study is to review the 10-year (2004-2013) experience of the RRRP and to examine whether the goals of the student program have been met. Students who worked in the RRRP from 2004 to 2013 were contacted to complete a short survey regarding their overall experience with the program and their current endeavors. Student accomplishments were collected from an internal database as well as PubMed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. A total of 54 students from ten postsecondary institutions have worked in the RRRP; 29 were from the University of Waterloo undergraduate co-op program. In total, 214 articles with first authorship from students were published, 93 (43%) of which can be found on PubMed. Other accomplishments include 40 book chapters, 58 invited presentations, and 99 awards cumulatively. Qualitative data regarding student perspectives of their experience in the RRRP were also analyzed. Over the past 10 years, the RRRP has achieved its goal of providing quality medical and research experience to students interested in the health sciences. Using the responses of past and present students, we hope to continue to shape our program and provide unique opportunities to future students.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumour in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumour was found. Neuroendocrine tumours. (NETs) are very rare neoplasms originating from a wide variety of endocrine and nervous system tissue with the ability to produce different hormones. A somatostatin- and gastrin- secreting NET in a patient with HIV ...

  1. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevriye Cansız Ersöz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors.

  2. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  3. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE RAPID-RESPONSE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS USING UKIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Petersen, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Borth, D. [Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Butler, N. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Reyes-Ruiz, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, Ensenada, B.C. 22860, México (Mexico); Pichardo, B. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moskovitz, N., E-mail: michael.mommert@nau.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Using the Wide Field Camera for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), we measure the near-infrared colors of near-Earth objects (NEOs) in order to put constraints on their taxonomic classifications. The rapid-response character of our observations allows us to observe NEOs when they are close to the Earth and bright. Here we present near-infrared color measurements of 86 NEOs, most of which were observed within a few days of their discovery, allowing us to characterize NEOs with diameters of only a few meters. Using machine-learning methods, we compare our measurements to existing asteroid spectral data and provide probabilistic taxonomic classifications for our targets. Our observations allow us to distinguish between S-complex, C/X-complex, D-type, and V-type asteroids. Our results suggest that the fraction of S-complex asteroids in the whole NEO population is lower than the fraction of ordinary chondrites in the meteorite fall statistics. Future data obtained with UKIRT will be used to investigate the significance of this discrepancy.

  4. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  5. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  6. Defining impact of a rapid response team: qualitative study with nurses, physicians and hospital administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Andrea L; Borgstrom, Christopher P; Jenq, Grace Y; Roumanis, Sarah A; Horwitz, Leora I

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively describe the impact of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) at a 944-bed, university-affiliated hospital. We analysed 49 open-ended interviews with administrators, primary team attending physicians, trainees, RRT attending hospitalists, staff nurses, nurses and respiratory technicians. Themes elicited were categorised into the domains of (1) morale and teamwork, (2) education, (3) workload, (4) patient care, and (5) hospital administration. Positive implications beyond improved care for acutely ill patients were: increased morale and empowerment among nurses, real-time redistribution of workload for nurses (reducing neglect of non-acutely ill patients during emergencies), and immediate access to expert help. Negative implications were: increased tensions between nurses and physician teams, a burden on hospitalist RRT members, and reduced autonomy for trainees. The RRT provides advantages that extend well beyond a reduction in rates of transfers to intensive care units or codes but are balanced by certain disadvantages. The potential impact from these multiple sources should be evaluated to understand the utility of any RRT programme.

  7. Republished: Defining impact of a rapid response team: qualitative study with nurses, physicians and hospital administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Andrea L; Borgstrom, Christopher P; Jenq, Grace Y; Roumanis, Sarah A; Horwitz, Leora I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively describe the impact of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) at a 944-bed, university-affiliated hospital. We analysed 49 open-ended interviews with administrators, primary team attending physicians, trainees, RRT attending hospitalists, staff nurses, nurses and respiratory technicians. Themes elicited were categorised into the domains of (1) morale and teamwork, (2) education, (3) workload, (4) patient care, and (5) hospital administration. Positive implications beyond improved care for acutely ill patients were: increased morale and empowerment among nurses, real-time redistribution of workload for nurses (reducing neglect of non-acutely ill patients during emergencies), and immediate access to expert help. Negative implications were: increased tensions between nurses and physician teams, a burden on hospitalist RRT members, and reduced autonomy for trainees. The RRT provides advantages that extend well beyond a reduction in rates of transfers to intensive care units or codes but are balanced by certain disadvantages. The potential impact from these multiple sources should be evaluated to understand the utility of any RRT programme.

  8. Rapid identification of transience in streambed conductance by inversion of floodwave responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Guillaume; Richon, Julien; Perrochet, Pierre; Vogel, Alexandre; Brunner, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Streambed conductance controls the interaction between surface and groundwater. However, the streambed conductance is often subject to transience. Directly measuring hydraulic properties in a river yields only point values, is time-consuming and therefore not suited to detect transience of physical properties. Here, we present a method to continuously monitor transience in streambed conductance. Input data are time series of stream stage and near stream hydraulic head. The method is based on the inversion of floodwave responses. The analytical model consists of three parameters: x, the distance between streambank and an observation well, α, the aquifer diffusivity, and a the retardation coefficient that is inversely proportional to the streambed conductance. Estimation of a is carried out over successive time steps in order to identify transience in streambed conductance. The method is tested using synthetic data and is applied to field data from the Rhône River and its alluvial aquifer (Switzerland). The synthetic method demonstrated the robustness of the proposed methodology. Application of the method to the field data allowed identifying transience in streambed properties, following flood events in the Rhône. This method requires transience in the surface water, and the river should not change its width significantly with a rising water level. If these conditions are fulfilled, this method allows for a rapid and effective identification of transience in streambed conductance.

  9. Organizational Perspectives on Rapid Response Team Structure, Function, and Cost: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia L; McSweeney, Jean

    Understanding how an organization determines structure and function of a rapid response team (RRT), as well as cost evaluation and implications, can provide foundational knowledge to guide decisions about RRTs. The objectives were to (1) identify influencing factors in organizational development of RRT structure and function and (2) describe evaluation of RRT costs. Using a qualitative, ethnographic design, nurse executives and experts in 15 moderate-size hospitals were interviewed to explore their decision-making processes in determining RRT structure and function. Face-to-face interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and verified for accurateness. Using content analysis and constant comparison, interview data were analyzed. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample included 27 participants from 15 hospitals in 5 south-central states. They described a variety of RRT responders and functions, with the majority of hospitals having a critical care charge nurse attending all RRT calls for assistance. Others described a designated RRT nurse with primary RRT duties as responder to all RRT calls. Themes of RRT development from the data included influencers, decision processes, and thoughts about cost. It is important to understand how hospitals determine optimal structure and function to enhance support of quality nursing care. Determining the impact of an RRT on costs and benefits is vital in balancing patient safety and limited resources. Future research should focus on clarifying differences between team structure and function in outcomes as well as the most effective means to estimate costs and benefits.

  10. Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment and the Nephrology Rapid Response Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Topete, Lilia Maria; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting more than 10 million people around the world annually and resulting in poor outcomes. It has been suggested that late recognition of the syndrome may lead to delayed interventions with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely therapeutic strategies may be the cornerstone of future improvement in outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical model to identify patients at high risk for AKI in different environments, with the goal to prevent AKI. We describe the AKI Risk Assessment (ARA) as a proposed algorithm that systematically evaluates the patient in high-risk situations of AKI in a simple way no matter where the patient is located, and allows different medical specialists to approach patients as a team with a nephrologist to improve outcomes. The goal of the nephrology rapid response team (NRRT) is to prevent AKI or start treatment if AKI is already diagnosed as a consequence of progressive events that can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney tissues and eventual decline in renal function and to ensure appropriate follow-up of patients at risk for progressive chronic kidney disease after the episode of AKI. Prevention is the key to avoid mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. Integration of these assessment tools in a global methodology that includes a multi-disciplinary team (NRRT) is critical to success. Video Journal Club 'Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco' at http://www.karger.com/?doi=452402. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Rapid Response of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Microbial Communities to Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Woo, Hannah L.; Ning, Daliang; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2017-07-18

    Deep marine oil spills like the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) in the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to drastically impact marine systems. Crude oil contamination in marine systems remains a concern, especially for countries around the Mediterranean Sea with off shore oil production. The goal of this study was to investigate the response of indigenous microbial communities to crude oil in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea (E. Med.) water column and to minimize potential bias associated with storage and shifts in microbial community structure from sample storage. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was combined with GeoChip metagenomic analysis to monitor the microbial community changes to the crude oil and dispersant in on-ship microcosms set up immediately after water collection. After 3 days of incubation at 14 °C, the microbial communities from two different water depths: 824 m and 1210 m became dominated by well-known oil degrading bacteria. The archaeal population and the overall microbial community diversity drastically decreased. Similarly, GeoChip metagenomic analysis revealed a tremendous enrichment of genes related to oil biodegradation, which was consistent with the results from the DWH oil spill. These results highlight a rapid microbial adaption to oil contamination in the deep E. Med., and indicate strong oil biodegradation potentia

  13. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    response program described in this chapter also improves the temporal resolution of the ASTER instrument. ASTER has been acquiring images of volcanic eruptions since soon after its launch in December 1999. An early example included the observations of the large pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. The first images in March 2000, just weeks after the eruption, revealed the extent, composition, and cooling history of this large deposit and of the active lava dome (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). The initial results from these early datasets spurred interest in using ASTER data for expanded volcano monitoring in the north Pacific. It also gave rise to the multi-year NASA-funded programs of rapid response scheduling and imaging throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatka and Kurile arcs. Since the formal establishment of the programs, the data have provided detailed descriptions of the eruptions of Augustine, Bezymianny, Kliuchevskoi and Sheveluch volcanoes over the past nine years (Wessels et al., in press; Carter et al., 2007, 2008; Ramsey et al., 2008; Rose and Ramsey, 2009). The initial research focus of this rapid response program was specifically on automating the ASTER sensor’s ability for targeted observational scheduling using the expedited data system. This urgent request protocol is one of the unique characteristics of ASTER. It provides a limited number of emergency observations, typically at a much-improved temporal resolution and quicker turnaround with data processing in the United States rather than in Japan. This can speed the reception of the processed data by several days to a week. The ongoing multi-agency research and operational collaboration has been highly successful. AVO serves as the primary source for status information on volcanic activity, working closely with the National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), military and other state and federal emergency services. Collaboration with the Russian

  14. Recognition memory tasks in neuroendocrine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria

    2015-05-15

    The recognition memory tasks, novel object and novel object location, have been beneficial to neuroendocrine research concerning the effects of gonadal and adrenal hormones on cognitive function. This review discusses the advantages of these tasks in comparison with other learning and memory tasks. Experiments conducted across a number of laboratories show that gonadal hormones, both estradiol and testosterone, promote memory while the adrenal hormone, corticosterone, impairs memory. The effects of these steroid hormones on spine density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus are also briefly presented. Overall, results show that these steroid hormones are potent modulators of memory consolidation in rodent models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  16. Rapid disruption of axon-glial integrity in response to mild cerebral hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Michell Mario; McQueen, Jamie; Searcy, Luke; Scullion, Gillian; Zonta, Barbara; Desmazieres, Anne; Holland, Philip Robert; Smith, Jessica; Gliddon, Catherine; Wood, Emma R; Herzyk, Pawel; Brophy, Peter; McCulloch, James; Horsburgh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    proliferation processes. Our results demonstrated that in response to hypoperfusion there is a rapid disruption of key proteins critical to the stability of the paranodes and axon-glial connection that is mediated by a diversity of molecular events. PMID:22159130

  17. Neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) circuitry from neuron-glial interactions to function: Focus on gender and HPA-HPG interactions on early programming of the NEI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morale, M C; Gallo, F; Tirolo, C; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Marletta, N; Spina-Purrello, V; Avola, R; Caucci, F; Tomasi, P; Delitala, G; Barden, N; Marchetti, B

    2001-08-01

    Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems during ontogeny plays a pivotal role in programming the development of neuroendocrine and immune responses in adult life. Signals generated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (i.e. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH, and sex steroids), and by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (glucocorticoids (GC)), are major players coordinating the development of immune system function. Conversely, products generated by immune system activation exert a powerful and long-lasting regulation on neuroendocrine axes activity. The neuroendocrine-immune system is very sensitive to preperinatal experiences, including hormonal manipulations and immune challenges, which may influence the future predisposition to several disease entities. We review our work on the ongoing mutual regulation of neuroendocrine and immune cell activities, both at a cellular and molecular level. In the central nervous system, one chief compartment is represented by the astroglial cell and its mediators. Hence, neuron-glial signalling cascades dictate major changes in response to hormonal manipulations and pro-inflammatory triggers. The interplay between LHRH, sex steroids, GC and pro-inflammatory mediators in some physiological and pathological states, together with the potential clinical implications of these findings, are summarized. The overall study highlights the plasticity of this intersystem cross-talk for pharmacological targeting with drugs acting at the neuroendocrine-immune interface.

