WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid natural scene

  1. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  2. Color aids late but not early stages of rapid natural scene recognition.

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    Yao, Angela Y J; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2008-12-22

    Color has an unresolved role in natural scene recognition. Whereas rapid serial visual presentation paradigms typically find no advantage for colored over grayscale scenes, color seems to play a decisive role for recognition memory. The distinction between detection and memorization has not been addressed directly in one paradigm. Here we asked ten observers to detect animals in 2-s 20 Hz sequences. Each sequence consisted of two 1-s segments, one of grayscale images and one of colored; each segment contained one or no target, totaling zero, one, or two targets per sequence. In one-target sequences, hit rates were virtually the same for targets appearing in the first or second segment, as well as for grayscale and colored targets, though observers were more confident about detecting colored targets. In two-target sequences, observers preferentially reported the second of two identical targets, in comparison to categorically related (same-species animals) or unrelated (different-species animals) targets. Observers also showed a strong preference for reporting colored targets, though only when targets were of different species. Our findings suggest that color has little effect on detection, but is used in later stages of processing. We may speculate that color ensures preferential access to or retrieval from memory when distinct items must be rapidly remembered.

  3. Rapid serial processing of natural scenes: color modulates detection but neither recognition nor the attentional blink.

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    Marx, Svenja; Hansen-Goos, Onno; Thrun, Michael; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2014-12-16

    The exact function of color vision for natural-scene perception has remained puzzling. In rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks, categorically defined targets (e.g., animals) are detected typically slightly better for color than for grayscale stimuli. Here we test the effect of color on animal detection, recognition, and the attentional blink. We present color and grayscale RSVP sequences with up to two target images (animals) embedded. In some conditions, we modify either the hue or the intensity of each pixel. We confirm a benefit of color over grayscale images for animal detection over a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with improved hit rates from 50 to 120 ms and overall improved performance from 90 to 120 ms. For stimuli in which the hue is inverted, performance is similar to grayscale for small SOAs and indistinguishable from original color only for large SOAs. For subordinate category discrimination, color provides no additional benefit. Color and grayscale sequences show an attentional blink, but differences between color and grayscale are fully explained by single-target differences, ruling out the possibility that the color benefit is purely attentional. © 2014 ARVO.

  4. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

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    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  5. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

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    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  6. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish......, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve...

  7. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lewicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to a number of important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated. Despite this progress, there are also critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying analysis comprising four essential properties: 1 the ability to solve ill-posed problems, 2 the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, 3 efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and 4 the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress towards behavioral goals.

  8. Relaxation with Immersive Natural Scenes Presented Using Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Mayer, Michael D; Fellows, Abigail M; Cowan, Devin R; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) can provide exposure to nature for those living in isolated confined environments. We evaluated VR-presented natural settings for reducing stress and improving mood. There were 18 participants (9 men, 9 women), ages 32 ± 12 yr, who viewed three 15-min 360° scenes (an indoor control, rural Ireland, and remote beaches). Subjects were mentally stressed with arithmetic before scenes. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate variability measured psycho-physiological arousal. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the 15-question Modified Reality Judgment and Presence Questionnaire (MRJPQ) measured mood and scene quality. Reductions in EDA from baseline were greater at the end of the natural scenes compared to the control scene (-0.59, -0.52, and 0.32 μS, respectively). The natural scenes reduced negative affect from baseline ( 1.2 and 1.1 points), but the control scene did not ( 0.4 points). MRJPQ scores for the control scene were lower than both natural scenes (4.9, 6.7, and 6.5 points, respectively). Within the two natural scenes, the preferred scene reduced negative affect ( 2.4 points) more than the second choice scene ( 1.8 points) and scored higher on the MRJPQ (6.8 vs. 6.4 points). Natural scene VR provided relaxation both objectively and subjectively, and scene preference had a significant effect on mood and perception of scene quality. VR may enable relaxation for people living in isolated confined environments, particularly when matched to personal preferences.Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):520526.

  9. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain.

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    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C

    2006-06-06

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.

  10. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

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    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  11. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

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    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  12. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

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    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

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    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  14. Characteristics of color memory for natural scenes.

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    Amano, Kinjiro; Uchikawa, Keiji; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    To study the characteristics of color memory for natural images, a memory-identification task was performed with differing color contrasts; three of the contrasts were defined by chromatic and luminance components of the image, and the others were defined with respect to the categorical colors. After observing a series of pictures successively, subjects identified the pictures using a confidence rating. Detection of increased contrasts tended to be harder than detection of decreased contrasts, suggesting that the chromaticness of pictures is enhanced in memory. Detecting changes within each color category was more difficult than across the categories. A multiple mechanism that processes color differences and categorical colors is briefly considered.

  15. Manipulating the content of dynamic natural scenes to characterize response in human MT/MST.

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    Durant, Szonya; Wall, Matthew B; Zanker, Johannes M

    2011-09-09

    Optic flow is one of the most important sources of information for enabling human navigation through the world. A striking finding from single-cell studies in monkeys is the rapid saturation of response of MT/MST areas with the density of optic flow type motion information. These results are reflected psychophysically in human perception in the saturation of motion aftereffects. We began by comparing responses to natural optic flow scenes in human visual brain areas to responses to the same scenes with inverted contrast (photo negative). This changes scene familiarity while preserving local motion signals. This manipulation had no effect; however, the response was only correlated with the density of local motion (calculated by a motion correlation model) in V1, not in MT/MST. To further investigate this, we manipulated the visible proportion of natural dynamic scenes and found that areas MT and MST did not increase in response over a 16-fold increase in the amount of information presented, i.e., response had saturated. This makes sense in light of the sparseness of motion information in natural scenes, suggesting that the human brain is well adapted to exploit a small amount of dynamic signal and extract information important for survival.

  16. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

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    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  17. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

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    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-05

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect.

  18. Optical character recognition in images of natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Rok; Jurc, Maja; Kalan, Janko; Batič, Franc

    2016-01-01

    This masters thesis presents and describes modern methods of optical character recognition in natural scenes. Methods with high classification results and are robust to illumination and geometric transformations were selected for the thesis. Our work is based on the implementation of three different methods for obtaining features. The basic HOG method, which also underlies the other two methods is one of the most popular feature extraction methods in object detection and character recognition...

  19. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

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    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  20. Constrained sampling experiments reveal principles of detection in natural scenes.

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    Sebastian, Stephen; Abrams, Jared; Geisler, Wilson S

    2017-07-11

    A fundamental everyday visual task is to detect target objects within a background scene. Using relatively simple stimuli, vision science has identified several major factors that affect detection thresholds, including the luminance of the background, the contrast of the background, the spatial similarity of the background to the target, and uncertainty due to random variations in the properties of the background and in the amplitude of the target. Here we use an experimental approach based on constrained sampling from multidimensional histograms of natural stimuli, together with a theoretical analysis based on signal detection theory, to discover how these factors affect detection in natural scenes. We sorted a large collection of natural image backgrounds into multidimensional histograms, where each bin corresponds to a particular luminance, contrast, and similarity. Detection thresholds were measured for a subset of bins spanning the space, where a natural background was randomly sampled from a bin on each trial. In low-uncertainty conditions, both the background bin and the amplitude of the target were fixed, and, in high-uncertainty conditions, they varied randomly on each trial. We found that thresholds increase approximately linearly along all three dimensions and that detection accuracy is unaffected by background bin and target amplitude uncertainty. The results are predicted from first principles by a normalized matched-template detector, where the dynamic normalizing gain factor follows directly from the statistical properties of the natural backgrounds. The results provide an explanation for classic laws of psychophysics and their underlying neural mechanisms.

  1. PRACE resources to study extreme natural events: the SCENE project

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    Fiori, Elisabetta; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting severe storms and floods is one of the main challenges of 21th century. Floods are the most dangerous meteorological hazard in the Mediterranean basins due to both the number of people affected and to the relatively high frequency by which human activities and goods suffer damages and losses. The numerical simulations of extreme events which happen over small basins as the Mediterranean ones are need a very fine-resolution in space and time and as a consequence considerable memory and computational power are required. Since the resources provided by the PRACE project represent the solution for satisfying such requirements, the Super Computing of Extreme Natural Events (SCENE) project has been proposed. SCENE aims to provide an advanced understanding of the intrinsic predictability of severe precipitation processes and the associated predictive ability of high-resolution meteorological models with a special focus on flash flood-producing storms in regions of complex orography (e.g. Mediterranean area) through the assessment of the role of both the convective and microphysical processes. The meteorological model considered in the project is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. Thus, among all the parameterizations available in the WRF model, the WRF Single-Moment 6-Class Scheme and the Thompson microphysics scheme will be adopted for the numerical simulations in combination with three different approaches for the treatment of the convective processes, that is the use of explicit method, Betts-Miller-Janjic Scheme and Kain-Fritsch. As for flash-flood producing storms, the project considers the recent sequence of extreme events occurred in the north-western portion of the Mediterranean sea; some of these events are the so-called critical cases of the DRIHM project (www.drihm.eu), i.e. selected severe

  2. Emergence of visual saliency from natural scenes via context-mediated probability distributions coding.

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    Jinhua Xu

    Full Text Available Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes.

  3. Informational factors in identifying environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes.

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    Leech, Robert; Gygi, Brian; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic

    2009-12-01

    In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a composite background scene created by playing different background scenes to the different ears. The side of presentation, time of onset, and number of target sounds were varied across trials to increase the uncertainty for the participant. Half the sounds were contextually congruent with the background sound (i.e., consistent with the meaningful real-world sound environment represented in the auditory scene) and half were incongruent. The presence of a single competing background scene decreased identification accuracy, suggesting an informational masking effect. In tandem, there was a contextual pop-out effect, with contextually incongruent sounds identified more accurately. However, when targets were incongruent with the real-world context of the background scene, informational masking was reduced. Acoustic analyses suggested that this contextual pop-out effect was driven by a mixture of perceptual differences between the target and background, as well as by higher-level cognitive factors. These findings indicate that identification of environmental sounds in naturalistic backgrounds is an active process that requires integrating perceptual, attentional, and cognitive resources.

  4. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

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    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  5. Adaptively Combining Local with Global Information for Natural Scenes Categorization

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    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Yang, Xu

    This paper proposes the Extended Bag-of-Visterms (EBOV) to represent semantic scenes. In previous methods, most representations are bag-of-visterms (BOV), where visterms referred to the quantized local texture information. Our new representation is built by introducing global texture information to extend standard bag-of-visterms. In particular we apply the adaptive weight to fuse the local and global information together in order to provide a better visterm representation. Given these representations, scene classification can be performed by pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model. The experiment results show that the appropriate use of global information improves the performance of scene classification, as compared with BOV representation that only takes the local information into account.

  6. Face, Body, and Center of Gravity Mediate Person Detection in Natural Scenes

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    Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…

  7. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

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    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  8. Fixational eye movements during viewing of dynamic natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Roberts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even during periods of fixation our eyes undergo small amplitude movements. These movements are thought to be essential to the visual system because neural responses rapidly fade when images are stabilized on the retina. The considerable recent interest in fixational eye movements (FEMs has thus far concentrated on idealized experimental conditions with artificial stimuli and restrained head movements, which are not necessarily a suitable model for natural vision. Natural dynamic stimuli, such as movies, offer the potential to move beyond restrictive experimental settings to probe the visual system with greater ecological validity. Here, we study FEMs recorded in humans during the unconstrained viewing of a dynamic and realistic visual environment, revealing that drift trajectories exhibit the properties of a random walk with memory. Drifts are correlated at short time scales such that the gaze position diverges from the initial fixation more quickly than would be expected for an uncorrelated random walk. We propose a simple model based on the premise that the eye tends to avoid retracing its recent steps to prevent photoreceptor adaptation. The model reproduces key features of the observed dynamics and enables estimation of parameters from data. Our findings show that FEM correlations thought to prevent perceptual fading exist even in highly dynamic real-world conditions.

  9. Face detection differs from categorization: evidence from visual search in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Lewis, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether the detection of frontal, ¾, and profile face views differs from their categorization as faces. In Experiment 1, we compared three tasks that required observers to determine the presence or absence of a face, but varied in the extents to which participants had to search for the faces in simple displays and in small or large scenes to make this decision. Performance was equivalent for all of the face views in simple displays and small scenes, but it was notably slower for profile views when this required the search for faces in extended scene displays. This search effect was confirmed in Experiment 2, in which we compared observers' eye movements with their response times to faces in visual scenes. These results demonstrate that the categorization of faces at fixation is dissociable from the detection of faces in space. Consequently, we suggest that face detection should be studied with extended visual displays, such as natural scenes.

  10. A time-critical adaptive approach for visualizing natural scenes on different devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tianyang; Liu, Siyuan; Xia, Jiajia; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    To automatically adapt to various hardware and software environments on different devices, this paper presents a time-critical adaptive approach for visualizing natural scenes. In this method, a simplified expression of a tree model is used for different devices. The best rendering scheme is intelligently selected to generate a particular scene by estimating the rendering time of trees based on their visual importance. Therefore, this approach can ensure the reality of natural scenes while maintaining a constant frame rate for their interactive display. To verify its effectiveness and flexibility, this method is applied in different devices, such as a desktop computer, laptop, iPad and smart phone. Applications show that the method proposed in this paper can not only adapt to devices with different computing abilities and system resources very well but can also achieve rather good visual realism and a constant frame rate for natural scenes.

  11. Preserving natural scene lighting by strobe-lit video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Olli; Gotchev, Atanas

    2015-03-01

    Capturing images in low light intensity, and preserving ambient light in such conditions pose significant problems in terms of achievable image quality. Either the sensitivity of the sensor must be increased, filling the resulting image with noise, or the scene must be lit with artificial light, destroying the aesthetic quality of the image. While the issue has been previously tackled for still imagery using cross-bilateral filtering, the same problem exists in capturing video. We propose a method of illuminating the scene with a strobe light synchronized to every other frame captured by the camera, and merging the information from consecutive frames alternating between high gain and high intensity lighting. The motion between the frames is compensated using motion estimation based on block matching between strobe-illuminated frames. The uniform lighting conditions between every other frame make it possible to utilize conventional motion estimation methods, circumventing the image registration challenges faced in fusing flash/non-flash pairs from non-stationary images. The results of the proposed method are shown to closely resemble those computed using the same filter based on reference images captured at perfect camera alignment. The method can be applied starting from a simple set of three frames to video streams of arbitrary lengths with the only requirements being sufficiently accurate syncing between the imaging device and the lighting unit, and the capability to switch states (sensor gain high/low, illumination on/off) fast enough.

  12. Salient object changes influence overt attentional prioritization and object-based targeting in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicola C; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations.

  13. Salient object changes influence overt attentional prioritization and object-based targeting in natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicola C.; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations. PMID:28222190

  14. Animal detection and identification in natural scenes: image statistics and emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Hilger, Maximilian; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-26

    Humans process natural scenes rapidly and accurately. Low-level image features and emotional valence affect such processing but have mostly been studied in isolation. At which processing stage these factors operate and how they interact has remained largely unaddressed. Here, we briefly presented natural images and asked observers to report the presence or absence of an animal (detection), species of the detected animal (identification), and their confidence. In a second experiment, the same observers rated images with respect to their emotional affect and estimated their anxiety when imagining a real-life encounter with the depicted animal. We found that detection and identification improved with increasing image luminance, background contrast, animal saturation, and luminance plus color contrast between target and background. Surprisingly, animals associated with lower anxiety were detected faster and identified with higher confidence, and emotional affect was a better predictor of performance than anxiety. Pupil size correlated with detection, identification, and emotional valence judgments at different time points after image presentation. Remarkably, images of threatening animals induced smaller pupil sizes, and observers with higher mean anxiety ratings had smaller pupils on average. In sum, rapid visual processing depends on contrasts between target and background features rather than overall visual context, is negatively affected by anxiety, and finds its processing stages differentially reflected in the pupillary response.

  15. Naturalness and image quality: chroma and hue variation in color images of natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Huib; Blommaert, Frans J. J.; Fedorovskaya, Elena A.

    1995-04-01

    The relation between perceptual image quality and naturalness was investigated by varying the colorfulness and hue of color images of natural scenes. These variations were created by digitizing the images, subsequently determining their color point distributions in the CIELUV color space and finally multiplying either the chroma value of the hue angle of each pixel by a constant. During the chroma/hue-angle transformation the lightness and hue-angle/chroma value of each pixel were kept constant. Ten subjects rated quality and naturalness on numerical scales. The results show that both quality and naturalness deteriorate as soon as hues start to deviate from the ones in the original image. Chroma variation affected the impression of quality and naturalness to a lesser extent than did hue variation. In general, a linear relation was found between image quality and naturalness. For chroma variation, however, a small but systematic deviation could be observed. This deviation reflects the subjects' preference for more colorful but, at the same time, somewhat unnatural images.

  16. Object segmentation controls image reconstruction from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The structure of the physical world projects images onto our eyes. However, those images are often poorly representative of environmental structure: well-defined boundaries within the eye may correspond to irrelevant features of the physical world, while critical features of the physical world may be nearly invisible at the retinal projection. The challenge for the visual cortex is to sort these two types of features according to their utility in ultimately reconstructing percepts and interpreting the constituents of the scene. We describe a novel paradigm that enabled us to selectively evaluate the relative role played by these two feature classes in signal reconstruction from corrupted images. Our measurements demonstrate that this process is quickly dominated by the inferred structure of the environment, and only minimally controlled by variations of raw image content. The inferential mechanism is spatially global and its impact on early visual cortex is fast. Furthermore, it retunes local visual processing for more efficient feature extraction without altering the intrinsic transduction noise. The basic properties of this process can be partially captured by a combination of small-scale circuit models and large-scale network architectures. Taken together, our results challenge compartmentalized notions of bottom-up/top-down perception and suggest instead that these two modes are best viewed as an integrated perceptual mechanism.

  17. Text Detection from Natural Scene Images : Towards a System for Visually Impaired Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezaki, Nobuo; Bulacu, Marius; Schomaker, Lambert

    2004-01-01

    We propose a system that reads the text encountered in natural scenes with the aim to provide assistance to the visually impaired persons. This paper describes the sys- tem design and evaluates several character extraction meth- ods. Automatic text recognition from natural images re- ceives a

  18. Object detection in natural scenes: Independent effects of spatial and category-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-04-01

    Humans are remarkably efficient in detecting highly familiar object categories in natural scenes, with evidence suggesting that such object detection can be performed in the (near) absence of attention. Here we systematically explored the influences of both spatial attention and category-based attention on the accuracy of object detection in natural scenes. Manipulating both types of attention additionally allowed for addressing how these factors interact: whether the requirement for spatial attention depends on the extent to which observers are prepared to detect a specific object category-that is, on category-based attention. The results showed that the detection of targets from one category (animals or vehicles) was better than the detection of targets from two categories (animals and vehicles), demonstrating the beneficial effect of category-based attention. This effect did not depend on the semantic congruency of the target object and the background scene, indicating that observers attended to visual features diagnostic of the foreground target objects from the cued category. Importantly, in three experiments the detection of objects in scenes presented in the periphery was significantly impaired when observers simultaneously performed an attentionally demanding task at fixation, showing that spatial attention affects natural scene perception. In all experiments, the effects of category-based attention and spatial attention on object detection performance were additive rather than interactive. Finally, neither spatial nor category-based attention influenced metacognitive ability for object detection performance. These findings demonstrate that efficient object detection in natural scenes is independently facilitated by spatial and category-based attention.

  19. Probing the natural scene by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bats echolocating in the natural environment face the formidable task of sorting signals from multiple auditory objects, echoes from obstacles, prey, and the calls of conspecifics. Successful orientation in a complex environment depends on auditory information processing, along with adaptive vocal......-motor behaviors and flight path control, which draw upon 3-D spatial perception, attention, and memory. This article reviews field and laboratory studies that document adaptive sonar behaviors of echolocating bats, and point to the fundamental signal parameters they use to track and sort auditory objects...

  20. Identification at the crime scene: The sooner, the better? The interpretation of rapid identification information by CSIs at the crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J

    2017-07-01

    New technologies will allow Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs) in the near future to analyse traces at the crime scene and receive identification information while still conducting the investigation. These developments could have considerable effects on the way an investigation is conducted. CSIs may start reasoning based on possible database-matches which could influence scenario formation (i.e. the construction of narratives that explain the observed traces) during very early phases of the investigation. The goal of this study is to gain more insight into the influence of the rapid identification information on the reconstruction of the crime and the evaluation of traces by addressing two questions, namely 1) is scenario formation influenced from the moment that ID information is provided and 2) do database matches influence the evaluation of traces and the reconstruction of the crime. We asked 48 CSIs from England to investigate a potential murder crime scene on a computer. Our findings show that the interpretation of the crime scene by CSIs is affected by the moment identification information is provided. This information has a higher influence on scenario formation when provided after an initial scenario has been formed. Also, CSIs seem to attach great value to traces that produce matches with databases and hence yield a name of a known person. Similar traces that did not provide matches were considered less important. We question whether this kind of selective attention is desirable as it may cause ignorance of other relevant information at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital holographic video service system for natural color scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk; Koo, Ja-Myung; Kim, Woo-Youl; Yoo, Ji-Sang; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-11-01

    We propose a new system that can generate digital holograms using natural color information. The system consists of a camera system for capturing images (object points) and software (S/W) for various image processing. The camera system uses a vertical rig, which is equipped with two depth and RGB cameras and a cold mirror, which has different reflectances according to wavelength for obtaining images with the same viewpoint. The S/W is composed of the engines for processing the captured images and executing computer-generated hologram for generating digital holograms using general-purpose graphics processing units. Each algorithm was implemented using C/C++ and CUDA languages, and all engines in the form of library were integrated in LabView environment. The proposed system can generate about 10 digital holographic frames per second using about 6 K object points.

  2. Rapid identification information and its influence on the perceived clues at a crime scene: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J

    2017-11-01

    Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario. The present study builds on this study and gains more insight into (1) the exact investigative and forensic information that was used by CSIs to construct their scenario, (2) the inferences drawn from this information, and (3) the kind of evidence that was selected at the crime scene to (dis)prove this scenario. We asked 48 CSIs to investigate a potential murder crime scene on the computer and explicate what information they used to construct a scenario and to select traces for analysis. The results show that the introduction of rapid ID information at the start of an investigation contributes to the recognition of different clues at the crime scene, but also to different interpretations of identical information, depending on the kind of information available and the scenario one has in mind. Furthermore, not all relevant traces were recognized, showing that important information can be missed during the investigation. In this study, accurate crime scenarios where mainly build with forensic information, but we should be aware of the fact that crime scenes are always contaminated with unrelated traces and thus be cautious of the power of rapid ID at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Qualitative spatial logic descriptors from 3D indoor scenes to generate explanations in natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas

    2017-06-24

    The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

  4. Fixation and saliency during search of natural scenes: the case of visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan; Dewhurst, Richard; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2009-07-01

    Models of eye movement control in natural scenes often distinguish between stimulus-driven processes (which guide the eyes to visually salient regions) and those based on task and object knowledge (which depend on expectations or identification of objects and scene gist). In the present investigation, the eye movements of a patient with visual agnosia were recorded while she searched for objects within photographs of natural scenes and compared to those made by students and age-matched controls. Agnosia is assumed to disrupt the top-down knowledge available in this task, and so may increase the reliance on bottom-up cues. The patient's deficit in object recognition was seen in poor search performance and inefficient scanning. The low-level saliency of target objects had an effect on responses in visual agnosia, and the most salient region in the scene was more likely to be fixated by the patient than by controls. An analysis of model-predicted saliency at fixation locations indicated a closer match between fixations and low-level saliency in agnosia than in controls. These findings are discussed in relation to saliency-map models and the balance between high and low-level factors in eye guidance.

  5. Attention in natural scenes: Affective-motivational factors guide gaze independently of visual salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Walper, Daniel; Wittmann, Bianca C; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In addition to low-level stimulus characteristics and current goals, our previous experience with stimuli can also guide attentional deployment. It remains unclear, however, if such effects act independently or whether they interact in guiding attention. In the current study, we presented natural scenes including every-day objects that differed in affective-motivational impact. In the first free-viewing experiment, we presented visually-matched triads of scenes in which one critical object was replaced that varied mainly in terms of motivational value, but also in terms of valence and arousal, as confirmed by ratings by a large set of observers. Treating motivation as a categorical factor, we found that it affected gaze. A linear-effect model showed that arousal, valence, and motivation predicted fixations above and beyond visual characteristics, like object size, eccentricity, or visual salience. In a second experiment, we experimentally investigated whether the effects of emotion and motivation could be modulated by visual salience. In a medium-salience condition, we presented the same unmodified scenes as in the first experiment. In a high-salience condition, we retained the saturation of the critical object in the scene, and decreased the saturation of the background, and in a low-salience condition, we desaturated the critical object while retaining the original saturation of the background. We found that highly salient objects guided gaze, but still found additional additive effects of arousal, valence and motivation, confirming that higher-level factors can also guide attention, as measured by fixations towards objects in natural scenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Valsecchi; Karl R. Gegenfurtner

    2012-01-01

    Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s) were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as ima...

  7. A distributed code for colour in natural scenes derived from centre-surround filtered cone signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Johannes Kellner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for colour. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in colour space. Here we investigated how the nonlinear spatiochromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of colour signals. Cone signals were derived from hyperspectral images of natural scenes and pre-processed by centre-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in colour space, similar to the population code of colour in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatiochromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.

  8. A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian J; Wachtler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.

  9. CB Database: A change blindness database for objects in natural indoor scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Ehinger, Krista A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-12-01

    Change blindness has been a topic of interest in cognitive sciences for decades. Change detection experiments are frequently used for studying various research topics such as attention and perception. However, creating change detection stimuli is tedious and there is no open repository of such stimuli using natural scenes. We introduce the Change Blindness (CB) Database with object changes in 130 colored images of natural indoor scenes. The size and eccentricity are provided for all the changes as well as reaction time data from a baseline experiment. In addition, we have two specialized satellite databases that are subsets of the 130 images. In one set, changes are seen in rooms or in mirrors in those rooms (Mirror Change Database). In the other, changes occur in a room or out a window (Window Change Database). Both the sets have controlled background, change size, and eccentricity. The CB Database is intended to provide researchers with a stimulus set of natural scenes with defined stimulus parameters that can be used for a wide range of experiments. The CB Database can be found at http://search.bwh.harvard.edu/new/CBDatabase.html .

  10. Scene statistics: neural representation of real-world structure in rapid visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain represent our visual environment? Research has revealed brain areas that respond to specific information such as faces and objects, but how a representation of an entire visual scene is formed is still unclear. This thesis explores the idea that scene statistics play an important

  11. Rapid Gist Perception of Meaningful Real-Life Scenes: Exploring Individual and Gender Differences in Multiple Categorization Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Vanmarcke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, we are generally able to dynamically understand and adapt to socially (irelevant encounters, and to make appropriate decisions about these. All of this requires an impressive ability to directly filter and obtain the most informative aspects of a complex visual scene. Such rapid gist perception can be assessed in multiple ways. In the ultrafast categorization paradigm developed by Simon Thorpe et al. (1996, participants get a clear categorization task in advance and succeed at detecting the target object of interest (animal almost perfectly (even with 20 ms exposures. Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog. In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence. In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men.

  12. Probability distributions of whisker-surface contact: quantifying elements of the rat vibrissotactile natural scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jennifer A; Towal, R Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of natural scene statistics has been a powerful approach for understanding neural coding in the auditory and visual systems. In the field of somatosensation, it has been more challenging to quantify the natural tactile scene, in part because somatosensory signals are so tightly linked to the animal's movements. The present work takes a step towards quantifying the natural tactile scene for the rat vibrissal system by simulating rat whisking motions to systematically investigate the probabilities of whisker-object contact in naturalistic environments. The simulations permit an exhaustive search through the complete space of possible contact patterns, thereby allowing for the characterization of the patterns that would most likely occur during long sequences of natural exploratory behavior. We specifically quantified the probabilities of 'concomitant contact', that is, given that a particular whisker makes contact with a surface during a whisk, what is the probability that each of the other whiskers will also make contact with the surface during that whisk? Probabilities of concomitant contact were quantified in simulations that assumed increasingly naturalistic conditions: first, the space of all possible head poses; second, the space of behaviorally preferred head poses as measured experimentally; and third, common head poses in environments such as cages and burrows. As environments became more naturalistic, the probability distributions shifted from exhibiting a 'row-wise' structure to a more diagonal structure. Results also reveal that the rat appears to use motor strategies (e.g. head pitches) that generate contact patterns that are particularly well suited to extract information in the presence of uncertainty. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Decorrelation of retinal response to natural scenes by fixational eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Irina Yonit; Giladi, Chen; Gedalin, Michael; Rucci, Michele; Ben-Tov, Mor; Kushinsky, Yam; Mokeichev, Alik; Segev, Ronen

    2015-03-10

    Under natural viewing conditions the input to the retina is a complex spatiotemporal signal that depends on both the scene and the way the observer moves. It is commonly assumed that the retina processes this input signal efficiently by taking into account the statistics of the natural world. It has recently been argued that incessant microscopic eye movements contribute to this process by decorrelating the input to the retina. Here we tested this theory by measuring the responses of the salamander retina to stimuli replicating the natural input signals experienced by the retina in the presence and absence of fixational eye movements. Contrary to the predictions of classic theories of efficient encoding that do not take behavior into account, we show that the response characteristics of retinal ganglion cells are not sufficient in themselves to disrupt the broad correlations of natural scenes. Specifically, retinal ganglion cells exhibited strong and extensive spatial correlations in the absence of fixational eye movements. However, the levels of correlation in the neural responses dropped in the presence of fixational eye movements, resulting in effective decorrelation of the channels streaming information to the brain. These observations confirm the predictions that microscopic eye movements act to reduce correlations in retinal responses and contribute to visual information processing.

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON TEXT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM NATURAL SCENE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit V. Manjaly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Text Information Extraction (TIE process, the text regions are localized and extracted from the images. It is an active research problem in computer vision applications. Diversity in text is due to the differences in size, style, orientation, alignment of text, low image contrast and complex backgrounds. The semantic information provided by an image can be used in different applications such as content based image retrieval, sign board identification etc. Text information extraction comprises of text image classification, text detection, localization, segmentation, enhancement and recognition. This paper contains a quick review on various text localization methods for localizing texts from natural scene images.

