Sample records for rapid infiltration site

  1. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.


    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  2. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites (United States)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen


    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  3. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

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    Bashist, B. (Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York); Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.


    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected.

  4. Rapid estimation of topsoil hydraulic properties from coupled inversion of TDR data during falling head infiltration (United States)

    Mboh, C.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.


    enables accurate estimation of the depths of ponded water at the soil surface. Accurate monitoring of ponded depths of water is important for many applications, including flood irrigation management and flood control by earth dams. Moreover as it is not necessary to manually measure the ponding depths, the coupled approach offers the possibility of automatic monitoring of falling head infiltration at several rings at several locations in the field based on TDR multiplexing. This can lead to rapid and cost effective estimation of topsoil hydraulic properties.

  5. A process to estimate net infiltration using a site-scale water-budget approach, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, 2002–05 (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Moreo, Michael T.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.


    This report documents a process used to estimate net infiltration from precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil data acquired at two sites on Rainier Mesa. Rainier Mesa is a groundwater recharge area within the Nevada National Security Site where recharged water flows through bedrock fractures to a deep (450 meters) water table. The U.S. Geological Survey operated two ET stations on Rainier Mesa from 2002 to 2005 at sites characterized by pinyon-juniper and scrub-brush vegetative cover. Precipitation and ET data were corrected to remove measurement biases and gap-filled to develop continuous datasets. Net infiltration (percolation below the root zone) and changes in root-zone water storage were estimated using a monthly water-balance model.Site-scale water-budget results indicate that the heavily-fractured welded-tuff bedrock underlying thin (<40 centimeters) topsoil is a critical water source for vegetation during dry periods. Annual precipitation during the study period ranged from fourth lowest (182 millimeters [mm]) to second highest (708 mm) on record (record = 55 years). Annual ET exceeded precipitation during dry years, indicating that the fractured-bedrock reservoir capacity is sufficient to meet atmospheric-evaporative demands and to sustain vegetation through extended dry periods. Net infiltration (82 mm) was simulated during the wet year after the reservoir was rapidly filled to capacity. These results support previous conclusions that preferential fracture flow was induced, resulting in an episodic recharge pulse that was detected in nearby monitoring wells. The occurrence of net infiltration only during the wet year is consistent with detections of water-level rises in nearby monitoring wells that occur only following wet years.

  6. Rapid transport from the surface to wells in fractured rock: a unique infiltration tracer experiment. (United States)

    Levison, Jana K; Novakowski, Kent S


    A unique infiltration tracer experiment was performed whereby a fluorescent dye was applied to the land surface in an agricultural field, near Perth, Ontario, Canada, to simulate the transport of solutes to two pumped monitoring wells drilled into the granitic gneiss aquifer. This experiment, interpreted using the discrete-fracture capability of the numerical model HydroGeoSphere, showed that solute transport from the surface through thin soil (less than 2m) to wells in fractured bedrock can be extremely rapid (on the order of hours). Also, it was demonstrated that maximum concentrations of contaminants originating from the ground surface will not necessarily be the highest in the shallow aquifer horizon. These are important considerations for both private and government-owned drinking water systems that draw water from shallow fractured bedrock aquifers. This research illustrates the extreme importance of protecting drinking water at the source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration (United States)

    Garnier, Patricia; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; DiCarlo, David A.; Bauters, Tim W. J.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Baveye, Philippe


    Understanding soil swelling is hampered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring water content and bulk density. A number of studies have used dual-energy gamma rays to investigate soil swelling. The long counting time of this technique makes it impracticable for studying the rapid changes in moisture content and soil swelling shortly after infiltration is initiated. In this paper, we use the dual-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast, initial phase of the swelling process. Ponded infiltration experiments were performed with two soils: a bentonite-sand mixture and a vertisol. Swelling curves and hydraulic diffusivity were determined. Deformation was very rapid immediately after water application and then became progressively slower. The hydraulic diffusivity decreased with time, which can partially explain the very rapid decrease in infiltration rates observed in the field.

  8. Ammonia oxidizers in a pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system for domestic wastewater treatment.

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    Yingli Lian

    Full Text Available A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent, AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO, NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD. NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS.

  9. Using fuzzy logic analysis for siting decisions of infiltration trenches for highway runoff control. (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan


    Determining optimal locations for best management practices (BMPs), including their field considerations and limitations, plays an important role for effective stormwater management. However, these issues have been often overlooked in modeling studies that focused on downstream water quality benefits. This study illustrates the methodology of locating infiltration trenches at suitable locations from spatial overlay analyses which combine multiple layers that address different aspects of field application into a composite map. Using seven thematic layers for each analysis, fuzzy logic was employed to develop a site suitability map for infiltration trenches, whereas the DRASTIC method was used to produce a groundwater vulnerability map on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most popular overlay analyses, was used for comparison to fuzzy logic. The results showed that the AHP and fuzzy logic methods developed significantly different index maps in terms of best locations and suitability scores. Specifically, the AHP method provided a maximum level of site suitability due to its inherent aggregation approach of all input layers in a linear equation. The most eligible areas in locating infiltration trenches were determined from the superposition of the site suitability and groundwater vulnerability maps using the fuzzy AND operator. The resulting map successfully balanced qualification criteria for a low risk of groundwater contamination and the best BMP site selection. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the suitability scores were strongly affected by the algorithms embedded in fuzzy logic; therefore, caution is recommended with their use in overlay analysis. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that the fuzzy logic analysis can not only be used to improve spatial decision quality along with other overlay approaches, but also is combined with general water quality models for initial and refined

  10. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Infiltration at Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan (United States)

    Arnold, B. W.; Lee, C.; Ma, C.; Knowlton, R. G.


    Taiwan is evaluating representative sites for the potential disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), including consideration of shallow land burial and cavern disposal concepts. A representative site for shallow land burial is on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock. The shallow land burial concept includes an engineered cover to limit infiltration into the waste disposal cell. A representative site for cavern disposal is located on the southeast coast of Taiwan. The tunnel system for this disposal concept would be several hundred meters below the mountainous land surface in argillite bedrock. The LLW will consist of about 966,000 drums, primarily from the operation and decommissioning of four nuclear power plants. Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have collaborated to develop performance assessment models to evaluate the long-term safety of LLW disposal at these representative sites. Important components of the system models are sub-models of groundwater flow in the natural system and infiltration through the engineered cover for the shallow land burial concept. The FEHM software code was used to simulate groundwater flow in three-dimensional models at both sites. In addition, a higher-resolution two-dimensional model was developed to simulate flow through the engineered tunnel system at the cavern site. The HELP software was used to simulate infiltration through the cover at the island site. The primary objective of these preliminary models is to provide a modeling framework, given the lack of site-specific data and detailed engineering design specifications. The steady-state groundwater flow model at the island site uses a specified recharge boundary at the land surface and specified head at the island shoreline. Simulated groundwater flow vectors are extracted from the FEHM model along a cross section through one of the LLW disposal cells for utilization in radionuclide transport simulations in

  11. Femoral and sciatic nerve blockades and incision site infiltration in rabbits undergoing stifle joint arthrotomy. (United States)

    Kluge, K; Larenza Menzies, M P; Kloeppel, H; Pearce, S G; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Kutter, A P N


    This study was designed to determine whether perineural injections of local anaesthetics decreases intraoperative nociception and improves postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits undergoing experimental stifle arthrotomy. All animals were anaesthetized using isoflurane and received morphine intramuscularly. The sciatic and femoral nerves of the leg to be operated on were located using a nerve stimulator (1 Hz, 0.5 mA). Rabbits were assigned to a treatment group (LB; n = 12) or a placebo group (P; n = 12) in a randomized blinded fashion. Group LB received lidocaine 2% (1 mg/kg) combined with bupivacaine 0.5% (0.25 mg/kg) injections around the sciatic and femoral nerves (0.1 mL/kg total volume per site) and subcutaneous infiltration of the incision site with lidocaine 1% (1.25 mg/kg). Group P received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl. Rabbits in group P required higher doses of intraoperative fentanyl and propofol to reduce heart rate and suppress increase in systolic blood pressure, and maintain an adequate anaesthetic plane. Interventional analgesia (buprenorphine and carprofen) was required significantly earlier in rabbits in group P (2 and 6 h after the first nerve blockade, respectively) based on assessment of their pain-related behaviour and range of motion. Using a visual analogue scale (0 mm= no pain to 100 mm= maximal possible pain), rabbits in group LB were judged to show significantly less pain compared with rabbits in group P (14 ± 10 mm and 37 ± 25 mm, respectively) 2 h after nerve blockade. In conclusion, this technique of perineural analgesia combined with incision site infiltration reduced intraoperative fentanyl requirements and improved postoperative analgesia in rabbits.