  18. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  19. Rapid response of the steatosis-sensing hepatokine LECT2 during diet-induced weight cycling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Keita; Misu, Hirofumi; Takayama, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Lan, Fei; Takata, Noboru; Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Takeshita, Yumie; Tsugane, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-09-23

    Dieting often leads to body weight cycling involving repeated weight loss and regain. However, little information is available regarding rapid-response serum markers of overnutrition that predict body weight alterations during weight cycling. Here, we report the rapid response of serum leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, during diet-induced weight cycling in mice. A switch from a high-fat diet (HFD) to a regular diet (RD) in obese mice gradually decreased body weight but rapidly decreased serum LECT2 levels within 10 days. In contrast, a switch from a RD to a HFD rapidly elevated serum LECT2 levels. Serum LECT2 levels showed a positive correlation with liver triglyceride contents but not with adipose tissue weight. This study demonstrates the rapid response of LECT2 preceding body weight alterations during weight cycling in mice and suggests that measurement of serum LECT2 may be clinically useful in the management of obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and response of alpha-hydroxybutyrate sensors for rapid assessment of cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarswat, Prashant K; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Free, Michael L

    2017-03-15

    Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent or delay progression of early-stage type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Unfortunately, tests such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)/fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone fail to diagnose or miscategorize up to 40% of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or frank diabetes based on the rarely utilized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The serum metabolite alpha-hydroxybutyrate (AHB) is increasingly recognized as a reliable IGT and diabetes predictor, and can be measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. However, to address AHB adoption as a population screening tool, the reliable and low-cost measurement techniques are proposed. A periodate based oxidation was performed for an AHB-based buffer, and both nitroprusside and Raman tests confirmed the formation of a slow-oxidation product. Electrochemical tests of AHB-based buffers using electrodes such as Au-honeycomb, thiol self-assembled monolayers coated Au, 2D material (black-P) coated FTO, (3-aminophenyl) triethoxysilane modified TiO2, were performed. Many of these electrodes exhibited a systematic response when AHB concentration was varied from ~1.0-12.0µg/ml. A colorimetric assay containing a vicinal-diol recognition moiety, additives, and a photoinitiator, exhibited a different color for AHB based buffer. Benesi-Hildebrand analysis indicated the association behavior of boronic acid and AHB. These methods have a potential to be used for rapid point-of-care measurements of AHB that could enhance population-wide diabetes and prediabetes screening strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  3. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisz, S.A.; van Wijk, R.; Roels, W.; Zhu, J.K.; Haring, M.A.; Munnik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH

  4. Incidence of cardiac arrests and unexpected deaths in surgical patients before and after implementation of a rapid response system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmes, F.; Schoonhoven, L.; Mintjes, J.; Fikkers, B.G.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rapid response systems (RRSs) are considered an important tool for improving patient safety. We studied the effect of an RRS on the incidence of cardiac arrests and unexpected deaths. METHODS: Retrospective before- after study in a university medical centre. We included 1376

  5. 20 CFR 665.330 - Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.330 Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WIA are made available to workers who, under the NAFTA Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182), are...

  6. Incidence of cardiac arrests and unexpected deaths in surgical patients before and after implementation of a rapid response system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joke Mintjes; Lisette Schoonhoven; Hans van der Hoeven; Friede Simmes; B.G. Fikkers

    2012-01-01

    Rapid response systems (RRSs) are considered an important tool for improving patient safety. We studied the effect of an RRS on the incidence of cardiac arrests and unexpected deaths. Retrospective before- after study in a university medical centre. We included 1376 surgical patients before

  7. Why is it so difficult to prove that rapid response systems improve patient outcome? : Directions for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. van der Hoeven; Joke Mintjes; Lisette Schoonhoven; Friede Simmes; B.G. Fikkers

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of rapid response systems (RRS) is based on the knowledge that deteriorating physiological processes are frequently present for hours or days before clear clinical deterioration is recognized [1,2]. It is assumed that this physiological deterioration is often treatable and that

  8. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  9. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class

  10. Analysis of predictive factors for rapid virologic response in treating patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dandan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the predictive factors for rapid virologic response (RVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC who received combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin. MethodsA total of 127 CHC patients who were admitted to our department from 2010 to 2012 and received PEG-IFN combined with ribavirin were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were divided into RVR group and non-RVR (NRVR group according to their virologic responses after 4 weeks of antiviral therapy. Demographic characteristics and the clinical features prior to treatment were compared between the two groups, and the potential factors that contributed to the acquisition of RVR were analyzed. Comparison of categorical data between groups was made by chi-square test, predictive factors were analyzed by nonparametric test for two independent samples (Mann-Whitney U test, independent predictive factors were tested by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the continuous variables of predictive factors were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves. ResultsOf the 127 CHC patients, 86 were males and 41 females. There were 11 confirmed cases of liver cirrhosis. There were 100 patients (78.74% who achieved an RVR, and 27 (21.26% with NRVR. Nonparametric analysis showed that eight factors, which were age, time of infection, level of pre-treatment alanine aminotransferase, level of pre-treatment hyaluronic acid, development of hypertension, type of interferon, pathway of infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype, were significantly different between the RVR and NRVR groups (P<0.05. The logistic regression analysis identified the following factors as independent predictive factors for RVR: non-genotype 1 (OR: 0.203, 95%CI: 0.051-0.802, P<0.05, time of infection (OR: 0.925, 95%CI: 0.868-0.987, P<0.05, and absence of hypertension (OR: 0.129, 95%CI: 0.032-0.521, P<0.05. Conclusion

  11. Blunted neuroendocrine stress reactivity in young women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Het, Serkan; Vocks, Silja; Wolf, Jutta M; Hammelstein, Philipp; Herpertz, Stephan; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-03-01

    Stress is known to influence risk and progression of eating disorders (EDs). However, studies investigating physiological and psychological stress responses under laboratory conditions in patients with Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa are scarce and often produce conflicting findings. We therefore aimed to compare the neuroendocrine and affective stress response in ED inpatients and healthy controls. Twenty-eight female inpatients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa and 26 healthy women were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were assessed before as well as repeatedly after stress exposure, while heart rate and heart rate variability were determined before and during the TSST. Negative affective state was assessed at baseline and post-TSST. Compared to healthy controls, ED patients showed blunted cortisol stress responses combined with overall attenuated sAA levels. The latter was reflected in generally enhanced parasympathetic activity indicated by lower heart rate and stronger high-frequency heart rate variability throughout the TSST. Although patients reported more negative affect overall, they did not differ in their affective stress response. In summary, patients suffering from eating disorders show a blunted HPA axis reactivity to stress exposure and a generally reduced sympathetic/exaggerated parasympathetic nervous system activity. This combination may contribute to elevated health risks seen in eating disorder patients, such as enhanced inflammatory activity, and thus provide insight into the underlying stress-related mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroendocrine regulation of feminine sexual behavior: lessons from rodent models and thoughts about humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Much has been learned concerning the neuroendocrine processes and cellular mechanisms by which steroid hormones influence reproductive behaviors in rodents and other animals. In this review, a short discussion of hormones and feminine sexual behavior in some rodent species is followed by an outline of the main principles that have been learned from these studies. Examples are given of the importance of considering the timing of hormone treatments, dosage of hormone, use of a specific hormone, particular class of hormones, or form of hormone, interactions between hormones, route of administration, peripheral factors that influence hormonal response, and the possible mechanisms of action by which hormones and other factors influence sexual behaviors. Although cellular studies in humans are presently impossible to perform, mechanistic studies in rodents may provide clues about the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which hormones act and interact in the brain to influence behavior in all species, including humans.

  13. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  14. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  15. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  16. Rapid Response to Decision Making for Complex Issues - How Technologies of Cooperation Can Help

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saveri, Andrea; Vian, Kathi; Rheingold, Howard

    2005-01-01

    .... A new capacity for rapid, ad hoc, and distributed decision making is emerging from the intersection of technologies of cooperation and new knowledge about the nature of cooperation and cooperative strategies...

  17. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  18. Mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittu Hingorani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is rare but lethal. It is one of the most common extra pulmonary manifestations of small cell cancer. Case presentation: Here we present a case report of a 53-year-old male who presents with a mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate tumor on a background of previously normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA. His initial symptoms prior to diagnosis included decreased urine output and acute kidney injury (AKI. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumor does not elevate the PSA level and hence is often a late finding with a poor prognosis. Special staining on histopathogy is required to reveal this diagnosis.

  19. Neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node: A very rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are a broad family of tumors arising most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchus pulmonary tree. The other common sounds are the parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal gland. Inguinal node as a primary presentation of a neuroendocrine tumor is an extremely rare presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old-male who presented with the complaints of an inguinal node swelling without any other symptoms and on further evaluation was diagnosed to have a non-metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node. He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery and is presently awaiting completion chemotherapy.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumor presenting like lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare but diverse group of malignancies that arise in a wide range of organ systems, including the mediastinum. Differential diagnosis includes other masses arising in the middle mediastinum such as lymphoma, pericardial, bronchogenic and enteric cysts, metastatic tumors, xanthogranuloma, systemic granuloma, diaphragmatic hernia, meningocele and paravertebral abscess. Case presentation We present a case of 42-year-old Caucasian man with a neuroendocrine tumor of the middle-posterior mediastinum and liver metastases, which resembled a lymphoma on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion The differential diagnosis in patients with mediastinal masses and liver lesions should include neuroendocrine tumor.

  1. CE: Original research: hospital system barriers to rapid response team activation: a cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Jane Saucedo

    2015-02-01

    The goal of rapid response team (RRT) activation in acute care facilities is to decrease mortality from preventable complications, but such efforts have been only moderately successful. Although recent research has shown decreased mortality when RRTs are activated more often, many hospitals have low activation rates. This has been linked to various hospital, team, and nursing factors. Yet there is a dearth of research examining how hospital systems shape nurses' behavior with regard to RRT activation. Making systemic constraints visible and modifying them may be the key to improving RRT activation rates and saving more lives. The purpose of this study was to use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical-surgical nurses' RRT activation behavior. Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems. This framework was used as the organizing element of the study. Qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain data to fill the framework's five domains: resources, tasks, strategies, social systems, and worker competency. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical-surgical nurses and document review. Directed content analysis was used to place the obtained data into the framework's predefined domains. Many system factors affected participants' decisions to activate or not activate an RRT. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to "handle" these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT

  2. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  3. End-Stage Renal Disease From Cast Nephropathy in a Teenager With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Ducore, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Cast nephropathy is the most common manifestation of renal injury in patients with multiple myeloma but is rarely reported in other conditions. We are reporting our experience in caring for a teenager with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma who developed rapidly progressive kidney injury that advanced to end-stage renal disease. On renal biopsy extensive tubular necrosis and intratubular eosinophilic casts were noted. This previously unreported finding should prompt oncologists to closely monitor for such a complication in patients with secretory tumors. Whether early plasmapheresis could be of benefit, as has been tried in multiple myeloma, remains to be determined.

  4. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  5. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  6. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  7. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  8. Relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling and neuroendocrine function – A perspective on extrinsic hypothalamic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E Ganella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex neural circuits within the hypothalamus that govern essential autonomic processes and associated behaviors signal using amino acid and monoamine transmitters and a variety of neuropeptide (hormone modulators, often via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and associated cellular pathways. Relaxin-3 is a recently identified neuropeptide that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Neurons expressing relaxin-3 are located in the brainstem, but broadly innervate the entire limbic system including the hypothalamus. Extensive anatomical data in rodents and non-human primate, and recent regulatory and functional data, suggest relaxin-3 signaling via its cognate GPCR, RXFP3, has a broad range of effects on neuroendocrine function associated with stress responses, feeding and metabolism, motivation and reward, and possibly sexual behavior and reproduction. Therefore, this article aims to highlight the growing appreciation of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system as an important ‘extrinsic’ regulator of the neuroendocrine axis by reviewing its neuroanatomy and its putative roles in arousal-, stress- and feeding-related behaviors and links to associated neural substrates and signaling networks. Current evidence identifies RXFP3 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuroendocrine disorders and related behavioral dysfunction.

  9. Targeted Therapies Improve Survival for Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, based on initial findings from two clinical trials, the Food and Drug Administration approved sunitinib and everolimus for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Updated results from the everolimus trial were published in September 2016.