  15. Structural content in paintings: artists overregularize oriented content of paintings relative to the typical natural scene bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, April M; Essock, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Natural scenes tend to be biased in both scale (1/f) and orientation (H > V > O; horizontal > vertical > oblique), and the human visual system has similar biases that serve to partially 'undo' (ie whiten) the resultant representation. The present approach to investigating this relationship considers content in works of art-scenes produced for processing by the human visual system. We analyzed the content of images by a method that minimizes errors inherent in some prior analysis methods. In the first experiment museum paintings were considered by comparing the amplitude spectrum of landscape paintings, natural scene photos, portrait paintings, and photos of faces. In the second experiment we obtained photos of paintings at the time they were produced by local artists and compared structural content in matched photos which contained the same scenes that the artists had painted. Results show that artists produce paintings with both the 1/f bias of scale and the horizontal-effect bias of orientation (H > V > O). More importantly, results from both experiments show that artists overregularize the structure in their works: they impose the natural-scene horizontal effect at all structural scales and in all types of subject matter even though, in the real world, the pattern of anisotropy differs considerably across spatial scale and between faces and natural scenes. It appears that artists unconsciously overregularize the oriented structure in their works to make it conform more uniformly to the 'expected' canonical ideal.

  16. Color changes in objects in natural scenes as a function of observation distance and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Javier; Luzón-González, Raúl; Nieves, Juan L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the changes in the color of objects in natural scenes due to atmospheric scattering according to changes in the distance of observation. Hook-shaped curves were found in the chromaticity diagram when the object moved from zero distance to long distances, where the object chromaticity coordinates approached the color coordinates of the horizon. This trend is the result of the combined effect of attenuation in the direct light arriving to the observer from the object and the airlight added during its trajectory. Atmospheric scattering leads to a fall in the object's visibility, which is measurable as a difference in color between the object and the background (taken here to be the horizon). Focusing on color difference instead of luminance difference could produce different visibility values depending on the color tolerance used. We assessed the cone-excitation ratio constancy for several objects at different distances. Affine relationships were obtained when an object's cone excitations were represented both at zero distance and increasing distances. These results could help to explain color constancy in natural scenes for objects at different distances, a phenomenon that has been pointed out by different authors.

  17. Global properties of natural scenes shape local properties of human edge detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eNeri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cortex analyzes images by first extracting relevant details (e.g. edges via a large array of specialized detectors. The resulting edge map is then relayed to a processing pipeline, the final goal of which is to attribute meaning to the scene. As this process unfolds, does the global interpretation of the image affect how local feature detectors operate? We characterized the local properties of human edge detectors while we manipulated the extent to which the statistical properties of the surrounding image conformed to those encountered in natural vision. Although some aspects of local processing were unaffected by contextual manipulations, we observed significant alterations in the operating characteristics of the detector which were solely attributable to a higher-level semantic interpretation of the scene, unrelated to lower-level aspects of image statistics. Our results suggest that it may be inaccurate to regard early feature detectors as operating outside the domain of higher-level vision; although there is validity in this approach, a full understanding of their properties requires the inclusion of knowledge-based effects specific to the statistical regularities found in the natural environment.

  18. Image statistics of American Sign Language: comparison with faces and natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2006-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the image statistics of the environment shape visual abilities. To date, the image statistics of natural scenes and faces have been well characterized using Fourier analysis. We employed Fourier analysis to characterize images of signs in American Sign Language (ASL). These images are highly relevant to signers who rely on ASL for communication, and thus the image statistics of ASL might influence signers' visual abilities. Fourier analysis was conducted on 105 static images of signs, and these images were compared with analyses of 100 natural scene images and 100 face images. We obtained two metrics from our Fourier analysis: mean amplitude and entropy of the amplitude across the image set (which is a measure from information theory) as a function of spatial frequency and orientation. The results of our analyses revealed interesting differences in image statistics across the three different image sets, setting up the possibility that ASL experience may alter visual perception in predictable ways. In addition, for all image sets, the mean amplitude results were markedly different from the entropy results, which raises the interesting question of which aspect of an image set (mean amplitude or entropy of the amplitude) is better able to account for known visual abilities.

  19. A hybrid method of natural scene text detection using MSERs masks in HSV space color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Houssem; Ben Halima, Mohamed; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    Text detection in natural scenes holds great importance in the field of research and still remains a challenge and an important task because of size, various fonts, line orientation, different illumination conditions, weak characters and complex backgrounds in image. The contribution of our proposed method is to filtering out complex backgrounds by combining three strategies. These are enhancing the edge candidate detection in HSV space color, then using MSER candidate detection to get different masks applied in HSV space color as well as gray color. After that, we opt for the Stroke Width Transform (SWT) and heuristic filtering. Such strategies are followed so as to maximize the capacity of zones text pixels candidates and distinguish between text boxes and the rest of the image. The non-text components are filtered by classifying the characters candidates based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Finally we apply boundary box localization after a stage of word grouping where false positives are eliminated by geometrical properties of text blocks. The proposed method has been evaluated on ICDAR 2013 scene text detection competition dataset and the encouraging experiments results demonstrate the robustness of our method.

  20. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  1. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s) were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory.

  2. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory.

  3. On the Contribution of Binocular Disparity to the Long-Term Memory for Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2012-01-01

    Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s) were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory. PMID:23166799

  4. Tolerable Displacement for Perceiving a Natural Scene as Stable across Saccadic Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Taiichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1996-01-01

    We conducted an experiment in which subjects observed a picture of a natural scene while the picture was displaced according to a subject’s saccades. The threshold displacement ratio (the length of picture displacement/the length of saccade) that allowed subjects to perceive the stable picture was measured. In experiment 1 the threshold ratio was measured for each of five pictures when the picture was displaced in the same direction as each saccade. In experiment 2 the direction of the picture displacement was set in the same, opposite or orthogonal to the movement of the eye to examine effects of the relative displacement direction. The results showed that the subjects perceived a picture as stable despite fairly large displacement during saccades; the threshold ratio was influenced by the pictures and ranged from 18% to 26%. It was also found that the displacement in the same direction as the eye was more detectable than that in the opposite direction.

  5. Stability of the color-opponent signals under changes of illuminant in natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P. G.; Tolhurst, D. J.; Párraga, C. A.; Baddeley, R.; Leonards, U.; Troscianko, J.; Troscianko, T.

    2005-10-01

    Illumination varies greatly both across parts of a natural scene and as a function of time, whereas the spectral reflectance function of surfaces remains more stable and is of much greater relevance when searching for specific targets. This study investigates the functional properties of postreceptoral opponent-channel responses, in particular regarding their stability against spatial and temporal variation in illumination. We studied images of natural scenes obtained in UK and Uganda with digital cameras calibrated to produce estimated L-, M-, and S-cone responses of trichromatic primates (human) and birds (starling). For both primates and birds we calculated luminance and red-green opponent (RG) responses. We also calculated a primate blue-yellow-opponent (BY) response. The BY response varies with changes in illumination, both across time and across the image, rendering this factor less invariant. The RG response is much more stable than the BY response across such changes in illumination for primates, less so for birds. These differences between species are due to the greater separation of bird L and M cones in wavelength and the narrower bandwidth of the cone action spectra. This greater separation also produces a larger chromatic signal for a given change in spectral reflectance. Thus bird vision seems to suffer a greater degree of spatiotemporal ``clutter'' than primate vision, but also enhances differences between targets and background. Therefore, there may be a trade-off between the degree of chromatic clutter in a visual system versus the degree of chromatic difference between a target and its background. Primate and bird visual systems have found different solutions to this trade-off.

  6. Adaptation to Skew Distortions of Natural Scenes and Retinal Specificity of Its Aftereffects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam W. Habtegiorgis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Image skew is one of the prominent distortions that exist in optical elements, such as in spectacle lenses. The present study evaluates adaptation to image skew in dynamic natural images. Moreover, the cortical levels involved in skew coding were probed using retinal specificity of skew adaptation aftereffects. Left and right skewed natural image sequences were shown to observers as adapting stimuli. The point of subjective equality (PSE, i.e., the skew amplitude in simple geometrical patterns that is perceived to be unskewed, was used to quantify the aftereffect of each adapting skew direction. The PSE, in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm, shifted toward the adapting skew direction. Moreover, significant adaptation aftereffects were obtained not only at adapted, but also at non-adapted retinal locations during fixation. Skew adaptation information was transferred partially to non-adapted retinal locations. Thus, adaptation to skewed natural scenes induces coordinated plasticity in lower and higher cortical areas of the visual pathway.

  7. What do We Learn by Semantic Scene Understanding for Remote Sensing imagery in CNN framework?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haifeng; Peng, Jian; Tao, Chao; Chen, Jie; Deng, Min

    2017-01-01

    Recently, deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) achieved increasingly remarkable success and rapidly developed in the field of natural image recognition. Compared with the natural image, the scale of remote sensing image is larger and the scene and the object it represents are more macroscopic. This study inquires whether remote sensing scene and natural scene recognitions differ and raises the following questions: What are the key factors in remote sensing scene recognition? Is the DCNN r...

  8. Adaptive Colour Contrast Coding in the Salamander Retina Efficiently Matches Natural Scene Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, Genadiy; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    The visual system continually adjusts its sensitivity to the statistical properties of the environment through an adaptation process that starts in the retina. Colour perception and processing is commonly thought to occur mainly in high visual areas, and indeed most evidence for chromatic colour contrast adaptation comes from cortical studies. We show that colour contrast adaptation starts in the retina where ganglion cells adjust their responses to the spectral properties of the environment. We demonstrate that the ganglion cells match their responses to red-blue stimulus combinations according to the relative contrast of each of the input channels by rotating their functional response properties in colour space. Using measurements of the chromatic statistics of natural environments, we show that the retina balances inputs from the two (red and blue) stimulated colour channels, as would be expected from theoretical optimal behaviour. Our results suggest that colour is encoded in the retina based on the efficient processing of spectral information that matches spectral combinations in natural scenes on the colour processing level. PMID:24205373

  9. Adaptive colour contrast coding in the salamander retina efficiently matches natural scene statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genadiy Vasserman

    Full Text Available The visual system continually adjusts its sensitivity to the statistical properties of the environment through an adaptation process that starts in the retina. Colour perception and processing is commonly thought to occur mainly in high visual areas, and indeed most evidence for chromatic colour contrast adaptation comes from cortical studies. We show that colour contrast adaptation starts in the retina where ganglion cells adjust their responses to the spectral properties of the environment. We demonstrate that the ganglion cells match their responses to red-blue stimulus combinations according to the relative contrast of each of the input channels by rotating their functional response properties in colour space. Using measurements of the chromatic statistics of natural environments, we show that the retina balances inputs from the two (red and blue stimulated colour channels, as would be expected from theoretical optimal behaviour. Our results suggest that colour is encoded in the retina based on the efficient processing of spectral information that matches spectral combinations in natural scenes on the colour processing level.

  10. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

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    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  11. Differential processing of natural scenes in typical and atypical Alzheimer disease measured with a saccade choice task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eBoucart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, including structures (hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex that support scene perception and the binding of an object to its context, appears early in Alzheimer disease (AD few studies have investigated scene perception in people with AD. We assessed the ability to find a target object within a natural scene in people with typical AD and in people with atypical AD (posterior cortical atrophy. Pairs of colored photographs were displayed left and right of fixation for one second. Participants were asked to categorize the target (an animal either in moving their eyes toward the photograph containing the target (saccadic choice task or in pressing a key corresponding to the location of the target (manual choice task in separate blocks of trials. For both tasks performance was compared in two conditions: with isolated objects and with objects in scenes. Patients with atypical AD were more impaired to detect a target within a scene than people with typical AD who exhibited a pattern of performance more similar to that of age-matched controls in terms of accuracy, saccade latencies and benefit from contextual information. People with atypical AD benefited less from contextual information in both the saccade and the manual choice tasks suggesting a higher sensitivity to crowding and deficits in figure/ground segregation in people with lesions in posterior areas of the brain.

  12. Goal-side selection in soccer penalty kicking when viewing natural scenes

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    Matthias eWeigelt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the influence of goalkeeper displacement on goal-side selection in soccer penalty kicking. Facing a penalty situation, participants viewed photo-realistic images of a goalkeeper and a soccer goal. In the action selection task, they were asked to kick to the greater goal side, and in the perception task, they indicated the position of the goalkeeper on the goal line. To this end, the goalkeeper was depicted in a regular goalkeeping posture, standing either in the exact middle of the goal or being displaced at different distances to the left or right of the goal’s center. Results showed that the goalkeeper’s position on the goal line systematically affected goal-side selection, even when participants were not mindful of the displacement. These findings provide further support for the notion that the implicit processing of the stimulus layout in natural scenes can effect action selection in complex environments, such in soccer penalty shooting.

  13. Auditory and cognitive effects of aging on perception of environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygi, Brian; Shafiro, Valeriy

    2013-10-01

    Previously, Gygi and Shafiro (2011) found that when environmental sounds are semantically incongruent with the background scene (e.g., horse galloping in a restaurant), they can be identified more accurately by young normal-hearing listeners (YNH) than sounds congruent with the scene (e.g., horse galloping at a racetrack). This study investigated how age and high-frequency audibility affect this Incongruency Advantage (IA) effect. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elderly listeners ( N = 18 for 1a; N = 10 for 1b) with age-appropriate hearing (EAH) were tested on target sounds and auditory scenes in 5 sound-to-scene ratios (So/Sc) between -3 and -18 dB. Experiment 2 tested 11 YNH on the same sound-scene pairings lowpass-filtered at 4 kHz (YNH-4k). The EAH and YNH-4k groups exhibited an almost identical pattern of significant IA effects, but both were at approximately 3.9 dB higher So/Sc than the previously tested YNH listeners. However, the psychometric functions revealed a shallower slope for EAH listeners compared with YNH listeners for the congruent stimuli only, suggesting a greater difficulty for the EAH listeners in attending to sounds expected to occur in a scene. These findings indicate that semantic relationships between environmental sounds in soundscapes are mediated by both audibility and cognitive factors and suggest a method for dissociating these factors.

  14. Universal blind image quality assessment metrics via natural scene statistics and multiple kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinbo; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Universal blind image quality assessment (IQA) metrics that can work for various distortions are of great importance for image processing systems, because neither ground truths are available nor the distortion types are aware all the time in practice. Existing state-of-the-art universal blind IQA algorithms are developed based on natural scene statistics (NSS). Although NSS-based metrics obtained promising performance, they have some limitations: 1) they use either the Gaussian scale mixture model or generalized Gaussian density to predict the nonGaussian marginal distribution of wavelet, Gabor, or discrete cosine transform coefficients. The prediction error makes the extracted features unable to reflect the change in nonGaussianity (NG) accurately. The existing algorithms use the joint statistical model and structural similarity to model the local dependency (LD). Although this LD essentially encodes the information redundancy in natural images, these models do not use information divergence to measure the LD. Although the exponential decay characteristic (EDC) represents the property of natural images that large/small wavelet coefficient magnitudes tend to be persistent across scales, which is highly correlated with image degradations, it has not been applied to the universal blind IQA metrics; and 2) all the universal blind IQA metrics use the same similarity measure for different features for learning the universal blind IQA metrics, though these features have different properties. To address the aforementioned problems, we propose to construct new universal blind quality indicators using all the three types of NSS, i.e., the NG, LD, and EDC, and incorporating the heterogeneous property of multiple kernel learning (MKL). By analyzing how different distortions affect these statistical properties, we present two universal blind quality assessment models, NSS global scheme and NSS two-step scheme. In the proposed metrics: 1) we exploit the NG of natural images

  15. Rapid DNA technologies at the crime scene : ‘CSI’ fiction matching reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapes, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes how mobile Rapid DNA analysis may be implemented as a potential effective tool in modern day law enforcement. It is expected that this technology will affect the role of the forensic institutes and the tasks of professionals in the Criminal Justice System (CJS). The research in

  16. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  17. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  18. Animation of natural scene by virtual eye-movements evokes high precision and low noise in V1 neurons

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    Pierre eBaudot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic Noise is thought to be a limiting factor for computational efficiency in the Brain. In visual cortex (V1, ongoing activity is present in vivo, and spiking responses to simple stimuli are highly unreliable across trials. Stimulus statistics used to plot receptive fields, however, are quite different from those experienced during natural visuomotor exploration. We recorded V1 neurons intracellularly in the anaesthetized and paralyzed cat and compared their spiking and synaptic responses to full field natural images animated by simulated eye-movements to those evoked by simpler (grating or higher dimensionality statistics (dense noise. In most cells, natural scene animation was the only condition where high temporal precision (in the 10-20 ms range was maintained during sparse and reliable activity. At the subthreshold level, irregular but highly reproducible membrane potential dynamics were observed, even during long (several 100 ms spike-less periods. We showed that both the spatial structure of natural scenes and the temporal dynamics of eye-movements increase the signal-to-noise ratio by a non linear amplification of the signal combined with a reduction of the subthreshold contextual noise. These data support the view that the sparsening and the time precision of the neural code in V1 may depend primarily on three factors: 1 broadband input spectrum: the bandwidth must be rich enough for recruiting optimally the diversity of spatial and time constants during recurrent processing; 2 tight temporal interplay of excitation and inhibition: conductance measurements demonstrate that natural scene statistics narrow selectively the duration of the spiking opportunity window during which the balance between excitation and inhibition changes transiently and reversibly; 3 signal energy in the lower frequency band: a minimal level of power is needed below 10 Hz to reach consistently the spiking threshold, a situation rarely reached with visual

  19. Are fixations in static natural scenes a useful predictor of attention in the real world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-06-01

    Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli. We recorded the gaze of participants walking on a university campus with a mobile eye tracker, and then showed static frames from this walk to new participants, in either a random or sequential order. The aim was to compare the gaze of participants walking in the real environment with fixations on pictures of the same scene. The data show that picture order affects interobserver fixation consistency and changes looking patterns. Critically, while fixations on the static images overlapped significantly with the actual real-world eye movements, they did so no more than a model that assumed a general bias to the centre. Remarkably, a model that simply takes into account where the eyes are normally positioned in the head-independent of what is actually in the scene-does far better than any other model. These data reveal that viewing patterns to static scenes are a relatively poor proxy for predicting real world eye movement behaviour, while raising intriguing possibilities for how to best measure attention in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The development of hand-centred visual representations in the primate brain: a computer modelling study using natural visual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Galeazzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that respond to visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference have been found within various areas of the primate brain. We investigate how hand-centred visual representations may develop in a neural network model of the primate visual system called VisNet, when the model is trained on images of the hand seen against natural visual scenes. The simulations show how such neurons may develop through a biologically plausible process of unsupervised competitive learning and self-organisation. In an advance on our previous work, the visual scenes consisted of multiple targets presented simultaneously with respect to the hand. Three experiments are presented. First, VisNet was trained with computerized images consisting of a realistic image of a hand and and a variety of natural objects, presented in different textured backgrounds during training. The network was then tested with just one textured object near the hand in order to verify if the output cells were capable of building hand-centered representations with a single localised receptive field. We explain the underlying principles of the statistical decoupling that allows the output cells of the network to develop single localised receptive fields even when the network is trained with multiple objects. In a second simulation we examined how some of the cells with hand-centred receptive fields decreased their shape selectivity and started responding to a localised region of hand-centred space as the number of objects presented in overlapping locations during training increases. Lastly, we explored the same learning principles training the network with natural visual scenes collected by volunteers. These results provide an important step in showing how single, localised, hand-centered receptive fields could emerge under more ecologically realistic visual training conditions.

  1. Scanning behaviour in natural scenes is influenced by a preceding unrelated visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Crundall, David

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments explored the transference of visual scanning behaviour between two unrelated tasks. Participants first viewed letters presented horizontally, vertically, or as a random array. They then viewed still images (experiments 1 and 2) or video clips (experiment 3) of driving scenes, under varying task conditions. Despite having no relevance to the driving images, layout of stimuli in the letter task influenced scanning behaviour in this subsequent task. In the still images, a vertical letter search increased vertical scanning, and in the dynamic clips, a horizontal letter search decreased vertical scanning. This indicated that (i) models of scanning behaviour should account for the influence of a preceding unrelated task; (ii) carry-over is modulated by demand in the current task; and (iii) in situations where particular scanning strategies are important for primary task performance (eg driving safety), secondary task information should be displayed in a manner likely to produce a congruent scanning strategy.

  2. Computer vision enhances mobile eye-tracking to expose expert cognition in natural-scene visual-search tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Tommy P.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Tarduno, John A.; Jacobs, Robert A.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2014-02-01

    Mobile eye-tracking provides the fairly unique opportunity to record and elucidate cognition in action. In our research, we are searching for patterns in, and distinctions between, the visual-search performance of experts and novices in the geo-sciences. Traveling to regions resultant from various geological processes as part of an introductory field studies course in geology, we record the prima facie gaze patterns of experts and novices when they are asked to determine the modes of geological activity that have formed the scene-view presented to them. Recording eye video and scene video in natural settings generates complex imagery that requires advanced applications of computer vision research to generate registrations and mappings between the views of separate observers. By developing such mappings, we could then place many observers into a single mathematical space where we can spatio-temporally analyze inter- and intra-subject fixations, saccades, and head motions. While working towards perfecting these mappings, we developed an updated experiment setup that allowed us to statistically analyze intra-subject eye-movement events without the need for a common domain. Through such analyses we are finding statistical differences between novices and experts in these visual-search tasks. In the course of this research we have developed a unified, open-source, software framework for processing, visualization, and interaction of mobile eye-tracking and high-resolution panoramic imagery.

  3. Designer's approach for scene selection in tests of preference and restoration along a continuum of natural to manmade environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, MaryCarol R; Askarinejad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the experience of nature produces an array of positive benefits to mental well-being. Much less is known about the specific attributes of green space which produce these effects. In the absence of translational research that links theory with application, it is challenging to design urban green space for its greatest restorative potential. This translational research provides a method for identifying which specific physical attributes of an environmental setting are most likely to influence preference and restoration responses. Attribute identification was based on a triangulation process invoking environmental psychology and aesthetics theories, principles of design founded in mathematics and aesthetics, and empirical research on the role of specific physical attributes of the environment in preference or restoration responses. From this integration emerged a list of physical attributes defining aspects of spatial structure and environmental content found to be most relevant to the perceptions involved with preference and restoration. The physical attribute list offers a starting point for deciphering which scene stimuli dominate or collaborate in preference and restoration responses. To support this, functional definitions and metrics-efficient methods for attribute quantification are presented. Use of these research products and the process for defining place-based metrics can provide (a) greater control in the selection and interpretation of the scenes/images used in tests of preference and restoration and (b) an expanded evidence base for well-being designers of the built environment.

  4. Reward Selectively Modulates the Lingering Neural Representation of Recently Attended Objects in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Clayton; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-08-02

    be affected by outcome that occurs later in time? Here, we show that reward acts on lingering representations of environmental stimuli that sustain through the interval between stimulus and outcome. Using naturalistic scene stimuli and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we show that reward boosts the representation of attended objects and reduces the representation of unattended objects. This interaction of attention and reward processing acts to prime vision for stimuli that may serve to predict outcome. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377297-08$15.00/0.

  5. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human face detection might be driven by skin-coloured face-shaped templates. To explore this idea, this study compared the detection of faces for which the natural height-to-width ratios were preserved with distorted faces that were stretched vertically or horizontally. The impact of stretching on detection performance was not obvious when faces were equated to their unstretched counterparts in terms of their height or width dimension (Experiment 1). However, stretching impaired detection when the original and distorted faces were matched for their surface area (Experiment 2), and this was found with both vertically and horizontally stretched faces (Experiment 3). This effect was evident in accuracy, response times, and also observers' eye movements to faces. These findings demonstrate that height-to-width ratios are an important component of the cognitive template for face detection. The results also highlight important differences between face detection and face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ON THE NATURE OF RAPIDLY ROTATING SINGLE EVOLVED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.

  7. Bioluminescence-based system for rapid detection of natural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Ville; Karp, Matti; Santala, Suvi

    2016-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a significant role in bacterial evolution and has major clinical importance. Thus, it is vital to understand the mechanisms and kinetics of genetic transformations. Natural transformation is the driving mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in diverse genera of bacteria. Our study introduces a simple and rapid method for the investigation of natural transformation. This highly sensitive system allows the detection of a transformation event directly from a bacterial population without any separation step or selection of cells. The system is based on the bacterial luciferase operon from Photorhabdus luminescens The studied molecular tools consist of the functional modules luxCDE and luxAB, which involve a replicative plasmid and an integrative gene cassette. A well-established host for bacterial genetic investigations, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, is used as the model bacterium. We show that natural transformation followed by homologous recombination or plasmid recircularization can be readily detected in both actively growing and static biofilm-like cultures, including very rare transformation events. The system allows the detection of natural transformation within 1 h of introducing sample DNA into the culture. The introduced method provides a convenient means to study the kinetics of natural transformation under variable conditions and perturbations. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acoustic scanning of natural scenes by echolocation in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Ghose, Kaushik; Moss, Cynthia F

    2009-01-01

    without fixating each important object separately. We tested this idea by measuring the directional aim and duration of the bat's sonar beam as it performed in a dual task, obstacle avoidance and insect capture. Bats were trained to fly through one of two openings in a fine net to take a tethered insect...... pointed and shifted their sonar gaze to sequentially inspect closely spaced objects in a manner similar to visual animals using saccades and fixations to scan a scene. The findings presented here from a specialized orientation system, echolocation, offer insights into general principles of active sensing...

  9. Designer’s approach for scene selection in tests of preference and restoration along a continuum of natural to manmade environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryCarol R. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that the experience of nature produces an array of positive benefits to mental wellbeing. Much less is known about the specific attributes of green space which produce these effects. In the absence of translational research that links theory with application, it is challenging to design urban green space for its greatest restorative potential. This translational research provides a method for identifying which specific physical attributes of an environmental setting are most likely to influence preference and restoration responses. Attribute identification was based on a triangulation process invoking environmental psychology and aesthetics theories, principles of design founded in mathematics and aesthetics, and empirical research on the role of specific physical attributes of the environment in preference or restoration responses. From this integration emerged a list of physical attributes defining aspects of spatial structure and environmental content found to be most relevant to the perceptions involved with preference and restoration. The physical attribute list offers a starting point for deciphering which scene stimuli dominate or collaborate in preference and restoration responses. To support this, functional definitions and metrics - efficient methods for attribute quantification are presented. Use of these research products can provide a greater control in the selection and interpretation of the scenes/images used in tests of preference and restoration and b an expanded evidence base for wellbeing designers of the built environment.

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  12. Rapid variability of OB-stars: nature and diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, D.

    In the past decade, rapid photospheric variability has been recognized as the non-standard property that perhaps is the most common one among early-type stars. These proceedings offer an unusually complete overview of the existing observations. They are equally complete in their reflectance of the presently considered models. Because the simple definition 'on a rotational time scale' of the qualifier 'rapid' used in the title is very adequate for many stars, modulation is a strong contender also as a general model. The model that can be made to formally reproduce the widest range of observations is nonradial pulsation which, therefore, has earned itself the somewhat ambiguous reputation as a model for everything. An attraction of this model is that it would give the possibility to infer also structural and evolutionary quantities. It was the second purpose of the workshop to offer at least a glimpse of this potential.

  13. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Huemmrich, Karl; Crum, Gary; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Ong, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Earth Observing 1 (E0-1) satellite has an imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) instrument called Hyperion. The satellite is able to image any spot on Earth in the nadir looking direction every 16 days. With slewing of the satellite and allowing for up to a 23 degree view angle, any spot on the Earth can be imaged approximately every 2 to 3 days. EO-1 has been used to track many natural hazards such as wildfires, volcanoes and floods. An enhanced capability that is sought is the ability to image natural hazards in a daily time series for space based imaging spectrometers. The Hyperion can not provide this capability on EO-1 with the present polar orbit. However, a constellation of cubesats, each with the same imaging spectrometer, positioned strategically in the same orbit, can be used to provide daily coverage, cost-effectively.

  14. An eye fixation-related potentials analysis of the P300 potential for fixations onto a target object when exploring natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillez, Hélène; Guyader, Nathalie; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential has been extensively studied in electroencephalography with classical paradigms that force observers to not move their eyes. This potential is classically used to infer whether a target or a task-relevant stimulus was presented. Few researches have studied this potential through more ecological paradigms where observers were able to move their eyes. In this study, we examined with an ecological paradigm and an adapted methodology the P300 potential using a visual search task that involves eye movements to actively explore natural scenes and during which eye movements and electroencephalographic activity were coregistered. Averaging the electroencephalography signal time-locked to fixation onsets, a P300 potential was observed for fixations onto the target object but not for other fixations recorded for the same visual search or for fixations recorded during the free viewing without any task. Our approach consists of using control experimental conditions with similar eye movements to ensure that the P300 potential was attributable to the fact that the observer gazed at the target rather than to other factors such as eye movement pattern (the size of the previous saccade) or the "overlap issue" between the potentials elicited by two successive fixations. We also proposed to model the time overlap issue of the potentials elicited by consecutive fixations with various durations. Our results show that the P300 potential can be studied in ecological situations without any constraint on the type of visual exploration, with some precautions in the interpretation of results due to the overlap issue.

  15. A novel array of chemiluminescence sensors for sensitive, rapid and high-throughput detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide at the scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang

    2013-09-15

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is relatively easy to make and has been used in various terrorist acts. Early but easy detection of TATP is highly desired. We designed a new type sensor array for H2O2. The unique CL sensor array was based on CeO2 nanoparticles' membranes, which have an excellent catalytic effect on the luminol-H2O2 CL reaction in alkaline medium. It exhibits a linear range for the detection of H2O2 from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-5)M (R(2)=0.9991) with a 1s response time. The detection limit is 1.0×10(-9)M. Notably, the present approach allows the design of CL sensor array assays in a more simple, time-saving, long-lifetime, high-throughput, and economical approach when compared with conventional CL sensor. It is conceptually different from conventional CL sensor assays. The novel sensor array has been successfully applied for the detection of TATP at the scene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  17. Practical bomb scene investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurman, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... The book also uses examples of chain of custody and scene administration forms, diagrams and tables, methods of equipment decontamination, explosives residue collection procedures and spread sheets...

  18. Accelerative and decelerative effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal during visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual processing of natural scene pictures is enhanced when the scene conveys emotional content. Such "motivated attention" to pleasant and unpleasant pictures has been shown to improve identification accuracy in non-speeded behavioural tasks. An open question is whether emotional content also modulates the speed of visual scene processing. In the present studies we show that unpleasant content reliably slowed two-choice categorization of pictures, irrespective of physical image properties, perceptual complexity, and categorization instructions. Conversely, pleasant content did not slow or even accelerated choice reactions, relative to neutral scenes. As indicated by lateralized readiness potentials, these effects occurred at cognitive processing rather than motor preparation/execution stages. Specifically, analysis of event-related potentials showed a prolongation of early scene discrimination for stimuli perceived as emotionally arousing, regardless of valence, and reflected in delayed peaks of the N1 component. In contrast, the timing of other processing steps, reflected in the P2 and late positive potential components and presumably related to post-discriminatory processes such as stimulus-response mapping, appeared to be determined by hedonic valence, with more pleasant scenes eliciting faster processing. Consistent with this model, varying arousal (low/high) within the emotional categories mediated the effects of valence on choice reaction speed. Functionally, arousal may prolong stimulus analysis in order to prevent erroneous and potentially harmful decisions. Pleasantness may act as a safety signal allowing rapid initiation of overt responses.