  12. A high areal capacity lithium-sulfur battery cathode prepared by site-selective vapor infiltration of hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays. (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Davis, Benjamin; Oakes, Landon; Maschmann, Matthew R; Pint, Cary L


    The widespread use of melt infiltration has to date restricted sulfur-carbon cathode architectures to only host materials processed as bulk powders with no site control of sulfur deposits. Here, we combine structurally designed hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with site-selective vapor phase sulfur infiltration to produce thick electrodes with controlled sulfur loading and high areal performance. Our results illustrate the critical role structural hierarchy plays in sustaining electrical connectivity to enable high utilization of the sulfur embedded in thick electrodes with high gravimetric loading. Here, a primary large-diameter CNT population provides robust conductive trunks that branch into a secondary small-diameter and high-surface-area CNT population capable of giving rapid electrical access to coated sulfur. Site-selective vapor phase sulfur infiltration, based on the capillary effect, controllably targets loading of one or both of the CNT populations to facilitate gravimetric loading from 60 wt% to 70 wt% sulfur. With the high areal loading of 6 mg cm-2, we demonstrate 1092 mA h gS-1 and 6.5 mA h cm-2 and excellent rate performance with >60% capacity retained at 10 times the discharge rate. Overall, our work leverages site control of sulfur incorporation into a host cathode enabled by controlled CNT growth techniques to emphasize the important principle of "quality over quantity" in designing high areal loading strategies with high areal performance and good sulfur utilization.

  13. Spatial multi-criteria analysis for selecting potential sites for aquifer recharge via harvesting and infiltration of surface runoff in north Jordan (United States)

    Steinel, Anke; Schelkes, Klaus; Subah, Ali; Himmelsbach, Thomas


    In (semi-)arid regions, available water resources are scarce and groundwater resources are often overused. Therefore, the option to increase available water resources by managed aquifer recharge (MAR) via infiltration of captured surface runoff was investigated for two basins in northern Jordan. This study evaluated the general suitability of catchments to generate sufficient runoff and tried to identify promising sites to harvest and infiltrate the runoff into the aquifer for later recovery. Large sets of available data were used to create regional thematic maps, which were then combined to constraint maps using Boolean logic and to create suitability maps using weighted linear combination. This approach might serve as a blueprint which could be adapted and applied to similar regions. The evaluation showed that non-committed source water availability is the most restricting factor for successful water harvesting in regions with scheme will decrease rapidly to the point where it results in an overall negative impact due to increased evaporation if maintenance is not undertaken. It is recommended to improve system operation and maintenance, as well as monitoring, in order to achieve a better and constant effectiveness of the infiltration activities.

  14. A study comparing preoperative intra-incisional antibiotic infiltration and prophylactic intravenous antibiotic administration for reducing surgical site infection

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    Bharat Bhushan Dogra


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical site infection (SSI continues to be a distressing problem since time immemorial, as it happens to be one of the major causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Many methods have been evolved to combat wound infection, but the rate of wound infection has been more or less static over the past few decades. The search for alternative modes of management is going on and one of the methods is intra-incisional infiltration of antibiotics. Aims and Objectives: To study the comparative efficacy of pre-operative intra-incisional antibiotic infiltration and prophylactic parenteral antibiotic therapy in reducing surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled study comprising of 120 patients divided in to three groups i.e. 40 in each group. Group A comprising 40 patients were subjected to local infiltration of 1 gram of Cefotaxime around the site of incision, 20 min before the induction of anesthesia. Group B comprising of 40 patients were administered a single dose of 1 gram of Cefotaxime intravenously 20 minutes before the surgical incision and Group C comprising of 40 patients were administered local infiltration of 1 gram of Cefotaxime as well as intravenous administration of 1 gram of Cefotaxime, 20 minutes before surgical incision. Inclusion criteria were patients in age group of 20-60 yrs, procedures that lasted for less than 2 hours, clean and clean contaminated surgical procedures. The exclusion criteria were patients with diabetes mellitus and those on steroid therapy. Incidence of SSI, type of organisms cultured in case of infection were studied. Results: Overall incidence of SSI in Group A was 10%, in Group B 18%, and Group C 2.5%. Frequency of infection due to gram positive bacteria was more as compared to gram negative in the cases that developed SSI. The commonest organism isolated was Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. Conclusion: The incidence of SSI

  15. Uncertainty analyses of infiltration and subsurface flow and transport for SDMP sites

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    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff have identified a number of sites requiring special attention in the decommissioning process because of elevated levels of radioactive contaminants. Traits common to many of these sites include limited data characterizing the subsurface, the presence of long-lived radionuclides necessitating a long-term analysis (1,000 years or more), and potential exposure through multiple pathways. As a consequence of these traits, the uncertainty in predicted exposures can be significant. In addition, simplifications to the physical system and the transport mechanisms are often necessary to reduce the computational requirements of the analysis. Several multiple-pathway transport codes exist for estimating dose, two of which were used in this study. These two codes have built-in Monte Carlo simulation capabilities that were used for the uncertainty analysis. Several tools for improving uncertainty analyses of exposure estimates through the groundwater pathway have been developed and are discussed in this report. Generic probability distributions for unsaturated and saturated zone soil hydraulic parameters are presented. A method is presented to combine the generic distributions with site-specific water retention data using a Bayesian analysis. The resulting updated soil hydraulic parameter distributions can be used to obtain an updated estimate of the probability distribution of dose. The method is illustrated using a hypothetical decommissioning site.

  16. Comparison of analgesic efficiency between wound site infiltration and ultra-sound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia (United States)

    Aydogmus, MT; Sinikoglu, SN; Naki, MM; Ocak, NB; Sanlı, N; Alagol, A


    Backround: Local anesthetic infiltration applied on the wound site or abdominal wall may be used for relieving postoperative pain after delivery by caesarean section. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficiency of ultrasound (USG)-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with local anesthetic infiltration on a wound site. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective randomized trial, and consisted of 70 pregnant women of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II. Patients were randomized into Group I (wound site infiltration, n=35) and Group T (TAP block, n=35). Spinal anaesthesia was administered to all patients. In Group I, wound site infiltration was applied by the surgical team. In Group T, a USG-guided bilateral TAP block was applied. Patients’ numeric pain scale (NPS) levels at 2, 6, 12 and 24th hours, after the operation (NPS0) and during mobilization were assessed. Postoperative complications, time to first analgesic request and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results: The NPS0 values of Group T were found to higher and time to first analgesic request longer than those of Group I. The NPS values of Group I at 2, 6, 12, and 24th hours were found to be statistically significantly higher than those of Group T. Conclusions: According to our results, USG-guided TAP block might be superior to infiltration anaesthesia for postoperative pain management of patients who have had caesarean section and it provided longer-lasting and more efficient analgesia. PMID:25125948

  17. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

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    Federico Leonelli


    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  18. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.


    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  19. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan


    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  20. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis. (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel


    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  1. Evidence that polyhydroxylated C60 fullerenes (fullerenols) amplify the effect of lipopolysaccharides to induce rapid leukocyte infiltration in vivo. (United States)

    Gonçalves, D M; Girard, D


    Fullerenols C60(OH) have therapeutic potential, but there is debate regarding their toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that C60(OH)n possesses a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo. Kinetic and dose-dependent experiments performed with the murine air pouch model of acute inflammation revealed that, unlike TiO2 used as a positive control in this model, C60(OH)n NPs were not pro-inflammatory in CD-1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice. However, after 3 h of treatment, C60(OH)n NPs were found to amplify the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) causing a rapid leukocyte influx in which the major cells observed are neutrophils. The use of an antibody array assay to detect different analytes simultaneously indicates that the amplification effect is, at least partially, explained by an increased local production of several cytokines/chemokines in the exudates, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Using an ELISA to quantify the amount of IL-6 produced into air pouch exudates, we demonstrated that C60(OH)n increases the LPS-induced local production of this cytokine. Therefore, although C60(OH)n NPs alone do not exert proinflammatory activity under certain conditions, they can act in concert with other agents to cause inflammation, a situation that is likely to occur in vivo.