  10. Neuroendocrine tumors in the urinary bladder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs can be found in most organs, as well as in the urinary bladder. Some of the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors may be characteristic of the organ of origin, but most of the properties are shared by neuroendocrine neoplasms regardless of their anatomic site. In the bladder, NETs comprise less than 1% of all bladder tumors and can be found in a pure form or intermixed with urothelial carcinoma and its variants. Bladder NETs are classified into 2 subtypes: carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is further subdivided into small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Characteristics of bladder NETs and its differential diagnosis are discussed herein.

  11. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  12. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Breast: A Rare Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pathology, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, India. Abstract. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of breast was an unknown pathologic entity till recently due ... whole body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no extra mammary primary tumor.

  13. Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio; Hellquist, Henrik; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Skálová, Alena; Slootweg, Pieter J; Willems, Stefan M; Cardesa, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal

  14. [The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, L; Sivero, L; Napolitano, V; Ruggiero, S; Fontanarosa, G; Massa, S

    2010-01-01

    Versione italiana Riassunto: Il ruolo dell'endoscopia nei tumori neuroendocrini gastroenteropancreatici. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa I tumori neuroendocrini (NET) gastro-entero-pancreatici (GEP) sono neoplasie rare che originano dalle cellule neuroendocrine del tubo digerente e del pancreas. L'endoscopia digestiva e l'ecoendoscopia rivestono un ruolo importante nella diagnosi, stadiazione e sorveglianza dei pazienti con NET. Inoltre, in casi selezionati, le tecniche endoscopiche operative consentono il trattamento di queste neoplasie in fase precoce. English version Summary: The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare neoplasia arisen from neuroendocrine cells present in the gut mucosa and pancreas. Digestive endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography play a relevant role in NET diagnosis, stadiation and surveillance. Moreover, in selected patients, surgical endoscopy allows the tratment of these cancers at an early stage.

  15. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  16. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  17. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  18. Disentangling puberty: novel neuroendocrine pathways and mechanisms for the control of mammalian puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, M S; Vazquez, M J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2017-11-01

    Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms. In fact, while much knowledge has been gleaned recently on the mechanisms responsible for the control of mammalian puberty, fundamental questions regarding the intimate molecular and neuroendocrine pathways responsible for the precise timing of puberty and its deviations remain unsolved. By combining data from suitable model species and humans, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of our current understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing puberty, with particular focus on its central regulatory pathways, underlying molecular basis and mechanisms for metabolic control. A comprehensive MEDLINE search of articles published mostly from 2003 to 2017 has been carried out. Data from cellular and animal models (including our own results) as well as clinical studies focusing on the pathophysiology of puberty in mammals were considered and cross-referenced with terms related with central neuroendocrine mechanisms, metabolic control and epigenetic/miRNA regulation. Studies conducted during the last decade have revealed the essential role of novel central neuroendocrine pathways in the control of puberty, with a prominent role of kisspeptins in the precise regulation of the pubertal activation of GnRH neurosecretory activity. In addition, different transmitters, including neurokinin-B (NKB) and, possibly, melanocortins, have been shown to interplay with kisspeptins in tuning puberty onset. Alike, recent studies have documented the role of epigenetic mechanisms, involving mainly

  19. Rapid Response: To Scan or Not to Scan? The Utility of Noncontrast CT Head for Altered Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Purujit J; Sethi, Mansha; Sternlieb, Jonathan; Schneider, Doron; Naglak, Mary; Patel, Rajeshkumar R

    2018-01-17

    The aims of the study were the following: (1) to determine how often computed tomography (CT) scans of the head are obtained on rapid responses called for altered mental status (AMS), (2) to determine whether CT imaging of the head is required during all rapid responses called for AMS, (3) to determine which patients would benefit from CT scans of the head in this setting, (4) to note whether an adequate neurologic exam was documented, (5) to determine the cost of CT scans that did not change management, and (6) to examine the role of medications leading to AMS. The study was a retrospective chart review at Abington Jefferson Hospital. Data collected included the age, sex, time of rapid response, clinical condition of the patient, whether an arterial blood gas and blood glucose were done, and whether a neurological exam was documented in the resident's rapid response team note. The patient's medications were also reviewed. Computed tomography scan findings as well as changes made in a patient's care as a result of the scan were recorded. Any findings that did not lead to a change in management were considered a "negative" scan. Overall, 610 rapid responses were activated from January to August 2016. One hundred four (17.04%) of the total rapid responses were for AMS and 83 (79.8%) of these patients underwent noncontrast CT scan of the head. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 74.7 (13.6) years. A total of 56.6% were female. The most frequent clinical conditions documented at the time of rapid responses were noted as confused (33.7%, 28/83), either lethargic or unconscious (32.5%, 27/83), and concern for stroke (21.7%, 18/83). A total of 96.4% (80/83) of the CT scans done were negative for any acute changes. The three patients with positive scans (3/83) had a change in management as a result of the scans. If patients with symptoms concerning for stroke and unconscious patients are excluded, the total number of remaining patients is 56. Of these, zero patients had

  20. NIH Director's Award Recognizes Rapid Response to Avert Potential Health Crisis | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2012, members of a multidisciplinary research team of both SAIC-Frederick and NCI Center for Cancer Research scientists were recognized with the NIH Director’s Award for their outstanding work to rapidly evaluate a potential threat to the n

  1. Response to “Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P

    2015-01-01

    ... of each test used for the initial discrimination of HIV‐positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Côte d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV‐1, HIV‐2 and dually reactive patients [ 4 ]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diag...

  2. Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P

    2015-01-01

    ... test used for the initial discrimination of HIV-positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Cote d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually reactive patients [4]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diagnostic te...

  3. The rapid cold hardening response of Collembola is influenced by thermal variability of the habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Loeschcke, Volker; Pertoldi, Cino

    2009-01-01

    exposure to a range of temperatures from 1 ° C to –12 ° C. Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) was induced by cooling individuals from 20 ° C to a temperature 7 ° C above the LT 50 during 80 min, followed by 1 h at the specific cold shock temperature, which was close to the LT 50 of the particular species. 5...

  4. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  5. ShakeMap implementation for Pyrenees in France-Spain border: regional adaptation and earthquake rapid response process.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil, Didier; Roviró, Jordi; Antonio Jara, Jose; Susagna, Teresa; Nus, Eduard; Goula, Xavier; Colas, Bastien; Dumont, Guillaume; Cabañas, Luis; Anton, Resurección; Calvet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The USGS-ShakeMap package is used with a regional adaptation to provide automatic shake maps in rapid response for Pyrenean earthquakes. The Near Real Time system relies on servers designed for data exchange between transborder organizations involved in the Sispyr project. First maps will be provide as soon as possible after the shock, and updated with observed macroseismic intensities on the following hours. Regional Predictive Equations Tapia (2006) and Goula et al. ...

  6. Stimulus and Response-Locked P3 Activity in a Dynamic Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    electroencephalogram EOG electrooculography ERP event - related potential P3 P300 RSVP rapid serial visual presentation RT reaction time NO. OF NO. OF...4 Figure 3. Left: stimulus-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from nontargets and targets in each quartile. Right...average). .....6 Figure 5. Left: response-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from targets in each quartile. Right: corresponding

  7. Radioembolization for neuroendocrine liver metastases: safety, imaging, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Mulcahy, Mary F; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Omary, Reed A; Benson, Al B; Salem, Riad

    2012-07-01

    To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with (90)Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden ≤25% (p = 0.0019), albumin ≥3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin ≤1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival with low toxicity, in line with published national guidelines

  8. Radioembolization for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Safety, Imaging, and Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H.; Yaghmai, Vahid; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Newman, Steven [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Omary, Reed A. [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Benson, Al B. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy. Methods and Materials: This study was approved by our institutional review board and was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Forty patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization at a single center. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria v3.0. Response to therapy was assessed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for size and European Association for the Study of the Liver disease (EASL) guidelines for necrosis. Time to response and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The median dose was 113 Gy (29-299 Gy). Clinical toxicities included fatigue (63%), nausea/vomiting (40%), abdominal pain (18%), fever (8%), diarrhea and weight loss (5%); Grade 3 and 4 bilirubin toxicities were experienced by 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Different responses were noted by WHO (complete response, 1.2%; partial response, 62.7%) and EASL (complete response, 20.5%; partial response, 43.4%). Median time to response was 4 and 4.9 months by lesion and patient, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 72.5%, 62.5%, and 45%, respectively. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 0 (p < 0.0001), tumor burden {<=}25% (p = 0.0019), albumin {>=}3.5 g/dL (p = 0.017), and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL (p = 0.002) prognosticated survival on univariate analysis; only ECOG performance score 0 and bilirubin {<=}1.2 mg/dL prognosticated better survival outcome on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). Conclusion: Yttrium-90 therapy for hepatic neuroendocrine metastases leads to satisfactory tumor response and patient survival

  9. High grade neuroendocrine neoplasm of the antrum and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Peter W; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stagner, Anna M; Gilani, Sapideh; Fay, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine malignancies-tumors characterized by the production of dense-core secretory granules-are most often encountered in the lungs and can also be found in extrapulmonary sites. Our patient had a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the antrum with an elusive cell of origin that secondarily invaded the inferior orbit. In the sinuses, neuroendocrine tumors may be confused with infectious sinusitis or squamous cell carcinoma. There are no known pathognomonic clinical or radiographic signs to distinguish these tumors from other conditions. Diagnosis depends on a biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to identify biomarkers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 and neuron specific enolase. Our patient's tumor defied precise immunohistochemical characterization because of its primitive character and erratic biomarker expression. The diagnosis oscillated between a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma grade IV-hence the use of the more generic nosologic category of neuroendocrine neoplasm without specifying a neuronal or epithelial origin. Data to guide management are limited, particularly in the ophthalmic literature, and derive from experience with tumors of the sinonasal compartments. In the present case of a sino-orbital high grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, regional lymph node metastases developed shortly after presentation. The tumor has responded well to chemotherapy and radiation, but recurrence is often encountered within 2 years in this class of neoplasms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased Baseline Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Rapid Virological Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; et al.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll...

  11. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  12. Operational response to malaria epidemics: are rapid diagnostic tests cost-effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, E; Checchi, F; Pinoges, L.; Balkan, S; Guthmann, J P; Guerin, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). METHODS: We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effect...

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...... experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response.......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...

  14. Patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes of 1151 rapid response team activations in a tertiary hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K; Scott, I A; Bernard, A; McCulloch, K; Vaux, A; Joyce, C; Sullivan, C M

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of mature contemporary rapid response systems are unclear. To determine the patient characteristics, processes and outcomes, both in-hospital and post-discharge, of a well-established rapid response system in a tertiary adult hospital. This is a prospective study of consecutive rapid response team (RRT) activations between 1 July and 25 November 2015. Variables included patient characteristics, timing, location and triggers of RRT activations, interventions undertaken, mortality and readmission status at 28 days post-discharge. A total of 1151 RRT activations was analysed (69.1 per 1000 admissions), involving 800 patients, of whom 81.5% were emergency admissions. A total of 351 (30.5%) activations comprised repeat activations for the same patient. Most activations (723; 62.8%) occurred out of hours, and 495 (43%) occurred within 48 h of admission. Hypotension, decreased level of consciousness and oxygen desaturation were the most common triggers. Advanced life support was undertaken in less than 7%; 198 (17.2%) responses led to transfer to higher-level care units. Acute resuscitation plans were noted for only 29.1% of RRT activations, with 80.3% stipulating supportive care only. A total of 103 (12.6%) patients died in hospital, equalling 14 deaths per 100 RRT activations. At 28 days, 150 (18.8%) patients had died, significantly more among those with multiple versus single RRT activations (24.9 vs 16.6%; odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.44; P = 0.013). Relatively few RRT activations are associated with acute resuscitation plans, and most interventions during RRT responses are low level. The high rate of post-RRT deaths and transfers to higher-level care units calls for the prospective identification of such patients in targeting appropriate care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days restraint stress (RS and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS on neuroendocrine (corticosterone and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF . Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

  16. A rapid method of monitoring the acute phase response in a rat model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collectively as the acute phase response (APR), take place. This response ... The blood samples (in Eppendorf tubes) were chilled on ice ... MG in the samples. The latter were then corrected for a sample volume of 200 JJI and the weights of MG in the two spiked samples recovered were calculated from their difference from ...

  17. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, B.; Wagemaker, J.; Revilla Romero, B.; Coughlan de Perez, E.