  19. In the Eye of the Beholder: Rapid Visual Perception of Real-Life Scenes by Young Adults with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Steven; Mullin, Caitlin; Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) adults are able to extract global information from natural images and to categorize them within a single glance. This study aimed at extending these findings to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a free description open-encoding paradigm. Participants were asked to freely describe what they saw when…

  20. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.

  1. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVINDRA ADE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combination of phytoharmone. The maximum number of shoots (18.3±0.8 was obtained on M.S. medium supplemented with BAP + KIN (1.5 + 0.5 mg/L. The highest rooting percentage (95.25 was observed with (IAA 0.1 mg/L. The rooted plants were successfully established firstly in soil with coco peat (1:1 and then directly in ordinary soil.

  2. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  3. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  4. Looking to score: the dissociation of goal influence on eye movement and meta-attentional allocation in a complex dynamic natural scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Taya

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that task instructions influence eye-movement behavior during static image observation. In contrast, during dynamic scene observation we show that while the specificity of the goal of a task influences observers' beliefs about where they look, the goal does not in turn influence eye-movement patterns. In our study observers watched short video clips of a single tennis match and were asked to make subjective judgments about the allocation of visual attention to the items presented in the clip (e.g., ball, players, court lines, and umpire. However, before attending to the clips, observers were either told to simply watch clips (non-specific goal, or they were told to watch the clips with a view to judging which of the two tennis players was awarded the point (specific goal. The results of subjective reports suggest that observers believed that they allocated their attention more to goal-related items (e.g. court lines if they performed the goal-specific task. However, we did not find the effect of goal specificity on major eye-movement parameters (i.e., saccadic amplitudes, inter-saccadic intervals, and gaze coherence. We conclude that the specificity of a task goal can alter observer's beliefs about their attention allocation strategy, but such task-driven meta-attentional modulation does not necessarily correlate with eye-movement behavior.

  5. Visual search of traffic scenes : on the effect of location expectations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present study investigates top-down governed visual selection in natural traffic scenes. The subjects had to search for a target object (for example, a traffic sign, or other road users) which was embedded in a natural traffic scene. Given a particular prototypical scene, the target was located

  6. Robust Scene Categorization by Learning Image Statistics in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Veenman, C.J.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a generic and robust approach for scene categorization. A complex scene is described by proto-concepts like vegetation, water, fire, sky etc. These proto-concepts are represented by low level features, where we use natural images statistics to compactly represent color invariant texture

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  8. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  9. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  10. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of a psychological perspective on scene viewing and memory for scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Johanna K; Hyönä, Jukka; Viljanen, Minna

    2011-07-01

    In the study, 33 participants viewed photographs from either a potential homebuyer's or a burglar's perspective, or in preparation for a memory test, while their eye movements were recorded. A free recall and a picture recognition task were performed after viewing. The results showed that perspective had rapid effects, in that the second fixation after the scene onset was more likely to land on perspective-relevant than on perspective-irrelevant areas within the scene. Perspective-relevant areas also attracted longer total fixation time, more visits, and longer first-pass dwell times than did perspective-irrelevant areas. As for the effects of visual saliency, the first fixation was more likely to land on a salient than on a nonsalient area; salient areas also attracted more visits and longer total fixation time than did nonsalient areas. Recall and recognition performance reflected the eye fixation results: Both were overall higher for perspective-relevant than for perspective-irrelevant scene objects. The relatively low error rates in the recognition task suggest that participants had gained an accurate memory for scene objects. The findings suggest that the role of bottom-up versus top-down factors varies as a function of viewing task and the time-course of scene processing. © 2011 The Experimental Psychology Society

  12. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  13. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  14. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  15. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  16. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  17. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  18. Advanced Techniques for Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    example, 3D movies . The change of demand results in an attention for smooth visual quality of the reconstructed scene. In this case, visual quality of the...Vergauwen, and L. Van Gool, “Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images,” ISPRS Journal Of Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing, vol. 55

  19. A regional human services authority's rapid needs assessment of evacuees following natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David E; Kasofsky, Jan M; Hunte, Christopher N; Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic hurricane season of 2005 was not an ordinary season, and Hurricane Katrina was not an ordinary hurricane. Hurricane Katrina damaged more than 93,000 square miles of Gulf of Mexico coastline, displaced more than 1 million residents from New Orleans, and flooded more than 80 percent of New Orleans for weeks, which killed more than 1,300 people, mostly New Orleanians. Inland regional state and local healthcare and human services agencies rushed to assist evacuees, most of whom were uninsured or displaced without employer healthcare coverage. The initial evacuation brought more than 350,000 evacuees seeking shelter to the greater Baton Rouge area, LA, 80 miles north of New Orleans, the closest high ground. This investigation describes the rapid needs assessment developed and conducted by the Capital Area Human Services District of the greater Baton Rouge area, a quasi-governmental human services authority, the regional provider of state-funded mental health, addictive disorders, and developmental disabilities services, on a sample of 6,553 Katrina evacuees in the greater Baton Rouge area. In the event of catastrophic natural and manmade disasters, state and federal decision makers should follow the National Incident Management System and support local designated lead agencies with additional resources as requested. They must rely on designated lead agencies to use their knowledge of the locale, local resources, and relationships with other providers and volunteers to respond rapidly and efficiently to evacuee needs identified through a designated, concise tool that is singularly utilized across the impacted region by all providers to determine the needed response.

  20. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Prosser, Sean W J; Sones, Jayme E; McKeown, Jaclyn T A; Mantle, Beth; La Salle, John

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp) were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  1. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D N Hebert

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  2. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  3. The influence of scene context on object recognition is independent of attentional focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap eMunneke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans can quickly and accurately recognize objects within briefly presented natural scenes. Previous work has provided evidence that scene context contributes to this process, demonstrating improved naming of objects that were presented in semantically consistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a beach relative to semantically inconsistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a football field. The current study was aimed at investigating which processes underlie the scene consistency effect. Specifically, we tested: 1 whether the effect is due to increased visual feature and/or shape overlap for consistent relative to inconsistent scene-object pairs; and 2 whether the effect is mediated by attention to the background scene. Experiment 1 replicated the scene consistency effect of a previous report (Davenport & Potter, 2004. Using a new, carefully controlled stimulus set, Experiment 2 showed that the scene consistency effect could not be explained by low-level feature or shape overlap between scenes and target objects. Experiments 3a and 3b investigated whether focused attention modulates the scene consistency effect. By using a location cueing manipulation, participants were correctly informed about the location of the target object on a proportion of trials, allowing focused attention to be deployed towards the target object. Importantly, the effect of scene consistency on target object recognition was independent of spatial attention, and was observed both when attention was focused on the target object and when attention was focused on the background scene. These results indicate that a semantically consistent scene context benefits object recognition independently of the focus of attention. We suggest that the scene consistency effect is primarily driven by global scene properties, or scene gist, that can be processed with minimal attentional resources.

  4. Rapid access carotid endarterectomy: winning the RACE following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashram, Manar; Falconer, Rachel; Mahmud, Afif; Khanafer, Adib; Laws, Peter; Beresford, Tim; Roake, Justin

    2016-10-14

    Rapid access carotid endarterectomy (RACE) is the gold standard for stroke prevention in symptomatic patients with 50-99% internal carotid artery stenosis. Diagnosis and referral of eligible patients may be delayed by disruption to local health services. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether service provision was maintained at an appropriate standard (carotid endarterectomy (CEA) at a tertiary hospital between January 2006 and December 2014 were identified. The timeline from initial presentation to carotid imaging, vascular review and surgery was mapped. The post-earthquake period was defined between 22nd of February 2011 until July 2012. Of the 404 patients that underwent CEA during the above period, 62 patients presented during the post-earthquake period and these patients comprised the primary study group. The median time between presentation and CEA was nine days. In all, 47 patients had CEA within two weeks from the index event. The number of CEA procedures doubled since 2009. Despite many challenges following a major natural disaster, delivery of RACE has been maintained at an acceptable standard. Some delays persist and these remain areas for improvement in future.

  5. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode; Beumer, Larissa Teresa; Biersma, Elisabeth Machteld; Bråthen, Vegard Sandøy; D'Imperio, Ludovica; Jensen, Christina Kjellerup; Nilsen, Solveig; Paquin, Karolina; Stenkewitz, Ute; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Winkler, Judith; Müller, Eike; Coulson, Stephen James

    2015-12-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover may insulate terrestrial habitats from extreme air temperature fluctuations. Further, climate projections suggest large changes in precipitation will occur in the polar regions, with the greatest changes expected during the winter period and, hence, implications for the insulation of overwintering microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow, Shallow Snow (30 cm) and Deep Snow (120 cm). Air temperatures during the winter period fluctuated frequently between +3 and -24 °C, and the No Snow soil temperatures reflected this variation closely, with the extreme minimum being slightly lower. Under 30 cm of snow, soil temperatures varied less and did not decrease below -12 °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2 °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid and mesostigmatid mites, Araneae, Collembola, Nematocera larvae or Coleoptera. This indicates widespread tolerance, previously undocumented for the Araneae, Nematocera or Coleoptera, of

  6. Text Detection and Translation from Natural Scenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Jiang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Waibel, Alex

    2001-01-01

    .... The paper addresses challenges in automatic sign extraction and translation, describes methods for automatic sign extraction, and extends example-based machine translation technology for sign translation...

  7. Research in interactive scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, J. M.; Barrow, H. G.; Weyl, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Cooperative (man-machine) scene analysis techniques were developed whereby humans can provide a computer with guidance when completely automated processing is infeasible. An interactive approach promises significant near-term payoffs in analyzing various types of high volume satellite imagery, as well as vehicle-based imagery used in robot planetary exploration. This report summarizes the work accomplished over the duration of the project and describes in detail three major accomplishments: (1) the interactive design of texture classifiers; (2) a new approach for integrating the segmentation and interpretation phases of scene analysis; and (3) the application of interactive scene analysis techniques to cartography.

  8. Cultural differences in scene perception

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Albandari

    2016-01-01

    Do individuals from different cultures perceive scenes differently? Does culture have an influence on visual attention processes? This thesis investigates not only what these influences are, and how they affect eye movements, but also examines some of the proposed mechanisms that underlie the cultural influence in scene perception. Experiments 1 & 2 showed that Saudi participants directed a higher number of fixations to the background of images, in comparison to the British participants. Brit...

  9. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P N Van der Jagt

    Full Text Available Attention Restoration Theory (ART states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration.

  10. Big visual data analysis scene classification and geometric labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Kuo, C -C Jay

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an overview of traditional big visual data analysis approaches and provides state-of-the-art solutions for several scene comprehension problems, indoor/outdoor classification, outdoor scene classification, and outdoor scene layout estimation. It is illustrated with numerous natural and synthetic color images, and extensive statistical analysis is provided to help readers visualize big visual data distribution and the associated problems. Although there has been some research on big visual data analysis, little work has been published on big image data distribution analysis using the modern statistical approach described in this book. By presenting a complete methodology on big visual data analysis with three illustrative scene comprehension problems, it provides a generic framework that can be applied to other big visual data analysis tasks.

  11. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    , physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual......Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus...... of meaning has been implemented. This may take place at different levels, which will be presented and investigated in this article and exemplified by some cases from the fields of tourism and computer games.                       The article suggests that we may use the forensic term crime scene in order...

  12. Separating reflective and fluorescent components for dynamic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangyang; Miao, Changlong; Zhang, Yongbing; Lin, Xing; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-12-01

    Separating reflective and fluorescent components by hyperspectral (HS) imaging is significant in many applications. This paper designs an imaging system, where both HS reflective images and HS fluorescent images could be obtained from the same scene, even scenes within moving objects. The system consists of a high-frequency-spectra light source and a spatially-spectrally encoded camera. During the capture phase, the light source illuminates the scene with two high-frequency lighting patterns complemented in the spectral domain by turns, then encoded camera captures a image pair accordingly. During the reconstruction phase, sparsity of the natural reflective and fluorescent HS images is utilized to recover reflective and fluorescent spectra from encoded image pair. Benefited from double-shot imaging system, dynamic scene could also be handled. The method is tested in various datasets(including synthetic and real data), and the results demonstrate that the system could achieve high-resolution hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence recovery with high-accuracy for dynamic scenes, which can be applied for spectral relighting of real scenes.

  13. On the Factors Causing Processing Difficulty of Multiple-Scene Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Stainer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiplex viewing of static or dynamic scenes is an increasing feature of screen media. Most existing multiplex experiments have examined detection across increasing scene numbers, but currently no systematic evaluation of the factors that might produce difficulty in processing multiplexes exists. Across five experiments we provide such an evaluation. Experiment 1 characterises difficulty in change detection when the number of scenes is increased. Experiment 2 reveals that the increased difficulty across multiple-scene displays is caused by the total amount of visual information accounts for differences in change detection times, regardless of whether this information is presented across multiple scenes, or contained in one scene. Experiment 3 shows that whether quadrants of a display were drawn from the same, or different scenes did not affect change detection performance. Experiment 4 demonstrates that knowing which scene the change will occur in means participants can perform at monoplex level. Finally, Experiment 5 finds that changes of central interest in multiplexed scenes are detected far easier than marginal interest changes to such an extent that a centrally interesting object removal in nine screens is detected more rapidly than a marginally interesting object removal in four screens. Processing multiple-screen displays therefore seems dependent on the amount of information, and the importance of that information to the task, rather than simply the number of scenes in the display. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings.

  14. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  15. Multiagent architecture for scene interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealet, Fabienne; Collin, Bertrand; Sella, G.; Garbay, Catherine

    2000-06-01

    Scene interpretation is a crucial problem for navigation and guidance systems. The necessary integration of a large variety of heterogeneous knowledge leads us to design an architecture that distributes knowledge and that performs parallel and concurrent processing. We choose a multi- agent approach which specialized agents implementation is based on incrementality, distribution, cooperation, attention mechanism and adaptability.

  16. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  17. Recognition and Memory for Briefly Presented Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13 ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500 ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1 s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory. PMID:22371707

  18. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyper-spectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyper-spectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyper-spectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyper-spectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyper-spectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyper-spectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyper-spectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  19. A Rapid tool for the stability assessment of natural food colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidouche, Souhila; Rey, Brigitte; Michel, Martin; Galaffu, Nico

    2013-08-15

    Natural food colours lack stability under a number of conditions such as pH variation, oxidation, hydration, heat treatment and, most importantly, exposure to daylight. Stability tests to assess shelf life of natural colours under light irradiation can be time consuming. Thus, an accelerated test carried out under high light intensity irradiation that can be related to normal daylight irradiation conditions is highly desirable. Samples of various natural colouring solutions were prepared in aqueous model matrices at a range of pH values to mimic the majority of food matrices, pasteurised and irradiated under normal D65 light (0.2 W/m(2)) at 25°C, and in parallel under high light intensity irradiation (30 W/m(2)) at 3 different temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C). Similarly to the already known Q10 parameters for temperature, acceleration factors QL for irradiation, were determined and used for the first time to obtain a link between colour degradation under normal and accelerated conditions. It was possible, using these acceleration factors, to greatly reduce the time required to predict and compare the shelf life stability for a series of natural colours in aqueous model systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Screening of Natural Plant Extracts with Calcium Diacetate for Differential Effects Against Foodborne Pathogens and a Probiotic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, William; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Shetty, Kalidas; Pometto, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on advancing a rapid turbidimetric bioassay to screen antimicrobials using specific cocktails of targeted foodborne bacterial pathogens. Specifically, to show the relevance of this rapid screening tool, the antimicrobial potential of generally recognized as safe calcium diacetate (DAX) and blends with cranberry (NC) and oregano (OX) natural extracts was evaluated. Furthermore, the same extracts were evaluated against beneficial lactic acid bacteria. The targeted foodborne pathogens evaluated were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus using optimized initial cocktails (∼108 colony-forming unit/mL) containing strains isolated from human food outbreaks. Of all extracts evaluated, 0.51% (w/v) DAX in ethanol was the most effective against all four pathogens. However, DAX when reduced to 0.26% and with added blends from ethanol extractions consisting of DAX:OX (3:1), slightly outperformed or was equal to same levels of DAX alone. Subculture of wells in which no growth occurred after 1 week indicated that all water and ethanol extracts were bacteriostatic against the pathogens tested. All the targeted antimicrobials had no effect on the probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of such rapid screening methods combined with the use of multistrain cocktails of targeted foodborne pathogens from outbreaks will allow rapid large-scale screening of antimicrobials and enable further detailed studies in targeted model food systems.

  1. Words Matter: Scene Text for Image Classification and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and

  2. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditio...... polar soil invertebrate community may be robust to at least one important predicted consequence of projected climate change....... may insulate terrestrial habitats from extreme air temperature fluctuations. Further, climate projections suggest large changes in precipitation will occur in the polar regions, with the greatest changes expected during the winter period and, hence, implications for the insulation of overwintering...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...

  3. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; Roelofs, K.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; de Gelder, B.

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to

  4. Anticipatory Scene Representation in Preschool Children's Recall and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an…

  5. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, C.B.A.; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control

  6. Marine natural product libraries for high-throughput screening and rapid drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugni, Tim S; Richards, Burt; Bhoite, Leen; Cimbora, Daniel; Harper, Mary Kay; Ireland, Chris M

    2008-06-01

    There is a need for diverse molecular libraries for phenotype-selective and high-throughput screening. To make marine natural products (MNPs) more amenable to newer screening paradigms and shorten discovery time lines, we have created an MNP library characterized online using MS. To test the potential of the library, we screened a subset of the library in a phenotype-selective screen to identify compounds that inhibited the growth of BRCA2-deficient cells.

  7. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  8. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  9. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  10. On the stochastic nature of the rapid climate shifts during the last ice age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Peter Dalager; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2009-01-01

    The rapid climate shifts observed in the glacial climate are analysed. The transitions into the warm interstadial states, the onsets, are easy identifiable in the record. The distribution of waiting times between consecutive onsets is well fitted assuming the remaining residence time in each state...... to exponential distributions with mean waiting times of around 800 y in the warm state and around 1600 y in the cold state. This observation is an important piece in the climate puzzle, since the fact that the climate is a no memory process indicates that the transitions are noise induced and the mean residence...... to be independent on the past. That implies that it has a simple no memory exponential waiting time distribution, but with mean waiting time depending on the climate state. The mean waiting time from one onset to the next is around 2400 y. The most likely (maximum likelihood) distribution derived solely from...

  11. Multiwavelength Scophony Infrared Scene Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killius, Jim; Elder, Brent; Siegel, Larry; Allweiss, Michael B.

    1990-09-01

    A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) is being developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems. The Scophony IRSP is configured to be a very high frame rate laser-scanned projection system incorporating Scophony modulation. Scophony modulation offers distinct advantages over conventional flying-spot scanning, for example, longer pixel dwell times and multiple pixel projection. The Scophony IRSP serves as the image projection system in a 'hardware in the loop' therminal-phase guidance simulation. It is capable of projecting multiband, target engagement scenarios with high fidelity using Aura's proprietary software/electronic control system. The Scophony IRSP utilizes acoustooptical (AO) devices to produce the required imagery at four separate wavelengths simultaneously. The four separate scenes are then combined and projected into the imaging guidance system.

  12. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser scophony infrared scene project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bastow, Michael

    1994-06-01

    A scophony infrared scene projector (IRSP) was developed by AURA Systems Inc. for use in evaluating thermal imaging guidance systems. The IRSP is a laser-scanned projector system incorporating scophony modulation with acousto-optical devices to produce multiband 96 X 96 image frames. A description of the system and preliminary test results with the Seeker Endo/Exo Demonstration Development breadboard interceptor are addressed.

  14. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-03

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microplate-reader method for the rapid analysis of copper in natural waters with chemiluminescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eDurand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method for the determination of copper in natural waters at nanomolar levels. The use of a microplate-reader minimises sample processing time (~ 25 sec per sample, reagent consumption (~ 120 μL per sample and sample volume (~ 700 μL. Copper is detected by chemiluminescence. This technique is based on the formation of a complex between copper and 1,10-phenanthroline and the subsequent emission of light during the oxidation of the complex by hydrogen peroxide. Samples are acidified to pH 1.7 and then introduced directly into a 24-well plate. Reagents are added during data acquisition via two reagent injectors. When trace metal clean protocols are employed, the reproducibility is generally less then 7% on blanks and the detection limit is 0.7 nM for seawater and 0.4 nM for freshwater. More than 100 samples per hour can be analyzed with this technique, which is simple, robust, and amenable to at-sea analysis. Seawater samples from Storm Bay in Tasmania illustrate the utility of the method for environmental science. Indeed other trace metals for which optical detection methods exist (e.g. chemiluminescence, fluorescence and absorbance could be adapted to the microplate-reader.

  16. Emergency patients receiving anaesthesiologist-based pre-hospital treatment and subsequently released at the scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, S G; Sørensen, L P; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    diagnoses were assigned to patients released at the scene following treatment, to investigate the need for secondary contact with the hospital and to assess mortality in patients released at the scene. METHODS: All records regarding patients released at the scene from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were......BACKGROUND: The Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Odense, Denmark consists of a rapid response car, manned with an anaesthesiologist and an emergency medical technician. Eleven per cent of the patients are released at the scene following treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate which...... investigated. In each patient, diagnosis as well as any renewed contact with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit or the hospital within 24 h was registered. RESULTS: ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED NINE: patients were released at the scene. Diagnoses within the category 'examination and investigation' [International...

  17. Diagnostic ratios for the rapid evaluation of natural attenuation of heavy fuel oil pollution along shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Noemi; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Márquez, Gonzalo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2017-10-01

    Marine oil spills are typically followed by complex clean-up and monitoring operations of the shorelines affected. In this regard, determination of the changes in the chemical composition of the spilled product is crucial for evaluation purposes. The "GC-MS fingerprint" approach requires the identification of several key parameters in order to differentiate between weathering processes. In this context, we performed a 900-day study (eight sampling campaigns) of natural attenuation on a rocky shore affected by a heavy fuel oil spill. The residues coating the rocks were studied by extraction, separation and evaluation of SARA fractions, followed by GC-MS analysis for saturates and aromatics. The results identified a group of diagnostic ratios with irregular capabilities to differentiate between volatilization, photodegradation, and biodegradation (using n-alkanes, isoprenoids and PAHs), while a second group of primarily stable ratios (using dibenzothiphenes, tricyclics and hopanes) was also obtained. Notably, this is the first time that some of these ratios have been used for marine spill monitoring purposes. The ratios were applied not only to evaluate weathering at the study site, but also to obtain a comparison with the degradation of floating oil slicks-a demonstration that weathering of the latter was quicker than that of oil on the shore rocks. Additionally, Pyrolysis-GC-MS analysis of the asphaltene fraction of residues coating the rocks revealed moderate changes in the composition of this initially recalcitrant fraction. These changes were consistent with those found in the proportion of resins and asphaltene fractions over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging spectroscopy for scene analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes

  19. Finding edges in noisy scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, R.; Gilbert, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Edge detection in the presence of noise is a well-known problem. This paper examines an applications-motivated approach for solving the problem using novel techniques and presents a method developed by the authors that performs well on a large class of targets. ROC curves are used to compare this method with other well-known edge detection operators, with favorable results. A theoretical argument is presented that favors LMMSE filtering over median filtering in extremely noisy scenes. Simulated results of the research are presented.

  20. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  1. A unification framework for best-of-breed real-time scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joseph W.; Ballard, Gary H.; Trimble, Darian E.; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    AMRDEC sought out an improved framework for real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generation to provide the flexibility needed to adapt to rapidly changing hardware advancements and provide the ability to more seamlessly integrate external third party codes for Best-of-Breed real-time scene generation. As such, AMRDEC has developed Continuum, a new software architecture foundation to allow for the integration of these codes into a HWIL lab facility while enhancing existing AMRDEC HWIL scene generation codes such as the Joint Signature Image Generator (JSIG). This new real-time framework is a minimalistic modular approach based on the National Institute of Standards (NIST) Neutral Messaging Language (NML) that provides the basis for common HWIL scene generation. High speed interconnects and protocols were examined to support distributed scene generation whereby the scene graph, associated phenomenology, and resulting scene can be designed around the data rather than a framework, and the scene elements can be dynamically distributed across multiple high performance computing assets. Because of this open architecture approach, the framework facilitates scaling from a single GPU "traditional" PC scene generation system to a multi-node distributed system requiring load distribution and scene compositing across multiple high performance computing platforms. This takes advantage of the latest advancements in GPU hardware, such as NVIDIA's Tesla and Fermi architectures, providing an increased benefit in both fidelity and performance of the associated scene's phenomenology. Other features of the Continuum easily extend the use of this framework to include visualization, diagnostic, analysis, configuration, and other HWIL and all digital simulation tools.

  2. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  3. Fuzzy emotional semantic analysis and automated annotation of scene images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP) neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  4. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  5. Valence-specific modulation in the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to visual scene recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Schettino

    Full Text Available Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures, our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.

  6. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  7. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  8. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  9. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Stephanie D.; Redmond, Molly C.; Voigritter, Karl; Perez, Christian; Scarlett, Rachel; Valentine, David L.

    2015-03-01

    Simple hydrocarbon gases containing two to four carbons (ethane, propane, and butane) are among the most abundant compounds present in petroleum reservoirs, and are introduced into the ocean through natural seepage and industrial discharge. Yet little is known about the bacterial consumption of these compounds in ocean waters. To assess the timing by which microbes metabolize these gases, we conducted a three-phase study that tested and applied a radiotracer-based method to quantify the oxidation rates of ethane, propane, and butane in fresh seawater samples. Phase 1 involved the synthesis of tritiated ethane, propane, and butane using Grignard reagents and tritiated water. Phase 2 was a systematic assessment of experimental conditions, wherein the indigenous microbial community was found to rapidly oxidize ethane, propane, and butane. Phase 3 was the application of this tritium method near the Coal Oil Point seeps, offshore California. Spatial and temporal patterns of ethane, propane, and butane oxidation down current from the hydrocarbon seeps demonstrated that >99% of these gases are metabolized within 1.3 days following initial exposure. The oxidation of ethane outpaced oxidation of propane and butane with patterns indicating the microbial community responded to these gases by rapid adaptation or growth. Methane oxidation responded the slowest in plume waters. Estimates based on the observed metabolic rates and carbon mass balance suggest that ethane, propane, and butane-consuming microorganisms may transiently account for a majority of the total microbial community in these impacted waters.

  10. Scene and object vision in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E L; Gaffan, E A

    1999-02-01

    Dark Agouti rats learned to discriminate large visual displays ("scenes") in a computer-controlled Y-maze. Each scene comprised several shapes ("objects") against a contrasting background. The constant-negative paradigm was used; in each problem, one constant scene was presented on every trial together with a trial-unique variable scene, and rats were rewarded for approaching the variable scene. By varying the manner in which variables differed from the constant, we investigated what aspects of scenes and the objects comprising them were salient. In Experiment 1, rats discriminated constant scenes more easily if they contained four objects rather than six, and they showed a slight attentional bias towards the lower halves of the screens. That bias disappeared in Experiment 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that rats could discriminate scenes even if the objects that comprised them were closely matched in position, luminance, and area. Therefore, they encoded the form of individual objects. Rats perceived shapes of the same class (e.g. two ellipses) as more similar than shapes from different classes (e.g. ellipse and polygon) regardless of whether they also differed in area. This paradigm is suitable for studying the neuropsychology of perceiving spatial relationships in multi-object scenes and of identifying visual objects.

  11. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. 3-D Scene Generation On A Shared Memory Parallel Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. F.

    1987-06-01

    Realistic 3-D scene generation is now a possibility for many applications. One barrier to increased use of this technique is the large amount of computer processing time needed to render a scene. With the advent of parallel processors that barrier may be overcome if efficient parallel scene generation algorithms can be developed. In general, this has not been true because of restrictions imposed by non-shared memory and limited processor interconnect architectures. In addition, vector processors do not efficiently support the adaptive nature of many of the algorithms. A new parallel computer, the NYU Ultracomputer, has been developed which features a shared memory with a combining network. The com-bining network permits simultaneous reads and writes to the same memory location using a new instruction the Fetch and_Op. These memory references are resolved in the memory access network and result in particularly efficient shared data structures. Basic elements of this architecture are also being used in the design of the gigaflop range RP3 at IBM. Some algorithms typical of image synthesis are explored in the paper and a class of equivalent queue based algorithms are developed. These algorithms are particularly well suited to the Ultra-computer class processor and hold the promise for many new applications of realistic scene generation.

  13. Una implementación computacional de un modelo de atención visual Bottom-up aplicado a escenas naturales/A Computational Implementation of a Bottom-up Visual Attention Model Applied to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Ramírez Villegas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de atención visual bottom-up propuesto por Itti et al., 2000 [1], ha sido un modelo popular en tanto exhibe cierta evidencia neurobiológica de la visión en primates. Este trabajo complementa el modelo computacional de este fenómeno desde la dinámica realista de una red neuronal. Asimismo, esta aproximación se basa en la existencia de mapas topográficos que representan la prominencia de los objetos del campo visual para la formación de una representación general (mapa de prominencia, esta representación es la entrada de una red neuronal dinámica con interacciones locales y globales de colaboración y competencia que convergen sobre las principales particularidades (objetos de la escena.The bottom-up visual attention model proposed by Itti et al. 2000 [1], has been a popular model since it exhibits certain neurobiological evidence of primates’ vision. This work complements the computational model of this phenomenon using a neural network with realistic dynamics. This approximation is based on several topographical maps representing the objects saliency that construct a general representation (saliency map, which is the input for a dynamic neural network, whose local and global collaborative and competitive interactions converge to the main particularities (objects presented by the visual scene as well.