  2. A rapid fabrication of C/C composites by a thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration method with vaporized kerosene as a precursor

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    Wang Jiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail:; Qian Junmin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiao Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jin Zhihao [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    A thermal gradient, atmospheric pressure chemical vapor infiltration method with simultaneous vaporized kerosene as a precursor for rapid fabrication of C/C composites was studied. By this method, carbon felts (bulk density {approx}0.2 g cm{sup -3}) were densified to C/C composites with density of 1.67 and 1.71 g cm{sup -3} when prepared at 1050 and 1150 deg. C for 6 h, respectively. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the composites have a strong ability to graphitize and the higher deposition temperature leads to the increased graphitization degree. Polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscope images reveal that fibers of the composites prepared for 6 h are surrounded by ring-shaped pyrocarbon matrix with a thickness of {approx}20 {mu}m, and that the matrix is delaminated to 4-6 layer-like regions. The deposition process is analyzed by dividing the reactor into four regions associated with specific functions and the reasons for the rapid fabrication are proposed as the short convection and diffusion path for the precursor and the existing of thermal gradient across the preform.

  3. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

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    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.


    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  4. Parallel inversion of a massive ERT data set to characterize deep vadose zone contamination beneath former nuclear waste infiltration galleries at the Hanford Site B-Complex (Invited) (United States)

    Johnson, T.; Rucker, D. F.; Wellman, D.


    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington, USA, originated in the early 1940's as part of the Manhattan Project and produced plutonium used to build the United States nuclear weapons stockpile. In accordance with accepted industrial practice of that time, a substantial portion of relatively low-activity liquid radioactive waste was disposed of by direct discharge to either surface soil or into near-surface infiltration galleries such as cribs and trenches. This practice was supported by early investigations beginning in the 1940s, including studies by Geological Survey (USGS) experts, whose investigations found vadose zone soils at the site suitable for retaining radionuclides to the extent necessary to protect workers and members of the general public based on the standards of that time. That general disposal practice has long since been discontinued, and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) is now investigating residual contamination at former infiltration galleries as part of its overall environmental management and remediation program. Most of the liquid wastes released into the subsurface were highly ionic and electrically conductive, and therefore present an excellent target for imaging by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) within the low-conductivity sands and gravels comprising Hanford's vadose zone. In 2006, USDOE commissioned a large scale surface ERT survey to characterize vadose zone contamination beneath the Hanford Site B-Complex, which contained 8 infiltration trenches, 12 cribs, and one tile field. The ERT data were collected in a pole-pole configuration with 18 north-south trending lines, and 18 east-west trending lines ranging from 417m to 816m in length. The final data set consisted of 208,411 measurements collected on 4859 electrodes, covering an area of 600m x 600m. Given the computational demands of inverting this massive data set as a whole, the data were initially inverted in parts with a shared memory inversion code, which

  5. Application of subsurface wastewater infiltration system to on-site treatment of domestic sewage under high hydraulic loading rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua LI


    Full Text Available In order to enhance the hydraulic loading rate (HLR of a subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS used in treating domestic sewage, the intermittent operation mode was employed in the SWIS. The results show that the intermittent operation mode contributes to the improvement of the HLR and the pollutant removal rate. When the wetting-drying ratio (RWD was 1.0, the pollutant removal rate increased by (13.6 ± 0.3% for NH3-N, (20.7 ± 1.1% for TN, (18.6 ± 0.4% for TP, (12.2 ± 0.5% for BOD, (10.1 ± 0.3% for COD, and (36.2 ± 1.2% for SS, compared with pollutant removal rates under the continuous operation mode. The pollutant removal rate declined with the increase of the HLR. The effluent quality met The Reuse of Urban Recycling Water - Water Quality Standard for Scenic Environment Use (GB/T 18921-2002 even when the HLR was as high as 10 cm/d. Hydraulic conductivity, oxygen reduction potential (ORP, the quantity of nitrifying bacteria, and the pollutant removal rate of NH3-N increased with the decrease of the RWD. For the pollutant removal rates of TP, BOD, and COD, there were no significant difference (p < 0.05 under different RWDs. The suggested RWD was 1.0. Relative contribution of the pretreatment and SWIS to the pollutant removal was examined, and more than 80% removal of NH3-N, TN, TP, COD, and BOD occurred in the SWIS.

  6. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. McCurley


    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper

  7. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance. (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard


    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. On the Rapid Rise of Social Networking Sites: New Findings and Policy Implications (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R


    Social networking sites have been rapidly adopted by children and, especially, teenagers and young people worldwide, enabling new opportunities for the presentation of the self, learning, construction of a wide circle of relationships, and the management of privacy and intimacy. On the other hand, there are also concerns that social networking…

  9. A rapid assay for on-site monitoring of infliximab trough levels: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Fidder, Herma H.; Wiesmeijer, Karien C.; de Dood, Claudia J.; Rispens, Theo; Wolbink, Gert-Jan; Hommes, Daniel W.; Tanke, Hans J.


    Monitoring levels of biologicals against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been suggested to improve therapeutic outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This pilot study describes a rapid lateral flow (LF)-based assay for on-site monitoring of serum trough levels of humanized monoclonal

  10. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P


    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  11. Rapid identification of ubiquitination and SUMOylation target sites by microfluidic peptide array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu


    Full Text Available SUMOylation and ubiquitination are two essential post translational modifications (PTMs involved in the regulation of important biological processes in eukaryotic cells. Identification of ubiquitin (Ub and small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO-conjugated lysine residues in proteins is critical for understanding the role of ubiquitination and SUMOylation, but remains experimentally challenging. We have developed a powerful in vitro Ub/SUMO assay using a novel high density peptide array incorporated within a microfluidic device that allows rapid identification of ubiquitination and SUMOylation sites on target proteins. We performed the assay with a panel of human proteins and a microbial effector with known target sites for Ub or SUMO modifications, and determined that 80% of these proteins were modified by Ub or specific SUMO isoforms at the sites previously determined using conventional methods. Our results confirm the specificity for both SUMO isoform and individual target proteins at the peptide level. In summary, this microfluidic high density peptide array approach is a rapid screening assay to determine sites of Ub and SUMO modification of target substrates, which will provide new insights into the composition, selectivity and specificity of these PTM target sites.

  12. Rapid Analytical Methods for On-Site Triage for Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    North, Stella H.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from an event that causes rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain or penetration of the skull with an object. Responses to stimuli and questions, loss of consciousness, and altered behavior are symptoms currently used to justify brain imaging for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. Tests based on such symptoms are susceptible to false-positive and false-negative results due to stress, fatigue, and medications. Biochemical markers of neuronal damage and the physiological response to that damage are being identified. Biosensors capable of rapid measurement of such markers in the circulation offer a solution for on-site triage, as long as three criteria are met: (a) Recognition reagents can be identified that are sufficiently sensitive and specific, (b) the biosensor can provide quantitative assessment of multiple markers rapidly and simultaneously, and (c) both the sensor and reagents are designed for use outside the laboratory.

  13. Characteristics of sites and trees affected by rapid white oak mortality as reported by forestry professionals in Missouri (United States)

    Sharon E. Reed; James T. English; Rose-Marie Muzika; John M. Kabrick; Simeon. Wright


    A new syndrome was named rapid white oak mortality in 2011 to describe the rapid death of white oak trees (Quercus alba L.) within one growing season. A survey with 24 questions about stand and site characteristics, site history, and symptoms was distributed to forestry professionals to gather information about the new syndrome. Sixty-three reports...

  14. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan


    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network ( including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Barry


    Full Text Available Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR, such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigation was carried out via soil aquifer treatment (SAT using recharge basins located within a mixture of fine and coarse grained riverine deposits in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. A total of 2.6 Mm3 was delivered via five SAT basins over six years; this evaluation focused on three years of operation (2011–2014, recharging 1.5 Mm3 treated wastewater via an expanded recharge area of approximately 38,400 m2. Average infiltration rates per basin varied from 0.1 to 1 m/day due to heterogeneous soil characteristics and variability in recharge water quality. A treatment upgrade to include sand filtration and UV disinfection (in 2013 prior to recharge improved the average infiltration rate per basin by 40% to 100%.