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite

  18. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... tissues were computed. The results showed significant differences along the urethra, with the high-pressure zone showing the highest maximum and equilibrium pressures, fastest pressure decay and highest elastic coefficient. The pressure response represents an integrated stress response from...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  19. Intercellular communication in plants: evidence for two rapidly transmitted systemic signals generated in response to electromagnetic field stimulation in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubois, Elisabeth; Girard, Sebastien; Lallechere, Sebastien; Davies, Eric; Paladian, Françoise; Bonnet, Pierre; Ledoigt, Gerard; Vian, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Exposing all of a wild-type tomato plant to electromagnetic radiation evoked rapid and substantial accumulation of basic leucine-zipper transcription factor (bZIP) mRNA in the terminal leaf (#4) with kinetics very similar to that seen in response to wounding, while in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant (Sitiens), the response was more rapid, but transient. Submitting just the oldest leaf (#1) of a wild-type plant to irradiation evoked bZIP mRNA accumulation both locally in the exposed leaf and systemically in the unexposed (distant) leaf #4, although systemic accumulation was delayed somewhat. Accumulation of Pin2 mRNA was less than bZIP in both the exposed and distant leaves in wild type, but there was no delay in the systemic response. In Sitiens, bZIP mRNA accumulation was far less than in wild type in both local and distant leaves, while Pin2 mRNA accumulation was stronger in the exposed leaf, but totally prevented in the systemic leaf. In the jasmonic acid (JA) mutant (JL-5) and in wild-type plants treated with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, naproxen, responses were similar to those in the ABA mutant, while treatment of the exposed leaf with calcium antagonists totally abolished both local and systemic increases in bZIP transcript accumulation.

  20. Rapid response, monitoring, and mitigation of induced seismicity near Greeley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, William; Sheehan, A.F; Benz, Harley M.; Weingarten, Matthew; Nakai, J

    2016-01-01

    On 1 June 2014 (03:35 UTC), an Mw 3.2 earthquake occurred in Weld County, Colorado, a historically aseismic area of the Denver–Julesburg basin. Weld County is a prominent area of oil and gas development, including many high‐rate class II wastewater injection wells. In the days following the earthquake, the University of Colorado, with support from the U.S. Geological Survey and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology–Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere, rapidly deployed six seismic stations to characterize the seismicity associated with the 1 June earthquake (the Greeley sequence) and to investigate its possible connection to wastewater disposal. The spatial and temporal proximity of earthquakes to a high‐rate wastewater disposal well strongly suggests these earthquakes were induced. Scientific communication between the university, state agencies, and the energy industry led to rapid mitigation strategies to reduce the occurrence of further earthquakes. Mitigation efforts included implementing a temporary moratorium on injection at the well, cementing the bottom portion of the disposal well to minimize hydrologic connectivity between the disposal formation and the underlying crystalline basement, and subsequently allowing injection to resume at lower rates. Following the resumption of wastewater disposal, microseismicity was closely monitored for both increases in earthquake rate and magnitude. Following mitigation efforts, between 13 August 2014 and 29 December 2015, no earthquakes larger than M 1.5 occurred near the Greeley sequence. This study demonstrates that a detailed and rapid characterization of a seismic sequence in space and time relative to disposal, combined with collaboration and communication between scientists, regulators, and industry, can lead to objective and actionable mitigation efforts that potentially reduced the rate of earthquakes and the possible generation of larger earthquakes.

  1. Neuroendocrine and immune characteristics of aging in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A; Lavoie, E

    2007-01-01

    Avian species show a remarkable diversity in lifespan. The differing lifespan patterns are found across a number of birds, in spite of higher body temperature and apparent increased metabolic rate. These characteristics make study of age-related changes of great interest, especially for understanding the biology of aging associated with surprisingly long lifespan in some birds. Our studies have focused on a short-lived avian model, the Japanese quail in order to describe reproductive aging and the neuroendocrine characteristics leading to reproductive senescence. Biomarkers of aging used in mammalian species include telomere length, oxidative damage, and selected metabolic indicators. These markers provide confirming evidence that the long-lived birds appear to age more slowly. A corollary area of interest is that of immune function and aging. Immune responses have been studied in selected wild birds and there has been a range of studies that have considered the effects of stress in wild and domestic species. Our laboratory studies have specifically tested response to immune challenge relative to aging in the quail model and these studies indicate that there is an age-related change in the qualitative aspects of the response. However, there are also intriguing differences in the ability of the aging quail to respond that differ from mammalian data. Finally, another approach to understanding aging is to attempt to develop or test strategies that may extend lifespan and presumably health. One area of great interest has been to consider the effect of calorie restriction, which is a treatment shown to extend lifespan in a variety of species. This approach is routinely used in domestic poultry as a means for extending reproductive function and enhancing health. Our data indicate that moderate calorie restriction has beneficial effects, and that physiological and endocrine responses reflect these benefits. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A Response Function Approach for Rapid Far-Field Tsunami Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Wang, Dailin

    2017-08-01

    Predicting tsunami impacts at remote coasts largely relies on tsunami en-route measurements in an open ocean. In this work, these measurements are used to generate instant tsunami predictions in deep water and near the coast. The predictions are generated as a response or a combination of responses to one or more tsunameters, with each response obtained as a convolution of real-time tsunameter measurements and a pre-computed pulse response function (PRF). Practical implementation of this method requires tables of PRFs in a 3D parameter space: earthquake location-tsunameter-forecasted site. Examples of hindcasting the 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunamis along the US West Coast and beyond demonstrated high accuracy of the suggested technology in application to trans-Pacific seismically generated tsunamis.

  3. Data for Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and Thermal Stressors in Rapidly Flushed Mesocosm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data represent response variables from a series of mesocosm experiments to assess how estuarine macrophyte communities respond to nitrogen loading under two...

  4. Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry Department Of Cancer Institute 1996 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani F

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed neuroendocrine system (D.N.S consists of a wide variety of cells that are present in the central and peripheral nervous system and in many classic endocrine organs and different tissues such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, skin, prostate, breast and also their neoplasm show neuroendocrine differentiation by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry or biochemical techniques:"nMaterials and Methods: The present study has been carried out by case-series method in order to evaluating the characteristics of all types of neuroendocrine carcinoma: different anatomical locations during 5 years period in immunohistochemistry department of cancer institute."nResults: The diagnosis of 109 cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma consisting of neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, carcinoid tumor and merkel cell carcinoma are confirmed that among them the most common diagnosis was related to neuroendocrine carcinoma (50.5 percent. The most prevalent age group was 40-49 years and male to female distribution were 56 percent and 44 percent respectively. Anatomical distribution of tumor show that about 30 percent of cases were metastatic carcinoma, 30 percent in thyroid, respiratory tract and head and neck region and remainder in a variety of tissues. In over 50 percent of cases one of endocrinoid patterns as trabecular, organoid or mixed of them were seen."nConclusion: Immunohistochemically N.S.E (Neuron Specific Enolase show high sensitivity with 96 percent positive reaction and more specific endocrine markers as chromogranin A in 80 percent and synaptophysin only in 24 percent because of lesser application of the latter. Also epithelial markers such as cytokeratin and E.M.A."n(Epithelial Membrane Antigen were positive in 69 percent and 74 percent respectively. Mean survival rate of all neuroendocrine carcinoma reached to 4.8 years with lowest survival of 4.3 years among small cell carcinoma and

  5. Predicting Meaningful Outcomes to Medication and Self-Help Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: The Significance of Early Rapid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing anti-obesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. Method 104 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT+sibutramine, or shCBT+placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research-clinicians monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge-eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 47% of patients. Rapid response was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. Rapid response was significantly associated prospectively with remission from binge eating at post-treatment (51% versus 9% for non-rapid responders), 6-month (53% vs 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed effects model analyses revealed rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating, eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Discussion Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and self-help CBT treatments for BED in primary care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatments. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes even in low intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 PMID

  6. Use of basic biological information for rapid prediction of the response of species to habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Philip A R; Curtis, Odette E

    2009-02-01

    Much research has focused on identifying traits that can act as useful indicators of how habitat loss affects the extinction risk of species, and the results are mixed. We developed 2 simple, rapid-assessment models of the susceptibility of species to habitat loss. We based both on an index of range size, but one also incorporated an index of body mass and the other an index combining habitat and dietary specialization. We applied the models to samples of birds (Accipitridae and Bucerotidae) and to the lemurs of Madagascar and compared the models' classifications of risk with the IUCN's global threat status of each species. The model derived from ecological attributes was much more robust than the one derived from body mass. Ecological attributes identified threatened birds and lemurs with an average of 80% accuracy and endangered and critically endangered species with 100% accuracy and identified some species not currently listed as threatened that almost certainly warrant conservation consideration. Appropriate analysis of even fairly crude biological information can help raise early-warning flags to the relative susceptibilities of species to habitat loss and thus provide a useful and rapid technique for highlighting potential species-level conservation issues. Advantages of this approach to classifying risk include flexibility in the specialization parameters used as well as its applicability at a range of spatial scales.

  7. [Neuroendocrine factors in hypertension during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Minodora; Ghiciuc, Cristina-Mihaela; Tarţău, Liliana; Lupuşoru, Cătălina-Elena

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension is a condition of high blood pressure during early and mid-pregnancy. This type of hypertension is much like the chronic type, but it occurs only when the woman is pregnant and resolves completely after delivery. to evaluate some stress hormones in both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. The study investigated the correlation between pregnancy induced hypertension and different immune/inflammatory and other markers. This exploratory investigation was performed on pregnant women diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension, admitted to the lasi Cuza Voda Hospital. The psychometric assessment was performed by using the daily stress test, daily hassle scale, blood pressure measurements, and determination of anthropometrical parameters. Some parameters, such as the neuroendocrine and immune/inflammatory ones, and specific parameters for pregnancy hypertension were determined. Our study revealed that blood pressure values presented significant differences between systolic, but not diastolic blood pressure values (p < 0.05). In 75% of subjects blood cortisol levels were not changed. Daily stress level assessment proved that low potential factors and an annoying environment had a high influence on both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertensive women also presented leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The research results showed that plasma cortisol level was higher in hypertensive pregnant women, compared with normotensives.

  8. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  9. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  10. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  11. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  12. Rapid effects of melatonin on hormonal and behavioral stressful responses in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Malpaux, Benoît; Delagrange, Philippe; Spedding, Michael; Cornilleau, Fabien; Chesneau, Didier; Haller, József; Chaillou, Elodie

    2013-08-01

    Sheep are gregarious mammals with complex social interactions. As such, they are very sensitive to social isolation and constitute a relevant animal model to study specifically the biological consequences of social stress. We examined previously the behavioral and endocrine responses in ewes isolated socially in the familiar conspecific withdrawal model (FCW) and showed that stressful responses increased and maintenance behaviors decreased, confirming that social isolation is a strong stressor in sheep. Melatonin synchronizes seasonal and circadian rhythms; and several studies reported its implication in cognitive processes as emotion. Here we investigated its role in the modulation of social stressful responses. Firstly, we studied ewes in the FCW model during the day (characterized by low melatonin levels) and the night (characterized by high melatonin levels). We found lower stressful responses (significant lower levels of cortisol plasma, number of foot pawings, of circling attempts) during the night as compared to the day. To investigate whether these effects were due to melatonin or to darkness, we submitted ewes to FCW during the night with lights on, a condition that suppresses melatonin secretion. Ewes infused with melatonin under these conditions showed decreased stressful responses (significant lower levels cortisol plasma, number of vocalizations, time spent with the head out of the cage) as compared to ewes infused with saline. These findings demonstrate that melatonin diminishes the endocrine and behavioral impact of social isolation in ewes and support the idea that melatonin has a calming effect in socially stressful situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  14. The emergence of pan-resistant Gram-negative pathogens merits a rapid global political response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy R; Toleman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Recent media coverage of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) put antibiotic resistance back on the political map if only for the wrong reasons, mainly the reaction to the naming of NDM-1 and the incorrect assumption that medical tourism was being deliberately targeted. However, work on NDM-1 has most certainly highlighted the rapid dissemination of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms via economic globalization. The example of NDM-1 has also magnified the desperate need for a publicly funded global antibiotic surveillance system rather than just national or regional systems. Furthermore, there is a pressing need to establish a global task force to enforce international transparency and accountability on antibiotic stewardship and the implementation of measures to curb antibiotic resistance. An international antibiotic stewardship index should be established that is related to each country's gross domestic product (GDP) and assesses how much of their GDP is committed to publically funded health initiatives aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance.