  14. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  15. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-10-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control stimuli. The results showed that the valence of the background influences face selective activity in the right anterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with higher activation for neutral backgrounds compared to threatening backgrounds (controlled for isolated background effects) and that this effect correlated with trait empathy in the sgACC. In addition, the left fusiform gyrus (FG) responds to the affective congruence between face and background scene. The results show that valence of the background modulates face processing and support the hypothesis that empathic processing in sgACC is inhibited when affective information is present in the background. In addition, the findings reveal a pattern of complex scene perception showing a gradient of functional specialization along the posterior-anterior axis: from sensitivity to the affective content of scenes (extrastriate body area: EBA and posterior PPA), over scene emotion-face emotion interaction (left FG) via category-scene interaction (anterior PPA) to scene-category-personality interaction (sgACC). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  17. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  18. The visual light field in real scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers’ ability to infer the light field in empty space is known as the “visual light field.” While most relevant studies were performed using images on computer screens, we investigate the visual light field in a real scene by using a novel experimental setup. A “probe” and a scene were

  19. Biodiversity inventories in high gear: DNA barcoding facilitates a rapid biotic survey of a temperate nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Angela C; Young, Monica R; Quinn, Jenna; Perez, Kate; Sobel, Crystal N; Sones, Jayme E; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Derbyshire, Rachael; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Thevanayagam, Abinah; Boskovic, Adrian; Borisenko, Alex V; Cadel, Alex; Brown, Allison; Pages, Anais; Castillo, Anibal H; Nicolai, Annegret; Glenn Mockford, Barb Mockford; Bukowski, Belén; Wilson, Bill; Trojahn, Brock; Lacroix, Carole Ann; Brimblecombe, Chris; Hay, Christoper; Ho, Christmas; Steinke, Claudia; Warne, Connor P; Garrido Cortes, Cristina; Engelking, Daniel; Wright, Danielle; Lijtmaer, Dario A; Gascoigne, David; Hernandez Martich, David; Morningstar, Derek; Neumann, Dirk; Steinke, Dirk; Marco DeBruin, Donna DeBruin; Dobias, Dylan; Sears, Elizabeth; Richard, Ellen; Damstra, Emily; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Laberge, Frederic; Collins, Gemma E; Blagoev, Gergin A; Grainge, Gerrie; Ansell, Graham; Meredith, Greg; Hogg, Ian; McKeown, Jaclyn; Topan, Janet; Bracey, Jason; Guenther, Jerry; Sills-Gilligan, Jesse; Addesi, Joseph; Persi, Joshua; Layton, Kara K S; D'Souza, Kareina; Dorji, Kencho; Grundy, Kevin; Nghidinwa, Kirsti; Ronnenberg, Kylee; Lee, Kyung Min; Xie, Linxi; Lu, Liuqiong; Penev, Lyubomir; Gonzalez, Mailyn; Rosati, Margaret E; Kekkonen, Mari; Kuzmina, Maria; Iskandar, Marianne; Mutanen, Marko; Fatahi, Maryam; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Bauman, Miriam; Nikolova, Nadya; Ivanova, Natalia V; Jones, Nathaniel; Weerasuriya, Nimalka; Monkhouse, Norman; Lavinia, Pablo D; Jannetta, Paul; Hanisch, Priscila E; McMullin, R Troy; Ojeda Flores, Rafael; Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Vender, Reid; Labbee, Renee N; Forsyth, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Dickson, Ross; Kroft, Ruth; Miller, Scott E; MacDonald, Shannon; Panthi, Sishir; Pedersen, Stephanie; Sobek-Swant, Stephanie; Naik, Suresh; Lipinskaya, Tatsiana; Eagalle, Thanushi; Decaëns, Thibaud; Kosuth, Thibault; Braukmann, Thomas; Woodcock, Tom; Roslin, Tomas; Zammit, Tony; Campbell, Victoria; Dinca, Vlad; Peneva, Vlada; Hebert, Paul D N; deWaard, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive biotic surveys, or 'all taxon biodiversity inventories' (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and witnessed acceleration in their surveys and subsequent increase in project scope and scale. The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario partnered with the rare Charitable Research Reserve and delegates of the 6th International Barcode of Life Conference to complete its own rapid, barcode-assisted ATBI of an established land trust in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. The existing species inventory for the rare Charitable Research Reserve was rapidly expanded by integrating a DNA barcoding workflow with two surveying strategies - a comprehensive sampling scheme over four months, followed by a one-day bioblitz involving international taxonomic experts. The two surveys resulted in 25,287 and 3,502 specimens barcoded, respectively, as well as 127 human observations. This barcoded material, all vouchered at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario collection, covers 14 phyla, 29 classes, 117 orders, and 531 families of animals, plants, fungi, and lichens. Overall, the ATBI documented 1,102 new species records for the nature reserve, expanding the existing long-term inventory by 49%. In addition, 2,793 distinct Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were assigned to genus or higher level taxonomy, and represent additional species that will be added once their taxonomy is resolved. For the 3,502 specimens, the collection, sequence analysis, taxonomic assignment, data release and manuscript submission by 100+ co-authors all occurred in less than one week. This demonstrates the speed at which barcode-assisted inventories can be completed and the utility that barcoding provides in minimizing and guiding valuable taxonomic specialist time. The final product is

  20. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep–wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally. PMID:24860176

  1. Real-time scene generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in

  2. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  3. Geographic Data Bases Supporting Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.

    1980-12-01

    Recent activity in synthetic reference scene generation from geographic data bases has lead to new and expanding production responsibilities for the mapping community. It has also spawned a new and growing population of geographic data base users. Optimum utilization of this data requires an understanding of the natural and cultural patterns represented as well as knowledge of the conventions and specifications which guide data base preparation. Prudence dictates effective mechanisms for data base inspection by the user. Appropriate implementation of data display procedures can provide this capability while also supporting routine analysis of data base content. This paper first illustrates a set of convenient mechanisms for the display of the elevation and planimetric components of geographic data files. Then, a new USAETL program in Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation Research (CAPIR) is introduced. The CAPIR program will explore issues of direct data entry to create geographic data bases from stereo aerial photography. CAPIR also provides a technique for displaying geographic data base contents in corresponding three-dimensional photo models. This capability, termed superposition, will impact on the critical tasks of data validation, revision and intensification which are essential for effective management of geographic files.

  4. A corticothalamic circuit model for sound identification in complex scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Otazu

    Full Text Available The identification of the sound sources present in the environment is essential for the survival of many animals. However, these sounds are not presented in isolation, as natural scenes consist of a superposition of sounds originating from multiple sources. The identification of a source under these circumstances is a complex computational problem that is readily solved by most animals. We present a model of the thalamocortical circuit that performs level-invariant recognition of auditory objects in complex auditory scenes. The circuit identifies the objects present from a large dictionary of possible elements and operates reliably for real sound signals with multiple concurrently active sources. The key model assumption is that the activities of some cortical neurons encode the difference between the observed signal and an internal estimate. Reanalysis of awake auditory cortex recordings revealed neurons with patterns of activity corresponding to such an error signal.

  5. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  6. Large patch convolutional neural networks for the scene classification of high spatial resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yanfei; Fei, Feng; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-04-01

    The increase of the spatial resolution of remote-sensing sensors helps to capture the abundant details related to the semantics of surface objects. However, it is difficult for the popular object-oriented classification approaches to acquire higher level semantics from the high spatial resolution remote-sensing (HSR-RS) images, which is often referred to as the "semantic gap." Instead of designing sophisticated operators, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a typical deep learning method, can automatically discover intrinsic feature descriptors from a large number of input images to bridge the semantic gap. Due to the small data volume of the available HSR-RS scene datasets, which is far away from that of the natural scene datasets, there have been few reports of CNN approaches for HSR-RS image scene classifications. We propose a practical CNN architecture for HSR-RS scene classification, named the large patch convolutional neural network (LPCNN). The large patch sampling is used to generate hundreds of possible scene patches for the feature learning, and a global average pooling layer is used to replace the fully connected network as the classifier, which can greatly reduce the total parameters. The experiments confirm that the proposed LPCNN can learn effective local features to form an effective representation for different land-use scenes, and can achieve a performance that is comparable to the state-of-the-art on public HSR-RS scene datasets.

  7. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  8. Three interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...

  9. Unsupervised Moving Target Detection in Dynamic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    training the algorithm to learn the background parameters. The need to train such algorithms for each scene separately limits their ability to be...deployed for automatic surveillance tasks, where manual re- training of the module to operate in each new scene is not feasible. A further shortcoming in...and (b). The camera panning is such that the objects of interest, viz. the two cyclists , undergo very small motion in the image coordinates. Figure 1

  10. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-01

    In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the

  11. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berman

    Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings

  12. Scene change detection based on multimodal integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Zhou, Dongru

    2003-09-01

    Scene change detection is an essential step to automatic and content-based video indexing, retrieval and browsing. In this paper, a robust scene change detection and classification approach is presented, which analyzes audio, visual and textual sources and accounts for their inter-relations and coincidence to semantically identify and classify video scenes. Audio analysis focuses on the segmentation of audio stream into four types of semantic data such as silence, speech, music and environmental sound. Further processing on speech segments aims at locating speaker changes. Video analysis partitions visual stream into shots. Text analysis can provide a supplemental source of clues for scene classification and indexing information. We integrate the video and audio analysis results to identify video scenes and use the text information detected by the video OCR technology or derived from transcripts available to refine scene classification. Results from single source segmentation are in some cases suboptimal. By combining visual, aural features adn the accessorial text information, the scence extraction accuracy is enhanced, and more semantic segmentations are developed. Experimental results are proven to rather promising.

  13. Natural Language Object Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ronghang; Xu, Huazhe; Rohrbach, Marcus; Feng, Jiashi; Saenko, Kate; Darrell, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the task of natural language object retrieval, to localize a target object within a given image based on a natural language query of the object. Natural language object retrieval differs from text-based image retrieval task as it involves spatial information about objects within the scene and global scene context. To address this issue, we propose a novel Spatial Context Recurrent ConvNet (SCRC) model as scoring function on candidate boxes for object retrieval, integ...

  14. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts.

  15. Anticipation in Real-world Scenes: The Role of Visual Context and Visual Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I.; Keller, Frank; Malcolm, George L.

    2016-01-01

    The human sentence processor is able to make rapid predictions about upcoming linguistic input. For example, upon hearing the verb eat, anticipatory eye-movements are launched toward edible objects in a visual scene (Altmann & Kamide, 1999). However, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie anticipation remain to be elucidated in ecologically…

  16. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  17. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  18. Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

  19. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  20. The adaptation of a 360° camera utilising an alternate light source (ALS) for the detection of biological fluids at crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kayleigh; Cassella, John P; Fieldhouse, Sarah; King, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important and commonly encountered evidence types that can be recovered at crime scenes are biological fluids. Due to the ephemeral nature of biological fluids and the valuable DNA that they can contain, it is fundamental that these are documented extensively and recovered rapidly. Locating and identifying biological fluids can prove a challenging task but can aid in reconstructing a sequence of events. Alternate light sources (ALS) offer powerful non-invasive methods for locating and enhancing biological fluids utilising different wavelengths of light. Current methods for locating biological fluids using ALS's may be time consuming, as they often require close range searching of potentially large crime scenes. Subsequent documentation using digital cameras and alternate light sources can increase the investigation time and due to the cameras low dynamic range, photographs can appear under or over exposed. This study presents a technique, which allows the simultaneous detection and visualisation of semen and saliva utilising a SceneCam 360° camera (Spheron VR AG), which was adapted to integrate a blue Crime Lite XL (Foster+Freeman). This technique was investigated using different volumes of semen and saliva, on porous and non-porous substrates, and the ability to detect these at incremental distances from the substrate. Substrate type and colour had a significant effect on the detection of the biological fluid, with limited fluid detection on darker substrates. The unique real-time High Dynamic range (HDR) ability of the SceneCam significantly enhanced the detection of biological fluids where background fluorescence masked target fluorescence. These preliminary results are presented as a proof of concept for combining 360° photography using HDR and an ALS for the detection of biological stains, within a scene, in real time, whilst conveying spatial relationships of staining to other evidence. This technique presents the opportunity to

  1. MTF characteristics of a Scophony scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildwachter, Eric F.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    1991-09-01

    The Scophony scene projector has been examined in detail. Modulation transfer function was measured and found to be significantly lower than expected. The discrepancy is shown to be due to variation in the Bragg angle with input frequency. Experimental data is compared with calculated performance.

  2. 3-D Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    navigate along interstate routes at speeds in excess of 110 mph, and the inclusion of the first down line in televised football games [28]. These...roughly 2000 feet above the target based on the Sadr City scene dimensions and scaling fac - tors. Images were rendered at a resolution of 1000×1000 as

  3. Vocational Guidance Requests within the International Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the…

  4. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  5. Parafoveal Semantic Processing of Emotional Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Lang, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether emotional pictorial stimuli are especially likely to be processed in parafoveal vision. Pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented parafoveally (2.1[degrees] or 2.5[degrees] of visual angle from a central fixation point) for 150-3,000 ms, followed by an immediate recognition test (500-ms delay).…

  6. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  7. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  8. Bioautography with TLC-MS/NMR for Rapid Discovery of Anti-tuberculosis Lead Compounds from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Edyta M; Hwang, Changhwa; Cai, Geping; Nam, Joo-Won; Choules, Mary P; Gao, Wei; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Mulugeta, Surafel G; Napolitano, José G; Suh, Joo-Won; Yang, Seung Hwan; Cheng, Jinhua; Lee, Hanki; Kim, Jin-Yong; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Pauli, Guido F; Franzblau, Scott G; Jaki, Birgit U

    2016-04-08

    While natural products constitute an established source of lead compounds, the classical iterative bioassay-guided isolation process is both time- and labor-intensive and prone to failing to identify active minor constituents. (HP)TLC-bioautography-MS/NMR, which combines cutting-edge microbiological, chromatographic, and spectrometric technologies, was developed to accelerate anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery from natural sources by acquiring structural information at a very early stage of the isolation process. Using the avirulent, bioluminescent Mtb strain mc 2 7000 luxABCDE, three variations of bioautography were evaluated and optimized for sensitivity in detecting anti-TB agents, including established clinical agents and new leads with novel mechanisms of action. Several exemplary applications of this approach to microbial extracts demonstrate its potential as a routine method in anti-TB drug discovery from natural sources.

  9. A graph theoretic approach to scene matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1991-08-01

    The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.

  10. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxi......-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe.......The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxic...... alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum...

  11. A rapid method for alpha-spectrometric analysis of radium isotopes in natural waters using ion-selective membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkl, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2003-10-01

    An alpha-spectrometric method for the rapid determination of radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra) in environmental samples is presented. Using Empore Radium Rad Disks complete separation of the target radionuclides is achieved. The high selectivity of these Rad Disks allows the straightforward use of 225Ra as yield tracer. Chemical yield is up to 92 +/- 9%. The chemical procedure can be accomplished within 5h. Alpha-sources show energy resolution in the range of typically 26-40 keV (FWHM). Despite minimal thickness of the sources no significant radon (Rn) losses can be observed.

  12. The time course of perceptual grouping in natural scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korjoukov, I.; Jeurissen, D.; Kloosterman, N.A.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception starts with localized filters that subdivide the image into fragments that undergo separate analyses. The visual system has to reconstruct objects by grouping image fragments that belong to the same object. A widely held view is that perceptual grouping occurs in parallel across

  13. Color contributes to object-contour perception in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-03-01

    The magnitudes of chromatic and achromatic edge contrast are statistically independent and thus provide independent information, which can be used for object-contour perception. However, it is unclear if and how much object-contour perception benefits from chromatic edge contrast. To address this question, we investigated how well human-marked object contours can be predicted from achromatic and chromatic edge contrast. We used four data sets of human-marked object contours with a total of 824 images. We converted the images to the Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie color space to separate chromatic from achromatic information in a physiologically meaningful way. Edges were detected in the three dimensions of the color space (one achromatic and two chromatic) and compared to human-marked object contours using receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis for a threshold-independent evaluation. Performance was quantified by the difference of the area under the ROC curves (ΔAUC). Results were consistent across different data sets and edge-detection methods. If chromatic edges were used in addition to achromatic edges, predictions were better for 83% of the images, with a prediction advantage of 3.5% ΔAUC, averaged across all data sets and edge detectors. For some images the prediction advantage was considerably higher, up to 52% ΔAUC. Interestingly, if achromatic edges were used in addition to chromatic edges, the average prediction advantage was smaller (2.4% ΔAUC). We interpret our results such that chromatic information is important for object-contour perception.

  14. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  15. Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Based Perceptual and Neural Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2004-01-01

    .... This fundamental process of auditory perception is called auditory scene analysis. of particular importance in auditory scene analysis is the separation of speech from interfering sounds, or speech segregation...

  16. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Animal Species in Natural Leather Goods by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuchi, Yukari; Takashima, Tsuneo; Hatano, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The demand for leather goods has grown globally in recent years. Industry revenue is forecast to reach $91.2 billion by 2018. There is an ongoing labelling problem in the leather items market, in that it is currently impossible to identify the species that a given piece of leather is derived from. To address this issue, we developed a rapid and simple method for the specific identification of leather derived from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer by analysing peptides produced by the trypsin-digestion of proteins contained in leather goods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We determined species-specific amino acid sequences by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the Mascot software program and demonstrated that collagen α-1(I), collagen α-2(I), and collagen α-1(III) from the dermal layer of the skin are particularly useful in species identification.

  17. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2015-04-14

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.

  18. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  19. The scene and the unseen: Manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: Image manipulation for change blindness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-01-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention...

  20. Static Scene Statistical Non-Uniformity Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Error NUC Non-Uniformity Correction RMSE Root Mean Squared Error RSD Relative Standard Deviation S3NUC Static Scene Statistical Non-Uniformity...Deviation ( RSD ) which normalizes the standard deviation, σ, to the mean estimated value, µ using the equation RS D = σ µ × 100. The RSD plot of the gain...estimates is shown in Figure 4.1(b). The RSD plot shows that after a sample size of approximately 10, the different photocount values and the inclusion

  1. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio; Barbara Siemiątkowska

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic infere...

  2. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  3. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  4. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid determination of natural and synthetic hormones in biosolids and poultry manure by isotope dilution GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    The release of hormones into the environment due to land application of biosolids and manure is a cause of concern for their potential impacts. This paper presents the development of a rapid and sensitive method, based on extraction, for the analysis of 13 hormones in biosolids and poultry manure. A simultaneous derivatization of hydroxyl and ketone groups was carried out for the determination of hormones by GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in three matrices (sewage sludge, manure, and broiler litter). Recoveries from spiked samples at three concentration levels (50, 25, and 10 ng/g) ranged from 76 to 124% with relative SDs ≤ 16%. Method detection limits for the three matrices were in the range of 0.5–3.0 ng/g dry weight. The optimized method was applied to biosolid and poultry manure samples collected in Spain. Only seven of the 13 studied hormones were detected in the different samples. trans-Androsterone was detected at high levels (up to 3.1 μg/g in biosolid samples). Estrone and estradiol were the two hormones detected at higher levels in layer manure, whereas estrone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione presented the highest levels in broiler litter.

  6. Biologically inspired scene context for object detection using a single instance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxin Gao

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel object detection method using a single instance from the object category. Our method uses biologically inspired global scene context criteria to check whether every individual location of the image can be naturally replaced by the query instance, which indicates whether there is a similar object at this location. Different from the traditional detection methods that only look at individual locations for the desired objects, our method evaluates the consistency of the entire scene. It is therefore robust to large intra-class variations, occlusions, a minor variety of poses, low-revolution conditions, background clutter etc., and there is no off-line training. The experimental results on four datasets and two video sequences clearly show the superior robustness of the proposed method, suggesting that global scene context is important for visual detection/localization.

  7. Representation of visual scenes by local neuronal populations in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn M Kampa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How are visual scenes encoded in local neural networks of visual cortex? In rodents, visual cortex lacks a columnar organization so that processing of diverse features from a spot in visual space could be performed locally by populations of neighboring neurons. To examine how complex visual scenes are represented by local microcircuits in mouse visual cortex we measured visually-evoked responses of layer 2/3 neuronal populations using 3D two-photon calcium imaging. Both natural and artificial movie scenes (10-s duration evoked distributed and sparsely organized responses in local populations of 70 to 150 neurons within the sampled volumes. About 50% of neurons showed calcium transients during visual scene presentation, of which about half displayed reliable temporal activation patterns. The majority of the reliably responding neurons were activated primarily by one of the four visual scenes applied. Consequently, single neurons performed poorly in decoding, which visual scene had been presented. In contrast, high levels of decoding performance (>80% were reached when considering population responses, requiring about 80 randomly picked cells or 20 reliable responders. Furthermore, reliable responding neurons tended to have neighbors sharing the same stimulus preference. Because of this local redundancy, it was beneficial for efficient scene decoding to read out activity from spatially distributed rather than locally clustered neurons. Our results suggest a population code in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, where the visual environment is dynamically represented in the activation of distinct functional sub-networks.

  8. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, G.; Tomas, C.; Lebaron, P.; Moreau, H.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxic alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum strains from Scandinavia or any other algal strains, including species of the closely related genus Chrysochromulina. Prymnesium sp. cells labeled with 16E4 were readily detected by the solid-phase cytometer because of the large fluorescence signal and the signal/noise ratio. Immunofluorescence detection and enumeration of cultured P. parvum cells preserved with different fixatives showed that the highest cell counts were obtained when cells were fixed with either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde plus the cell protectant Pluronic F-68, whereas the use of formaldehyde alone resulted in significantly lower counts. Immunofluorescence labeling and analysis with the solid-phase cytometer of fixed natural samples from a bloom of P. parvum occurring in Lake Colorado in Texas gave cell counts that were close to those obtained by the traditional method of counting using light microscopy. These results show that a solid-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe. PMID:16391128

  9. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  10. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Michele Aminoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective – the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA, the retrosplenial complex (RSC, and the occipital place area (TOS – have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size, rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: 1 BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; 2 behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and 3 several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: 1 models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; 2 NEIL and SUN – the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS – were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; 3 The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method – NEIL (Never-Ending-Image-Learner, which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes – showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  11. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    The FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES) integrates information on nonstationary drivers of land change (per capita land area demand, site suitability, and spatial structure of conversion events) into spatial-temporal projections of changes in landscape patterns (Meentemeyer et al., 2013). One striking feature of FUTURES is its patch-growth algorithm that includes feedback effects of former development events across several temporal and spatial scales: cell-level transition events are aggregated into patches of land change and their further growth is based on empirically derived parameters controlling its size, shape, and dispersion. Here, we augment the FUTURES modeling framework by expanding its multilevel structure and its representation of human decision making. The new modeling framework is hierarchically organized as nested subsystems including the latest theory on telecouplings in coupled human-natural systems (Liu et al., 2013). Each subsystem represents a specific level of spatial scale and embraces agents that have decision making authority at a particular level. The subsystems are characterized with regard to their spatial representation and are connected via flows of information (e.g. regulations and policies) or material (e.g. population migration). To provide a modeling framework that is applicable to a wide range of settings and geographical regions and to keep it computationally manageable, we implement a 'zooming factor' that allows to enable or disable subsystems (and hence the represented processes), based on the extent of the study region. The implementation of the FUTURES modeling framework for a specific case study follows the observational modeling approach described in Grimm et al. (2005), starting from the analysis of empirical data in order to capture the processes relevant for specific scales and to allow a rigorous calibration and validation of the model application. In this paper, we give an introduction to the basic

  12. TMS to object cortex affects both object and scene remote networks while TMS to scene cortex only affects scene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2015-12-01

    Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performativity and Genesis of the Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fernandes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the recognition of the tension between reality and fiction in contemporary theatre, generally defined as theatre of the real, we intend to make an intersection of this phenomenon with the theoretical field of performativity, which focuses on the work in process, dynamic transformation and experience. The intention is to associate the theory of performativity to observations about the latest work of Theatre Vertigo, directed by Antonio Araujo, Bom Retiro 958 metros. The use of genetic ways to approach theatre will serve as a motto to interpret some aspects of the creative process and the scene.

  14. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  15. The gay bashing scene chez Proust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T

    1993-01-01

    This essay presents a contemporary translation of and brief commentary on the gay bashing scene found in Marcel Proust's A la Recherche du Temps perdu: Le Côté de Guermantes, Tome I. The paper notes that Proust argues in this passage for the acceptance of homosexuality for two main reasons: because gay bashing won't eradicate it; and because gayness is the simple, direct movement of a being toward perceived beauty. The paper suggests that Proust reveals his own gayness (and that of his protagonist) by employing the latter argument in defense of homosexuality whereas, throughout the novel, he presents heterosexual attraction as an immensely indirect, artistically manufactured construct.

  16. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: An fMRI study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients’ scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. PMID:24231038

  17. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  19. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  20. Fixed Pattern Noise pixel-wise linear correction for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Dube, Roger R.; Ientilucci, Emmett J.

    2017-05-01

    Filtered multispectral imaging technique might be a potential method for crime scene documentation and evidence detection due to its abundant spectral information as well as non-contact and non-destructive nature. Low-cost and portable multispectral crime scene imaging device would be highly useful and efficient. The second generation crime scene imaging system uses CMOS imaging sensor to capture spatial scene and bandpass Interference Filters (IFs) to capture spectral information. Unfortunately CMOS sensors suffer from severe spatial non-uniformity compared to CCD sensors and the major cause is Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). IFs suffer from "blue shift" effect and introduce spatial-spectral correlated errors. Therefore, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) correction is critical to enhance crime scene image quality and is also helpful for spatial-spectral noise de-correlation. In this paper, a pixel-wise linear radiance to Digital Count (DC) conversion model is constructed for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor. Pixel-wise conversion gain Gi,j and Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU) Zi,j are calculated. Also, conversion gain is divided into four components: FPN row component, FPN column component, defects component and effective photo response signal component. Conversion gain is then corrected to average FPN column and row components and defects component so that the sensor conversion gain is uniform. Based on corrected conversion gain and estimated image incident radiance from the reverse of pixel-wise linear radiance to DC model, corrected image spatial uniformity can be enhanced to 7 times as raw image, and the bigger the image DC value within its dynamic range, the better the enhancement.

  1. Infectious Disease Information Collection System at the Scene of Disaster Relief Based on a Personal Digital Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Pin; Gao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Hao-Jun; Wei, Wei; Xu, Bo; Dong, Wen-Long; Li, Qing-Feng; Song, Wen-Jing; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA). SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA. A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved. This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668-673).

  2. Gestalt-like constraints produce veridical (Euclidean) percepts of 3D indoor scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, TaeKyu; Li, Yunfeng; Sawada, Tadamasa; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2016-09-01

    This study, which was influenced a lot by Gestalt ideas, extends our prior work on the role of a priori constraints in the veridical perception of 3D shapes to the perception of 3D scenes. Our experiments tested how human subjects perceive the layout of a naturally-illuminated indoor scene that contains common symmetrical 3D objects standing on a horizontal floor. In one task, the subject was asked to draw a top view of a scene that was viewed either monocularly or binocularly. The top views the subjects reconstructed were configured accurately except for their overall size. These size errors varied from trial to trial, and were shown most-likely to result from the presence of a response bias. There was little, if any, evidence of systematic distortions of the subjects' perceived visual space, the kind of distortions that have been reported in numerous experiments run under very unnatural conditions. This shown, we proceeded to use Foley's (Vision Research 12 (1972) 323-332) isosceles right triangle experiment to test the intrinsic geometry of visual space directly. This was done with natural viewing, with the impoverished viewing conditions Foley had used, as well as with a number of intermediate viewing conditions. Our subjects produced very accurate triangles when the viewing conditions were natural, but their performance deteriorated systematically as the viewing conditions were progressively impoverished. Their perception of visual space became more compressed as their natural visual environment was degraded. Once this was shown, we developed a computational model that emulated the most salient features of our psychophysical results. We concluded that human observers see 3D scenes veridically when they view natural 3D objects within natural 3D environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Places: A 10 million Image Database for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bolei; Lapedriza, Agata; Khosla, Aditya; Oliva, Aude; Torralba, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    The rise of multi-million-item dataset initiatives has enabled data-hungry machine learning algorithms to reach near-human semantic classification performance at tasks such as visual object and scene recognition. Here we describe the Places Database, a repository of 10 million scene photographs, labeled with scene semantic categories, comprising a large and diverse list of the types of environments encountered in the world. Using the state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), we provide scene classification CNNs (Places-CNNs) as baselines, that significantly outperform the previous approaches. Visualization of the CNNs trained on Places shows that object detectors emerge as an intermediate representation of scene classification. With its high-coverage and high-diversity of exemplars, the Places Database along with the Places-CNNs offer a novel resource to guide future progress on scene recognition problems.

  4. Gas exchange recovery following natural drought is rapid unless limited by loss of leaf hydraulic conductance: evidence from an evergreen woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Robert P; Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M; Mitchell, Patrick J

    2017-09-01

    Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species. Severe drought caused major declines in leaf water potential, elevated foliar ABA concentrations and reduced stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in our eight sample species. Leaf water potential surpassed levels associated with incipient loss of leaf hydraulic conductance in four species. Following heavy rainfall gas exchange in all species, except those trees predicted to have suffered hydraulic impairment, recovered to prestressed rates within 1 d. Recovery of plant gas exchange was rapid and could be predicted by the hydraulic safety margin, providing strong support for leaf vulnerability to water deficit as an index of damage under natural drought conditions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Review network for scene text recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuohao; Han, Anqi; Chen, Xu; Yin, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing text in images captured in the wild is a fundamental preprocessing task for many computer vision and machine learning applications and has gained significant attention in recent years. This paper proposes an end-to-end trainable deep review neural network for scene text recognition, which is a combination of feature extraction, feature reviewing, feature attention, and sequence recognition. Our model can generate the predicted text without any segmentation or grouping algorithm. Because the attention model in the feature attention stage lacks global modeling ability, a review network is applied to extract the global context of sequence data in the feature reviewing stage. We perform rigorous experiments across a number of standard benchmarks, including IIIT5K, SVT, ICDAR03, and ICDAR13 datasets. Experimental results show that our model is comparable to or outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.

  7. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  8. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic inference using Dempster-Shafer theory, which makes it possible to handle observations that have different degrees and kinds of uncertainty. The system has been implemented and tested in a real indoor environment, showing the benefits of the proposed approach.

  9. Algorithms for Graph Rigidity and Scene Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jordán, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    We investigate algorithmic questions and structural problems concerning graph families defined by `edge-counts'. Motivated by recent developments in the unique realization problem of graphs, we give an efficient algorithm to compute the rigid, redundantly rigid, M-connected, and globally rigid...... components of a graph. Our algorithm is based on (and also extends and simplifies) the idea of Hendrickson and Jacobs, as it uses orientations as the main algorithmic tool. We also consider families of bipartite graphs which occur in parallel drawings and scene analysis. We verify a conjecture of Whiteley...... by showing that 2d-connected bipartite graphs are d-tight. We give a new algorithm for finding a maximal d-sharp subgraph. We also answer a question of Imai and show that finding a maximum size d-sharp subgraph is NP-hard....

  10. [A doctor's action within possible crime scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowizdraniuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Every doctor regardless of specialization in his practice may meet the need to provide assistance to victims of crime-related action. In this article there were disscused the issues of informing the investigative authorities about the crime, ensuring the safety of themselves and the environment at the scene. It also shows the specific elements of necessary procedures and practice to deal with the victims designed to securing any evidence present of potential or committed crime in proper manner. Special attention has been given to medical operation and other, necessary in case of certain criminal groups, among the latter we need to underline: actions against sexual freedom and decency, bodily integrity, life and well-being of human, and specially homicide, infanticide and suicide.