  16. Rapid Mapping and Deformation Analysis over Cultural Heritage and Rural Sites Based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapete


    Full Text Available We propose an easy-to-use procedure of “PSI-based rapid mapping and deformation analysis,” to effectively exploit Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI for multispatial/temporal hazard assessment of cultural heritage and rural sites, update the condition report at the scale of entire site and single building, and address the conservation strategies. Advantages and drawbacks of the methodology are critically discussed based on feasibility tests performed over Pitigliano and Bivigliano, respectively, located in Southern and Northern Tuscany, Italy, and representative of hilltop historic towns and countryside settlements chronically affected by natural hazards. We radar-interpreted ERS-1/2 (1992–2000 and ENVISAT (2003–2010 datasets, already processed, respectively with the Permanent Scatterers (PSs and Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSPs techniques, and assigned the levels of conservation criticality for both the sites. The PSI analysis allowed the zoning of the most unstable sectors of Pitigliano and showed a good agreement with the most updated hazard assessment of the cliff. The reconstruction of past/recent deformation patterns over Bivigliano confirmed the criticality for the Church of San Romolo, supporting the hypothesis of a correlation with local landslide phenomena, as also perceived from the annual motions observed over the entire site, where several landslide bodies are mapped.

  17. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment (United States)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.


    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  18. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner


    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  19. Infiltrated carbon foam composites (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  20. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.


    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  1. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Mark David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kaiser, Julia N. (Global Product Management, Hilden, Germany); Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.


    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  2. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  3. Intravenous Infiltration Risk by Catheter Dwell Time Among Hospitalized Children. (United States)

    Jeong, Ihn Sook; Jeon, Gey Rok; Lee, Man Seop; Shin, Bum Joo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Soon Mi; Hyun, Sookyung

    This study was aimed to examine the cumulative risk for infiltration over IV catheter dwell time by general or catheterization-specific characteristics of pediatric patients with IV therapy. This secondary data analysis was done with the data of 1596 children who received peripheral IV therapy at least once during their hospital stay between August 1st and October 30th, 2011 and in June, 2013 in an academic medical center, Yangsan, Republic of Korea. The survival functions of infiltration were determined by using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The cumulative risk for infiltration had rapidly increased from 1.5% after 24 hours of catheter dwell time to 17.3% after 96 hours. The survival functions were significantly different in the medical than in the surgical department (p=.005), lower extremities than upper ones (p=.001), and use of 10% dextrose (p=.001), ampicillin/sulbactam (pdwell times are similar, the cumulative risk for infiltration was higher in cases wherein the patient had a risk factor. The cumulative risk for infiltration has rapidly increased after 24 hours in patients who have 10% dextrose, high-concentration electrolytes, and phenytoin. The results suggest that nurses are required to assess the IV site every hour after 24 hours of catheter dwell time for the infusion of irritants for a safer practice of IV therapy. However, this monitoring time may be modified by the age of child, previous IV complications, and/or hemodynamic issues which may impact IV integrity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On-site Rapid Diagnosis of Intracranial Hematoma using Portable Multi-slice Microwave Imaging System (United States)

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Abbosh, A. M.


    Rapid, on-the-spot diagnostic and monitoring systems are vital for the survival of patients with intracranial hematoma, as their conditions drastically deteriorate with time. To address the limited accessibility, high costs and static structure of currently used MRI and CT scanners, a portable non-invasive multi-slice microwave imaging system is presented for accurate 3D localization of hematoma inside human head. This diagnostic system provides fast data acquisition and imaging compared to the existing systems by means of a compact array of low-profile, unidirectional antennas with wideband operation. The 3D printed low-cost and portable system can be installed in an ambulance for rapid on-site diagnosis by paramedics. In this paper, the multi-slice head imaging system’s operating principle is numerically analysed and experimentally validated on realistic head phantoms. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that the multi-slice head imaging system is able to generate better quality reconstructed images providing 70% higher average signal to clutter ratio, 25% enhanced maximum signal to clutter ratio and with around 60% hematoma target localization compared to the previous head imaging systems. Nevertheless, numerical and experimental results demonstrate that previous reported 2D imaging systems are vulnerable to localization error, which is overcome in the presented multi-slice 3D imaging system. The non-ionizing system, which uses safe levels of very low microwave power, is also tested on human subjects. Results of realistic phantom and subjects demonstrate the feasibility of the system in future preclinical trials.

  5. Advances in Infiltration (United States)

    Mansell, Robert


    During December 12-13 of 1983, in Chicago, the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) convened the National Conference on Advances in Infiltration. The stated purpose of the conference was to report and evaluate recent developments in the movement of water into soil. Ninety papers were presented at the conference, but only 36 manuscripts are included in this volume, which represents the proceedings for the conference. Six manuscripts each are presented under the designated topics of physics of infiltration, parameters in infiltration equations, special problems and phenomena, measurement of infiltration, applications in agriculture, and applications in watershed hydrology. Brief abstracts are included for 23 papers presented in poster sessions at the conference.

  6. A rapid assay for on-site monitoring of infliximab trough levels: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Fidder, Herma H; Wiesmeijer, Karien C; de Dood, Claudia J; Rispens, Theo; Wolbink, Gert-Jan; Hommes, Daniel W; Tanke, Hans J


    Monitoring levels of biologicals against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been suggested to improve therapeutic outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This pilot study describes a rapid lateral flow (LF)-based assay for on-site monitoring of serum trough levels of humanized monoclonal antibody infliximab (IFX). The applied chromatographic method utilizes sequential flows of diluted serum, wash buffer, and an immunoglobulin generic label on LF strips with a Test line comprised of TNF-α. The successive flows permitted enrichment of IFX at the Test line before the label was applied. The label, luminescent upconverting phosphor (UCP) particles coated with protein-A, emits a 550-nm visible light upon excitation with 980-nm infrared light. IFX concentrations were determined through measurement of UCP fluorescence at the Test line. The assay was optimized to detect IFX levels as low as 0.17 μg/mL in serum. For patients with IBD, this limit is appropriate to detect levels associated with loss of response (0.5 μg IFX/mL). The assay was evaluated with clinical samples from patients with Crohn's disease and correlated well within the physiologically relevant range from 0.17 to 10 μg/mL with an IFX-specific ELISA. Performance of the assay was further successfully validated with samples from blood donors, IFX negative IBD patients, and rheumatoid arthritis patients that had developed anti-IFX antibodies. Because of its generic nature, the assay is suited for detecting most therapeutic anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies.

  7. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  8. Fine-scale characteristics of fluvial bull trout redds and adjacent sites in Rapid River, Idaho, 1993-2007 (United States)

    John W. Guzevich; Russell F. Thurow


    From 1993 to 2007, we used single pass, September surveys to locate and measure fluvial bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) redds in Rapid River, Idaho. Here we describe substrate sizes, redd dimensions, and water depths, velocities, and temperatures within and adjacent to 337 redds. Most (79%) spawning sites had fewer than 20% surface fines (< 2 mm) and mean,...

  9. Diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, E.; Boecker, W.; Buecheler, E.


    Nineteen patients with various types of lipoma in the pelvis are described. Clinical findings, radiological examinations, and follow-up studies constitute a particular type of lipoma, diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis; this can be distinguished from other fatty tumours because of its localisation, extent, therapeutic results and long course. Computed tomography enables us to differentiate simple lipomatosis pelvis from diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis. Histological examination is essential for excluding a liposarcoma. Growth or malignant change of diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis is most easily recognized by computed tomographic serial observation.