  15. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  16. Rapid and durable response to intravenous immunoglobulin in delayed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Brandon Z; Shatzel, Joseph J; Sendowski, Merav

    2017-04-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) results in platelet consumption and a virulent thrombotic state, which generally responds to cessation of heparin and initiation of anticoagulation. Rarely, delayed HIT can occur and/or persist after heparin is discontinued. A 47-year-old male developed delayed HIT with severe thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after cardiac surgery. Thrombocytopenia developed and persisted after heparin cessation and did not improve despite sequential use of argatroban followed by bivalirudin. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) was well tolerated and resulted in rapid resolution of thrombocytopenia. There are few case reports on the management of delayed HIT with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. The risk for thrombosis and bleeding in the setting of an undefined time course increases uncertainty in management. This case, along with others accumulating in the literature, suggest that IVIg may be effective in treating delayed HIT with persistent thrombocytopenia. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Rapid curtailing of the stringent response by toxin-antitoxin module-encoded mRNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Roghanian, Mohammed; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli regulates its metabolism to adapt to changes in the environment, in particular to stressful downshifts in nutrient quality. Such shifts elicit the so-called stringent response coordinated by the alarmone guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. At sudden amino-acid (aa......RNase-encoding TA modules present in the wt strain. This observation suggested that toxins are part of the negative feedback to control the (p)ppGpp level during early stringent response. We built a ribosome trafficking model to evaluate the fold of increase in the RelA activity just after the onset of aa...... %. IMPORTANCE: The early stringent response elicited by amino-acid starvation is controlled by a sharp increase of the cellular (p)ppGpp level. Toxin-antitoxin encoded mRNases are activated by (p)ppGpp through enhanced degradation of antitoxins. The present work shows that this activation happens at a very...

  18. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  19. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  20. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  1. Emergency Ebola response: a new approach to the rapid design and development of vaccines against emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Claire M; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-03-01

    The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has spread at an alarming rate despite containment efforts. As a result, unprecedented large-scale international response efforts have been made in an attempt to gain control of the outbreak and reduce transmission. Several international consortia have been formed in a remarkable worldwide collaborative effort to expedite trials of two candidate Ebola virus vaccines: cAd3-EBOZ and rVSV-EBOV. In parallel, both vaccines are being manufactured in large amounts to enable future rapid deployment for management of the crisis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid responses of the cupula in the lateral line of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM

    Displacements of cupulae in the supraorbital lateral line canal in ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) have been measured using laser interferometry and by applying transient as well as sinusoidal fluid stimuli in the lateral line canal. The cupular displacement in response to impulses of fluid velocity

  3. Footsteps from insect larvae damage leaf surfaces and initiate rapid responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, D.E.; MacGregor, K.B.; Nijsse, J.; Bown, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Plant resistance to insect herbivory involves gene expression in response to wounding and the detection of insect elicitors in oral secretions (Kessler and Baldwin, 2002, Ann. Rev. Plant/ Biol. 53: 299¿328). However, crawling insect larvae stimulate the synthesis of 4-aminobutyrate within minutes

  4. RAPID RESCUE: BREAKING THE MOLD OF ROUTINE CONTINGENCY RESPONSE FOR PERSONNEL RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-23

    acc- commander-releases-new-command-strategy.aspx. 15 Ibid., 6. 16 Alan Vick , David Orletsky, Bruce Prinie, and Seth Jones, The Stryker Brigade... Vick , Alan, David Orletsky, Bruce Prinie, and Seth Jones. The Stryker Brigade Combat Team: Rethinking Strategic Responsiveness and Assessing

  5. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  6. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  7. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.

  8. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  9. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  10. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Paul D; Bourbeau, Dennis J; Shell, Courtney E; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Ina, Jason G

    2017-01-01

    Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion). This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2), with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric) and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  11. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  12. Marine Ecosystem Response to Rapid Climate Warming on the West Antarctic Peninsula (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, H.; Baker, K. S.; Doney, S. C.; Fraser, B.; Martinson, D. G.; Meredith, M. P.; Montes-Hugo, M. A.; Sailley, S.; Schofield, O.; Sherrell, R. M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    The Palmer, Antarctica LTER builds on meteorological, ocean color and seabird observations since the late 1970s. It occupies annually in summer a regional-scale grid extending 700 km northward from Charcot Island to Anvers Island, and 200 km cross-shelf from the coast to the shelfbreak. In addition to routine CTD profiles and zooplankton tows throughout the grid, the observing system also includes Slocum Glider surveys and thermistor moorings. Geophysical changes include +6C atmospheric warming in winter since 1950, a 20% increase in heat content over the continental shelf since 1990, a surface ocean warming of +1C since 1950, an 83-day reduction in sea ice duration (advance 48 days later, retreat 35 days earlier) over the greater southern Bellingshausen Sea region from 1979-2007, intensification of westerly winds and differential changes in cloudiness. In response to these large changes in the regional climate, the marine ecosystem of the western Peninsula is changing at all trophic levels from diatoms to penguins. Ocean color indicates differential changes in phytoplankton stocks in response to regional decreases in sea ice cover. Surface chlorophyll has declined 89% in the north and increased 67% in the south. Antarctic krill and salps have declined and increased in our study area, respectively. Penguin diet sampling suggests changes in populations or distributions of the Antarctic Silverfish in the Anvers Island vicinity, possibly in response to ocean warming. Adélie penguins have declined 75% from 15000 to <3000 pairs at since 1975 in response to changes in food availability and increased late spring snow accumulation. Changes in pygoscelid penguin breeding populations in the Anvers Island vicinity of the West Antarctic Peninsula

  13. Rapid Disruption of Axon–Glial Integrity in Response to Mild Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Michell M.; McQueen, Jamie; Searcy, Luke; Scullion, Gillian; Zonta, Barbara; Desmazieres, Anne; Philip R Holland; Smith, Jessica; Gliddon, Catherine; Wood, Emma R.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brophy, Peter J.; Mcculloch, James; Horsburgh, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Myelinated axons have a distinct protein architecture which is essential for action potential propagation, neuronal communication and maintaining cognitive function. Damage to myelinated axons, associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, is suggested to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. We sought to determine whether there are selective and early alterations in the protein architecture of myelinated axons in response to cerebral hypoperfusion. Using a mouse model of hypoperfusion we as...

  14. Use of SMS-Based Surveys in the Rapid Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia: Opening Community Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Amanda; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During an emerging health crisis like the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, communicating with communities to learn from them and to provide timely information can be a challenge. Insight into community thinking, however, is crucial for developing appropriate communication content and strategies and for monitoring the progress of the emergency response. In November 2014, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative partnered with GeoPoll to implement a Short Message Service (SMS)-based survey that could create a link with affected communities and help guide the communication response to Ebola. The ideation metatheory of communication and behavior change guided the design of the survey questionnaire, which produced critical insights into trusted sources of information, knowledge of transmission modes, and perceived risks-all factors relevant to the design of an effective communication response that further catalyzed ongoing community actions. The use of GeoPoll's infrastructure for data collection proved a crucial source of almost-real-time data. It allowed for rapid data collection and processing under chaotic field conditions. Though not a replacement for standard survey methodologies, SMS surveys can provide quick answers within a larger research process to decide on immediate steps for communication strategies when the demand for speedy emergency response is high. They can also help frame additional research as the response evolves and overall monitor the pulse of the situation at any point in time.

  15. Rapid poleward range expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Hiroya; Sugihara, Kaoru; Nomura, Keiichi

    2011-02-01

    Rising temperatures caused by climatic warming may cause poleward range shifts and/or expansions in species distribution. Tropical reef corals (hereafter corals) are some of the world's most important species, being not only primary producers, but also habitat-forming species, and thus fundamental ecosystem modification is expected according to changes in their distribution. Although most studies of climate change effects on corals have focused on temperature-induced coral bleaching in tropical areas, poleward range shifts and/or expansions may also occur in temperate areas. We show the first large-scale evidence of the poleward range expansion of modern corals, based on 80 years of national records from the temperate areas of Japan, where century-long measurements of in situ sea-surface temperatures have shown statistically significant rises. Four major coral species categories, including two key species for reef formation in tropical areas, showed poleward range expansions since the 1930s, whereas no species demonstrated southward range shrinkage or local extinction. The speed of these expansions reached up to 14 km/year, which is far greater than that for other species. Our results, in combination with recent findings suggesting range expansions of tropical coral-reef associated organisms, strongly suggest that rapid, fundamental modifications of temperate coastal ecosystems could be in progress.

  16. Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cirendunzhu; Pengcuociren; Dawa; Woodward, Alistair; Liu, Xiaobo; Baimaciwang; Dazhen; Sang, Shaowei; Wan, Fangjun; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Junfang; Li, Xiaolu; Wu, Haixia; Yu, Baorong; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2013-08-27

    Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of climate change. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 619 respondents from urban Lhasa, Tibet in August 2012 with the aim to investigate public perceptions of risk, heat experiences, and coping resources. Respondents are aware of the warming that has occurred in Lhasa in recent years. Over 78% reported that rising temperature is either a "very" or "somewhat" serious threat to their own health, and nearly 40% reported they had experienced heat-related symptoms. Sex, age, education and income influenced perceived risks, health status, and heat experience. The vast majority of respondents reported that they had altered their behaviour on hot summer days. Bakuo, a sub-district at the city center, is considered especially vulnerable to heat because of sparse vegetation, high population density, poor dwelling conditions and a high proportion of low-income population. However, neighborhood social ties were stronger in Bakuo than other study locations. The study suggests that actions are needed now to minimize downside effects of rapid warming in Tibet, because of increasing human exposure to high temperatures and uneven distribution of the resources needed to cope.

  17. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  18. Maternal and infant infections stimulate a rapid leukocyte response in breastmilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Hepworth, Anna R; Metzger, Philipp; Tat Lai, Ching; Trengove, Naomi; Hartmann, Peter E; Filgueira, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Breastmilk protects infants against infections; however, specific responses of breastmilk immune factors to different infections of either the mother or the infant are not well understood. Here, we examined the baseline range of breastmilk leukocytes and immunomodulatory biomolecules in healthy mother/infant dyads and how they are influenced by infections of the dyad. Consistent with a greater immunological need in the early postpartum period, colostrum contained considerable numbers of leukocytes (13-70% out of total cells) and high levels of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin. Within the first 1-2 weeks postpartum, leukocyte numbers decreased significantly to a low baseline level in mature breastmilk (0-2%) (P<0.001). This baseline level was maintained throughout lactation unless the mother and/or her infant became infected, when leukocyte numbers significantly increased up to 94% leukocytes out of total cells (P<0.001). Upon recovery from the infection, baseline values were restored. The strong leukocyte response to infection was accompanied by a more variable humoral immune response. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a greater baseline level of leukocytes in mature breastmilk. Collectively, our results suggest a strong association between the health status of the mother/infant dyad and breastmilk leukocyte levels. This could be used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of the health status of the lactating breast as well as the breastfeeding mother and infant.

  19. High clinical and morphologic response using {sup 90}Y-DOTA-octreotate sequenced with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate induction peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) for bulky neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Grace; Callahan, Jason; Pattison, David A.; Akhurst, Tim; Eu, Peter [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, Michael S. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Parkville (Australia); Michael, Michael [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Bulky disease is an adverse prognostic factor for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate ({sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). {sup 90}Y-DOTA-octreotate ({sup 90}Y-DOTATATE) has theoretical advantages in this setting but may less effectively treat co-existent smaller deposits and have higher toxicity than {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of using these agents sequentially. We reviewed patients (pts) with at least one lesion of a transaxial diameter >4 cm who completed 1-2 cycles of {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE followed by 2-3 cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, with treatment empirically adapted to disease size and burden in individual patients. Data collected included morphological and molecular imaging response, toxicity, and progression-free and overall survival. Twenty-six pts (17 men; aged 27-74 years) received a median cumulative activity of 6.5 GBq {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE, and 21 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. All but one received radiosensitising chemotherapy. Adverse prognostic factors included ENETS grade 2 or 3 in 58 %, and FDG-avid disease in 73 %. Nineteen pts treated for progressive disease had stabilisation (37 %) or regression on CT (42 % partial response, 21 % minor response), with a mean 59 % (8-99 %) reduction in disease burden. All seven pts treated for uncontrolled symptoms reported improvement during PRRT with 4/7 having complete symptom resolution at 3 months. Eight patients had grade 3/4 lymphopaenia, and two patients grade 3/4 thrombocytopaenia without significant hepatic or renal toxicity. Median survival was not reached after a median follow-up of 35 months. Median progression-free survival was 33 months. PRCRT with {sup 90}Y -DOTATATE followed by {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE in individualised regimens achieved high clinical and morphological response in patients with bulky tumours. Despite lack of a control arm, the efficacy of this treatment approach appears higher than reported results with either

  20. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  1. Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung: Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors encompass a broad spectrum of tumors including the large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The case of a 57-year-old white housewife with a history of smoking, diabetes, hypothyroidism and hypertension who sought medical attention because of headache, vomiting, weight loss, neuropsychiatric symptoms and metastatic inguinal lymphadenopathy is presented. The symptoms resulted from the extrapulmonary metastases found. Imaging studies, histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of large-cell carcinoma of the lung with neuroendocrine pattern. This type of highly aggressive tumor is usually diagnosed when there are already multiple metastases, which affects the short-term prognosis. The aim of this paper is to inform the medical community of this case due to the scarce reports in the literature.