  11. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  12. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  13. Coping with Work-related Traumatic Situations among Crime Scene Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič Mrevlje, Tinkara

    2016-10-01

    Crime scene technicians collect evidence related to crime and are therefore exposed to many traumatic situations. The coping strategies they use are thus very important in the process of facing the psychological consequences of such work. The available literature shows that crime scene technicians are an understudied subgroup of police workers. Our study is therefore the first unfolding insights into technicians' coping strategies, post-traumatic symptomatology and somatic health, based on a sample of 64 male crime scene technicians (85% of all Slovene technicians). Crime scene technicians mainly use avoidance coping strategies. Approach strategies that are more effective in the long-term-i.e. lead to a larger buffering of the effects of traumatic stress-are more frequently used if technicians are familiar with the nature of the task, when they have time to prepare for it, and if they feel that past situations have been positively resolved. Behavioural avoidance strategies were found to be least effective when dealing with traumatic experiences and are also related to more frequent problems of physical health. Results indicate that appropriate trainings for future technicians would facilitate the use of more effective coping strategies and consequently lead to a more effective and satisfied worker. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Visualizing fMRI BOLD responses to diverse naturalistic scenes using retinotopic projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipser, Karl

    2017-06-01

    To view brain activity in register with visual stimuli, a technique here referred to as "retinotopic projection," which translates functional measurements into retinotopic space, is employed. Retinotopic projection is here first applied to a previously acquired fMRI dataset in which a large set of grayscale photos of real scenes were presented to three subjects. A simple model of local contrast integration accounts for much of the data in early visual areas (V1 and V2). However, consistent discrepancies were discovered: Human faces tend to evoke stronger responses relative to other scene elements than predicted by the model, whereas periodic patterns evoke weaker responses than predicted by the model. Next, in new fMRI experiments, three subjects directed attention toward various elements of naturalistic scenes (Vermeer paintings). Retinotopic projection applied to these data showed that attending to an object increased activation in cortex corresponding to the location of that object. Together the results suggest that even during passive viewing, the visual system differentially processes natural scenes in a manner consistent with deployment of visual attention to salient elements.

  15. On-scene crisis intervention: psychological guidelines and communication strategies for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Effective emergency mental health intervention for victims of crime, natural disaster or terrorism begins the moment the first responders arrive. This article describes a range of on-scene crisis intervention options, including verbal communication, body language, behavioral strategies, and interpersonal style. The correct intervention in the first few moments and hours of a crisis can profoundly influence the recovery course of victims and survivors of catastrophic events.

  16. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    salient objects and environments providing mutual context (i.e., a primary or key object in an outdoor scene embedded in a realistic environmental ...tracking: a two part vision system for small robot navigation in forested environment . Proc. SPIE 8387, Unmanned Systems Technology XIV Conference; 2012...of realistic autonomous outdoor missions in complex and changing environments . Scene understanding for realistic outdoor missions has been

  17. The Influence of Color on the Perception of Scene Gist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…

  18. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  19. CRISP: A Computational Model of Fixation Durations in Scene Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Smith, Tim J.; Engbert, Ralf; Henderson, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Eye-movement control during scene viewing can be represented as a series of individual decisions about where and when to move the eyes. While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations.…

  20. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  1. Toward seamless multiview scene analysis from satellite to street level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene

  2. Indoor scene classification of robot vision based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Qi, Yuxiao; Li, Shipeng

    2016-07-01

    For intelligent service robots, indoor scene classification is an important issue. To overcome the weak real-time performance of conventional algorithms, a new method based on Cloud computing is proposed for global image features in indoor scene classification. With MapReduce method, global PHOG feature of indoor scene image is extracted in parallel. And, feature eigenvector is used to train the decision classifier through SVM concurrently. Then, the indoor scene is validly classified by decision classifier. To verify the algorithm performance, we carried out an experiment with 350 typical indoor scene images from MIT LabelMe image library. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can attain better real-time performance. Generally, it is 1.4 2.1 times faster than traditional classification methods which rely on single computation, while keeping stable classification correct rate as 70%.

  3. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  4. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  5. [Factors Influencing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Crime Scene Investigators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Seon Mi; Kim, Eun A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the relationships among social support, resilience and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and especially to identify factors influencing PTSD in police crime scene investigators. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 226 police crime scene investigators from 7 Metropolitan Police Agencies. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires during July and August, 2015. Data were analyzed using t-test, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS/WIN 21.0 program. The mean score for PTSD in police crime scene investigators was 13.69. 11 points. Of the crime scene investigators 181 (80.1%) were in the low-risk group and 45 (19.9%) in high-risk group. Social support (t=5.68, pcrime scene investigators, intervention programs including social support and strategies to increase should be established.

  6. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  7. Evaluation and comparison of rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated pine nuts using different pre enrichment media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Gill, Vikas S; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Irvin, Kari A; Zheng, Jie; Bell, Rebecca L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne outbreaks, involving pine nuts and peanut butter, illustrate the need to rapidly detect Salmonella in low moisture foods. However, the current Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method for Salmonella, using lactose broth (LB) as a pre enrichment medium, has not reliably supported real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for certain foods. We evaluated two qPCR assays in LB and four other pre enrichment media: buffered peptone water (BPW), modified BPW (mBPW), Universal Pre enrichment broth (UPB), and BAX(®) MP media to detect Salmonella in naturally-contaminated pine nuts (2011 outbreak). A four-way comparison among culture method, Pathatrix(®) Auto, VIDAS(®) Easy SLM, and qPCR was conducted. Automated DNA extraction techniques were compared with manual extraction methods (boiling or InstaGene™). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the five pre enrichment media for pine nuts using the culture method. While both qPCR assays produced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher false negatives in 24 h pre enriched LB than in the other four media, they were as sensitive as the culture method in BPW, mBPW, UPB, and BAX media. The VIDAS Easy and qPCR were equivalent; Pathatrix was the least effective method. The Automatic PrepSEQ™ DNA extraction, using 1000 μL of pre enrichment, was as effective as manual extraction methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  9. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients' scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. One high performance technology of infrared scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.

  11. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy.

  12. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  13. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Anomaly detection and localization in crowded scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixin; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The detection and localization of anomalous behaviors in crowded scenes is considered, and a joint detector of temporal and spatial anomalies is proposed. The proposed detector is based on a video representation that accounts for both appearance and dynamics, using a set of mixture of dynamic textures models. These models are used to implement 1) a center-surround discriminant saliency detector that produces spatial saliency scores, and 2) a model of normal behavior that is learned from training data and produces temporal saliency scores. Spatial and temporal anomaly maps are then defined at multiple spatial scales, by considering the scores of these operators at progressively larger regions of support. The multiscale scores act as potentials of a conditional random field that guarantees global consistency of the anomaly judgments. A data set of densely crowded pedestrian walkways is introduced and used to evaluate the proposed anomaly detector. Experiments on this and other data sets show that the latter achieves state-of-the-art anomaly detection results.

  15. Medical Monitoring During Firefighter Incident Scene Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David A; Haigh, Craig A; Haller, Jeannie M; Smith, Denise L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate aspects of medical monitoring, including medical complaints, vital signs at entry, and vital sign recovery, in firefighters during rehabilitation following operational firefighting duties. Incident scene rehabilitation logs obtained over a 5-year span that included 53 incidents, approximately 40 fire departments, and more than 530 firefighters were reviewed. Only 13 of 694 cases involved a firefighter reporting a medical complaint. In most cases, vital signs were similar between firefighters who registered a complaint and those who did not. On average, heart rate was 104 ± 23 beats·min(-1), systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 17 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81 ± 12 mmHg, and respiratory rate was 19 ± 3 breaths·min(-1) upon entry into rehabilitation. At least two measurements of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate were obtained for 365, 383, 376, and 160 cases, respectively. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and respiratory rate decreased significantly (p firefighters recovered from the physiological stress of firefighting without any medical complaint or symptoms. Furthermore, vital signs were within fire service suggested guidelines for release within 10 or 20 minutes of rehabilitation. The data suggested that vital signs of firefighters with medical symptoms were not significantly different from vital signs of firefighters who had an unremarkable recovery.

  16. -The Influence of Scene Context on Parafoveal Processing of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pereira, Effie J

    2017-04-21

    Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away. The preview object could be identical to the target, visually similar, visually dissimilar, or a control (black rectangle). The preview changed to the target object once a saccade toward the object was made. Critically, the objects were presented on either a consistent or an inconsistent scene background. Results revealed that there was a greater processing benefit for consistent than inconsistent scene backgrounds and that identical and visually similar previews produced greater processing benefits than other previews. In the second experiment, we added an additional context condition in which the target location was inconsistent, but the scene semantics remained consistent. We found that changing the location of the target object disrupted the processing benefit derived from the consistent context. Most importantly, across both experiments, the effect of preview was not enhanced by scene context. Thus, preview information and scene context appear to independently boost the parafoveal processing of objects without any interaction from object-scene congruency.

  17. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  18. Intranasal administration of CpG induces a rapid and transient cytokine response followed by dendritic and natural killer cell activation and recruitment in the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Isabella; Monaci, Elisabetta; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tritto, Elaine; Tavarini, Simona; Nuti, Sandra; De Gregorio, Ennio; Wack, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides are potent mucosal adjuvants and effective as stand-alone treatment of respiratory infections in mice. Although CpG is also used as a type 1 helper immunomodulator in the treatment of asthma and allergic disease, immune modulation following intranasal application has not been fully characterized yet. Using a B-type CpG, we monitored RNA expression profiles, cytokine production and cellular activation in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavages ex vivo and cytokine production of purified cell populations in vitro. CpG triggered the upregulation of many transcripts, including interferon response genes and proinflammatory cytokine genes, between 3 h and 4 days. Overlapping subsets of these cytokine proteins were induced in vitro in purified CD11c+ cells, B cells and alveolar macrophages from the lung, thus identifying these cells as direct targets of CpG. While lung B cells strongly respond to CpG in vitro, less activation is found ex vivo, suggesting efficient CpG sequestering or rapid B cell migration after activation. In contrast, a type II alveolar epithelial cell line did not respond to CpG in vitro. We noted selective recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) into the lung tissue, and of conventional DCs and natural killer (NK) cells into the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Furthermore, CpG induced activation of intrapulmonary DCs, NK and T cells. We hypothesize that CpG-linked adjuvanticity and clearance of respiratory pathogens are mediated by two major mechanisms: transient induction of the interferon pathway limiting microbial survival and selective recruitment of DCs and NK cells, which allows for better adaptive responses.

  19. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  20. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  1. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Task relevance predicts gaze in videos of real moving scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christina J; Gilchrist, Iain D; Troscianko, Tom; Behera, Ardhendu; Hogg, David C

    2011-09-01

    Low-level stimulus salience and task relevance together determine the human fixation priority assigned to scene locations (Fecteau and Munoz in Trends Cogn Sci 10(8):382-390, 2006). However, surprisingly little is known about the contribution of task relevance to eye movements during real-world visual search where stimuli are in constant motion and where the 'target' for the visual search is abstract and semantic in nature. Here, we investigate this issue when participants continuously search an array of four closed-circuit television (CCTV) screens for suspicious events. We recorded eye movements whilst participants watched real CCTV footage and moved a joystick to continuously indicate perceived suspiciousness. We find that when multiple areas of a display compete for attention, gaze is allocated according to relative levels of reported suspiciousness. Furthermore, this measure of task relevance accounted for twice the amount of variance in gaze likelihood as the amount of low-level visual changes over time in the video stimuli.

  3. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  4. Ambient visual information confers a context-specific, long-term benefit on memory for haptic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Finucane, Ciara M; Newell, Fiona N

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of indirect, ambient visual information on haptic spatial memory. Using touch only, participants first learned an array of objects arranged in a scene and were subsequently tested on their recognition of that scene which was always hidden from view. During haptic scene exploration, participants could either see the surrounding room or were blindfolded. We found a benefit in haptic memory performance only when ambient visual information was available in the early stages of the task but not when participants were initially blindfolded. Specifically, when ambient visual information was available a benefit on performance was found in a subsequent block of trials during which the participant was blindfolded (Experiment 1), and persisted over a delay of one week (Experiment 2). However, we found that the benefit for ambient visual information did not transfer to a novel environment (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4 we further investigated the nature of the visual information that improved haptic memory and found that geometric information about a surrounding (virtual) room rather than isolated object landmarks, facilitated haptic scene memory. Our results suggest that vision improves haptic memory for scenes by providing an environment-centred, allocentric reference frame for representing object location through touch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. OP or not OP: the medical challenge at the chemical terrorism scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoy, Amir; Layish, Ido; Rotman, Eran; Goldberg, Avi; Yehezkelli, Yoav

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, terrorist attacks involving weapons of mass destruction or other industrial chemicals present worldwide security and health concerns. On-scene medical triage and treatment in such events is crucial to save as many lives as possible and minimize the deleterious effects of the toxic agent involved. Since there are many chemicals that can be used as potential terrorist weapons, the medical challenge for the emergency medical services (EMS) is a combination of: (1) recognizing that a chemical terrorist attack (non-conventional) has occurred; and (2) identifying the toxic agent followed by proper antidotal treatment. The latter must be done as quickly as possible, preferably on-scene. The most valuable decision at this stage should be whether the agent is organophosphate (OP) or not OP, based on clinical findings observed by pre-trained, first responders. This decision is crucial, since only OP intoxication has readily available, rapidly acting, onscene, specific agents such as atropine and one of the oximes, preferably administered using autoinjectors. Due to the lack of a specific antidote, exposure to other agents (such as industrial chemicals, e.g., chlorine, bromide, or ammonia) should be treated on-scene symptomatically with non-specific measures, such as decontamination and supportive treatment. This paper proposes an algorithm as a cognitive framework for the medical teams on-scene. This algorithm should be part of the medical team's training for preparedness for chemical terrorist attacks, and the team should be trained to use it in drills. Implementing this path of thinking should improve the medical outcome of such an event.

  6. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  7. Earth Virtual-Environment Immersive Scene Display System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise...

  8. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the...

  10. Experiencing simultanagnosia through windowed viewing of complex social scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Birmingham, Elina; Bischof, Walter F; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan

    2011-01-07

    Simultanagnosia is a disorder of visual attention, defined as an inability to see more than one object at once. It has been conceived as being due to a constriction of the visual "window" of attention, a metaphor that we examine in the present article. A simultanagnosic patient (SL) and two non-simultanagnosic control patients (KC and ES) described social scenes while their eye movements were monitored. These data were compared to a group of healthy subjects who described the same scenes under the same conditions as the patients, or through an aperture that restricted their vision to a small portion of the scene. Experiment 1 demonstrated that SL showed unusually low proportions of fixations to the eyes in social scenes, which contrasted with all other participants who demonstrated the standard preferential bias toward eyes. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when healthy participants viewed scenes through a window that was contingent on where they looked (Experiment 2) or where they moved a computer mouse (Experiment 3), their behavior closely mirrored that of patient SL. These findings suggest that a constricted window of visual processing has important consequences for how simultanagnosic patients explore their world. Our paradigm's capacity to mimic simultanagnosic behaviors while viewing complex scenes implies that it may be a valid way of modeling simultanagnosia in healthy individuals, providing a useful tool for future research. More broadly, our results support the thesis that people fixate the eyes in social scenes because they are informative to the meaning of the scene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lingua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.

  12. EigenScape: A Database of Spatial Acoustic Scene Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ciufo Green

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classification of acoustic scenes and events is an emerging area of research in the field of machine listening. Most of the research conducted so far uses spectral features extracted from monaural or stereophonic audio rather than spatial features extracted from multichannel recordings. This is partly due to the lack thus far of a substantial body of spatial recordings of acoustic scenes. This paper formally introduces EigenScape, a new database of fourth-order Ambisonic recordings of eight different acoustic scene classes. The potential applications of a spatial machine listening system are discussed before detailed information on the recording process and dataset are provided. A baseline spatial classification system using directional audio coding (DirAC techniques is detailed and results from this classifier are presented. The classifier is shown to give good overall scene classification accuracy across the dataset, with 7 of 8 scenes being classified with an accuracy of greater than 60% with an 11% improvement in overall accuracy compared to use of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC features. Further analysis of the results shows potential improvements to the classifier. It is concluded that the results validate the new database and show that spatial features can characterise acoustic scenes and as such are worthy of further investigation.

  13. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  14. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds...

  15. Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    OpenAIRE

    Azumi eTanabe-Ishibashi; Takashi eIkeda; Naoyuki eOsaka

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. ...

  16. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut

    2013-12-10

    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  17. The natural statistics of audiovisual speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Trubanova, Andrea; Stillittano, Sébastien; Caplier, Alice; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-01-01

    .... Tests of this idea have largely been confined to unimodal signals and natural scenes. One important class of multisensory signals for which a quantitative input space characterization is unavailable is human speech...

  18. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.

  19. Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azumi eTanabe-Ishibashi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene or meaningless (scrambled scene backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1 disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2 weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by different two subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual-array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.

  20. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    7th European Conference on Computer Vision; 2002; Copenhagen , Denmark. p. 148–162. 36. Lalonde J-F, Efros AA, Narasimhan SG. Estimating the natural...illumination conditions from a single outdoor image. Intl J Computer Vis. 2012;98:123– 145. 37. Xie L. Geographic and environmental interpretation

  1. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.

  2. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Networks for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-03-28

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  3. Combining non-invasive methods for the rapid assessment of mammalian richness in a transect-quadrat survey scheme - Case Study of the Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve, North Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Manal R; El Indary, Shadi; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Abou Dagher, Manale

    2011-01-01

    Lebanon lacks updated information related to the status of mammalian species, their richness and distribution. This study aimed at developing a rapid assessment methodology combining three non-invasive techniques based on the transect-quadrat survey scheme to measure mammalian richness at the Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve. The achieved results showed that the combination of the three techniques, droppings, footprints and photo-trapping for the rapid assessment of mammalian richness supported by Geographical Information System applications is highly effective. Twenty visits covering twenty quadrats out of 49 over a period of nine months allowed the detection of 12 of the 14 targeted species with droppings providing the majority of evidence while footprints and photo-trapping being of equal efficiency. The method can be easily replicated in any region to rapidly assess mammalian richness and the area of activity of the detected species and therefore directing conservation and management activities towards species of interest.

  4. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  5. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  6. Surgical scene generation for virtual reality-based training in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Harders, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Provides an extensive overview of related work in the three different directions of scene generation and introduces specific solutions in detailIdeal reference for any reader involved in generating training scenarios, as well as in VR-based training in generalDiscusses theoeretically unlimited automatic generation of healthy anatomy within natural variability allowing tedious and time-intensive manual segmentation to be avoidedPresents high-quality synthesis of new textures based on samples and automatic mapping to complex geometries enabling the drawing and mapping of textures to 3D models to

  7. Conference scene: progress with promising human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, James W

    2012-03-01

    Antibodies and antibody-based therapeutics have become big business, with annual sales over US$50 billion, accounting for >6% of worldwide pharmaceutical revenues. Ten molecules have blockbuster status (>US$1 billion), with six generating more than US$6 billion in sales. In excess of 300 products based on this rapidly maturing technology are in clinical trials. The generation and manufacture of human antibodies is now routine, although the cost of goods remains an issue. Optimizing combinations of antibodies with other therapeutics (e.g., chemotherapy) is a major short-term goal, while target validation and product differentiation remain significant hurdles if growth is to continue. Some of the notable highlights of the recent 16th International Conference on Human Antibodies and Hybridomas meeting in Cannes, France are described below. The conference was sponsored by the international journal Human Antibodies, in association with the Integrative Medical Sciences Association (IMSA). The Program Chairman was Professor Mark Glassy, IMSA, San Diego, CA, USA.

  8. Surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Huseyin; Doerschner, Katja; Snyder, Jacqueline L; Maloney, Laurence T

    2006-01-01

    Researchers studying surface color perception have typically used stimuli that consist of a small number of matte patches (real or simulated) embedded in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight (a "Mondrian," Land & McCann, 1971). Reliable estimation of the color of a matte surface is a difficult if not impossible computational problem in such limited scenes (Maloney, 1999). In more realistic, three-dimensional scenes the difficulty of the problem increases, in part, because the effective illumination incident on the surface (the light field) now depends on surface orientation and location. We review recent work in multiple laboratories that examines (1) the degree to which the human visual system discounts the light field in judging matte surface lightness and color and (2) what illuminant cues the visual system uses in estimating the flow of light in a scene.

  9. A Grouped Threshold Approach for Scene Identification in AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Trepte, Qing

    1999-01-01

    The authors propose a grouped threshold method for scene identification in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imagery that may contain clouds, fire, smoke, or snow. The philosophy of the approach is to build modules that contain groups of spectral threshold tests that are applied concurrently, not sequentially, to each pixel in an image. The purpose of each group of tests is to identify uniquely a specific class in the image, such as smoke. A strength of this approach is that insight into the limits used in the threshold tests may be gained through the use of radiative transfer theory. Methodology and examples are provided for two different scenes, one containing clouds, forest fires, and smoke; and the other containing clouds over snow in the central United States. For both scenes, a limited amount of supporting information is provided by surface observers.

  10. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  11. Color appearance and color rendering of HDR scenes: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro; McCann, John J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all the objects from each direction. This produced a low-dynamicrange (LDR) image of the 3-D Mondrian scene. Second, in order to make a high-dynamic range (HDR) image of the same objects, we used a directional 150W spotlight and an array of WLEDs assembled in a flashlight. The scenes were significant as each contained exactly the same three-dimensional painted colour blocks that were arranged in the same position in the still life. The blocks comprised 6 hue colours and 5 tones from white to black. Participants from the CREATE project were asked to consider the change in the appearance of a selection of colours according to lightness, hue, and chroma, and to rate how the change in illumination affected appearance. We measured the light coming to the eye from still-life surfaces with a colorimeter (Yxy). We captured the scene radiance using multiple exposures with a number of different cameras. We have begun a programme of digital image processing of these scene capture methods. This multi-disciplinary programme continues until 2010, so this paper is an interim report on the initial phases and a description of the ongoing project.

  12. Design of the multiwavelength Scophony infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Korniski, Ronald J.; Richwine, Robert A.

    1993-11-01

    An all acousto-optic infrared scene projector (IRSP) has been developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility located at Elgin AFB, Florida. The IRSP is a laser source based projector incorporating Scophony illumination and scanning methods to produce 96 X 96 pixel multi-wavelength images at very high frame rates (400 Hz). The IRSP is composed of five functionally similar optical trains, four of which are fed with a different `color' infrared laser. The separate scenes from each optical train are then combined and projected simultaneously into the imaging guidance system.

  13. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  14. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self......-discovery and Odysseus’ happy homecoming. The book offers a reconstruction of the conventions of the genre and argues that it is one of the most recurrent and significant literary forms in the Gospel. When portraying Jesus as the divine stranger from heaven, the Gospel employs and transforms the formal and ideological...

  15. Randomized Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis for Scene Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodner, Erik; Denzler, Joachim

    The concept of probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) has gained much interest as a tool for feature transformation in image categorization and scene recognition scenarios. However, a major issue of this technique is overfitting. Therefore, we propose to use an ensemble of pLSA models which are trained using random fractions of the training data. We analyze empirically the influence of the degree of randomization and the size of the ensemble on the overall classification performance of a scene recognition task. A thoughtful evaluation shows the benefits of this approach compared to a single pLSA model.

  16. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  17. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Evaluation of Suspect Testimony: Palynological Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    A rapid method for evaluating suspect testimony is valuable at any stage in an inquiry and can result in a change of direction in an investigation. Rape cases, in particular, can present problems where a defendant renders DNA analysis redundant by claiming that the claimant consented to have sexual relations. Forensic palynology is valuable in confirming or eliminating locations as being crime scenes, thus checking the testimony of both parties. In contrast to some forensic disciplines, forensic palynology can provide critical information without time-consuming full analysis. Two cases are described where the palynological assemblages from comparator samples of pertinent places were compared with those obtained from clothing of claimants and defendants. The results of rapid microscopical scanning of relevant preparations led to early confessions, thus obviating the need for costly analyses and protracted court proceedings. A third case demonstrates the unbiased nature of this technique where a man, although innocent of any offense, lied about having visited the crime scene for fear of prosecution. This highlights the need for sensitive policing in claims of rape. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Reduced medial prefrontal-subcortical connectivity in dysphoria: Granger causality analyses of rapid functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatinelli, Dean; McTeague, Lisa M; Dhamala, Mukesh; Frank, David W; Wanger, Timothy J; Adhikari, Bhim M

    2015-02-01

    A cortico-limbic network consisting of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and ventral striatum (vSTR) has been associated with altered function in emotional disorders. Here we used rapidly sampled functional magnetic resonance imaging and Granger causality analyses to assess the directional connectivity between these brain structures in a sample of healthy and age-matched participants endorsing moderate to severe depressive symptomatology as they viewed a series of natural scene stimuli varying systematically in pleasantness and arousal. Specifically during pleasant scene perception, dysphoric participants showed reduced activity in mPFC and vSTR, relative to healthy participants. In contrast, amygdala activity was enhanced to pleasant as well as unpleasant arousing scenes in both participant groups. Granger causality estimates of influence between mPFC and vSTR were significantly reduced in dysphoric relative to control participants during all picture contents. These findings provide direct evidence that during visual perception of evocative emotional stimuli, reduced reward-related activity in dysphoria is associated with dysfunctional causal connectivity between mPFC, amygdala, and vSTR.

  19. Sap-direct RT-PCR for the rapid detection of coleus blumei viroids of the genus Coleviroid from natural host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Sano, Teruo; Li, Shifang

    2011-06-01

    A simple and fast sap-direct RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) for the rapid detection of 3 viroids of the genus Coleviroid is presented. The templates for cDNA synthesis were obtained directly from the sap of coleus using a pipettor, a common tool in molecular biology laboratories, and 3 coleus blumei viroids (CbVds) were detected simultaneously using a pair of universal primers designed according to sequences in the central conserved region (CCR) of CbVds. RT-PCR results demonstrated that CbVd-1, CbVd-5, and CbVd-6 can be detected accurately in viroid-infected plants but not in viroid-free plants. The results of RT-PCR, dot-blot, sequencing, and batch-detection revealed that this method can be used to identify CbVds rapidly. The method also reduces cross-contamination among different samples to a minimum. It is considered that this rapid and simple technique is an effective method for the identification and cloning of CbVds. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  1. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  2. Understanding road scenes using visual cues and GPS information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Lumbreras, F.; Lopez, A.M.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding road scenes is important in computer vision with different applications to improve road safety (e.g., advanced driver assistance systems) and to develop autonomous driving systems (e.g., Google driver-less vehicle). Current vision-based approaches rely on the robust combination of

  3. AUTOMATIC POWERLINE SCENE CLASSIFICATION AND RECONSTRUCTION USING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sohn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce new methods for classifying key features (power lines, pylons, and buildings comprising utility corridor scene using airborne LiDAR data and modelling power lines in 3D object space. The proposed approach starts from PL scene segmentation using Markov Random Field (MRF, which emphasizes on the roles of spatial context of linear and planar features as in a graphical model. The MRF classifier identifies power line features from linear features extracted from given corridor scenes. The non-power line objects are then investigated in a planar space to sub-classify them into building and non-building class. Based on the classification results, precise localization of individual pylons is conducted through investigating a prior knowledge of contextual relations between power line and pylon. Once the pylon localization is accomplished, a power line span is identified, within which power lines are modelled with catenary curve models in 3D. Once a local catenary curve model is established, this initial model progressively extends to capture entire power line points by adopting model hypothesis and verification. The model parameters are adjusted using a stochastic non-linear square method for producing 3D power line models. An evaluation of the proposed approach is performed over an urban PL corridor area that includes a complex PL scene.

  4. Toward Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Kowdle, Adarsh; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-07-01

    Scene understanding includes many related subtasks, such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection, etc. Each of these subtasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many of them. These classifiers operate on the same raw image and provide correlated outputs. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that jointly optimizes all the subtasks while requiring only a "black box" interface to the original classifier for each subtask. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about which error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the subtasks in the domain of scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling, and saliency detection. Our method also improves performance in two robotic applications: an object-grasping robot and an object-finding robot.

  5. The value of DNA material recovered from crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Hammond, Christine

    2008-07-01

    DNA material is now collected routinely from crime scenes for a wide range of offenses and its timely processing is acknowledged as a key element to its success in solving crime. An analysis of the processing of approximately 1500 samples of DNA material recovered from the property crime offenses of residential burglary, commercial burglary, and theft of motor vehicle in Northamptonshire, U.K. during 2006 identified saliva and cigarette ends as the main sources of DNA recovered (approximately 63% of samples) with blood, cellular DNA, and chewing gum accounting for the remainder. The conversion of these DNA samples into DNA profiles and then into matches with offender profiles held on the U.K. National DNA database is considered in terms of the ease with which Crime Scene Examiners can recover DNA rich samples of different sources, the location of the DNA at the crime scene, and its mobility. A logistical regression of the DNA material recovered has revealed a number of predictors, other than timeliness, that greatly influence its conversion into a DNA profile. The most significant predictor was found to be Crime Scene Examiner accreditation with offense type and DNA sample condition also being relevant. A similar logistical regression of DNA samples profiled that produced a match with an offender on the U.K. National DNA database showed no significance with any of the predictors considered.

  6. Dynamic scene stitching driven by visual cognition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  7. Dynamic Scene Stitching Driven by Visual Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hui Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  8. Cultural heritage and history in the European metal scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an

  9. Towards Unsupervised Familiar Scene Recognition in Egocentric Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talavera Martínez, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an upsurge of interest in using lifelogging devices. Such devices generate huge amounts of image data; consequently, the need for automatic methods for analyzing and summarizing these data is drastically increasing. We present a new method for familiar scene recognition in

  10. The role of memory for visual search in scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. While a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. PMID:25684693

  11. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  13. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  14. Logical unit and scene detection: a comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersohn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.

  15. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  16. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  17. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due ...... if a detected object shows a pattern of movement consistent with predefined rules. The method is tested on a number of video sequences and a substantial reduction in the number of false alarms is demonstrated.......This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...... to e.g. movement of thicket and changes in illumination. To reduce the number of false alarms a Track Before Detect (TBD) approach is suggested. In this TBD implementation all objects detected in the background subtraction process are followed over a number of frames. An alarm is given only...

  18. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  19. Range and intensity vision for rock-scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, SG

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  20. Scene Context Dependency of Pattern Constancy of Time Series Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental element of future generic pattern recognition technology is the ability to extract similar patterns for the same scene despite wide ranging extraneous variables, including lighting, turbidity, sensor exposure variations, and signal noise. In the process of demonstrating pattern constancy of this kind for retinex/visual servo (RVS) image enhancement processing, we found that the pattern constancy performance depended somewhat on scene content. Most notably, the scene topography and, in particular, the scale and extent of the topography in an image, affects the pattern constancy the most. This paper will explore these effects in more depth and present experimental data from several time series tests. These results further quantify the impact of topography on pattern constancy. Despite this residual inconstancy, the results of overall pattern constancy testing support the idea that RVS image processing can be a universal front-end for generic visual pattern recognition. While the effects on pattern constancy were significant, the RVS processing still does achieve a high degree of pattern constancy over a wide spectrum of scene content diversity, and wide ranging extraneousness variations in lighting, turbidity, and sensor exposure.