  10. Characterization of the early inflammatory infiltrate at the feeding site of infected sand flies in mice protected from vector-transmitted Leishmania major by exposure to uninfected bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Teixeira


    Full Text Available Mice exposed to sand fly saliva are protected against vector-transmitted Leishmania major. Although protection has been related to IFN-γ producing T cells, the early inflammatory response orchestrating this outcome has not been defined.Mice exposed to uninfected P. duboscqi bites and naïve mice were challenged with L. major-infected flies to characterize their early immune response at the bite site. Mostly, chemokine and cytokine transcript expression post-infected bites was amplified in exposed compared to naïve mice. In exposed mice, induced chemokines were mostly involved in leukocyte recruitment and T cell and NK cell activation; IL-4 was expressed at 6 h followed by IFN-γ and iNOS2 as well as IL-5 and IL-10 expression. In naïve animals, the transcript expression following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites was suppressed. Expression profiles translated to an earlier and significantly larger recruitment of leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4+ T cells to the bite site of exposed compared to naïve mice post-infected bites. Additionally, up to 48 hours post-infected bites the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells and NK cells arriving at the bite site was significantly higher in exposed compared to naïve mice. Thereafter, NK cells become cytolytic and persist at the bite site up to a week post-bite.The quiet environment induced by a Leishmania-infected sand fly bite in naïve mice was significantly altered in animals previously exposed to saliva of uninfected flies. We propose that the enhanced recruitment of Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4 Th1 cells observed at the bite site of exposed mice creates an inhospitable environment that counters the establishment of L. major infection.

  11. Rapid and unambiguous detection of DNase I hypersensitive site in rare population of cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ping Zeng

    Full Text Available DNase I hypersensitive (DHS sites are important for understanding cis regulation of gene expression. However, existing methods for detecting DHS sites in small numbers of cells can lead to ambiguous results. Here we describe a simple new method, in which DNA fragments with ends generated by DNase I digestion are isolated and used as templates for two PCR reactions. In the first PCR, primers are derived from sequences up- and down-stream of the DHS site. If the DHS site exists in the cells, the first PCR will not produce PCR products due to the cuts of the templates by DNase I between the primer sequences. In the second PCR, one primer is derived from sequence outside the DHS site and the other from the adaptor. This will produce a smear of PCR products of different sizes due to cuts by DNase I at different positions at the DHS site. With this design, we detected a DHS site at the CD4 gene in two CD4 T cell populations using as few as 2×10(4 cells. We further validated this method by detecting a DHS site of the IL-4 gene that is specifically present in type 2 but not type 1 T helper cells. Overall, this method overcomes the interference by genomic DNA not cut by DNase I at the DHS site, thereby offering unambiguous detection of DHS sites in the cells.

  12. In vivo photolabeling of tumor-infiltrating cells reveals highly regulated egress of T-cell subsets from tumors. (United States)

    Torcellan, Tommaso; Hampton, Henry R; Bailey, Jacqueline; Tomura, Michio; Brink, Robert; Chtanova, Tatyana


    Immune therapy is rapidly gaining prominence in the clinic as a major weapon against cancer. Whereas much attention has been focused on the infiltration of tumors by immune cells, the subsequent fate of these infiltrates remains largely unexplored. We therefore established a photoconversion-based model that allowed us to label tumor-infiltrating immune cells and follow their migration. Using this system, we identified a population of tumor-experienced cells that emigrate from primary tumors to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels. Although the majority of tumor-infiltrating cells were myeloid, T cells made up the largest population of tumor-egressing leukocytes. Strikingly, the subset composition of tumor-egressing T cells was greatly skewed compared with those that had infiltrated the tumor and those resident in the draining lymph node. Some T-cell subsets such as CD8 + T cells emigrated more readily; others including CD4 - CD8 - T cells were preferentially retained, suggesting that specific mechanisms guide immune cell egress from tumors. Furthermore, tumor-egressing T cells were more activated and displayed enhanced effector function in comparison with their lymph node counterparts. Finally, we demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating T cells migrate to distant secondary tumors and draining lymph nodes, highlighting a mechanism whereby tumor-experienced effector T cells may mediate antitumor immunity at metastatic sites. Thus, our results provide insights into migration and function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and the role of these cells in tumor immunity outside of primary tumor deposits.

  13. The fluorescence spectroscopy of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM): a tool to characterize rapid infiltration flows and vulnerability in karst systems. Application to the Lez hydrosystem (Hérault, France) (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Batiot-Guilhe, C.; Seidel, J.; Bicalho, C. C.; Perrette, Y.; Jourde, H.


    Due to the fundamental role the DOM plays in the pollutant transport, this tracer is already used in different aquatic systems but very few studies concern karst systems. Water transit times and recharge period can be estimated using the fluorescence property of DOM. The aim of this study is to apply this approach in order to improve the karst aquifers functioning and to obtain essential information to preserve water resource. This method was applied to the Lez karst hydrosystem which belong to the MEDYCYSS observatory (Multi scalE observatory of flooD dYnamiCs and hYdrodynamicS in karSt). Its main outlet, the Lez spring, supplies drinking water to the city of Montpellier (France). Since March 2006, the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical parameters of the karstic spring have been monitored (turbidity, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, major and trace elements, Total Organic Carbon :TOC, DOM and bacteria). The DOM fluorescence was measured with a spectrofluorimeter using the Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM). Each EEM was generated with an excitation from 220 to 450 nm, detecting the emission spectra between 250 and 550 nm. The fluorescence spectra are characterized by 3 excitation-emission domains. Two correspond to humic compounds fluorophores (H1, H2) with a pedogenic origin (mature OM). The third region of fluorescence is related to protein-like compounds (P1) with a pedogenic (fresh OM) or an anthropogenic origin. The Fluorescence Intensity (FI) of these three domains increases with the spring discharge and is correlated with rapid infiltration flow markers (especially TOC and turbidity). So FI can be used as a tracer of infiltration flows in karst systems. Moreover, FI peaks emitted by P1 are also correlated to peaks of faecal coliforms. The survival time of these bacteria is lower than one week in a karst aquifer. Consequently, fluorophore P1 is a tracer of short transit time and anthropic contamination. FI emitted by H1 and H2 are related to the

  14. Rapid on-site monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water using a portable microfluidic system. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Goto, Satoko; Fujii, Yudai; Banno, Fumiya; Edagawa, Akiko


    Legionnaires' disease, predominantly caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, has increased in prevalence worldwide. The most common mode of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols, such as those generated by cooling towers. Simple, rapid and accurate methods to enumerate L. pneumophila are required to prevent the spread of this organism. Here, we applied a microfluidic device for on-chip fluorescent staining and semi-automated counting of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water. We also constructed a portable system for rapid on-site monitoring and used it to enumerate target bacterial cells rapidly flowing in the microchannel. A fluorescently-labelled polyclonal antibody was used for the selective detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in the samples. The counts of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water obtained using the system and fluorescence microscopy were similar. The detection limit of the system was 10 4  cells/ml, but lower numbers of L. pneumophila cells (10 1 to 10 3  cells/ml) could be detected following concentration of 0.5-3 L of the water sample by filtration. Our technique is rapid to perform (1.5 h), semi-automated (on-chip staining and counting), and portable for on-site measurement, and it may therefore be effective in the initial screening of Legionella contamination in freshwater.

  15. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Pennington, A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Plastic Surgey; Philips, R. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of General Pediatrics


    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  16. A rapid RT-PCR based method to isolate complementary DNA fragments flanking retrovirus integration sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Valk (Peter); M. Joosten (Marieke); Y. Vankan; H.R. Delwel (Ruud); B. Löwenberg (Bob)


    textabstractProto-oncogenes in retrovirally induced myeloid mouse leukemias are frequently activated following retroviral insertion. The identification of common virus integration sites (VISs) and isolation of the transforming oncogene is laborious and time consuming.

  17. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi


    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably...... shows the impact of urban stormwater infiltration on the groundwater flux in an area in the south of the Netherlands. To relate the different results from the three studies an analogy is introduced with the human body. The combination of problems results in a so-called urban hang-over. It is shown...

  18. Jessner lymphocytic infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martine Prütz; Vestergaard, Vibeke; Bygum, Anette


    We present a 13-year-old girl with Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin, who has suffered from the disease since the age of 9 years. It is a rare disease in childhood, and we highlight the clinical features and therapeutic response of tacrolimus.......We present a 13-year-old girl with Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin, who has suffered from the disease since the age of 9 years. It is a rare disease in childhood, and we highlight the clinical features and therapeutic response of tacrolimus....