  2. [Role of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, V; Cascini, G L; Rambaldi, P F; Mansi, L

    2001-09-01

    Current therapeutic approaches in neuroendocrine tumours include surgery, radiotherapy and polychemotherapy. Different metabolic patterns of neuroendocrine tumours allow the use of a wide range of diagnostic options in nuclear medicine, due to the presence of a wide spectrum of radiotracers electively concentrating in these neoplasms. Nuclear medicine, and in particular 111In Octreotide (OCT) scintigraphy, 123I Methaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and pentavalent 99mTc-DMSA (V-DMSA), together with biohumoral markers, are currently able to locate tumours also not detectable using traditional diagnostic techniques. Somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide have become increasingly important over the years in the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. At present the therapeutic use of somatostatin analogs can be schematised as 1) pharmacological treatment (with cold octreotide); 2) surgical treatment (radioguided surgery); 3) radiometabolic treatment (with marked octreotide). The development of new synthetic molecules and new radiocompounds will probably open up interesting scenarios in the near future.

  3. HER2-Positive Neuroendocrine Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Arpine; Bregni, Giacomo; Galli, Giulia; Zanardi, Elisa; de Braud, Filippo; Di Cosimo, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon histology for breast cancer. Our patient underwent right quadrantectomy for a neuroendocrine carcinoma in 1984 and had a bone relapse 30 years later. After thorough pathological and immunohistochemical analysis the diagnosis was confirmed and HER2 amplification was observed. Here we discuss the management, rationale and results of HER2-targeted therapy in advanced neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.

  4. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  5. Transcriptome Signatures Reveal Rapid Induction of Immune-Responsive Genes in Human Memory CD8(+) T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Khanniche, Asma; DiSpirito, Joanna R; Ji, Ping; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Ying; Shen, Hao

    2016-05-31

    Memory T cells (TM) play a prominent role in protection and auto-immunity due to their ability to mount a more effective response than naïve T cells (TN). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced functionality of TM are not well defined, particularly in human TM. We examined the global gene expression profiles of human CD8(+) TN and TM before and after stimulation. There were 1,284, 1,373 and 1,629 differentially expressed genes between TN and TM at 0 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after stimulation, respectively, with more genes expressed to higher levels in TM. Genes rapidly up-regulated in TN cells were largely involved in nitrogen, nucleoside and amino acid metabolisms. In contrast, those in CD8(+) TM were significantly enriched for immune-response-associated processes, including cytokine production, lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis. Multiple cytokines were rapidly up-regulated in TM cells, including effector cytokines known to be produced by CD8(+) T cells and important for their functions, as well as regulatory cytokines, both pro- and anti-inflammatory, that are not typically produced by CD8(+) T cells. These results provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced functionality of human CD8(+) TM and their prominent role in protection and auto-immunity.

  6. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko

    2018-01-01

    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  7. Rapid ocean-atmosphere response to Southern Ocean freshening during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Christian; Jones, Richard; Phipps, Steven; Thomas, Zoë; Hogg, Alan; Kershaw, Peter; Fogwill, Christopher; Palmer, Jonathan; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Hughen, Konrad; Staff, Richard; Grosvenor, Mark; Golledge, Nicholas; Rasmussen, Sune; Hutchinson, David; Haberle, Simon; Lorrey, Andrew; Boswijk, Gretel

    2017-04-01

    Contrasting Greenland and Antarctic temperature trends during the late last glacial period (60,000 to 11,703 years ago) are thought to be driven by imbalances in the rate of formation of North Atlantic and Antarctic Deep Water (the 'bipolar seesaw'), with cooling in the north leading the onset of warming in the south. Some events, however, appear to have occurred independently of changes in deep water formation but still have a southern expression, implying that an alternative mechanism may have driven some global climatic changes during the glacial. Testing these competing hypotheses is challenging given the relatively large uncertainties associated with correlating terrestrial, marine and ice core records of abrupt change. Here we exploit a bidecadally-resolved 14C calibration dataset obtained from New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to undertake high-precision alignment of key climate datasets spanning 28,400 to 30,400 years ago. We observe no divergence between terrestrial and marine 14C datasets implying limited impact of freshwater hosing on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, an ice-rafted debris event (SA2) in Southern Ocean waters appears to be associated with dramatic synchronous warming over the North Atlantic and contrasting precipitation patterns across the low latitudes. Using a fully coupled climate system model we undertook an ensemble of transient meltwater simulations and find that a southern salinity anomaly can trigger low-latitude temperature changes through barotropic and baroclinic oceanic waves that are atmospherically propagated globally via a Rossby wave train, consistent with contemporary modelling studies. Our results suggest the Antarctic ice sheets and Southern Ocean dynamics may have contributed to some global climatic changes through rapid ocean-atmospheric teleconnections, with implications for past (and future) change.

  8. Rapid evolution of coral proteins responsible for interaction with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Christian R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Matz, Mikhail V; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Desalvo, Michael K; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7% of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineage-specific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals' evolutionary response to global climate change.

  9. Post-traumatic intrahepatic splenosis mimicking a neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee Weng; Menon, Tulsi; Rao, Sudhakar

    2013-03-06

    A 52-year-old man presented with abdominal pain with a background of splenectomy 25 years previously. Initial investigations lead to suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumour. Positron emission tomography octreotide scanning and chromogranin were raised. He subsequently underwent a lateral segmentectomy. The histopathology was consistent with splenosis. 1. Splenosis must be considered as differential in any patient with abdominal symptoms post-traumatic splenectomy. 2. Positron emission tomography (PET) octreotide scanning can detect splenosis giving false positives for a neuroendocrine tumour. This is the first case to describe such an association.

  10. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  11. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as a primary hindgut neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okines, Alicia F C; Hawkes, Eliza A; Rao, Sheela; VAN As, Nicholas; Marsh, Henry; Riddell, Angela; Wilson, Philip O G; Osin, Peter; Wotherspoon, Andrew C; Wetherspoon, Andrew C

    2010-07-01

    The examination of limited, potentially non-representative fragments of tumour tissue from a core biopsy can be misleading and misdirect subsequent treatment, especially in cases where a primary tumour has not been identified. This case report is of a 65-year-old woman presenting with a destructive sacral mass, diagnosed on radiological imaging and core biopsy as a hindgut neuroendocrine tumour, which on histopathological review of the subsequently resected tumour was found instead to represent a metastasis from an occult hormone-positive breast cancer with neuroendocrine features.

  12. Operational response to malaria epidemics: are rapid diagnostic tests cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Estelle; Checchi, Francesco; Pinoges, Loretxu; Balkan, Suna; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Guerin, Philippe J

    2006-04-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per false positive treatment averted by RDTs. As malaria prevalence increases, the difference in cost between presumptive and RDT-based treatment rises. The threshold prevalence above which the RDT-based strategy becomes more expensive is 21% in the AS + AQ scenario and 55% in the ART-LUM scenario, but these thresholds increase to 58 and 70%, respectively, if the financing body tolerates an incremental cost of 1 euro per false positive averted. However, even at a high (90%) prevalence of malaria consistent with an epidemic peak, an RDT-based strategy would only cost moderately more than the presumptive strategy: +29.9% in the AS + AQ scenario and +19.4% in the ART-LUM scenario. The treatment comparison is insensitive to the age and pregnancy distribution of febrile cases, but is strongly affected by variation in non-biomedical costs. If their unit price were halved, RDTs would be more cost-effective at a malaria prevalence up to 45% in case of AS + AQ treatment and at a prevalence up to 68% in case of ART-LUM treatment. In most epidemic prevalence scenarios, RDTs would considerably reduce over-treatment for only a moderate increase in costs over presumptive diagnosis. A substantial decrease in RDT unit price would greatly increase their cost-effectiveness, and should thus be advocated. A tolerated incremental cost of 1 euro is probably justified given overall public health and financial benefits. The RDTs should be considered for malaria epidemics if

  13. Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Projects : Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Project (EDRR) "Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District"...

  14. Rapid Evolution of Coral Proteins Responsible for Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Mikhail V.; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M.; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Background Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7% of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineage-specific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Conclusion/Relevance This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals' evolutionary response to global climate change. PMID:21633702

  15. Rapid Evolution of Coral Proteins Responsible for Interaction with the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Matz, Mikhail V.; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M.; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Monica

    2011-01-31

    Background: Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7percent of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineagespecific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Conclusion/Relevance: This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals? evolutionary response to global climate change.

  16. Rapid evolution of coral proteins responsible for interaction with the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Voolstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures, pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7% of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineage-specific genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. CONCLUSION/RELEVANCE: This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals' evolutionary response to global climate change.

  17. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  18. A Mixed Stimuli-Responsive Magnetic and Gold Nanoparticle System for Rapid Purification, Enrichment, and Detection of Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A.; Yager, Paul; Hoffman, Allan S.; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    A new diagnostic system for the enrichment and detection of protein biomarkers from human plasma is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were surface-modified with a diblock copolymer synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer contained a thermally-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block, a cationic amine-containing block, and a semi-telechelic PEG2-biotin end group. When a mixed suspension of 23 nm pNIPAAm-modified AuNPs was heated with pNIPAAm-coated 10 nm iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in human plasma, the thermally-responsive pNIPAAm directed the formation of mixed AuNP/mNP aggregates that could be separated efficiently with a magnet. Model studies showed that this mixed nanoparticle system could efficiently purify and strongly enrich the model biomarker protein streptavidin in spiked human plasma. A 10 ng/mL streptavidin sample was mixed with the biotinylated and pNIPAAm modified AuNP and magnetically separated in the mixed nanoparticle system with pNIPAAm mNPs. The aggregates were concentrated into a 50-fold smaller fluid volume at room temperature where the gold nanoparticle reagent redissolved with the streptavidin target still bound. The concentrated gold-labeled streptavidin could be subsequently analyzed directly using lateral flow immunochromatography. This rapid capture and enrichment module thus utilizes the mixed stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system to achieve direct concentration of a gold-labeled biomarker that can be directly analyzed using lateral flow or other rapid diagnostic strategies. PMID:21070026

  19. Boom and bust: rapid feedback responses between insect outbreak dynamics and canopy leaf area impacted by rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlenda, Andrew N; Esveld, Jessica L; Hall, Aidan A G; Duursma, Remko A; Riegler, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Frequency and severity of insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems are predicted to increase with climate change. How this will impact canopy leaf area in future climates is rarely tested. Here, we document function of insect outbreaks that fortuitously and rapidly occurred in an ecosystem under free-air CO2 enrichment. Over the first 2 years of CO2 fumigation of a naturally established mature Eucalyptus woodland, we continuously assessed population responses of three sap-feeding insect species of the psyllid genera Cardiaspina, Glycaspis and Spondyliaspis for up to ten consecutive generations. Concurrently, we quantified changes in the canopy leaf area index (LAI). Large and rapid shifts in psyllid community composition were recorded between species with either flush (Glycaspis) or senescence-inducing (Cardiaspina, Spondyliaspis) feeding strategies. Within the second year, two psyllid species experienced significant and rapid population build-up resulting in two consecutive outbreaks: first, rainfall stimulated Eucalyptus leaf production increasing LAI, which supported population growth of flush-feeding Glycaspis without impacting LAI. Glycaspis numbers then crashed and were followed by the outbreak of senescence-feeding Cardiaspina fiscella that led to significant defoliation and reduction in LAI. For all three psyllid species, the abundance of lerps, protective coverings excreted by the sessile nymphs, decreased at e[CO2 ]. Higher lerp weight at e[CO2 ] for Glycaspis but not the other psyllid species provided evidence for compensatory feeding by the flush feeder but not the two senescence feeders. Our study demonstrates that rainfall drives leaf phenology, facilitating the rapid boom-and-bust succession of psyllid species, eventually leading to significant defoliation due to the second but not the first outbreaking psyllid species. In contrast, e[CO2 ] may impact psyllid abundance and feeding behaviour, with psyllid species-specific outcomes for defoliation

  20. Unusual apocrine carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a cutaneous neoplasm may be analogous to neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Li-li; Li, Bin; Tian, Xiao-ying; Li, Zhi

    2015-06-10

    Cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (AC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm that histologically can mimic breast carcinoma metastatic to the skin or apocrine carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue. As extremely rare condition, neuroendocrine differentiation may be observed in AC although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of unusual AC with neuroendocrine differentiation in right labium majus pudenda. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an asymptomatic pea-sized brownish nodule in right labium majus pudenda without enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes and bilateral breast nodules. The mass was totally resected. Microscopically, the tumor was solitary and located in the deep dermis without epidermal connection. Tumor cells were arranged in a micronodular or formed massive solid nests separated by densely fibroblastic stroma. Scattered glandular or rosette-like structures were identified within the tumor nodules. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive to CK7, CEA, GCDFP-15, synaptophysin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Part of tumor cells expressed androgen receptor, but they were negative to CK20, CK5/6, p63 and S-100. Because of its rarity and histogenesis complexity, there exist diagnostic challenges for pathologists to differentiate cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation from other carcinomas with apocrine or neuroendocrine features. Our case demonstrates that the tumor shares some features with mammary carcinoma and might originate from mammary-like sweat gland in anogenital region. The results suggest that, for the first time, primary cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation may be analogous to the mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation in histological feature and biological behavior. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7732276716685708.