  1. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  2. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-09-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2-6 s) increased (30-70 μM or 6-14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (-20-40 μM or 5-10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  3. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  4. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  5. The changing scene in community health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M D

    1988-09-01

    The DRGs and their aftermath have had an effect on all who are involved with home health care services, including the patient and provider. The staff of home health agencies must be competent, caring professionals who must also be able to cope with the regulatory issues that affect patient care. The effects on patients and families have also increased. Today's health care environment is requiring that they be responsible for self-care programs for many hi-tech procedures as well as care for those who are terminally ill. They are discovering that reimbursement is not available for the many services that they consider necessary, but that third-party payers consider these services to be of a custodial nature and, therefore, nonreimbursable. The effect on physicians is an increased amount of paperwork for home care services, as a result of frequent admissions to and discharges from service and changes in the frequency of visits or treatment plans. There is also the need for the timely signing of the required forms for agencies to meet the requirements of the Medicare program. The effects on the agencies include attempting to maintain financial solvency while providing quality health care services; maintaining staff morale and productivity; making hi-tech services available at an increased cost on a 24-hour basis by qualified staff to remain competitive; and guaranteeing safe, sound policies and procedures for patients and staff. Certainly the advent of DRGs has also had an impact on the nursing profession as it relates to home health care. The benefits of community health nursing identified in the past are no longer applicable in 1988. The job characteristics have changed and are no longer as attractive as they once were to nurses. In a recent publication I said there are times when I feel that I know what a swimmer experiences when being pounded by unrelenting waves in a rough surf. There is hardly time to catch your breath before the next wave hits. The DRG aftermath

  6. How saliency, faces, and sound influence gaze in dynamic social scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Antoine; Guyader, Nathalie

    2014-07-03

    Conversation scenes are a typical example in which classical models of visual attention dramatically fail to predict eye positions. Indeed, these models rarely consider faces as particular gaze attractors and never take into account the important auditory information that always accompanies dynamic social scenes. We recorded the eye movements of participants viewing dynamic conversations taking place in various contexts. Conversations were seen either with their original soundtracks or with unrelated soundtracks (unrelated speech and abrupt or continuous natural sounds). First, we analyze how auditory conditions influence the eye movement parameters of participants. Then, we model the probability distribution of eye positions across each video frame with a statistical method (Expectation-Maximization), allowing the relative contribution of different visual features such as static low-level visual saliency (based on luminance contrast), dynamic low level visual saliency (based on motion amplitude), faces, and center bias to be quantified. Through experimental and modeling results, we show that regardless of the auditory condition, participants look more at faces, and especially at talking faces. Hearing the original soundtrack makes participants follow the speech turn-taking more closely. However, we do not find any difference between the different types of unrelated soundtracks. These eyetracking results are confirmed by our model that shows that faces, and particularly talking faces, are the features that best explain the gazes recorded, especially in the original soundtrack condition. Low-level saliency is not a relevant feature to explain eye positions made on social scenes, even dynamic ones. Finally, we propose groundwork for an audiovisual saliency model. © 2014 ARVO.

  7. The motive for sensory pleasure: enjoyment of nature and its representation in painting, music, and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Robert; Sucharski, Ivan L; Yalowitz, Steven; Kent, Robert J; Loomis, Ross J; Jones, Jason R; Paylor, Sarah; Aselage, Justin; Mueller, Meta Steiger; McLaughlin, John P

    2010-04-01

    Eight studies assessed the motive for sensory pleasure (MSP) involving a general disposition to enjoy and pursue pleasant nature-related experiences and avoid unpleasant nature-related experiences. The stated enjoyment of pleasant sights, smells, sounds, and tactile sensations formed a unitary construct that was distinct from sensation seeking, novelty preference, and need for cognition. MSP was found to be related to (a) enjoyment of pleasant nature scenes and music of high but not low clarity; (b) enjoyment of writings that portrayed highly detailed nature scenes; (c) enjoyment of pleasantly themed paintings and dislike of unpleasant paintings, as distinct from findings with Openness to Experience; (d) choice of pleasant nature scenes over exciting or intellectually stimulating scenes; (e) view duration and memory of artistically rendered quilts; (f) interest in detailed information about nature scenes; and (g) frequency of sensory-type suggestions for improvement of a museum exhibit.

  8. Adolescent Characters and Alcohol Use Scenes in Brazilian Movies, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structured assessment of 193 scenes depicting substance use from a convenience sample of 50 Brazilian movies was performed. Logistic regression and analysis of variance or multivariate analysis of variance models were employed to test for two different types of outcome regarding alcohol appearance: The mean length of alcohol scenes in seconds and the prevalence of alcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescent characters was associated with a higher prevalence of alcohol use scenes compared to nonalcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescents was also associated with a higher than average length of alcohol use scenes compared to the nonalcohol use scenes. Alcohol use was negatively associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs use. However, when the use of cannabis, cocaine, or other drugs was present in the alcohol use scenes, a higher average length was found. This may mean that most vulnerable group may see drinking as a more attractive option leading to higher alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available includes revisiting the scenes with a GPS receiver to record their coordinates. This quality assurance highlights discrepancies between the crime scenes described in case dockets and those the suspect pointed out, allowing the investigators to link...

  10. Contextual effects of scene on the visual perception of object orientation in depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of background scene on the human visual perception of depth orientation (i.e., azimuth angle of three-dimensional common objects. Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects. The objects were surrounded by scenes with an apparent axis of the global reference frame, such as a sidewalk scene. When a scene axis was slightly misaligned with the gaze line, object orientation perception was biased, as if the gaze line had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 1. When the scene axis was slightly misaligned with the object, evaluated object orientation was biased, as if it had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 2. This assimilation may be due to confusion between the orientation of the scene and object axes (Experiment 3. Thus, the global reference frame may influence object orientation perception when its orientation is similar to that of the gaze-line or object.

  11. Scene-selectivity and retinotopy in medial parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Harry Silson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral (occipital place area, OPA, ventral (parahippocampal place area, PPA, and medial (retrosplenial complex, RSC cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using fMRI, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS. While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and FFA, commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective OFA, suggesting a closer link with ventral then lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral surface, the caudal inferior parietal lobule (cIPL. However, the differential connectivity in

  12. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  13. Ritual Scenes in the Iliad: Rote, Hallowed, or Encrypted as Ancient Art?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Kitts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral poetic and ritual theory, this article proposes that ritual scenes in Homer’s Iliad reflect unique compositional constraints beyond those found in other kinds of typical scenes. The focus is on oath-sacrifices and commensal sacrifices. Both ritual scene types exhibit strong identifying features, although they differ in their formal particulars and cultural implications. It is argued that both sorts of sacrificial scenes preserve especially ancient ritual patterns that may have parallels in Anatolian texts.

  14. Modelling a crime scene in 3D and adding thermal information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Veerman, H.E.T.; Mark, W. van der

    2009-01-01

    Once a crime has been perpetrated, forensic traces will only be persevered in the crime scene for a limited time frame. It is therefore necessary to record a crime scene meticulously. Usually, photographs and/or videos are taken at the scene to document it, so that later on one will know the exact

  15. Separate and simultaneous adjustment of light qualities in a real scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers

  16. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  17. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  18. Atlante del bianco: new dancers on the contemporary scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Germanà

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay deals with the experience of the newborn Italian dance company Damasco Corner, a group of visually impaired professional dancers working with the choreographer Virgilio Sieni in Firenze, at CANGO_Cantieri Goldonetta. The text looks at the performance process they went through (workshops, training and rehearsals preparing the first official piece of the company: Atlante del bianco. The access of these new dancers to the field of professional artistic education implies different changing, in the studio as well as on the scene. Inclusive approaches are applied, teaching dance techniques, improvisation and creating choreographies. The audience needs to embrace different perspectives to feel and understand the dance that is lived and presented on the scene

  19. Scene From The Birth Of Venus: Kajian Karya Fotografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agra Locita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scene From The Birth Of Venus is a photographic artwork that created in 1949. The artwork was the result of collaboration between Salvador Dali and two photographers, Baron George Hoyningen-Huene and George Platt Lynes. They created Birth of Venus differently with first painting whom created by Bottocelli Sandro. He depicted the goddess Venus graceful and shy, but it recreated by Salvador Dali in an imaginative photographic artwork. In Scene From The Birth Of Venus, the goddess Venus depicted as half human and fish. Two creations in different way but still in the birth of the goddess Venus theme.  Key words: photography, painting, imaginative

  20. A combined feature latent semantic model for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue; Wang, Runsheng

    2009-10-01

    Due to vast growth of image databases, scene image classification methods have become increasingly important in computer vision areas. We propose a new scene image classification framework based on combined feature and a latent semantic model which is based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in the statistical text literature. Here the model is applied to visual words representation for images. We use Gibbs sampling for parameter estimation and use several different numbers of topics at the same time to obtain the latent topic representation of images. We densely extract multi-scale patches from images and get the combined feature on these patches. Our method is unsupervised. It can also well represent semantic characteristic of images. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by comparing it to those used in previous work in this area. Experiments were conducted on three often used image databases, and our method got better results than the others.

  1. Comparison between lighting performance of a virtual natural lighting solutions prototype and a real window based on computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mangkuto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the measurement and simulation of a first generation prototype of Virtual Natural Lighting Solutions (VNLS, which are systems that can artificially provide natural lighting as well as a realistic outside view, with properties comparable to those of real windows and skylights. Examples of employing Radiance as a simulation tool to predict the lighting performance of such solutions are shown, for a particular case study of a VNLS prototype displaying variations of a simplified view of overcast, clear, and partly cloudy skies. Measurement and simulation were conducted to evaluate the illuminance distribution on workplane level. The key point of this study is to show that simulations can be used to compare an actual VNLS prototype with a hypothetical real window under the same sky scenes, which was physically not possible, since the test room was not located at the building׳s façade. It is found that the investigated prototype yields a less rapidly drop illuminance distribution and a larger average illuminance than the corresponding real window, under the overcast (52 lx compared to 28 lx and partly cloudy (102 lx compared to 80 lx sky scenes. Under the clear sky scene, the real window yields a larger average illuminance (97 lx compared to the prototype (71 lx, due to the influence of direct sunlight.

  2. SpaceTime Environmental Image Information for Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Analysis and Machine Intel. 2011;33(12):2341–2353. 31. Song Y, Luo H, Hui B, Chang Z. An improved image dehazing and enhancing method using dark...help the end user (Soldier) develop improved course of action strategies based on scene understanding ( algorithms and analysis) incorporating...environmental image information in the data measurement process will lead to 1) improved autonomous intelligent systems supporting Army missions in complex

  3. TESSITURA OF A CREATIVE PROCESS: AUTOBIOGRAPHY ON SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This text presents weavings of a way to make the arts scene using the autobiographical support the creative process. Thus, we elucidate some of these weavings process while legitimizing the production of knowledge through artistic praxis, of sensitive experience. Introducing the concept of autobiography in analogy to the artistic and sequentially present the possibility of a laboratory setting amalgamated into reality/fiction. Keywords: creative process; autobiography; body.

  4. Acoustic simulation in realistic 3D virtual scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozard, Patrick; Le Goff, Alain; Naz, Pierre; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2003-09-01

    The simulation workshop CHORALE developed in collaboration with OKTAL SE company for the French MoD is used by government services and industrial companies for weapon system validation and qualification trials in the infrared domain. The main operational reference for CHORALE is the assessment of the infrared guidance system of the Storm Shadow missile French version, called Scalp. The use of CHORALE workshop is now extended to the acoustic domain. The main objective is the simulation of the detection of moving vehicles in realistic 3D virtual scenes. This article briefly describes the acoustic model in CHORALE. The 3D scene is described by a set of polygons. Each polygon is characterized by its acoustic resistivity or its complex impedance. Sound sources are associated with moving vehicles and are characterized by their spectra and directivities. A microphone sensor is defined by its position, its frequency band and its sensitivity. The purpose of the acoustic simulation is to calculate the incoming acoustic pressure on microphone sensors. CHORALE is based on a generic ray tracing kernel. This kernel possesses original capabilities: computation time is nearly independent on the scene complexity, especially the number of polygons, databases are enhanced with precise physical data, special mechanisms of antialiasing have been developed that enable to manage very accurate details. The ray tracer takes into account the wave geometrical divergence and the atmospheric transmission. The sound wave refraction is simulated and rays cast in the 3D scene are curved according to air temperature gradient. Finally, sound diffraction by edges (hill, wall,...) is also taken into account.

  5. Modular and Scalable Firmware for Infrared LED Scene Projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE USA 19716 Abstract: Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a...Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI ) under Contract No. W91ZLK-06-C- 0006." (b) "Any opinions, findings...Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI ).” References 1. R. McGee, K. Nabha, J. Marks, J. Benedict, G. Ejzak, J. Dickason, N. Waite, M. Hernandez

  6. A Scene Text-Based Image Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    images. The majority of OCR engines is designed for scanned text and so depends on segmentation which correctly separates text from background...size is 8×8, cell size is 2×2 and 9 bins for histogram. For each candidate word, HOG feature is extracted and used by the SVM classifier to verify...images. One approach is to extract text appearing in images which often gives an indication of a scene’s semantic content. However, it can be

  7. APPROACH TO CONSTRUCTING 3D VIRTUAL SCENE OF IRRIGATION AREA USING MULTI-SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS, remote sensing (RS technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.

  8. Approach to Constructing 3d Virtual Scene of Irrigation Area Using Multi-Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S.; Dou, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S.; Chen, X.

    2015-10-01

    For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS), remote sensing (RS) technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE) high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.

  9. Early and late components of EEG delay activity correlate differently with scene working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Ng, Kenneth; Reichert, Chelsea P

    2017-01-01

    Sustained and elevated activity during the working memory delay period has long been considered the primary neural correlate for maintaining information over short time intervals. This idea has recently been reinterpreted in light of findings generated from multiple neural recording modalities and levels of analysis. To further investigate the sustained or transient nature of activity, the temporal-spectral evolution (TSE) of delay period activity was examined in humans with high density EEG during performance of a Sternberg working memory paradigm with a relatively long six second delay and with novel scenes as stimuli. Multiple analyses were conducted using different trial window durations and different baseline periods for TSE computation. Sensor level analyses revealed transient rather than sustained activity during delay periods. Specifically, the consistent finding among the analyses was that high amplitude activity encompassing the theta range was found early in the first three seconds of the delay period. These increases in activity early in the delay period correlated positively with subsequent ability to distinguish new from old probe scenes. Source level signal estimation implicated a right parietal region of transient early delay activity that correlated positively with working memory ability. This pattern of results adds to recent evidence that transient rather than sustained delay period activity supports visual working memory performance. The findings are discussed in relation to synchronous and desynchronous intra- and inter-regional neural transmission, and choosing an optimal baseline for expressing temporal-spectral delay activity change.

  10. Describing visual scenes: towards a neurolinguistics based on construction grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A; Lee, Jinyong

    2008-08-15

    The present paper is part of a larger effort to locate the production and perception of language within the broader context of brain mechanisms for action and perception more generally. Here we model function in terms of the competition and cooperation of schemas. We use the task of describing visual scenes to explore the suitability of Construction Grammar as an appropriate framework for a schema-based linguistics. We recall the early VISIONS model of schema-based computer analysis of static visual scenes and then introduce SemRep as a graphical representation of dynamic visual scenes designed to support the generation of varied descriptions of episodes. We report preliminary results on implementing the production of sentences using Template Construction Grammar (TCG), a new form of construction grammar distinguished by its use of SemRep to express semantics. We summarize data on neural correlates relevant to future work on TCG within the context of neurolinguistics, and show how the relation between SemRep and TCG can serve as the basis for modeling language comprehension.

  11. Scene articulation: dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Karina J; Foster, David H

    2002-01-01

    The ability of observers to detect changes in illuminant over two scenes containing different random samples of reflecting surfaces was determined in an experiment with Mondrian-like patterns containing different numbers of coloured patches. Performance was found to improve as the number of patches increased from 9 to 49. In principle, observers could have used space-average scene colour as the cue ('grey-world' hypothesis) or the colour of the brightest surface in the scene ('bright-is-white' hypothesis), as the two cues generally covary. In a second experiment, observers matched illuminants across different patterns in which the space-average cue and the brightest-patch cue were independently manipulated. The articulation of the patterns was varied: the number of patches increased from 49 (patch width 1 deg visual angle) to over 50000 (patch width 0.03 deg), while the gamut of colours was held constant. Space-average colour was found to be the dominant cue with all patterns except for those with the largest patches.

  12. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  13. Live User-Guided Intrinsic Video for Static Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Abhimitra; Fox, Gereon; Zollhofer, Michael; Richardt, Christian; Theobalt, Christian

    2017-11-01

    We present a novel real-time approach for user-guided intrinsic decomposition of static scenes captured by an RGB-D sensor. In the first step, we acquire a three-dimensional representation of the scene using a dense volumetric reconstruction framework. The obtained reconstruction serves as a proxy to densely fuse reflectance estimates and to store user-provided constraints in three-dimensional space. User constraints, in the form of constant shading and reflectance strokes, can be placed directly on the real-world geometry using an intuitive touch-based interaction metaphor, or using interactive mouse strokes. Fusing the decomposition results and constraints in three-dimensional space allows for robust propagation of this information to novel views by re-projection. We leverage this information to improve on the decomposition quality of existing intrinsic video decomposition techniques by further constraining the ill-posed decomposition problem. In addition to improved decomposition quality, we show a variety of live augmented reality applications such as recoloring of objects, relighting of scenes and editing of material appearance.

  14. Recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and associated evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J

    2006-01-01

    A lack of information concerning the potential recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and related evidence prompted several research projects. Latent prints from good secretors and visible prints (in blood) were placed on a variety of different surfaces and subsequently subjected to "real life" fires in fully furnished compartments used for fire investigation training purposes. The items were placed in various locations and at different heights within the compartments. After some initial success, further tests were undertaken using both latent and dirt/grease marks on different objects within the same types of fire compartments. Subsequent sets of tests involved the recovery of latent and visual fingerprints (in blood, dirt and grease) from different types of weapons, lighters, plastic bags, match boxes, tapers, plastic bottles and petrol bombs that had been subjected to the same fire conditions as previously. Throughout the entire series of projects one of the prime considerations was how the resultant findings could be put into practice by fire scene examiners in an attempt to assist the police in their investigations. This research demonstrates that almost one in five items recovered from fire scenes yielded fingerprint ridge detail following normal development treatments.

  15. Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    During imagery rescripting (ImRs) an aversive memory is relived and transformed to have a more positive outcome. ImRs is frequently applied in psychological treatment and is known to reduce intrusions and distress of the memory. However, little is known about the necessity to incorporate the central aversive parts of the memory in ImRs. To examine this necessity one hundred participants watched an aversive film and were subsequently randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: ImRs including the aversive scenes (Late ImRs), ImRs without the aversive scenes (Early ImRs), imaginal exposure (IE) or a control condition (Cont). Participants in the IE intervention reported the highest distress levels during the intervention; Cont resulted in the lowest levels of self-reported distress. For the intrusion frequency, only the late ImRs resulted in fewer intrusions compared to the Cont condition; Early ImRs produced significantly more intrusions than the Late ImRs or IE condition. Finally, the intrusions of the Late ImRs condition were reported as less vivid compared to the other conditions. To conclude, it seems beneficial including aversive scenes in ImRs after an analogue trauma induction.

  16. Object-based attention in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, George L; Shomstein, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    We are continually confronted with more visual information than we can process in a given moment. In order to interact effectively with our environment, attentional mechanisms are used to select subsets of environmental properties for enhanced processing. Previous research demonstrated that spatial regions can be selected based on either their low-level feature or high-level semantic properties. However, the efficiency with which we interact with the world suggests that there must be an additional, midlevel, factor constraining effective attentional space. The present study investigates whether object-based attentional selection is one such midlevel factor that constrains visual attention in complex, real-world scenes. Participants viewed scene images while their eye movements were recorded. During viewing, a cue appeared on an object which participants were instructed to fixate. A target then appeared either on the same object as the cue, on a different object, or floating. Participants initiated saccades faster and had shorter response times to targets presented on the same object as the fixated cue. The results strongly suggest that when attending to a location on an object, the entire object benefits perceptually. This object-based effect on the distribution of spatial attention forms a critical link between low- and high-level factors that direct attention efficiently in complex real-world scenes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The nature of the intermediates in the reactions of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-microperoxidase-8 with H(2)O(2): a rapid kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Jean-Louis; Grunenwald, Sylvie; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Albrecht-Gary, Anne-Marie; Mandon, Dominique; Veeger, Cees

    2002-02-20

    Kinetic studies were performed with microperoxidase-8 (Fe(III)MP-8), the proteolytic breakdown product of horse heart cytochrome c containing an octapeptide linked to an iron protoporphyrin IX. Mn(III) was substituted for Fe(III) in Mn(III)MP-8. The mechanism of formation of the reactive metal-oxo and metal-hydroperoxo intermediates of M(III)MP-8 upon reaction of H(2)O(2) with Fe(III)MP-8 and Mn(III)MP-8 was investigated by rapid-scan stopped-flow spectroscopy and transient EPR. Two steps (k(obs1) and k(obs2)) were observed and analyzed for the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with both catalysts. The plots of k(obs1) as function of [H(2)O(2)] at pH 8.0 and pH 9.1 for Fe(III)MP-8, and at pH 10.2 and pH 10.9 for Mn(III)MP-8, exhibit saturation kinetics, which reveal the accumulation of an intermediate. Double reciprocal plots of 1/k(obs1) as function of 1/[H(2)O(2)] at different pH values reveal a competitive effect of protons in the oxidation of M(III)MP-8. This effect of protons is confirmed by the linear dependence of 1/k(obs1) on [H(+)] showing that k(obs1) increases with the pH. The UV-visible spectra of the intermediates formed at the end of the first step (k(obs1)) exhibit a spectrum characteristic of a high-valent metal-oxo intermediate for both catalysts. Transient EPR of Mn(III)MP-8 incubated with an excess of H(2)O(2), at pH 11.5, shows the detection of a free radical signal at g approximately equal to 2 and of a resonance at g approximately equal to 4 characteristic of a Mn(IV) (S = 3/2) species. On the basis of these results, the following mechanism is proposed: (i) M(III)MP-8-OH(2) is deprotonated to M(III)MP-8-OH in a rapid preequilibrium step, with a pK(a) = 9.2 +/- 0.9 for Fe(III)MP-8 and a pK(a) = 11.2 +/- 0.3 for Mn(III)MP-8; (ii) M(III)MP-8-OH reacts with H(2)O(2) to form Compound 0, M(III)MP8-OOH, with a second-order rate constant k(1) = (1.3 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M(-1) x s(-1) for Fe(III)MP-8 and k(1) = (1.6 +/- 0.9) x 10(5) M(-1) x s(-1) for Mn

  18. Scene classification of infrared images based on texture feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of

  19. The Role of Semantic Interference in Limiting Memory for the Details of Visual Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Melcher, David; Murphy, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest a large capacity memory for briefly presented pictures of whole scenes. At the same time, visual working memory (WM) of scene elements is limited to only a few items. We examined the role of retroactive interference in limiting memory for visual details. Participants viewed a scene for 5 s and then, after a short delay containing either a blank screen or 10 distracter scenes, answered questions about the location, color, and identity of objects in the scene. We found that...

  20. Recognition of a Virtual Scene via Simulated Prosthetic Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128 for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials. In the simple simulated prosthetic vision (SPV scene, when the resolution was increased from 32 × 32 to 48 × 48, the object recognition time decreased from 92.19 ± 6.97 to 43.05 ± 6.08 s, and the recognition accuracy increased from 51.22 ± 8.53 to 85.52 ± 4.93%. Furthermore, the number of collisions decreased from 10.00 ± 2.31 to 3.00 ± 0.68. When the resolution was increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64, the object recognition time further decreased from 43.05 ± 6.08 to 19.46 ± 3.71 s, the recognition accuracy increased from 85.52 ± 4.93 to 96.89 ± 2.06%, and the number of collisions decreased from 3.00 ± 0.68 to 1.00 ± 0.29. In complex scenes, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 115.00 ± 23.02 to 68.25 ± 17.23 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 65.69 ± 9.61 to 80.42 ± 7.70% when the resolution increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64. When the resolution increased from 64 × 64 to 128 × 128, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 68.25 ± 17.23 to 44.88 ± 9.94 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 80.42 ± 7.71 to 85.69 ± 7.39%. Therefore, one can conclude that there are correlations between pathfinding and recognition. When the resolution increased, the time required for

  1. N400 brain responses to spoken phrases paired with photographs of scenes: implications for visual scene displays in AAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Stutzman, Allyson; Seisler, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems are often implemented for individuals whose speech cannot meet their full communication needs. One type of aided display is called a Visual Scene Display (VSD). VSDs consist of integrated scenes (such as photographs) in which language concepts are embedded. Often, the representations of concepts on VSDs are perceptually similar to their referents. Given this physical resemblance, one may ask how well VSDs support development of symbolic functioning. We used brain imaging techniques to examine whether matches and mismatches between the content of spoken messages and photographic images of scenes evoke neural activity similar to activity that occurs to spoken or written words. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 15 college students who were shown photographs paired with spoken phrases that were either matched or mismatched to the concepts embedded within each photograph. Of interest was the N400 component, a negative deflecting wave 400 ms post-stimulus that is considered to be an index of semantic functioning. An N400 response in the mismatched condition (but not the matched) would replicate brain responses to traditional linguistic symbols. An N400 was found, exclusively in the mismatched condition, suggesting that mismatches between spoken messages and VSD-type representations set the stage for the N400 in ways similar to traditional linguistic symbols.

  2. A prospective longitudinal study of naturally infected horses to evaluate the performance characteristics of rapid diagnostic tests for equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, A J; Arzey, K E; Finlaison, D S; Gu, X; Davis, R J; Ritchie, L; Kirkland, P D

    2012-05-04

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Australia in 2007. During the laboratory support for this outbreak, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays and a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) were used as testing methods to detect infection with the virus. The qRT-PCR and bELISA tests had not been used for EI diagnosis before, so it was not known how soon after infection these tests would yield positive results, or for how long these results would remain positive. To answer these questions, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected daily from a group of 36 naturally infected horses. EI viral RNA was detected in all horses by qRT-PCR from the first to tenth day after clinical signs were evident, and was detected in some horses for up to 34 days. Antibody was detected in the bELISA in some horses by day 3, with a median time to seroconversion of 5 days. The results from this study indicate that viral RNA can be detected from nasal swabs for much longer than infectious virus is thought to be shed from horses. The bELISA detected antibodies against EI virus in all horses for 139 days following infection, but only detected approximately 50% of horses 12 months following infection. Haemagglutination inhibition testing detected antibodies against H3 antigens in all horses for 28 days following infection, but 2 were negative by 35 days following infection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  4. Scene ibride”. I livelli d'ibridazione nella danza tra innovazione e tradizione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Burighel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of the ability to federate the arts, the art of dance on stage is the body practice able to gather around different expressions and skills. The dancing body connect the arts in the same way in which it hybrids concepts and techniques too. These hybrids would not be new to the choral arts, but date back to the dawn of the dance scene: what makes them unique in the contemporary era is the radical nature of practices which operate in the direction of the loss of performance codes. However, the hybridization as a procedural method in the definition of the dance is not unknown. To discuss this, we have identified four different levels of dance hybridization: a hybridization of the composition process, a dancer hybridization, a hybridization of the author, and, finally, a hybridization of spread system.

  5. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  6. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  8. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  9. Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

    2012-06-01

    A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

  10. Validation of the ASTER instrument level 1A scene geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  11. Benzodiazepine dependence among multidrug users in the club scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Mooss, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs with the potential for abuse. Young adults ages 18-29 report the highest rates of BZ misuse in the United States. The majority of club drug users are also in this age group, and BZ misuse is prevalent in the nightclub scene. BZ dependence, however, is not well documented. This paper examines BZ dependence and its correlates among multidrug users in South Florida's nightclub scene. Data were drawn from structured interviews with men and women (N=521) who reported regular attendance at large dance clubs and recent use of both club drugs and BZs. Prevalences of BZ-related problems were 7.9% for BZ dependence, 22.6% BZ abuse, and 25% BZ abuse and/or dependence. In bivariate logistic regression models, heavy cocaine use (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.18, 4.38), severe mental distress (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.33, 5.21), and childhood victimization history (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.10, 5.38) were associated with BZ dependence. Heavy cocaine use (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.10, 4.18) and severe mental distress (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.07, 4.37) survived as predictors in the multivariate model. BZ misuse is widespread among multidrug users in the club scene, who also exhibit high levels of other health and social problems. BZ dependence appears to be more prevalent in this sample than in other populations described in the literature. Recommendations for intervention and additional research are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Emergence of the cosplay scene in youth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rebecca Ferrari Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Semiotics theory of Culture, by Tartu-Moscow School, and on consumption theories, this paper analyses the cosplay scene configuration and the aspects of the semiosphere in the emergence of this scenario, considered as a cultural practice, a practice of significance and sociability, where youth people dress and act as characters of media narratives. This paper shows partial results of a field research carried out in 2012 and 2013 in events of pop culture. It focuses the relationship between cosplayer-cosplay.

  13. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  14. Estimating the number of people in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the number of people in crowded scenes without using explicit object segmentation or tracking. The proposed method consists of three steps as follows: (1) extracting space-time interest points using eigenvalues of the local spatio-temporal gradient matrix, (2) generating crowd regions based on space-time interest points, and (3) estimating the crowd density based on the multiple regression. In experimental results, the efficiency and robustness of our proposed method are demonstrated by using PETS 2009 dataset.

  15. Simulating hyperspectral images for Martian 3D scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present a tool for simulating hyperspectral images for 3D Martian scenes. Several lines of development are considered for achieving a high degree of realism : high resolution digital elevation models, description of material distribution with fractal characteristics, bidirectional reflectance measured in the laboratory as a function of geometry and wavelength for a series analogue materials, mixing of spectral signatures at different scales, 3D radiative transfer between atmosphere and surface. The simulator addresses two main needs (i) developing and testing methods for the correction of atmospheric and photometric effects images taken by orbiter around Mars (ii) developing and testing methods for the linear and nonlinear spectral unmixing applied to hyperspectral images.

  16. Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wedel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot

  17. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  18. Microbiology of diabetic foot infections: from Louis Pasteur to 'crime scene investigation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichler, Anne; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-07

    Were he alive today, would Louis Pasteur still champion culture methods he pioneered over 150 years ago for identifying bacterial pathogens? Or, might he suggest that new molecular techniques may prove a better way forward for quickly detecting the true microbial diversity of wounds? As modern clinicians faced with treating complex patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI), should we still request venerated and familiar culture and sensitivity methods, or is it time to ask for newer molecular tests, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing? Or, are molecular techniques as yet too experimental, non-specific and expensive for current clinical use? While molecular techniques help us to identify more microorganisms from a DFI, can they tell us 'who done it?', that is, which are the causative pathogens and which are merely colonizers? Furthermore, can molecular techniques provide clinically relevant, rapid information on the virulence of wound isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities? We herein review current knowledge on the microbiology of DFI, from standard culture methods to the current era of rapid and comprehensive 'crime scene investigation' (CSI) techniques.