  19. [Ocular infiltration in a patient with Multiple Myeloma]. (United States)

    Santos-Bueso, E; Calvo-González, C; Troyano, J; Díaz-Valle, D; Saiz, M; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J


    We report the case of a patient with Multiple Myeloma Ig G Kappa stage IIIA and hepatic infiltration, who presented with ocular infiltration. The initial sign was a rapidly growing sub-conjunctival mass that caused ophthalmoplegia and increased intraocular pressure secondary to progressive infiltration of the orbit. Multiple Myeloma is a malignant tumor of plasma cells that can affect the eye and orbit, not only as an infiltration secondary to the disease but also primary as an isolated tissue proliferation (extramedullary plasmacytoma). Chemotherapy is the usual treatment given. Radiotherapy with or without excisional surgery is the first option for plasmacytomas.

  20. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlin, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  1. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1. In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  2. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.


    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  3. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.


    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  4. [Utility of rapid on-site cytology in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic masses]. (United States)

    Furuhata, Ayako; Shirahase, Hiroyuki; Shirai, Takao; Hirata, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Haga, Hironori; Nakaizumi, Akihiko


    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a safe and effective method for obtaining samples for cytological diagnosis. Pancreatic cancer is extremely serious and often extremely aggressive, so early detection and diagnosis is important. Therefore, we actively perform EUS FNA for pathological diagnosis of cancer of digestive organs, especially the pancreas. EUS-FNA was performed in 67 patients (39 male, 28 female, median age 63.3 years) from January 2007 to December 2010 in Kyoto University Hospital. To eliminate both quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate samples, we performed EUS-FNA with rapid on-site cytology. Two squash preparations of the collected cells from biopsy were retrieved. One was stained on-site with Giemsa for rapid cytology to evaluate the quantity and quality of the cell collection. If necessary, second or third trials were carried out to obtain appropriate samples for final cytology diagnosis. The other was wet-fixed and used for Papanicolaou staining. All 11 cases of inflammatory disease were diagnosed as negative on cytology. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (1 case) and Endocrine neoplasms (3 cases) were correctly diagnosed on cytology. In pancreatic cancer, 49 of 52 cases (94%) were diagnosed as positive, but 3 cases (6%) were false-negative on cytology. The number of centesis for sampling was once in 21 cases, twice in 26 cases and more than twice in 20 cases. In this study of EUS-FNA, sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 100%. Results of our examination suggest that the combination of EUS-FNA and rapid on-site cytology is a highly specific and sensitive test for detection of pancreatic cancer, and may contribute to reduce excessive centesis.

  5. An aptamer based lateral flow strip for on-site rapid detection of ochratoxin A in Astragalus membranaceus. (United States)

    Zhou, Weilu; Kong, Weijun; Dou, Xiaowen; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Meihua


    An aptamer based lateral flow strip based on competitive format was developed for on-site rapid detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Astragalus membranaceus. Some crucial parameters that might influence the sensitive detection, such as the characterization of the colloidal gold, size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), amount of AuNPs-aptamer conjugate, migration rate and the addition amount of methanol, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. To perform the test, 1g sample was extracted with 2.5mL of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) and diluted by 4-fold running buffer to eliminate the matrix and methanol interferences. Under optimized conditions, the aptamer-based assay showed a visual limit of detection (LOD) of 1ngmL(-1), and with no significant cross-reactivity with several homologous toxins. The whole detection could be completed within 15min without special equipment because of available visual results. One out of nine A. membranaceus samples was found to be positive of OTA, which was in a good agreement with those obtained from LC-MS/MS analysis. The results demonstrated that the aptamer-based lateral flow assay could be used as a rapid, reliable, cost-effective and robust on-site screening technique for mycotoxins at trace level in complex matrices without special instrumentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of a rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus antibody assay in a public health setting. (United States)

    Kassler, W J; Haley, C; Jones, W K; Gerber, A R; Kennedy, E J; George, J R


    Rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has the potential to improve the delivery of prevention services in publicly funded counseling and testing sites. The Single Use Diagnostic System (SUDS) HIV-1 is the only rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) approved for diagnostic use in the United States. To evaluate the feasibility of using SUDS in public clinics and to validate the test's performance in a public health laboratory, we conducted blinded SUDS testing on plasma sent for HIV testing. From 19 March through 30 June 1993, 1,923 consecutive samples from a sexually transmitted diseases clinic and an HIV counseling and testing clinic were tested on site with SUDS. Tests done in the first two weeks with a malfunctioning centrifuge n = 402) and those done when there were excessively high temperatures in the laboratory (n = 53) were analyzed separately. Of 1,466 tests, 39 were positive by both SUDS and EIA (with Western blot [immunoblot] confirmation) and 7 were SUDS positive and EIA negative. Western blotting was used as the "gold standard" to adjudicate these discrepancies. There were no SUDS-negative and EIA-positive tests. Compared with that of EIA (with Western blot confirmation), the sensitivity of SUDS was 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.8 to 100%) and the specificity was 99.5% (95% confidence interval, 98.9 to 99.8%). The positive predictive value of SUDS was 88% in the STD clinic and 81% in the HIV counseling and testing clinic. There was a 7.7-fold increase in false positives, from 0.48 to 3.7%, when there was inadequate centrifugation and when the temperature exceeded the manufacturer's recommendations. Rapid, on-site HIV testing by the SUDS assay is feasible and practical in public health settings. The test can be performed accurately, at reasonable cost, and within the time frame of a typical clinic visit. Caution should be used, however, as two conditions adversely affected the accuracy of this test: inadequate specimen preparation and

  7. Rapid and accurate prediction and scoring of water molecules in protein binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Ross

    Full Text Available Water plays a critical role in ligand-protein interactions. However, it is still challenging to predict accurately not only where water molecules prefer to bind, but also which of those water molecules might be displaceable. The latter is often seen as a route to optimizing affinity of potential drug candidates. Using a protocol we call WaterDock, we show that the freely available AutoDock Vina tool can be used to predict accurately the binding sites of water molecules. WaterDock was validated using data from X-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations and correctly predicted 97% of the water molecules in the test set. In addition, we combined data-mining, heuristic and machine learning techniques to develop probabilistic water molecule classifiers. When applied to WaterDock predictions in the Astex Diverse Set of protein ligand complexes, we could identify whether a water molecule was conserved or displaced to an accuracy of 75%. A second model predicted whether water molecules were displaced by polar groups or by non-polar groups to an accuracy of 80%. These results should prove useful for anyone wishing to undertake rational design of new compounds where the displacement of water molecules is being considered as a route to improved affinity.

  8. Rapid establishment of a HEK 293 cell line expressing FVIII-BDD using AAV site-specific integration plasmids. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Ping, Han; Zhang, Chun


    Stable human cell lines have gradually become the preferred system for large scale production of recombinant proteins for clinical applications because of their capacity of proper protein post-translational modification and low immunogenicity. However, human cell line development technologies are commonly based on random genome integration of protein expressing genes. It is required to screen large numbers of cell clones to identify stable high producer cell clones and the cell line development process usually takes 6 to 12 months. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) Rep protein is known to induce rAAV DNA integration into a specific site (AAVS1) of the human chromosome 19 and integrated transgenes can stably express proteins. We take advantage of this AAV unique feature to develop a rapid protocol to clone a stable recombinant protein expression human cell line. We have constructed two plasmids. One plasmid, pSVAV2, contains the AAV rep gene for the synthesis of integrase; the second plasmid, pTRP5GFPFVIII-BDD, contains B-domain-deleted factor VIII (FVIII-BDD) and GFP gene flanked by AAV ITRs. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were co-transfected with the two plasmids and the cells were screened by green fluorescence to establish the recombinant FVIII-BDD cell line. PCR analysis showed that the FVIII-BDD gene has been integrated into the AAVS1 site of human chromosome 19. The FVIII-BDD protein secreted into the extracellular media exhibited coagulant activity. We developed a method of rapid establishment of human HEK 293 cell line expressing recombinant FVIII-BDD protein with AAV site-specific integration plasmids.