  1. Safety and efficacy of doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer microspheres for the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonne Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the symptom control, tumour response, and complication rate in patients with liver-predominant metastatic neuroendocrine tumours treated with transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin-eluting superabsorbent polymer (SAP microspheres.

  2. Automated Formosat Image Processing System for Rapid Response to International Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M. C.; Chou, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, B.; Liu, C.; Yu, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO), Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  3. Inspection times, the change task, and the rapid-response selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M J; Newton, E J

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments are reported, which are based upon the Wason four-card selection task inspection time paradigm, in which subjects solve computer-presented trials while using a mouse to indicate the card currently under consideration. Evans (1996) had shown that selected cards were inspected for longer than non-selected cards, and this was taken as support for the existence of pre-conscious heuristic processes that direct attention towards relevant aspects of a problem. However, Roberts (1998b) suggested that this inspection time effect is artefactual, due to task format induced biases. Experiment 1 utilized a "change" task: Cards were presented either as selected or not selected, and subjects changed these where necessary. This demonstrated an association between card selection and inspection time independently of one between the act of response and inspection time. Experiment 2 utilized a standard selection task, but subjects either responded within 2 s of each card presentation, or made selections with no time pressure. The curtailment of thinking time increased matching behaviour--more cards matching the terms in the rules were selected--and was replicated in Experiment 3 using a within-subjects design. Overall, the data support Evans' heuristic-analytic framework albeit with some caveats.

  4. Laser Chemosensor with Rapid Responsivity and Inherent Memory Based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Turnbull

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the use of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1 as the active layer within a laser sensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors. We show successful detection of dinitrobenzene (DNB by monitoring the real-time photoluminescence. We also show that PIM-1 has an inherent memory, so that it accumulates the analyte during exposure. In addition, the optical gain and refractive index of the polymer were studied by amplified spontaneous emission and variable-angle ellipsometry, respectively. A second-order distributed feedback PIM-1 laser sensor was fabricated and found to show an increase in laser threshold of 2.5 times and a reduction of the laser slope efficiency by 4.4 times after a 5-min exposure to the DNB vapor. For pumping at 2 times threshold, the lasing action was stopped within 30 s indicating that PIM-1 has a very fast responsivity and as such has a potential sensing ability for ultra-low-concentration explosives.

  5. Laser chemosensor with rapid responsivity and inherent memory based on a polymer of intrinsic microporosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; McKeown, Neil B; Msayib, Kadhum J; Turnbull, Graham A; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the use of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) as the active layer within a laser sensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors. We show successful detection of dinitrobenzene (DNB) by monitoring the real-time photoluminescence. We also show that PIM-1 has an inherent memory, so that it accumulates the analyte during exposure. In addition, the optical gain and refractive index of the polymer were studied by amplified spontaneous emission and variable-angle ellipsometry, respectively. A second-order distributed feedback PIM-1 laser sensor was fabricated and found to show an increase in laser threshold of 2.5 times and a reduction of the laser slope efficiency by 4.4 times after a 5-min exposure to the DNB vapor. For pumping at 2 times threshold, the lasing action was stopped within 30 s indicating that PIM-1 has a very fast responsivity and as such has a potential sensing ability for ultra-low-concentration explosives.

  6. Exercise intensity-dependent changes in the inflammatory response in sedentary women: role of neuroendocrine parameters in the neutrophil phagocytic process and the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Garcia, J J; Hinchado, M D; Ortega, E

    2009-01-01

    It is still not really known what is the optimal level of exercise that improves, but does not impair or overstimulate the innate immune function. This is especially the case in women, who have higher basal levels of 'inflammatory markers' than men. The aim of this work was to evaluate differences in the magnitude of the stimulation of the innate/inflammatory response following a single bout of moderate or intense exercise in sedentary women, all of them in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Changes in stress and sexual hormones were also evaluated. Changes induced by exercise (45 min at 55% VO(2) max vs. 1 h at 70% VO(2) max on a cycle ergometer) in the phagocytic process (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicide capacity against Candida albicans) and in serum concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 (ELISA) were evaluated. Parallel determinations were also made of serum or plasma concentrations of catecholamines (HPLC) and cortisol, oestradiol, and progesterone (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay). Both exercise intensities increased chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicide capacity of the neutrophils. However, the increase in chemotaxis was greater after moderate exercise. All the cytokines assayed were affected by exercise intensity. IFN-gamma increased significantly only immediately after the intense exercise; IL-1beta increased following both exercise intensities, although at 24 h it only remained elevated after the intense exercise; IL-12 only increased 24 h after the intense exercise, and IL-2 only showed a significant decrease following the moderate exercise. IL-6 increased immediately after both exercise intensities, but more so after moderate exercise. While IL-4 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) increased following the moderate exercise, it decreased after the intense exercise. Both moderate and intense exercise increased norepinephrine and decreased cortisol, both of which returned to basal levels after 24 h

  7. pH-Responsive Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles with Rapid Antigen Release Behavior Promote Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiaoming; Jia, Jilei; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Tingyuan; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2015-05-26

    In the quest to treat intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection, nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered to be efficient tools for inducing potent immune responses, specifically cellular immunity. Antigen processing and presenting by antigen presenting cells (APCs) could influence immune response, especially the priming of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity. Here, we fabricated pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with rapid antigen intracellular release behavior in APCs. The NPs, which had thin shells and large inner space, contain ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which could regulate release in endosomes and lysosomes, acting as an antigen release promoter in dendritic cells (DCs), and were coencapsulated with antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). Hydrogen ions (H(+)) in DC endosomes and lysosomes (pH ∼5.0 and 6.5) could react with NH4HCO3 to generate NH3 and CO2, which broke NPs and released antigens. After uptake by DCs, antigens encapsulated in pH-responsive PLGA NPs could escape from lysosomes into the cytoplasm and be cross-presented. Moreover, the NPs induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and stimulated cytokine production. Mouse immunization with pH-responsive PLGA NPs induced greater lymphocyte activation, more antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, stronger cytotoxic capacity (IFN-γ and granzyme B), enhanced antigen-specific IgG antibodies, and higher serum IgG2a/IgG1, indicating cellular immunity. The NPs also improved generation of memory T cells to protect against reinfection. Thus, pH-responsive PLGA NPs, which induced strong cellular immune responses and offered antibody protection, could be potentially useful as effective vaccine delivery and adjuvant systems for the therapy of intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection.

  8. Timing of palliative care team referrals for inpatients receiving rapid response services: A retrospective pilot study in a US hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M; Cardona-Morrell, M; Stevens, P; Bey, J; Smith Glasgow, M E

    2017-10-01

    Research indicates up to one-third of rapid response team calls relate to end-of-life symptoms. The CriSTAL criteria were developed as a screening tool to identify high risk of death within three months. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the timing of palliative care referrals in patients receiving rapid response team services, and patients' CriSTAL criteria score on admission. The potential feasibility of using the CriSTAL tool to stimulate earlier Palliative Care Team (PCT) referral served as an underlying goal, and investigation of a relationship between specific CriSTAL criteria and the prediction of in-hospital death was a secondary objective. A retrospective chart review of rapid response calls made in 2015 was used to identify patient risk of death on admission based on the CriSTAL criteria. The presence and timing of PCT referral as well as patient survival status to hospital discharge were documented for comparison. A sample of 183 charts from 584 inpatients involved in over 600 RRT events recorded in 2015. The study was undertaken in a 676-bed teaching hospital in the Midwestern U.S. Ninety-one patients died during the hospital stay while 92 patients from the 493 individuals who survived were randomly selected for full analysis. Applying CriSTAL criteria to the 141 individuals aged 50 years or older indicated that frailty (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.08-1.89, p=0.012), being a male (OR=3.14; 95%CI 1.40-7.05, p=0.006), and the presence of two or more comorbidities (OR=3.71, 95%CI 1.67-8.24, p=0.001) were the most significant predictors of in-hospital death after adjusting for age. A CriSTAL score of 6 was the optimal cut-off for high-risk of in-hospital death. Palliative care consultations within the high-risk population occurred for 45.2% of the deceased and 40.4% of the survivors. Consultation often occurred within two days of the RRT event and many patients (46.8%) died within one day of the consultation. A positive relationship was found

  9. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

    2014-07-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (∼50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  11. AUTOMATED FORMOSAT IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR RAPID RESPONSE TO INTERNATIONAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan’s first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO, Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  12. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  13. A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Loureiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers.

  14. Wetland vegetation in Manzala lagoon, Nile Delta coast, Egypt: Rapid responses of pollen to altered nile hydrology and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Stanley, J.-D.; Horton, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The pollen record in a sediment core from Manzala lagoon on the Nile delta coastal margin of Egypt, deposited from ca. AD 1860 to 1990, indicates rapid coastal wetland vegetation responses to two primary periods of human activity. These are associated with artificially altered Nile hydrologic regimes in proximal areas and distal sectors located to ???1200 km south of Manzala. Freshwater wetland plants that were dominant, such as Typha and Phragmites, decreased rapidly, whereas in the early 1900s, brackish water wetland species (e.g., Amaranthaceae) increased. This change occurred after closure of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The second major modification in the pollen record occurred in the early 1970s, after Aswan High Dam closure from 1965 to 1970, when Typha pollen abundance increased rapidly. Massive population growth occurred along the Nile during the 130 years represented by the core section. During this time, the total volume of lagoon water decreased because of conversion of wetland areas to agricultural land, and input of organic-rich sediment, sewage (municipal, agricultural, industrial), and fertilizer in Manzala lagoon increased markedly. Although the wetland plant community has continued to respond to increasingly intensified and varied human-induced pressures in proximal sectors, the two most marked changes in Manzala pollen best correlate with distal events (i.e., closure of the two dams at Aswan). The study also shows that the two major vegetation changes in Manzala lagoon each occurred less than 10 years after closure upriver of the Low and High dams that markedly altered the Nile regime from Upper Egypt to the coast. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  15. Child Maltreatment and Gender Interactions as Predictors of Differential Neuroendocrine Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Child maltreatment is a potent stressor associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation and increased risk for mental and physical disorders throughout the lifespan. Gender differences in stress reactivity and adult psychopathology prevalence may be related to sex-specific responsivity to stress. The purpose of this study is to examine whether gender interacts with the stress of maltreatment to produce differential neuroendocrine profiles in children. Participants included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income, racially and ethnically diverse children (range: 7.9–10.9 years; M= 9.42 years; 52% male) who attended a summer research day camp. Saliva was collected 3 times across the day for 5 days for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) analysis. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the type, severity, chronicity, onset, and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Significant interactions between gender and maltreatment pervasiveness predicted diurnal cortisol, DHEA, and cortisol/DHEA ratio levels. Elevated daily cortisol levels were reported for boys compared to girls in the group with more pervasive maltreatment. Boys with less pervasive maltreatment had lower DHEA and higher cortisol/DHEA ratio levels than girls with similar experiences, nonmaltreated boys, and boys with more pervasive maltreatment. Further results are consistent with down-regulation of cortisol production in girls with more pervasive maltreatment and girls who experienced maltreatment that was early onset and not recent. The effectiveness of interventions for maltreated children may be improved with greater knowledge of how maltreatment differentially affects neuroendocrine regulation by gender. PMID:23333253

  16. Neuroendocrine disruption of organizational and activational hormone programming in poikilothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Denslow, Nancy D; Orlando, Edward F; Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain is tightly orchestrated by organizational and activational effects of endogenous hormones. In mammals and birds, the organizational period is typified by a surge of sex hormones during differentiation of specific neural circuits; whereas activational effects are dependent upon later increases in these same hormones at sexual maturation. Depending on the reproductive organ or brain region, initial programming events may be modulated by androgens or require conversion of androgens to estrogens. The prevailing notion based upon findings in mammalian models is that male brain is sculpted to undergo masculinization and defeminization. In absence of these responses, the female brain develops. While timing of organizational and activational events vary across taxa, there are shared features. Further, exposure of different animal models to environmental chemicals such as xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A-BPA and ethinylestradiol-EE2, gestagens, and thyroid hormone disruptors, broadly classified as neuroendocrine disrupting chemicals (NED), during these critical periods may result in similar alterations in brain structure, function, and consequently, behaviors. Organizational effects of neuroendocrine systems in mammals and birds appear to be permanent, whereas teleost fish neuroendocrine systems exhibit plasticity. While there are fewer NED studies in amphibians and reptiles, data suggest that NED disrupt normal organizational-activational effects of endogenous hormones, although it remains to be determined if these disturbances are reversible. The aim of this review is to examine how various environmental chemicals may interrupt normal organizational and activational events in poikilothermic vertebrates. By altering such processes, these chemicals may affect reproductive health of an animal and result in compromised populations and ecosystem-level effects.