  19. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  20. Characterization of the multiwavelength Scophony infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derickson, J. R.; Hocheder, Stephen E.; Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.

    1992-09-01

    A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) was developed for use in evaluating thermal- imaging guidance systems. The IRSP is a very high frame rate, laser scanned projection system incorporating Scophony modulation. The Scophony IRSP serves as the image projection system in the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware in the Loop Simulator (KHILS) terminal guidance simulation. It is capable of projecting multiband target engagement scenarios with high fidelity using Aura's proprietary software/electronic control system. The Scophony IRSP utilizes acousto-optical (AO) devices to produce the required imagery at separate wavelengths, simultaneously. The separate scenes are combined and projected into the imaging guidance system. The Scophony IRSP has been installed and integrated into the KHILS facility at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Some performance characteristics of the IRSP have been measured. The current presentation provides a brief description of the Scophony IRSP and a performance evaluation. The performance characteristics measured are spot size, dynamic range, and field of view. Further characteristics may be reported as they become available.

  1. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  2. HART: A Hybrid Architecture for Ray Tracing Animated Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Junho; Lee, Won-Jong; Park, Jeong-Soo; Jung, Seok-Yoon; Park, Woo-Chan; Manocha, Dinesh; Han, Tack-Don

    2015-03-01

    We present a hybrid architecture, inspired by asynchronous BVH construction [1], for ray tracing animated scenes. Our hybrid architecture utilizes heterogeneous hardware resources: dedicated ray-tracing hardware for BVH updates and ray traversal and a CPU for BVH reconstruction. We also present a traversal scheme using a primitive's axis-aligned bounding box (PrimAABB). This scheme reduces ray-primitive intersection tests by reusing existing BVH traversal units and the primAABB data for tree updates; it enables the use of shallow trees to reduce tree build times, tree sizes, and bus bandwidth requirements. Furthermore, we present a cache scheme that exploits consecutive memory access by reusing data in an L1 cache block. We perform cycle-accurate simulations to verify our architecture, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed architecture can achieve real-time Whitted ray tracing animated scenes at 1,920 × 1,200 resolution. This result comes from our high-performance hardware architecture and minimized resource requirements for tree updates.

  3. Novel scenes improve recollection and recall of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenker, Daniela B; Frey, Julietta U; Schuetze, Hartmut; Heipertz, Dorothee; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Exploring a novel environment can facilitate subsequent hippocampal long-term potentiation in animals. We report a related behavioral enhancement in humans. In two separate experiments, recollection and free recall, both measures of hippocampus-dependent memory formation, were enhanced for words studied after a 5-min exposure to unrelated novel as opposed to familiar images depicting indoor and outdoor scenes. With functional magnetic resonance imaging, the enhancement was predicted by specific activity patterns observed during novelty exposure in parahippocampal and dorsal prefrontal cortices, regions which are known to be linked to attentional orienting to novel stimuli and perceptual processing of scenes. Novelty was also associated with activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and the hippocampus, but these activations did not correlate with contextual memory enhancement. These findings indicate remarkable parallels between contextual memory enhancement in humans and existing evidence regarding contextually enhanced hippocampal plasticity in animals. They provide specific behavioral clues to enhancing hippocampus-dependent memory in humans.

  4. The role of primal scene and masochism in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, C

    Early investigators, such as French (1939), observed that asthma patients need to repress their sexual and aggressive impulses in an attempt to retain their mother's love. Early traumatic experiences (Brown and Goitein 1946), illness, primal scene, death in the family, miscarriage or birth of a sibling have all been mentioned as precursors of asthmatic attacks. These factors are also of considerable relevance in the case material presented here. Emphasized in this presentation, in addition to the above mentioned factors, are critical aspects of primal scene traumatic experiences and their role in the subsequent development of sadomasochistic character formation. This sadomasochism plays a considerable role in the later eruption of asthmatic symptomatology. The crucial factor in the asthmatic symptomatology arises from the effect of the traumatic experiences which are associatively linked to these sadomasochistic fantasies. Clinical material of an asthmatic girl with learning inhibitions and sleeping difficulties is presented. She demonstrates a clownish sadomasochistic type of behavior reflecting a disturbance in her object relationships. During the course of analysis, it was revealed that specific unconscious fantasies, associated with early traumatic experiences, played a predominant role in the development of her sadomasochistic attitudes. These, in turn, were linked to her asthmatic attacks.

  5. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scene-aware joint global and local homographic video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2016-09-01

    Perspective motion is commonly represented in video content that is captured and compressed for various applications including cloud gaming, vehicle and aerial monitoring, etc. Existing approaches based on an eight-parameter homography motion model cannot deal with this efficiently, either due to low prediction accuracy or excessive bit rate overhead. In this paper, we consider the camera motion model and scene structure in such video content and propose a joint global and local homography motion coding approach for video with perspective motion. The camera motion is estimated by a computer vision approach, and camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are globally coded at the frame level. The scene is modeled as piece-wise planes, and three plane parameters are coded at the block level. Fast gradient-based approaches are employed to search for the plane parameters for each block region. In this way, improved prediction accuracy and low bit costs are achieved. Experimental results based on the HEVC test model show that up to 9.1% bit rate savings can be achieved (with equal PSNR quality) on test video content with perspective motion. Test sequences for the example applications showed a bit rate savings ranging from 3.7 to 9.1%.

  7. Collaborating Filtering Community Image Recommendation System Based on Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of smart city, the development of intelligent mobile terminal and wireless network, the traditional text information service no longer meet the needs of the community residents, community image service appeared as a new media service. “There are pictures of the truth” has become a community residents to understand and master the new dynamic community, image information service has become a new information service. However, there are two major problems in image information service. Firstly, the underlying eigenvalues extracted by current image feature extraction techniques are difficult for users to understand, and there is a semantic gap between the image content itself and the user’s understanding; secondly, in community life of the image data increasing quickly, it is difficult to find their own interested image data. Aiming at the two problems, this paper proposes a unified image semantic scene model to express the image content. On this basis, a collaborative filtering recommendation model of fusion scene semantics is proposed. In the recommendation model, a comprehensiveness and accuracy user interest model is proposed to improve the recommendation quality. The results of the present study have achieved good results in the pilot cities of Wenzhou and Yan'an, and it is applied normally.

  8. Online scene change detection of multicast (MBone) video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  9. A new proposition for redating the Mithraic tauroctony scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, E.; Ćirković, M. M.; Milosavljević, I.

    2002-07-01

    Assuming that the figures of the central icon of the Mithraic cult - the scene of tauroctony (bull slaying) - represent equatorial constellations at the time when the spring equinox was placed somewhere between Taurus and Aries, it is difficult to explain why some equatorial constellations (Orion and Libra) were not included in the Mithraic icons A simulation of the sky at the times in which the spring equinox was in the constellation of Taurus, only a small area of spring equinox positions permits to exclude these two constellations, with all other representations of equatorial constellations (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Scorpio) included. These positions of the spring equinox occurred at the beginning of the age of Taurus, and included Gemini as an equatorial constellation. Two of the main figures in the Mithraic icons are two identical figures, usually represented on the each side of the bull, wearing phrygian caps and holding torches. Their names, Cautes and Cautopates, and their looks may indicate that they represent the constellation of Gemini. In that case the main icon of Mithraic religion could represent an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. Also, this position of equator contains Perseus as an equatorial constellation. Ulansey suggested that the god Mithras is identified with the constellation Perseus. In that case, all figures in the main scene would be equatorial constellations.

  10. New Proposition for Redating of Mithraic Tauroctony Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Edi; Ćirković, Milan; Milosavljević, Ivana

    Considering the idea that figures in the central icon of the Mithraic religion, with scene of tauroctony (bull slaying), represent equatorial constellations in the times in which the spring equinox was in between of Taurus and Aries (Ulansey, 1989) , it was hard to explain why some equatorial constellations were not included in the Mithraic icons (constellations of Orion and Libra), when those constellations were equatorial in those times. With simulations of skies in the times in which the spring equinox was in the constellation of Taurus, only small area of spring equinox positions allows excluding those two constellations, with all other representations of equatorial constellations included (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hidra, Crater, Corvus, Scorpio). These positions were the beginning of the ages of Taurus. But these positions of spring equinox included Gemini as equatorial constellation. Two of the main figures in the icons of Mithaic religions were two identical figures, usually represented on the each side of the bull, wearing frigian caps and holding the torches. Their names, Cautes and Cautopates, and their looks could lead to the idea that they represent the constellation of Gemini. In that case the main icon of Mithraic religion could represent the event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. Also, this position of equator contain Perseus as the equatorial constellation. In the work of Ulansey was presented that the god Mithras was the constellation of Perseus. In that case, all figures in the main scene would be equatorial constellations.

  11. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  12. An investigation into the effect of surveillance drones on textile evidence at crime scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bucknell, Alistair; Bassindale, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    With increasing numbers of Police forces using drones for crime scene surveillance, the effect of the drones on trace evidence present needs evaluation. In this investigation the effect of flying a quadcopter drone at different heights over a controlled scene and taking off at different distances from the scene were measured. Yarn was placed on a range of floor surfaces and the number lost or moved from their original position was recorded.It was possible to estimate "safe" distances above an...

  13. RST-Resilient Video Watermarking Using Scene-Based Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Han-Seung; Lee Young-Yoon; Lee Sang Uk

    2004-01-01

    Watermarking for video sequences should consider additional attacks, such as frame averaging, frame-rate change, frame shuffling or collusion attacks, as well as those of still images. Also, since video is a sequence of analogous images, video watermarking is subject to interframe collusion. In order to cope with these attacks, we propose a scene-based temporal watermarking algorithm. In each scene, segmented by scene-change detection schemes, a watermark is embedded temporally to one-dimens...

  14. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  15. Emotional conflict in facial expression processing during scene viewing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Entao; Qiao, Fuqiang; Lin, Wenyi; Liang, Ningjian

    2015-05-22

    Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli as they convey important information in social interaction. In everyday life a face always appears in complex context. Scenes which faces are embedded in provided typical visual context. The aim of the present study was to investigate the processing of emotional conflict between facial expressions and emotional scenes by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We found that when the scene was presented before the face-scene compound stimulus, the scene had an influence on facial expression processing. Specifically, emotionally incongruent (in conflict) face-scene compound stimuli elicited larger fronto-central N2 amplitude relative to the emotionally congruent face-scene compound stimuli. The effect occurred in the post-perceptual stage of facial expression processing and reflected emotional conflict monitoring between emotional scenes and facial expressions. The present findings emphasized the importance of emotional scenes as a context factor in the study of the processing of facial expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seek and you shall remember: scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L H

    2014-07-11

    Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. © 2014 ARVO.

  17. Scene-library-based video coding scheme exploiting long-term temporal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xuguang; Yu, Lu; Yu, Hualong; Mao, Jue; Zhao, Yin

    2017-07-01

    In movies and TV shows, it is common that several scenes repeat alternately. These videos are characterized with the long-term temporal correlation, which can be exploited to improve video coding efficiency. However, in applications supporting random access (RA), a video is typically divided into a number of RA segments (RASs) by RA points (RAPs), and different RASs are coded independently. In such a way, the long-term temporal correlation among RASs with similar scenes cannot be used. We present a scene-library-based video coding scheme for the coding of videos with repeated scenes. First, a compact scene library is built by clustering similar scenes and extracting representative frames in encoding video. Then, the video is coded using a layered scene-library-based coding structure, in which the library frames serve as long-term reference frames. The scene library is not cleared by RAPs so that the long-term temporal correlation between RASs from similar scenes can be exploited. Furthermore, the RAP frames are coded as interframes by only referencing library frames so as to improve coding efficiency while maintaining RA property. Experimental results show that the coding scheme can achieve significant coding gain over state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Scene perception in posterior cortical atrophy: categorization, description and fixation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Frost, Chris; Kim, Lois G; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2013-01-01

    Partial or complete Balint's syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (color and grayscale) using a categorization paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces < scenes < objects) and slower (scenes < objects < faces) than controls on all categories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for color over grayscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient's global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not). Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients' fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  19. Seek and you shall remember: Scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Võ, Melissa L.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. PMID:25015385

  20. Designing and testing scene enhancement algorithms for patients with retina degenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atabany, Walid I; Memon, Muhammad A; Downes, Susan M; Degenaar, Patrick A

    2010-06-18

    Retina degenerative disorders represent the primary cause of blindness in UK and in the developed world. In particular, Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Retina Pigmentosa (RP) diseases are of interest to this study. We have therefore created new image processing algorithms for enhancing the visual scenes for them. In this paper we present three novel image enhancement techniques aimed at enhancing the remaining visual information for patients suffering from retina dystrophies. Currently, the only effective way to test novel technology for visual enhancement is to undergo testing on large numbers of patients. To test our techniques, we have therefore built a retinal image processing model and compared the results to data from patient testing. In particular we focus on the ability of our image processing techniques to achieve improved face detection and enhanced edge perception. Results from our model are compared to actual data obtained from testing the performance of these algorithms on 27 patients with an average visual acuity of 0.63 and an average contrast sensitivity of 1.22. Results show that Tinted Reduced Outlined Nature (TRON) and Edge Overlaying algorithms are most beneficial for dynamic scenes such as motion detection. Image Cartoonization was most beneficial for spatial feature detection such as face detection. Patient's stated that they would most like to see Cartoonized images for use in daily life. Results obtained from our retinal model and from patients show that there is potential for these image processing techniques to improve visual function amongst the visually impaired community. In addition our methodology using face detection and efficiency of perceived edges in determining potential benefit derived from different image enhancement algorithms could also prove to be useful in quantitatively assessing algorithms in future studies.

  1. Designing and testing scene enhancement algorithms for patients with retina degenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Susan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retina degenerative disorders represent the primary cause of blindness in UK and in the developed world. In particular, Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD and Retina Pigmentosa (RP diseases are of interest to this study. We have therefore created new image processing algorithms for enhancing the visual scenes for them. Methods In this paper we present three novel image enhancement techniques aimed at enhancing the remaining visual information for patients suffering from retina dystrophies. Currently, the only effective way to test novel technology for visual enhancement is to undergo testing on large numbers of patients. To test our techniques, we have therefore built a retinal image processing model and compared the results to data from patient testing. In particular we focus on the ability of our image processing techniques to achieve improved face detection and enhanced edge perception. Results Results from our model are compared to actual data obtained from testing the performance of these algorithms on 27 patients with an average visual acuity of 0.63 and an average contrast sensitivity of 1.22. Results show that Tinted Reduced Outlined Nature (TRON and Edge Overlaying algorithms are most beneficial for dynamic scenes such as motion detection. Image Cartoonization was most beneficial for spatial feature detection such as face detection. Patient's stated that they would most like to see Cartoonized images for use in daily life. Conclusions Results obtained from our retinal model and from patients show that there is potential for these image processing techniques to improve visual function amongst the visually impaired community. In addition our methodology using face detection and efficiency of perceived edges in determining potential benefit derived from different image enhancement algorithms could also prove to be useful in quantitatively assessing algorithms in future studies.

  2. Behinds the scenes of GS: a DSO like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone.   As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...

  3. Complete Scene Recovery and Terrain Classification in Textured Terrain Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyhyun Um

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrain classification allows a mobile robot to create an annotated map of its local environment from the three-dimensional (3D and two-dimensional (2D datasets collected by its array of sensors, including a GPS receiver, gyroscope, video camera, and range sensor. However, parts of objects that are outside the measurement range of the range sensor will not be detected. To overcome this problem, this paper describes an edge estimation method for complete scene recovery and complete terrain reconstruction. Here, the Gibbs-Markov random field is used to segment the ground from 2D videos and 3D point clouds. Further, a masking method is proposed to classify buildings and trees in a terrain mesh.

  4. Il sipario strappato. Scene di teatro nel cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutual interferences between cinema and theatre constitute a complex and fascinating aspect of modern aesthetics, in view of the richness of theoretical and artistic implications and the continuous tension typical of works vulnerable to contamination and hybrid forms. Within such a vast field, this essay proposes some demarcations by focusing on the camera style of three filmmakers (Pasolini, Cronenberg, Martone, who, in different ways, translate theatrical scenes and paradigms onto the screen. In the cinematic narratives of these authors, quotation assumes a peculiar prominence because it does not restrict itself to a mere reproduction of cues and voices, but forces the spectator’s gaze to follow original paths, and thus amplifies the spectrum of the visible.

  5. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allegro Silvia; Launer Stefan; Büchler Michael; Dillier Norbert

    2005-01-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes “clean speech,†“speech in noise,†“noise,†and “music.†A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated togethe...

  6. Inferring mass in complex scenes by mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Jessica B; Battaglia, Peter W; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2016-12-01

    After observing a collision between two boxes, you can immediately tell which is empty and which is full of books based on how the boxes moved. People form rich perceptions about the physical properties of objects from their interactions, an ability that plays a crucial role in learning about the physical world through our experiences. Here, we present three experiments that demonstrate people's capacity to reason about the relative masses of objects in naturalistic 3D scenes. We find that people make accurate inferences, and that they continue to fine-tune their beliefs over time. To explain our results, we propose a cognitive model that combines Bayesian inference with approximate knowledge of Newtonian physics by estimating probabilities from noisy physical simulations. We find that this model accurately predicts judgments from our experiments, suggesting that the same simulation mechanism underlies both peoples' predictions and inferences about the physical world around them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photo Essay: Chinese Leisure Scenes through Sidney Gamble's Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidney D. Gamble was a trained sociologist and an amateur photographer. He took nearly five thousand photographs during four trips to China between 1908 and 1932, covering a wide range of elements of Chinese society and providing a visual archive for an important period in Chinese history. Among Gamble’s many interesting images documenting events and moments during those turbulent years, the photographs that capture leisure scenes are uniquely charming, giving us a peek into the daily lives of Chinese people a century ago. This article accompanies the September 2013 Cross-Currents photo essay, which features images selected by curator Luo Zhou from the Sidney D. Gamble Photographs collection (http://library.duke.edu/ digitalcollections/gamble/.

  8. Contrast analysis for DMD-based IR scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Grant, Samuel; Newbry, Scott P.

    2012-06-01

    OPTRA has developed a two-band midwave infrared (MWIR) scene projector based on digital micromirror device (DMD) technology; the projector is intended for training various IR tracking systems that exploit the relative intensities of two separate MWIR spectral bands. Next generation tracking systems have increasing dynamic range requirements which current DMD-based projector test equipment is not capable of meeting. While sufficient grayscale digitization can be achieved with current drive electronics, commensurate contrast is not currently available. It is towards this opportunity that OPTRA has initiated a dynamic range design improvement effort. In this paper we present our work towards the measurement and analysis of contrast limiting factors including substrate scattering, diffraction, and flat state emissivity. We summarize the results of an analytical model which indicates the largest contributions to background energy in the off state. We present the methodology and results from a series of breadboard tests designed to characterize these contributions. Finally, we suggest solutions to counter these contributions.

  9. Human supervisory approach to modeling industrial scenes using geometric primitives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Roberts, R.S.

    1997-11-19

    A three-dimensional world model is crucial for many robotic tasks. Modeling techniques tend to be either fully manual or autonomous. Manual methods are extremely time consuming but also highly accurate and flexible. Autonomous techniques are fast but inflexible and, with real-world data, often inaccurate. The method presented in this paper combines the two, yielding a highly efficient, flexible, and accurate mapping tool. The segmentation and modeling algorithms that compose the method are specifically designed for industrial environments, and are described in detail. A mapping system based on these algorithms has been designed. It enables a human supervisor to quickly construct a fully defined world model from unfiltered and unsegmented real-world range imagery. Examples of how industrial scenes are modeled with the mapping system are provided.

  10. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  11. An effective method of locating lisence plate in complex scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jianing; Xie, Mei

    2013-03-01

    License plate recognition system(LPRS) is one of the most important parts of the intelligent transportation system(ITS),and the license plate location is the most important step of the LPRS,it derectly affects the performance of the character segmentation and recognition afterward.In this paper,an effective algorithm of lisence plate location is proposed.In this method,Firstly we obtain high frequency coefficient through 1-D discrete wavelet transform. Then we process the image with median filter, binarization and morphology operation.Finally,we label and record the connected regions. Then we can locate the candidate license plates according to the region information. Experiment proved that our method performs well in the long range and complex scenes,and performs well on robustness.

  12. Hyperspectral target detection analysis of a cluttered scene from a virtual airborne sensor platform using MuSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Klein, Mark D.

    2017-10-01

    The ability to predict spectral electro-optical (EO) signatures for various targets against realistic, cluttered backgrounds is paramount for rigorous signature evaluation. Knowledge of background and target signatures, including plumes, is essential for a variety of scientific and defense-related applications including contrast analysis, camouflage development, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development and scene material classification. The capability to simulate any desired mission scenario with forecast or historical weather is a tremendous asset for defense agencies, serving as a complement to (or substitute for) target and background signature measurement campaigns. In this paper, a systematic process for the physical temperature and visible-through-infrared radiance prediction of several diverse targets in a cluttered natural environment scene is presented. The ability of a virtual airborne sensor platform to detect and differentiate targets from a cluttered background, from a variety of sensor perspectives and across numerous wavelengths in differing atmospheric conditions, is considered. The process described utilizes the thermal and radiance simulation software MuSES and provides a repeatable, accurate approach for analyzing wavelength-dependent background and target (including plume) signatures in multiple band-integrated wavebands (multispectral) or hyperspectrally. The engineering workflow required to combine 3D geometric descriptions, thermal material properties, natural weather boundary conditions, all modes of heat transfer and spectral surface properties is summarized. This procedure includes geometric scene creation, material and optical property attribution, and transient physical temperature prediction. Radiance renderings, based on ray-tracing and the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model, are coupled with MODTRAN for the inclusion of atmospheric effects. This virtual hyperspectral/multispectral radiance prediction methodology has been

  13. Effects of emotion regulation strategy on brain responses to the valence and social content of visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2011-04-01

    Emotion Regulation (ER) includes different mechanisms aiming at volitionally modulating emotional responses, including cognitive re-evaluation (re-appraisal; REAP) or inhibition of emotion expression and behavior (expressive suppression; ESUP). However, despite the importance of these ER strategies, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have not sufficiently disentangled the specific neural impact of REAP versus ESUP on brain responses to different kinds of emotion-eliciting events. Moreover, although different effects have been reported for stimulus valence (positive vs. negative), no study has systematically investigated how ER may change emotional processing as a function of particular stimulus content variables (i.e., social vs. nonsocial). Our fMRI study directly compared brain activation to visual scenes during the use of different ER strategies, relative to a "natural" viewing condition, but also examined the effects of ER as a function of the social versus nonsocial content of scenes, in addition to their negative versus positive valence (by manipulating these factors orthogonally in a 2×2 factorial design). Our data revealed that several prefrontal cortical areas were differentially recruited during either REAP or ESUP, independent of the valence and content of images. In addition, selective modulations by either REAP or ESUP were found depending on the negative valence of scenes (medial fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, dmPFC), and on their nonsocial (middle insula) or social (bilateral amygdala, mPFC, posterior cingulate) significance. Furthermore, we observed a significant lateralization in the amygdala for the effect of the two different ER strategies, with a predominant modulation by REAP on the left side but by ESUP on the right side. Taken together, these results do not only highlight the distributed nature of neural changes induced by ER, but also reveal the specific impact of different strategies (REAP or ESUP), and the

  14. Crosstalk Analysis of a Deformable-Mirror Infrared Scene Projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Kenneth J.

    The design of an infrared scene projector that incorporates a deformable mirror device (DMD) as an infrared spatial light modulator (SLM) is presented. A numerical model is developed to determine crosstalk effects in the projected image. Partial-coherence effects due to the physical layout of the projection system are included in the development. It is shown both analytically and numerically that under quasimonochromatic illumination the system behaves coherently and can be modeled as such. Polychromatic image formation is approximated as a summation of quasimonochromatic images over the wavelength band. Crosstalk is determined by defining a contrast ratio in the projected image. Contrast -ratio calculations are carried out for monochromatic and blackbody projection sources over the 3- to 5- μm wavelength band. The results predict contrast ratios of 265:1, 1217:1, and 2437:1 for deformable -mirror pixels of 50 mum, 100 mum, and 150 mum. The derivation of the contrast-ratio model leads to the determination of an upper limit on the system aperture-stop diameter for optimum contrast performance. Diffraction effects are the fundamental cause of crosstalk, and it is shown that crosstalk performance improves with shorter wavelengths and for larger deformable-mirror pixels. The effects of angular misalignment of the illumination source are also investigated. The results show that the reduced contrast ratio resulting from a small angular misalignment Deltatheta along the DMD-pixel-tilt direction can be approximated by computing the contrast ratio for a reduced-diameter aperture stop. The results of a proof-of-principle demonstration that verifies the feasibility of a deformable-mirror-based infrared scene projection system are also included.

  15. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  16. Performance optimization for pedestrian detection on degraded video using natural scene statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterlich, Anthony; Denny, Patrick; Kilmartin, Liam; Glavin, Martin; Jones, Edward

    2014-11-01

    We evaluate the effects of transmission artifacts such as JPEG compression and additive white Gaussian noise on the performance of a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection algorithm, which is based on integral channel features. Integral channel features combine the diversity of information obtained from multiple image channels with the computational efficiency of the Viola and Jones detection framework. We utilize "quality aware" spatial image statistics to blindly categorize distorted video frames by distortion type and level without the use of an explicit reference. We combine quality statistics with a multiclassifier detection framework for optimal pedestrian detection performance across varying image quality. Our detection method provides statistically significant improvements over current approaches based on single classifiers, on two large pedestrian databases containing a wide variety of artificially added distortion. The improvement in detection performance is further demonstrated on real video data captured from multiple cameras containing varying levels of sensor noise and compression. The results of our research have the potential to be used in real-time in-vehicle networks to improve pedestrian detection performance across a wide range of image and video quality.

  17. Fixation-Dependent Memory for Natural Scenes: An Experimental Test of Scanpath Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Many modern theories propose that perceptual information is represented by the sensorimotor activity elicited by the original stimulus. Scanpath theory (Noton & Stark, 1971) predicts that reinstating a sequence of eye fixations will help an observer recognize a previously seen image. However, the only studies to investigate this are…

  18. P1-22: Upper-Lower Asymmetry in Slant Perception and Natural Scene Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Inagami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the upper-lower asymmetry of slant perception by measuring our daily environment and conducting a psychophysical experiment. We hypothesize that the performance of slant perception varies according to the viewing direction because the visual system adapts to the probability distribution of environmental slants. In the environmental measurement, we sampled 17 locations (2 indoor and 15 outdoor ones from our daily environment. At each location, a 3D laser scanner was used to measure the spatial layout by collecting radial distances to the surrounding surfaces. On the basis of the measurements, we calculated the probability distribution of the magnitude of surface slant, which was analyzed for each upper and lower area with respect to the eye level. Consequently, the distribution for the lower area, compared to that for the upper area, showed a remarkably high peak at the horizontal (i.e., ground-like slant. In the psychophysical experiment, participants observed a surface with a random-dot texture, which was presented in the upper and lower viewing directions. For each direction, the participants performed two tasks: adjusted the surface's slant to be vertical (i.e., wall-like and horizontal (i.e., ceiling- or ground-like. The results show that the response is most accurate for the horizontal task in the lower direction. This finding, coupled with the distribution of environmental slants, suggests that the visual system is sensitive to the ground-like slant that often exists in our daily environment. This asymmetrical property of slant perception is consistent with our hypothesis.

  19. The ART of CSI: An augmented reality tool (ART) to annotate crime scenes in forensic investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Houben, M.; Amerongen, P. van; Haar, F. ter; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this

  20. Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-06-13

    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 3. Mad Scenes: A Warning against Overwhelming Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.

  2. The Perception of Order in Apparent Disorder: A Classroom Scene Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwyn; Munro, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    This paper shows how student teachers can learn to see, through analysis of videotaped classroom scenes, the underlying rules informing the patterns of interactions between teachers and pupils. A single classroom scene where the first impression is of complete chaos with one student running amok is analyzed in detail. (MT)

  3. Automating the construction of scene classifiers for content-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a

  4. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  5. Prehospital treatment of opioid overdose in Copenhagen--is it safe to discharge on-scene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren; Jehu, G; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2011-01-01

    In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment. The aim...

  6. Prehospital treatment of opioid overdose in Copenhagen--is it safe to discharge on-scene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, S.S.; Jehu, G.; Nielsen, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment...

  7. Eye Movements when Looking at Unusual/Weird Scenes: Are There Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Castelhano, Monica S.; Yang, Jinmian

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences in the prioritization of information (background or foreground). The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how…

  8. Making a scene: exploring the dimensions of place through Dutch popular music, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over

  9. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brédart

    Full Text Available Color deficient (dichromat and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A', response bias (B"D, response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  10. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  11. Donepezil increases contrast sensitivity for the detection of objects in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucart, Muriel; Bubbico, Giovanna; Szaffarczyk, Sebastien; Defoort, Sabine; Ponchel, Amelie; Waucquier, Nawal; Deplanque, Dominique; Deguil, Julie; Bordet, Régis

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of donepezil, a drug that stimulates cholinergic transmission, and scopolamine, an antagonist of cholinergic transmission, on contrast sensitivity. 30 young male participants were tested under three treatment conditions: placebo, donepezil, and scopolamine in a random order. Pairs of photographs varying in contrast were displayed left and right of fixation for 50 ms. Participants were asked to locate the scene containing an animal. Accuracy was better under donepezil than under scopolamine, particularly for signals of high intensity (at higher levels of contrast). A control experiment showed that the lower performance under scopolamine did not result from the mydriasis induced by scopolamine. The results suggest that cholinergic stimulation, through donepezil, facilitates signal detection in agreement with studies on animals showing that the pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors controls the gain in the relationship between the stimulus contrast (intensity of the visual input) and visual response. As Alzheimer disease is associated to depletion in acetylcholine, and there is evidence of deficits in contrast sensitivity in Alzheimer, it might be interesting to integrate such rapid and sensitive visual tasks in the biomarkers at early stage of drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphics to H.264 video encoding for 3D scene representation and interaction on mobile devices using region of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh Tuan; Nguyen, Congdu; Yoon, Dae-Il; Jung, Eun Ku; Jia, Jie; Kim, Hae-Kwang

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of 3D graphics to video encoding and streaming that are embedded into a remote interactive 3D visualization system for rapidly representing a 3D scene on mobile devices without having to download it from the server. In particular, a 3D graphics to video framework is presented that increases the visual quality of regions of interest (ROI) of the video by performing more bit allocation to ROI during H.264 video encoding. The ROI are identified by projection 3D objects to a 2D plane during rasterization. The system offers users to navigate the 3D scene and interact with objects of interests for querying their descriptions. We developed an adaptive media streaming server that can provide an adaptive video stream in term of object-based quality to the client according to the user's preferences and the variation of network bandwidth. Results show that by doing ROI mode selection, PSNR of test sample slightly change while visual quality of objects increases evidently.