  9. Preliminary results from EMERSITO, a rapid response network for site-effect studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bordoni


    Full Text Available On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a Ml 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (, close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (Figure 1 recorded peaks of ground accelerations of about 300 cm/s2 ( The mainshock triggered liquefaction phenomena a few kilometers eastwards of the epicenter, around the village of San Carlo. On the same day, two other shocks of Ml 5.1 followed (02:07, 13:18 GMT; On May 29, 2012, at 07:00 UTC another Ml 5.8 earthquake hit the region (, with the epicenter close to the village of Mirandola (Figure 1. Three other strong aftershocks occurred afterwards, of Ml 5.3 (May 29, at 10:55, Ml 5.2 (May 29, at 11:00 and Ml 5.1 (June 3, at 19:20. For a detailed description of the seismic sequence, see Moretti et al. [2012], Scognamiglio et al. [2012], and Massa et al. [2012], in this issue. The Emilia seismic sequence resulted in 25 casualties, several of whom were among the workers in the many factories that collapsed during working hours, and there was extensive damage to monuments, public buildings, industrial sites, and private homes. […

  10. A MultiSite Gateway Toolkit for Rapid Cloning of Vertebrate Expression Constructs with Diverse Research Applications. (United States)

    Fowler, Daniel K; Stewart, Scott; Seredick, Steve; Eisen, Judith S; Stankunas, Kryn; Washbourne, Philip


    Recombination-based cloning is a quick and efficient way to generate expression vectors. Recent advancements have provided powerful recombinant DNA methods for molecular manipulations. Here, we describe a novel collection of three-fragment MultiSite Gateway cloning system-compatible vectors providing expanded molecular tools for vertebrate research. The components of this toolkit encompass a broad range of uses such as fluorescent imaging, dual gene expression, RNA interference, tandem affinity purification, chemically-inducible dimerization and lentiviral production. We demonstrate examples highlighting the utility of this toolkit for producing multi-component vertebrate expression vectors with diverse primary research applications. The vectors presented here are compatible with other Gateway toolkits and collections, facilitating the rapid generation of a broad range of innovative DNA constructs for biological research.

  11. Development of Rapid Immune-gold Strip Kit for On-Site Diagnosis of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon


    Full Text Available A rapid, user-friendly and simple immune-chromatographic dipstick kit named ‘rapid immune-gold strip’ (RIGS kit was developed in a novel single strip format to detect on-site detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. Immunoglobulin G (IgG from polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against TSWV was purified through protein- A affinity chromatography and then the purified TSWV-IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold nano-particles which served as a test line on nitrocellulose membrane. Protein A that non-specifically binds to TSWV antibody was used as a control line on the same strip. The diagnosis process with the TSWV-RIGS involves simply grinding the suspect plant sample in a bag that contains the extraction buffer and inserting the strip the bag. Results can be seen in 2-5 minutes. The flow of the complexes of gold particles coated with TSWV-IgG and a crude sap from TSWV-infected pepper, tobacco and tomato plants resulted in intensive color formed on the test lines proportional to the concentrations of TSWV. The RIGS-TSWV kit did not show any cross-reactions against other tomato-infecting viruses unrelated to TSWV. These results indicate that the TSWV-RIGS kit is highly sensitive and is not required for laboratory training and experience prior to testing. The TSWV-RIGS kit is suitable for on-site detection of suspect TSWV-infected plants as well as for laboratory diagnosis.

  12. Rapid on-site TLC-SERS detection of four antidiabetes drugs used as adulterants in botanical dietary supplements. (United States)

    Zhu, Qingxia; Cao, Yongbing; Cao, Yingying; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng


    A novel facile method has been established for rapid on-site detection of antidiabetes chemicals used to adulterate botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for diabetes. Analytes and components of pharmaceutical matrices were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) then surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used for qualitative identification of trace substances on the HPTLC plate. Optimization and standardization of the experimental conditions, for example the method used for preparation of silver colloids, the mobile phase, and the concentration of colloidal silver, resulted in a very robust and highly sensitive method which enabled successful detection when the amount of adulteration was as low as 0.001 % (w/w). The method was also highly selective, enabling successful identification of some chemicals in extremely complex herbal matrices. The established TLC-SERS method was used for analysis of real BDS used to treat diabetes, and the results obtained were verified by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The study showed that TLC-SERS could be used for effective separation and detection of four chemicals used to adulterate BDS, and would have good prospects for on-site qualitative screening of BDS for adulterants.

  13. A smartphone-based colorimetric reader coupled with a remote server for rapid on-site catechols analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Yuanyuan; Bao, Xu; Han, Juan; Xia, Jinchen; Tian, Xiaoyu; Ni, Liang


    The search of a practical method to analyze cis-diol-containing compounds outside laboratory settings remains a substantial scientific challenge. Herein, a smartphone-based colorimetric reader was coupled with a remote server for rapid on-site analysis of catechols. A smallest-scale 2×2 colorimetric sensor array composed of pH indicators and phenylboronic acid was configured. The array was able to distinguish 13 catechols at 6 serial concentrations, through simultaneous treatment via principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and linear discriminant analysis. After both the discriminatory power of the array and the prediction ability of the partial least squares quantitative models were proved to be predominant, the smartphone was coupled to the remote server. All the ΔRGB data were uploaded to the remote server wherein linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares processing modules were established to provide qualitative discrimination and quantitative calculation, respectively, of the analytes in real time. The applicability of this novel method to a real-life scenario was confirmed by the on-site analysis of various catechols from a water sample of the Yangtze River; the feedback result in the smartphone showed the method was able to identify the catechols with 100% accuracy and predict the concentrations to within 0.706-2.240 standard deviation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge. (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary


    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Rapid Visual Site Analysis for Post-disaster Landscape Planning: Expanding the Range of Choice in a Tsunami-affected Town in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wescoat


    Full Text Available Problem statement In post-disaster situations, it is often necessary to undertake rapid visual site reconnaissance to characterise patterns of damage and identify reconstruction opportunities and constraints. Rapid visual site analysis can occur over a period of hours to days rather than weeks to months. The time constraint is often necessary to assess the viability of initial reconstruction scenarios and help broaden the range of choice among site planning options. Rapid assessment can also minimise the use of scarce local post-disaster resources during the initial reconnaissance phases of planning. Because it involves visual methods rather than equipment-intensive survey techniques, it serves as an initial scoping of alternatives. It may follow emergency shelter response planning methods (for example, Sphere Project, 2011, ch 4 and be followed by more comprehensive site mapping and screening. This action–research project reviews the literature on post-disaster site analysis with an emphasis on the tsunami-affected area of north-eastern Japan. Because research on rapid visual site analysis in post-disaster contexts is limited, we combined field-based site analysis methods, adapted for post-disaster planning, with visual methods for assessing seismic and tsunami hazards.

  16. Eosinophil Infiltration of the Stomach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eosinophil infiltration of the stomach or gastro-intestinal tract is an unusual condition, in which an inflammatory infiltrative condition may present as a tumorous mass simulating a malignant growth. Although the condition was first described in 1937 and a number of cases have since been reported, not a great deal is known ...

  17. Strategies for rapidly mapping proviral integration sites and assessing cardiogenic potential of nascent human induced pluripotent stem cell clones. (United States)

    Dambrot, Cheryl; Buermans, Henk P J; Varga, Eszter; Kosmidis, Georgios; Langenberg, Karin; Casini, Simona; Elliott, David A; Dinnyes, Andras; Atsma, Douwe E; Mummery, Christine L; Braam, Stefan R; Davis, Richard P


    Recent methodological advances have improved the ease and efficiency of generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), but this now typically results in a greater number of hiPSC clones being derived than can be wholly characterized. It is therefore imperative that methods are developed which facilitate rapid selection of hiPSC clones most suited for the downstream research aims. Here we describe a combination of procedures enabling the simultaneous screening of multiple clones to determine their genomic integrity as well as their cardiac differentiation potential within two weeks of the putative reprogrammed colonies initially appearing. By coupling splinkerette-PCR with Ion Torrent sequencing, we could ascertain the number and map the proviral integration sites in lentiviral-reprogrammed hiPSCs. In parallel, we developed an effective cardiac differentiation protocol that generated functional cardiomyocytes within 10 days without requiring line-specific optimization for any of the six independent human pluripotent stem cell lines tested. Finally, to demonstrate the scalable potential of these procedures, we picked 20 nascent iPSC clones and performed these independent assays concurrently. Before the clones required passaging, we were able to identify clones with a single integrated copy of the reprogramming vector and robust cardiac differentiation potential for further analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal


    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  19. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.