  17. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Chekuri

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment on liver stiffness (LS.LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan, demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The median age of the patients (n = 100 was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range 54-64; 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60 pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38 at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60% of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38 versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23, p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5 during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63 years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99.LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  18. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    -off and minimum image distortion among the satellites, using Landsat's specifications. Attitude-specific constraints such as power consumption, response time, and stability were factored into the optimality computations. The algorithm can integrate cloud cover predictions, specific ground and air assets and angular constraints.

  19. Empirically defining rapid response to intensive treatment to maximize prognostic utility for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; Trottier, Kathryn; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid response (RR) to eating disorder treatment has been reliably identified as a predictor of post-treatment and sustained remission, but its definition has varied widely. Although signal detection methods have been used to empirically define RR thresholds in outpatient settings, RR to intensive treatment has not been investigated. This study investigated the optimal definition of RR to day hospital treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder. Participants were 158 patients who completed ≥6 weeks of day hospital treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to create four definitions of RR that could differentiate between remission and nonremission at the end of treatment. Definitions were based on binge/vomit episode frequency or percent reduction from pre-treatment, during either the first four or first two weeks of treatment. All definitions were associated with higher remission rates in rapid compared to nonrapid responders. Only one definition (i.e., ≤3 episodes in the first four weeks of treatment) predicted sustained remission (versus relapse) at 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings provide an empirically derived definition of RR to intensive eating disorder treatment, and provide further evidence that early change is an important prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  1. Adenovirus-vectored drug-vaccine duo as a rapid-response tool for conferring seamless protection against influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Few other diseases exert such a huge toll of suffering as influenza. We report here that intranasal (i.n. administration of E1/E3-defective (ΔE1E3 adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 particles rapidly induced an anti-influenza state as a means of prophylactic therapy which persisted for several weeks in mice. By encoding an influenza virus (IFV hemagglutinin (HA HA1 domain, an Ad5-HA1 vector conferred rapid protection as a prophylactic drug followed by elicitation of sustained protective immunity as a vaccine for inducing seamless protection against influenza as a drug-vaccine duo (DVD in a single package. Since Ad5 particles induce a complex web of host responses, which could arrest influenza by activating a specific arm of innate immunity to impede IFV growth in the airway, it is conceivable that this multi-pronged influenza DVD may escape the fate of drug resistance that impairs the current influenza drugs.

  2. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  3. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  4. Developmental stress and social phenotypes: integrating neuroendocrine, behavioural and evolutionary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Karen A

    2017-08-19

    The social world is filled with different types of interactions, and social experience interacts with stress on several different levels. Activation of the neuroendocrine axis that regulates the response to stress can have consequences for innumerable behavioural responses, including social decision-making and aspects of sociality, such as gregariousness and aggression. This is especially true for stress experienced during early life, when physiological systems are developing and highly sensitive to perturbation. Stress at this time can have persistent effects on social behaviours into adulthood. One important question remaining is to what extent these effects are adaptive. This paper initially reviews the current literature investigating the complex relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other neuroendocrine systems and several aspects of social behaviour in vertebrates. In addition, the review explores the evidence surrounding the potential for 'social programming' via differential development and activation of the HPA axis, providing an insight into the potential for positive effects on fitness following early life stress. Finally, the paper provides a framework from which novel investigations could work to fully understand the adaptive significance of early life effects on social behaviours.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of 2 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Collado-Mesa, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors of the breast are very rare accounting for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in different histologic types of breast carcinoma including in situ and invasive ductal or invasive lobular. However, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast requires the expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the cell population, the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ, and the absence of clinical evidence of concurrent primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of any other organ. Reports discussing the imaging characteristics of this rare carcinoma in different breast imaging modalities are scarce. We present 2 cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast for which mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging findings and pathology findings are described. A review of the medical literature on this particular topic was performed, and the results are presented.

  6. Genetic analysis of an orbital metastasis from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Ø; von Holstein, Sarah L; Prause, Jan U

    2014-01-01

    hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumours are extremely rare, and the orbit is an extremely rare location for a neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis. This is the first reported case of an orbital metastasis with origin from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.......A 71-year-old female with a known history of primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, presented with a visual defect, proptosis and restricted eye movements of the right eye. Biopsies from the orbit and from the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma showed similar morphological...... and immunohistochemical features, and high-resolution, array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated loss of one copy each of chromosomes 3 and 18, and gain of 1q both in the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and in the orbital tumour. The orbital mass was diagnosed as a metastasis from the primary...

  7. Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response following use of Dietary Supplement Containing 1,3 Dimethylamylamine and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Our nation?s servicemembers commonly use dietary supplements to enhance their performance. Despite this prolific use, many of these products have detrimental side-effects that compromise servicemembers? health and could, by proxy, compromise a mission. This paper presents the case of a 32-year old Navy Special Operations Forces (SOF) Sailor who, prior to physical training, used a supplement containing 1,3 Dimethylamylamine (DMAA), and then developed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. He required intravenous calcium channel blocker administration, followed by beta blockers, for rate control. As military providers, we routinely ask our patients about their use of supplements and while the regulation of these products is beyond the scope of practice for most of us, it is our duty to become better educated about the risks and benefits of these supplements. We must educate our patients and our commands on the potential harm that these supplements may pose. 2012.

  8. Neuroendocrine differentiation in a case of cervical cancer | Rashed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an ...

  9. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix- a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The present study describes 5 cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the uterine cervix, evaluating their clinical features and pathological profiles. Methods. Clinical data were obtained from the patients' clinical files at the combined gynaecological-oncology unit of Johannesburg Hospital and ...

  10. Everolimus Effect on Gastrin and Glucagon in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavel, Marianne E.; Chen, David; He, Wei; Cushman, Stephanie; Voi, Maurizio; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Baudin, Eric; Yao, James C.

    Objectives: The pharmacodynamic effects of everolimus on gastrointestinal hormone levels have not been described in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNETin RADIANT-1 (a single-arm

  11. Towards a unified model of neuroendocrine-immune interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, N

    2001-08-01

    Although the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulating potential, studies examining the relationship between stress, immunity and infection have, until recently, largely been the preserve of behavioural psychologists. Over the last decade, however, immunologists have begun to increasingly appreciate that neuroendocrine-immune interactions hold the key to understanding the complex behaviour of the immune system in vivo. The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities we would propose that they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity. This paper reviews current knowledge of neuroendocrine-immune interaction and uses the example of T-cell subset differentiation to show the previously under-appreciated importance of neuroendocrine influences in the regulation of immune function and, in particular, Th1/Th2 balance and diurnal variation there of.

  12. Surgical Treatment of an Isolated Metastatic Myocardial Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Christiano C B; Sayad, Dany; Strosberg, Jonathan; Faber, Cristiano; Saouma, Samer; Michaud, Tabitha

    2016-02-01

    We describe a patient diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor of the small intestine metastatic to the heart who underwent successful cardiac metastasectomy. The tumor was located on the right ventricle free wall, obstructing the right ventricular outflow tract. There was no valvular involvement. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is human papillomavirus involved in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halmos, Gyorgy B; van der Laan, Tom P; van Hemel, Bettien M; Dikkers, Frederik G; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Schuuring, Ed

    The purpose of this study was to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma (LNEC) and to explore the possible relationship between HPV-induced malignant transformation and prognosis in LNEC. Ten cases of LNEC from a tertiary referral hospital were

  14. Neuroendocrine Tumour in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of an HIV-positive female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who was treated for recurrent peptic ulcer disease and later developed diabetes mellitus and chronic diarrhoea. A metastasising somatostatinoma was histologically proven and evidence of a concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine ...

  15. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  16. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  17. Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases induces a rapid rise in intermediate blood monocytes which predicts treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Dominic; Starlinger, Patrick; Alidzanovic, Lejla; Zajc, Philipp; Maier, Thomas; Feldman, Alexandra; Padickakudy, Robin; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Elleder, Vanessa; Spittler, Andreas; Stift, Judith; Pop, Lorand; Gruenberger, Birgit; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously reported that intermediate monocytes (CD14++/CD16+) were increased in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, while the subset of pro-angiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) was not significantly elevated. This study was designed to evaluate changes in frequency and function of intermediate monocytes and TEMs during chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic cancer treatment and their relation to treatment response. Monocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry in 60 metastasized CRC (mCRC) patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment, after two therapy cycles, at the end of neoadjuvant therapy and immediately before surgical resection of liver metastases. Neoadjuvant treatment resulted in a significant increase in circulating intermediate monocytes which was most pronounced after two cycles and positively predicted tumor response (AUC = 0.875, p = 0.005). With a cut-off value set to 1% intermediate monocytes of leukocytes, this parameter showed a predictive sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 88%. Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab had no impact on monocyte populations including TEMs. In 15 patients and six healthy controls, the gene expression profile and the migratory behavior of monocyte subsets was evaluated. The profile of intermediate monocytes suggested functions in antigen presentation, inflammatory cytokine production, chemotaxis and was remarkably stable during chemotherapy. Intermediate monocytes showed a preferential migratory response to tumor-derived signals in vitro and correlated with the level of CD14+/CD16+ monocytic infiltrates in the resected tumor tissue. In conclusion, the rapid rise of intermediate monocytes during chemotherapy may offer a simple marker for response prediction and a timely change in regimen. PMID:27471631

  18. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  19. Predicting meaningful outcomes to medication and self-help treatments for binge-eating disorder in primary care: The significance of early rapid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2015-04-01

    We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. GeoNet's `Felt Rapid': Collecting What Is Needed, When You Need It, No More, No Less. Rapid, Volumous Data For Response Versus Detailed, Precise Data For Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C. L.; McBride, S.; Balfour, N.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's geohazard monitoring agency, GeoNet, recently implemented `Felt Rapid': earthquake felt reporting that is quick and simple. GeoNet locates 20,000 earthquakes each year with hundreds of those reported as being felt. Starting in the late 1800s, the New Zealand public has become adept at completing felt reports but feedback since the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence suggested that traditional felt reporting was not meeting researchers' or the public's needs. GeoNet required something rapid, adaptable and robust. The solution was Felt Rapid, a mobile app and website where respondents simply pick from 6 cartoon images - representing Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 3-8 - that best aligned to what they felt. For the last decade, felt reporting has been conducted via the GeoNet website, with additional targeted surveys after damaging earthquakes. The vast majority of the submitted felt reports were for earthquakes too small to cause damage, as these are by far the most frequent. Reports from small events are of little interest to researchers who are only concerned with damaging, MMI6 and above. However, we found that when damaging earthquakes did occur, such as Christchurch's M6.3, they were only sparsely reported (3,776 reports). Understandably, sitting at a computer and completing a lengthy online form wasn't a priority for people after a devastating earthquake. With Felt Rapid, reporting has to be completed within an hour of an earthquake, the use of GeoNet's automatically compiled felt reporting maps had evolved; their main purpose is immediate assessment of an earthquake's impact on populations, and is used by Civil Defence agencies. Reports are immediately displayed on an interactive map via the website and mobile app. With over 250,000 users this provides rapid and robust information regarding the experienced shaking. When a damaging earthquake occurs and researchers want to collect important and rare damaging felt reports, a separate in-depth survey

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos-Kudła, Beata; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Foltyn, Wanda; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Krzakowski, Maciej; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Lipiński, Michał; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nawrocki, Sergiusz; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw. Drawing from the extensive experience of centres dealing with this type of neoplasms, we hope that we have managed to develop the optimal management system, applying the most recent achievements in the field of medicine, for these patients, and that it can be implemented effectively in Poland. These management guidelines have been arranged in the following order: gastric and duodenal NENs (including gastrinoma); pancreatic NENs; NENs of the small intestine and appendix, and colorectal NENs.

  2. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.