  13. NATURE-RURAL SETTLEMENT INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eminağaoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of natural environments are generally brought up upon adverse developments against nature in the humannature interactions. Although individual actions are often considered to be more immediate innatıre-related issuesi ecologic problems tend to spread in time and lead to reginol or even global problems. For this reason, it stands imperative that economic, ecologic and aesthetic values of the environment we live in be protected and used sustainably. Being the scene of nature and the environment landscape signifies the whole with living and nonliving entities where we live in. Dameged and destroyed landscape scenes particularly in urban areas necessitaites the reconsideration of human-nature relations and nature-frendly life style. This study investigates the rural settlements that show harmony with nature and reflects qualities of natural environments on the dwellings. Particularly, with the examples of drawing and pictures it examines the associatiation of rural settlements with nature as well as the use of the green as an occasional or spacial element.

  14. Bag of Visual Words Model with Deep Spatial Features for Geographical Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popular use of geotagging images, more and more research efforts have been placed on geographical scene classification. In geographical scene classification, valid spatial feature selection can significantly boost the final performance. Bag of visual words (BoVW can do well in selecting feature in geographical scene classification; nevertheless, it works effectively only if the provided feature extractor is well-matched. In this paper, we use convolutional neural networks (CNNs for optimizing proposed feature extractor, so that it can learn more suitable visual vocabularies from the geotagging images. Our approach achieves better performance than BoVW as a tool for geographical scene classification, respectively, in three datasets which contain a variety of scene categories.

  15. The Influence of Content Meaningfulness on Eye Movements across Tasks: Evidence from Scene Viewing and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Luke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of content meaningfulness on eye-movement control in reading and scene viewing. Texts and scenes were manipulated to make them uninterpretable, and then eye-movements in reading and scene-viewing were compared to those in pseudo-reading and pseudo-scene viewing. Fixation durations and saccade amplitudes were greater for pseudo-stimuli. The effect of the removal of meaning was seen exclusively in the tail of the fixation duration distribution in both tasks, and the size of this effect was the same across tasks. These findings suggest that eye movements are controlled by a common mechanism in reading and scene viewing. They also indicate that not all eye movements are responsive to the meaningfulness of stimulus content. Implications for models of eye movement control are discussed.

  16. Graph representation for two-dimensional scene understanding by the cognitive vision module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bielecki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the cognitive vision module of an autonomous flying robot is studied. The problem of the scene understanding by the robot, which flies on the high altitude, is analyzed. In such conditions, the examined scene can be regarded as two-dimensional. It is assumed that the robot operates in the urban-type environment. The scene representation is stored in the neighborhood graph that collects data about the objects locations, shapes, and their spatial relations. The fragments of the scene are understood by the robot in the context of neighborhoods of the objects. It is shown that such information can be effectively used for recognition of the object, while many objects of similar shape exist in the scene. In the proposed recognition process, not only the information about the shape of the object is utilized but also the spatial relations with other objects in its close neighborhood are examined.

  17. Natural Enhancement of Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm of Natural Enhancement of Color Image (NECI is proposed. It is inspired by multiscale Retinex model. There are four steps to realize this enhancement. At first, the image appearance is rendered by content-dependent global mapping for light cast correction, and then a modified Retinex filter is applied to enhance the local contrast. Histogram rescaling is used afterwards for normalization purpose. At last, the texture details of image are enhanced by emphasizing the high-frequency components of image using multichannel decomposition of Cortex Transform. In the contrast enhancement step, luminance channel is firstly enhanced, and then a weighing map is calculated by collecting luminance enhancement information and applied to chrominance channel in color space CIELCh which enables a proportional enhancement of chrominance. It avoids the problem of unbalanced enhancement in classical RGB independent channel operation. In this work, it is believed that image enhancement should avoid dramatic modifications to image such as light condition changes, color temperature alteration, or additional artifacts introduced or amplified. Disregarding light conditions of the scene usually leads to unnaturally sharpened images or dramatic white balance changes. In the proposed method, the ambience of image (warm or cold color impression is maintained after enhancement, and no additional light sources are added to the scene, and no halo effect and blocking effect are amplified due to overenhancement. It realizes a Natural Enhancement of Color Image. Different types of natural scene images have been tested and an encouraging performance is obtained for the proposed method.

  18. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  19. Quantitative assessment of similarity between randomly acquired characteristics on high quality exemplars and crime scene impressions via analysis of feature size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetelli, Nicole; Nobel, Madonna; Bodziak, William J; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    Forensic footwear evidence can prove invaluable to the resolution of a criminal investigation. Naturally, the value of a comparison varies with the rarity of the evidence, which is a function of both manufactured as well as randomly acquired characteristics (RACs). When focused specifically on the latter of these two types of features, empirical evidence demonstrates high discriminating power for the differentiation of known match and known non-match samples when presented with exemplars of high quality and exhibiting a sufficient number of clear and complex RACs. However, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the media, substrate, and deposition process encountered during the commission of a crime, RACs on crime scene prints are expected to exhibit a large range of variability in terms of reproducibility, clarity, and quality. Although the pattern recognition skill of the expert examiner is adept at recognizing and evaluating this type of natural variation, there is little research to suggest that objective and numerical metrics can globally process this variation when presented with RACs from degraded crime scene quality prints. As such, the goal of this study was to mathematically compare the loss and similarity of RACs in high quality exemplars versus crime-scene-like quality impressions as a function of RAC shape, perimeter, area, and common source. Results indicate that the unpredictable conditions associated with crime scene print production promotes RAC loss that varies between 33% and 100% with an average of 85%, and that when the entire outsole is taken as a constellation of features (or a RAC map), 64% of the crime-scene-like impressions exhibited 10 or fewer RACs, resulting in a 0.72 probability of stochastic dominance. Given this, individual RAC description and correspondence were further explored using five simple, but objective, numerical metrics of similarity. Statistically significant differences in similarity scores for RAC shape and size

  20. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  1. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  2. Ocfentanil overdose fatality in the recreational drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Vera; Cordonnier, Jan; De Leeuw, Marc; Cirimele, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Quantitation of ocfentanil in biological samples was performed using a target analysis based on liquid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In the femoral blood taken at the external body examination, the following concentrations were measured: ocfentanil 15.3μg/L, acetaminophen 45mg/L and caffeine 0.23mg/L. Tissues sampled at autopsy were analyzed to study the distribution of ocfentanil. The comprehensive systematic toxicological analysis on the post-mortem blood and tissue samples was negative for other compounds. Based on circumstantial evidence, autopsy findings and the results of the toxicological analysis, the medical examiner concluded that the cause of death was an acute intoxication with ocfentanil. The manner of death was assumed to be accidental after snorting the powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. STAC: a comprehensive sensor fusion model for scene characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Zsolt; Wagner, Alan R.; Kennedy, Chris; Zutty, Jason; Tuell, Grady

    2015-05-01

    We are interested in data fusion strategies for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Advances in theory, algorithms, and computational power have made it possible to extract rich semantic information from a wide variety of sensors, but these advances have raised new challenges in fusing the data. For example, in developing fusion algorithms for moving target identification (MTI) applications, what is the best way to combine image data having different temporal frequencies, and how should we introduce contextual information acquired from monitoring cell phones or from human intelligence? In addressing these questions we have found that existing data fusion models do not readily facilitate comparison of fusion algorithms performing such complex information extraction, so we developed a new model that does. Here, we present the Spatial, Temporal, Algorithm, and Cognition (STAC) model. STAC allows for describing the progression of multi-sensor raw data through increasing levels of abstraction, and provides a way to easily compare fusion strategies. It provides for unambiguous description of how multi-sensor data are combined, the computational algorithms being used, and how scene understanding is ultimately achieved. In this paper, we describe and illustrate the STAC model, and compare it to other existing models.

  4. RONI-based steganographic method for 3D scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Image steganography is one way of data hiding which provides data security in digital images. The aim is to embed and deliver secret data in digital images without any suspiciousness. However, most of the existing optical image hiding methods ignore the visual quality of the stego-image for improving the robustness of the secret image. To address this issue, in this paper, we present a Region of Non-Interest (RONI) steganographic algorithm to enhance the visual quality of the stego-image. In the proposed method, the carrier image is segmented into Region of Interest (ROI) and RONI. To enhance the visual quality, the 3D image information is embedded into the RONI of the digital images. In order to find appropriate regions for embedding, we use a visual attention model as a means of measuring the ROI of the digital images. The algorithm employs the computational integral imaging (CII) technique to hide the 3D scene in the carrier image. Comparison results show that the proposed technique performs better than some existing state of art techniques.

  5. HOG pedestrian detection applied to scenes with heavy occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, O.; Rosner, M.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a pedestrian detection system which is based on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) principle and which tries to improve the overall detection performance by combining several part based detectors in a simple voting scheme. The HOG feature based part detectors are specifically trained for head, head-left, head-right, and left/right sides of people, assuming that these parts should be recognized even in very crowded environments like busy public transportation platforms. The part detectors are trained on the INRIA people image database using a polynomial Support Vector Machine. Experiments are undertaken with completely different test samples which have been extracted from two imaging campaigns in an outdoor setup and in an underground station. Our results demonstrate that the performance of pedestrian detection degrades drastically in very crowded scenes, but that through the combination of part detectors a gain in robustness and detection rate can be achieved at least for classifier settings which yield very low false positive rates.

  6. Interlocutory Scene and Judiciary Paradigm in Italian Migrant Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mengozzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of studies about the so-called Italian Migrant Literature it is possible to identify two approaches that can be ascribed to the “Law and Literature” movement. The first one consists in focusing on the provisions of the Law which are the pre-text or the sub-text of many immigration novels. The second approach considers the migrant writings as acts of talking back requesting for justice through the singularity of personal narrative which is in contrast with the normative and objectifying narratives of the official discourse. My paper is aiming to propose a different key of reading which is focusing both on the wider normative framework in which migrant writings are caught and on the interlocutory scene that I consider as a recurrent structure of auto-hetero-biographic and fictional narratives of migrants. Its dynamics become allegory of an inquisitory and judiciary paradigm permeating the “welcoming society” and deriving from the categories of “State thought” through which immigration is conceived and narrated by the law and migratory policies and to which migrant writings sometimes “talk back” by means of parodic quotations and rephrasing understood as possible practices of resistance. 

  7. Online anomaly detection in crowd scenes via structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Jianwu; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal behavior detection in crowd scenes is continuously a challenge in the field of computer vision. For tackling this problem, this paper starts from a novel structure modeling of crowd behavior. We first propose an informative structural context descriptor (SCD) for describing the crowd individual, which originally introduces the potential energy function of particle's interforce in solid-state physics to intuitively conduct vision contextual cueing. For computing the crowd SCD variation effectively, we then design a robust multi-object tracker to associate the targets in different frames, which employs the incremental analytical ability of the 3-D discrete cosine transform (DCT). By online spatial-temporal analyzing the SCD variation of the crowd, the abnormality is finally localized. Our contribution mainly lies on three aspects: 1) the new exploration of abnormal detection from structure modeling where the motion difference between individuals is computed by a novel selective histogram of optical flow that makes the proposed method can deal with more kinds of anomalies; 2) the SCD description that can effectively represent the relationship among the individuals; and 3) the 3-D DCT multi-object tracker that can robustly associate the limited number of (instead of all) targets which makes the tracking analysis in high density crowd situation feasible. Experimental results on several publicly available crowd video datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. The drug scene in Mexico and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a country affected by drugs in every aspect: it is a drug producing country of heroin, marihuana and methamphetamines, mainly for external markets but also for the growing internal demand; it is a transit country for cocaine that has found its way through the Central American and Mexican corridor on its way to external markets and for the internal supply. As a result of the increasing availability of substances and a favorable social environment, it has become a consuming country; drug experimentation use and dependence of illegal drugs, although still low, have increased. The abuse/dependence of legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco are the main substance abuse problems; only the abuse of pharmaceuticals remains low and relatively stable, mainly as a result of low availability for medical purposes and therefore limited scope for deviation. Social costs are considerable, as happens in other countries in the region, violence being the most prevailing characteristic of the drug scene, increasing from 2008 onwards. Within these important challenges for health and security, it is also true that significant, continuous efforts have been made by demand reduction programs at the national level since 1972 and adapted to the changing circumstances. This editorial seeks to tell the story of drug transitions in Mexico and the programs that have been implemented and discusses areas of opportunity for a new approach.

  9. High-dynamic range DMD-based IR scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.

    2013-03-01

    OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.

  10. High-dynamic range DMD-based infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.; Rentz Dupuis, Julia

    2013-05-01

    OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.

  11. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  12. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.

    2017-05-01

    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  13. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dillier

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes “clean speech,” “speech in noise,” “noise,” and “music.” A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class “speech in noise.” Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  14. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice LEDs: Applications for infrared scene projector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Dennis Thomas, Jr.

    Optoelectronic devices operating in the mid-wave (3-5 mum) and long-wave (8-12 mum) infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are of a great interest for academic and industrial applications. Due to the lack of atmospheric absorption, devices operating within these spectral bands are particularly useful for spectroscopy, imaging, and dynamic scene projection. Advanced IR imaging systems have created an intense need for laboratory-based infrared scene projector (IRSP) systems which can be used for accurate simulation of real-world phenomena occurring in the IR. These IRSP systems allow for reliable, reproducible, safe, and cost-effective calibration of IR detector arrays. The current state-of-the-art technology utilized for the emitter source of IRSP systems is thermal pixel arrays (TPAs) which are based on thin film resistor technology. Thermal pixel array technology has fundamental limitations related to response time and maximum simulated apparent temperature, making them unsuitable for emulation of very hot (> 700 K) and rapidly evolving scenes. Additionally, there exists a need for dual wavelength emitter arrays for IRSP systems dedicated to calibration of dual wavelength detector arrays. This need is currently met by combining the spectral output from two separate IRSP systems. This configuration requires precise alignment of the output from both systems and results in the maximum radiance being limited to approximately half that of the capability of a given emitter array due to the optics used to combine the outputs. The high switching speed inherent to IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the potential for high power output makes them an appealing candidate to replace the thermal pixel arrays used for IRSP systems. To this end, research has been carried out to develop and improve the device performance of IR LEDs based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs). A common method employed to achieve high brightness from LEDs is to incorporate

  15. Skidmore Clips of Neutral and Expressive Scenarios (SCENES): Novel dynamic stimuli for social cognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Casey A; Weeks, Justin W; Taylor, Lea; Karnedy, Colten

    2015-12-30

    Social cognition research has relied primarily on photographic emotional stimuli. Such stimuli likely have limited ecological validity in terms of representing real world social interactions. The current study presents evidence for the validity of a new stimuli set of dynamic social SCENES (Skidmore Clips of Emotional and Neutral Expressive Scenarios). To develop these stimuli, ten undergraduate theater students were recruited to portray members of an audience. This audience was configured to display (seven) varying configurations of social feedback, ranging from unequivocally approving to unequivocally disapproving (including three different versions of balanced/neutral scenes). Validity data were obtained from 383 adult participants recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Each participant viewed three randomly assigned scenes and provided a rating of the perceived criticalness of each scene. Results indicate that the SCENES reflect the intended range of emotionality, and pairwise comparisons suggest that the SCENES capture distinct levels of critical feedback. Overall, the SCENES stimuli set represents a publicly available (www.scenesstimuli.com) resource for researchers interested in measuring social cognition in the presence of dynamic and naturalistic social stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Wilm, Jakob; Doest, Mads Brix; Gundlach, Carsten; Eiriksson, Eythor Runar; Conradsen, Knut; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-09-20

    Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces. This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content creation. It is also useful for identifying and improving issues in the different steps of the pipeline. In this work, we use it to improve reconstruction, apply analysis by synthesis to estimate optical properties, and to develop our method for scene reassembly.

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Episodic Future Thinking: Scene Construction or Future Projection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, D J; Hayes, S M; Peterson, K M; Keane, M M; Verfaellie, M

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands. Consistent with the alternative account, the MTL was more active for the high versus low scene-construction condition. By contrast, MTL differences were not observed when comparing the future versus present conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of MTL activation was associated with the extent to which participants imagined a scene but was not associated with the extent to which participants thought about the future. These findings help disambiguate which component processes of imagination specifically involve the MTL. Published by Oxford University Press 2016.

  18. Scene perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: categorisation, description and fixation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Shakespeare

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (colour and greyscale using a categorisation paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces<scenesscenesscenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient’s global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not. Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients’ fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  19. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  20. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  1. Hierarchical Model for the Similarity Measurement of a Complex Holed-Region Entity Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex multi-holed-region entity scenes (i.e., sets of random region with holes are common in spatial database systems, spatial query languages, and the Geographic Information System (GIS. A multi-holed-region (region with an arbitrary number of holes is an abstraction of the real world that primarily represents geographic objects that have more than one interior boundary, such as areas that contain several lakes or lakes that contain islands. When the similarity of the two complex holed-region entity scenes is measured, the number of regions in the scenes and the number of holes in the regions are usually different between the two scenes, which complicates the matching relationships of holed-regions and holes. The aim of this research is to develop several holed-region similarity metrics and propose a hierarchical model to measure comprehensively the similarity between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The procedure first divides a complex entity scene into three layers: a complex scene, a micro-spatial-scene, and a simple entity (hole. The relationships between the adjacent layers are considered to be sets of relationships, and each level of similarity measurements is nested with the adjacent one. Next, entity matching is performed from top to bottom, while the similarity results are calculated from local to global. In addition, we utilize position graphs to describe the distribution of the holed-regions and subsequently describe the directions between the holes using a feature matrix. A case study that uses the Great Lakes in North America in 1986 and 2015 as experimental data illustrates the entire similarity measurement process between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The experimental results show that the hierarchical model accounts for the relationships of the different layers in the entire complex holed-region entity scene. The model can effectively calculate the similarity of complex holed-region entity scenes, even if the

  2. Providing views of the driving scene to drivers' conversation partners mitigates cell-phone-related distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Street, Whitney N; Windsor, Matthew B; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2014-12-01

    Cell-phone use impairs driving safety and performance. This impairment may stem from the remote partner's lack of awareness about the driving situation. In this study, pairs of participants completed a driving simulator task while conversing naturally in the car and while talking on a hands-free cell phone. In a third condition, the driver drove while the remote conversation partner could see video of both the road ahead and the driver's face. We tested the extent to which this additional visual information diminished the negative effects of cell-phone distraction and increased situational awareness. Collision rates for unexpected merging events were high when participants drove in a cell-phone condition but were reduced when they were in a videophone condition, reaching a level equal to that observed when they drove with an in-car passenger or drove alone. Drivers and their partners made shorter utterances and made longer, more frequent traffic references when they spoke in the videophone rather than the cell-phone condition. Providing a view of the driving scene allows remote partners to help drivers by modulating their conversation and referring to traffic more often. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. "Hunnish scenes" and a "Virgin birth": a 1920s case of sexual and bodily ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    When, in June 1921, a clairvoyant informed Christabel Russell, to her great surprise, that she was pregnant, her husband denied paternity and petitioned for divorce on grounds of adultery. The Hon. John Russell claimed that on the very few occasions that they had slept in the same bed in their two and half years of marriage, his method of birth control (which she referred to disapprovingly as "Hunnish scenes") had made pregnancy impossible. What added to the sensational nature of the case was the revelation that whilst pregnant, Christabel's hymen was unbroken – hence the claims of a "virgin birth." Two divorce trials and two appeals followed. The first trial ended inconclusively, the second trial was won for John Russell by the eminent barrister Sir Edward Marshall-Hall, but on the second appeal, in the House of Lords, it was ruled that evidence questioning the legitimacy of a child born in wedlock was inadmissible. The decree nisi was rescinded and the baby was legitimized.

  4. Forensic science information needs of patrol officers: The perceptions of the patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Eyup

    Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.

  5. Preliminary investigation of visual attention to human figures in photographs: potential considerations for the design of aided AAC visual scene displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice

    2011-12-01

    Many individuals with complex communication needs may benefit from visual aided augmentative and alternative communication systems. In visual scene displays (VSDs), language concepts are embedded into a photograph of a naturalistic event. Humans play a central role in communication development and might be important elements in VSDs. However, many VSDs omit human figures. In this study, the authors sought to describe the distribution of visual attention to humans in naturalistic scenes as compared with other elements. Nineteen college students observed 8 photographs in which a human figure appeared near 1 or more items that might be expected to compete for visual attention (such as a Christmas tree or a table loaded with food). Eye-tracking technology allowed precise recording of participants' gaze. The fixation duration over a 7-s viewing period and latency to view elements in the photograph were measured. Participants fixated on the human figures more rapidly and for longer than expected based on the size of these figures, regardless of the other elements in the scene. Human figures attract attention in a photograph even when presented alongside other attractive distracters. Results suggest that humans may be a powerful means to attract visual attention to key elements in VSDs.

  6. Active visual search in non-stationary scenes: coping with temporal variability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and

  7. HDR video synthesis for vision systems in dynamic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopovska, Ivana; Jovanov, Ljubomir; Goossens, Bart; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) image generation from a number of differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images has been extensively explored in the past few decades, and as a result of these efforts a large number of HDR synthesis methods have been proposed. Since HDR images are synthesized by combining well-exposed regions of the input images, one of the main challenges is dealing with camera or object motion. In this paper we propose a method for the synthesis of HDR video from a single camera using multiple, differently exposed video frames, with circularly alternating exposure times. One of the potential applications of the system is in driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles, involving significant camera and object movement, non- uniform and temporally varying illumination, and the requirement of real-time performance. To achieve these goals simultaneously, we propose a HDR synthesis approach based on weighted averaging of aligned radiance maps. The computational complexity of high-quality optical flow methods for motion compensation is still pro- hibitively high for real-time applications. Instead, we rely on more efficient global projective transformations to solve camera movement, while moving objects are detected by thresholding the differences between the trans- formed and brightness adapted images in the set. To attain temporal consistency of the camera motion in the consecutive HDR frames, the parameters of the perspective transformation are stabilized over time by means of computationally efficient temporal filtering. We evaluated our results on several reference HDR videos, on synthetic scenes, and using 14-bit raw images taken with a standard camera.

  8. An outlook on the scenes of paradigmatic changes in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girola, R.

    2009-05-01

    In this introduction I will put forward solutions which have been given to resolve the disagreements about the different models in the history of Astronomy from a didactic point of view. It is also about having a critical and prudent look concerning the risk of combining theories which may turn out apparently valid as it is in the case of the Tycho Brahe historical model. I will particularly focus on four models from a historical and epistemological perspective with the purpose of showing how the conflictive scene moved on to an efficient way out of the problem. To do so I will describe the variables in age, time and space(cognitive space and time of Astronomy) by confronting historical models with contemporary ones about the dispute concerning the Universe dynamic description. The Mond theory explains the difficulties in the interpretation of the rotation of the spiral galaxies claiming that Newton laws are not accurate in great scale, thus denying the solution of the missing matter. At the same time the rival theory refuses the solution given by its opponent Mond theory, through observations of galactic clusters in interaction, stating the existence of Dark Matter. The chosen historical confrontations are the following: (a) Heliocentric and Geocentric Model, (b) The origin of the 1920 debate: Curtis and Shapley, (c) The Red Shift of the Galaxies and the Unchanging Cosmology, and (d) Dark Matter and Newton's Laws as viewed from Mond Theory, which is about the present disagreement. The target focuses on showing the building up of both theories and the risk of combining them as well.

  9. Analysis of ATMS striping noise from its Earth scene observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengkun; Zou, Xiaolei; Weng, Fuzhong

    2013-12-01

    differences between brightness temperature observations and simulated observations based on numerical weather predictions, i.e., O-B, for Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) temperature sounding channels exhibit a clear striping pattern [Bormann et al., 2013]. We propose to first use the principal component analysis to isolate scan-dependent features such as the cross-track striping from the atmospheric signal and then to use an Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to extract the striping noise in ATMS Earth scene brightness temperature observations for both temperature and water vapor sounding channels. It is shown that the Principal Component (PC) coefficient of the first PC mode, which mainly describes a scan-dependent feature of cross-track radiometer measurements, captures the striping noise. The EEMD is then applied to the PC coefficient to extract the first three high-frequency intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are denoted as the PC1/IMF3 noise. When the PC1/IMF3 noise is removed from the data, the striping noise is imperceptible in the global distribution of O-B for ATMS temperature sounding channels 1-16. Using the same method, it is demonstrated that the striping noise is also present in ATMS water vapor sounding channels 17-22. The magnitude of the ATMS striping noise is about ±0.3 K for the temperature sounding channels and ±1.0 K for the moisture sounding channels. The same technique is also applied to Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), AMSU-B, and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). The striping noise is undetectable for AMSU-A but present in AMSU-B and MHS data.

  10. The robot's eyes - Stereo vision system for automated scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is given to the robot stereo vision system which maintains the image produced by solid-state detector television cameras in a dynamic random access memory called RAPID. The imaging hardware consists of sensors (two solid-state image arrays using a charge injection technique), a video-rate analog-to-digital converter, the RAPID memory, and various types of computer-controlled displays, and preprocessing equipment (for reflexive actions, processing aids, and object detection). The software is aimed at locating objects and transversibility. An object-tracking algorithm is discussed and it is noted that tracking speed is in the 50-75 pixels/s range.

  11. A Rapid Auto-Indexing Technology for Designing Readable E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pao-Ta; Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Su, Ming-Hsiang; Cheng, Po-Jen; Pai, Chun-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid scene indexing method is proposed to improve retrieval performance for students accessing instructional videos. This indexing method is applied to anchor suitable indices to the instructional video so that students can obtain several small lesson units to gain learning mastery. The method also regulates online course progress. These…

  12. Scene Memory Is More Detailed Than You Think: The Role of Categories in Visual Long-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Observers can store thousands of object images in visual long-term memory with high fidelity, but the fidelity of scene representations in long-term memory is not known. Here, we probed scene-representation fidelity by varying the number of studied exemplars in different scene categories and testing memory using exemplar-level foils. Observers viewed thousands of scenes over 5.5 hr and then completed a series of forced-choice tests. Memory performance was high, even with up to 64 scenes from ...

  13. Virtual simulation-based scene modeling of helicopter earthquake search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Liu, Hu; Yang, Chenguang; Wang, Ning

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of helicopter earthquake search and rescue (HESAR) oriented virtual simulation scene are summarized to guide the modeling of virtual simulation scene. Then a method of scene modeling which can satisfy the simulation requirements and simplify the modeling is proposed. The seismic influence field is first determined by inversion to get the distribution of buildings with different damage grades. And then, the division of different levels of detail (LOD) regions where the intricacy requirements of modeling are different is obtained to simplify the modeling. Besides, Unity3D is used for the three-dimensional terrain construction and scene rendering. Finally, a sample case was shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Comparing scanpaths during scene encoding and recognition: A multi-dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulsham, Tom; Dewhurst, Richard; Nyström, Marcus; Jarodzka, Halszka; Johansson, Roger; Underwood, Geoffrey; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Foulsham, T., Dewhurst, R., Nyström, M., Jarodzka, H., Johansson, R., Underwood, G., & Holmqvist, K. (2012). Comparing scanpaths during scene encoding and recognition: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 5(4):3, 1-12.

  15. Estimating changes in lighting direction in binocularly viewed three-dimensional scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Holly E.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We examine human ability to detect changes in scene lighting. Thirteen observers viewed three-dimensional rendered scenes stereoscopically. Each scene consisted of a randomly generated three-dimensional “Gaussian bump” surface rendered under a combination of collimated and diffuse light sources. During each trial, the collimated source underwent a small, quick change of position in one of four directions. The observer's task was to classify the direction of the lighting change. All observers were above chance in performing the task. We developed a model that combined two sources of information, a shape map and a shading map, to predict lighting change direction. We used this model to predict patterns of errors both across observers and across scenes differing in shape. We found that errors in estimating lighting direction were primarily the result of errors in representing surface shape. We characterized the surface features that affected performance in the classification task. PMID:21106676

  16. Evaluation of Military Criminal Investigative Organization and Law Enforcement Organization Crime Scene Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigara, Paul

    1999-01-01

    ...) and DoD Law Enforcement Organizations (LEOs). Overall, our objective was to determine whether current policies and procedures are adequate to ensure thorough, appropriate, and consistent crime scene management...

  17. Smartphone and Tablet Applications for Crime Scene Investigation: State of the Art, Typology, and Assessment Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Gélinas, Anthony; Tremblay, Rémy; Lu, Karely; Crispino, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The use of applications on mobile devices is gradually becoming a new norm in everyday life, and crime scene investigation is unlikely to escape this reality. The article assesses the current state of research and practices by means of literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and a survey conducted among crime scene investigators from Canada and Switzerland. Attempts at finding a particular strategy to guide the development, usage, and evaluation of applications that can assist crime scene investigation prove to be rather challenging. Therefore, the article proposes a typology for these applications, as well as criteria for evaluating their relevance, reliability, and answer to operational requirements. The study of five applications illustrates the evaluation process. Far away from the revolution announced by some stakeholders, it is required to pursue scientific and pragmatic research to set the theoretical foundations that will allow a significant contribution of applications to crime scene investigation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Scene-context effect in visual memory is independent of retention interval1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YUJI

    2012-01-01

    ...) and the retention interval (short, long) between cued and target objects. In this paradigm, a dot cue was sequentially presented on 12 different objects of a scene, then the memory for one of the cued objects was tested...

  19. Identification, Collection, and Preservation of Veterinary Forensic Evidence: On Scene and During the Postmortem Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroo, R; Fitch, A

    2016-09-01

    Although it is the obligation of the veterinary forensic pathologist to be competent in identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence from the body, it is also necessary for them to understand the relevance of conditions on the crime scene. The body is just one piece of the puzzle that needs to be considered when determining the cause of death. The information required for a complete postmortem analysis should also include details of the animal's environment and items of evidence present on the crime scene. These factors will assist the veterinary forensic pathologist in the interpretation of necropsy findings. Therefore, the veterinary forensic pathologist needs to have a basic understanding of how the crime scene is processed, as well as the role of the forensic veterinarian on scene. In addition, the veterinary forensic pathologist must remain unbiased, necessitating an understanding of evidence maintenance and authentication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. "Biennale en scene" keskendus hääle erinevatele võimalustele / Diana Kiivit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiivit, Diana

    2006-01-01

    7. - 26. märtsil Lyonis toimunud festivalist "Biennale en scene" ja seal etendunud kolmest ooperist: G. Aperghis "Entre chien et loup", C. Ambrosini "Il canbto della pelle", P. Dusapini "Faustus, la derniere nuit"