    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  20. Rapid large- and site scale RPAS mission planning for remote sensing of rock falls and landslides in alpine areas (United States)

    Gräupl, Thomas; Pschernig, Elias; Rokitansky, Carl-Herbert; Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Zobl, Fritz


    Since landslides and rock falls are complex phenomena involving a multitude of factors, current and historic surface data play besides geologic conditions and others an important role in analyzing hazard situation and efficient site-specific remediation actions. Especially in displacement acceleration phases which are frequently linked to bad weather conditions, data acquisition remains difficult. Therefore RPAS with their small ground sampling distance and correspondingly high resolution open up possibilities for surveying ground situations not only for visual inspection but also for geodetic data acquisition. Both, visual and geodetic data provide valuable information for geologists and related decision makers. Slides or rock falls in alpine areas pose special challenges due to mostly acute and unforeseen displacements on the one hand and geographic conditions of narrow valleys along with steep slopes on the other hand. Rapid RPAS mission planning and mission adaption for individual requirements according to different project stages (initial investigation, repeat measurements, identification of hazard zones for urgent remediation actions, etc.) is therefore of particular importance. Here we present a computer-simulation supported approach to RPAS mission planning taking the identified thematic and remote sensing targets, the relevant terrain and obstacle databases, legal restrictions, aircraft performance, sensor characteristics, and communication ranges into account in order to produce a safe and mission-optimized flight route. For the RPAS mission planning, we combine and adapt tools developed at University of Salzburg, namely a flight track generator taking into account a 3D-model of the earth surface with both, focus on large area coverage (e.g. Austria) and the highest available resolution (e.g. sub-meter for specific areas), available obstacle data bases for the mission area (e.g. cable car lines, power lines, buildings, slope stabilization constructions

  1. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.


    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method...

  2. Diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in rapid on-site evaluation of endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Sara


    Full Text Available Background: One of the novel techniques utilizing fine needle aspiration (FNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and lung lesions is the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS-guided FNA. In this study, we describe five cases which had a discrepancy between on-site evaluation and final diagnosis, or a diagnostic dilemma when rendering the preliminary diagnosis, in order to illustrate some of the diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls that can occur in EBUS FNA. Methods: A total of five EBUS FNA cases from five patients were identified in our records with a discrepancy between the rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE and final diagnosis, or that addressed a diagnostic dilemma. All of the cases had histological confirmation or follow-up. The cytomorphology in the direct smears, cell block, and immunohistochemical stains were reviewed, along with the clinical history and other available information. Results: Two cases were identified with a nondefinitive diagnosis at ROSE that were later diagnosed as malignant (metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC on the final cytological diagnosis. Three additional cases were identified with a ROSE and final diagnosis of malignant (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC and two squamous cell carcinomas, but raised important diagnostic dilemmas. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing discohesive malignant cells and bland neoplasms on EBUS FNA, which may lead to a negative or a nondefinitive preliminary diagnosis. Neuroendocrine tumors can also be difficult due to the wide range of entities in the differential diagnosis, including benign lymphocytes, lymphomas, small and nonsmall cell carcinomas, and the lack of immunohistochemical stains at the time of ROSE. Finally, the background material in EBUS FNAs may be misleading and unrelated to the cells of interest. Conclusions: This study illustrates the cytomorphology of five EBUS FNA cases that address some of the

  3. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  4. PACE-90 water and solute transport calculations for 0.01, 0.1, and 0. 5 mm/yr infiltration into Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.; Martinez, M.J.


    Numerical results are presented for the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise (PACE-90). One- and two-dimensional water and solute transport are presented for steady infiltration into Yucca Mountain. Evenly distributed infiltration rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/yr were considered. The calculations of solute transport show that significant amounts of radionuclides can reach the water table over 100,000 yr at the 0.5 mm/yr rate. For time periods less than 10,000 yr or infiltrations less than 0.1 mm/yr very little solute reaches the water table. The numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that multi-dimensional effects can result in significant decreases in the travel time of solute through the modeled domain. Dual continuum effects are shown to be negligible for the low steady state fluxes considered. However, material heterogeneities may cause local amplification of the flux level in multi-dimensional flows. These higher flux levels may then require modeling of a dual continuum porous medium.

  5. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  6. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration (United States)

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.


    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  7. On-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing in substance use disorder treatment programs: study protocol for a hybrid design randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Frimpong, Jemima A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Perlman, David C; Strauss, Shiela M; Mallow, Alissa; Hernandez, Diana; Schackman, Bruce R; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R


    More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 3.2 million are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). An estimated 25 % of persons living with HIV also have HCV. It is therefore of great public health importance to ensure the prompt diagnosis of both HIV and HCV in populations that have the highest prevalence of both infections, including individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). In this theory-driven, efficacy-effectiveness-implementation hybrid study, we will develop and test an on-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing intervention for SUD treatment programs. Its aim is to increase the receipt of HIV and HCV test results among SUD treatment patients. Using a rigorous process involving patients, providers, and program managers, we will incorporate rapid HCV testing into evidence-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions. We will then test, in a randomized controlled trial, the extent to which this bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing approach increases receipt of HIV and HCV test results. Lastly, we will conduct formative research to understand the barriers to, and facilitators of, the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the bundled rapid testing strategy in SUD treatment programs. Novel approaches that effectively integrate on-site rapid HIV and rapid HCV testing are needed to address both the HIV and HCV epidemics. If feasible and efficacious, bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing may offer a scalable, potentially cost-effective approach to testing high-risk populations, such as patients of SUD treatment programs. It may ultimately lead to improved linkage to care and progress through the HIV and HCV care and treatment cascades. NCT02355080 . (30 January 2015).

  8. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  9. Infiltration: pressuriztion correlations: detailed measurement on a California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Sherman, M.H.; Diamond, R.C.; Condon, P.E.; Rosenfeld, A.H.


    Infiltration studies have been carried out in a typical tract home in the San Francisco Bay area. Houses in this region as a result of the mild climate are loosely constructed, and show large air leakage rates. Infiltration rates of up to 1-1/4 air changes an hour were measured using a controlled flow tracer gas technique with nitrous oxide as the tracer gas. Air leakage rates were meausured using fan pressurization of the house with a range of pressures from 7.5 to 75 Pascals. In addition to weather data taken on site, pressure sensors mounted on the exterior walls were critical in establishing a pressure model for air infiltration. Measured inside--outside pressure differences were less than a tenth of those expected based upon wind speed measurements made on site. Measurements also show significant (20%) duct leakage and air flow between the attic, living space and crawl space.

  10. WRNIP1 accumulates at laser light irradiated sites rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain and independently from its ATPase domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Hironoshin [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 6-3, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yoshimura, Akari, E-mail: [Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan); Edo, Takato [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 6-3, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kanno, Shin-ichiro [Division of Dynamic Proteome, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryomachi 4-1, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tada, Syusuke [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, Ichihara, Chiba 290-0193 (Japan); Seki, Masayuki [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 6-3, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yasui, Akira [Division of Dynamic Proteome, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryomachi 4-1, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Enomoto, Takemi [Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via UBZ domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ATPase domain of WRNIP1 is dispensable for its accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accumulation of WRNIP1 seems not to be dependent on the interaction with WRN. -- Abstract: WRNIP1 (Werner helicase-interacting protein 1) was originally identified as a protein that interacts with the Werner syndrome responsible gene product. WRNIP1 contains a ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger (UBZ) domain in the N-terminal region and two leucine zipper motifs in the C-terminal region. In addition, it possesses an ATPase domain in the middle of the molecule and the lysine residues serving as ubiquitin acceptors in the entire of the molecule. Here, we report that WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain, which is known to bind polyubiquitin and to be involved in ubiquitination of WRNIP1 itself. The accumulation of WRNIP1 in laser light irradiated sites also required the C-terminal region containing two leucine zippers, which is reportedly involved in the oligomerization of WRNIP1. Mutated WRNIP1 with a deleted ATPase domain or with mutations in lysine residues, which serve as ubiquitin acceptors, accumulated in laser light irradiated sites, suggesting that the ATPase domain of WRNIP1 and ubiquitination of WRNIP1 are dispensable for the accumulation.

  11. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio


    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  12. Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infiltrate without mural necrosis with expression of HIV p24 protein in macrophages.7. Complications. Complications of DILS are few. The majority of patients are asymptomatic apart from the Sicca symptoms. There are isolated reports of increased incidence of lymphoma in patients with DILS, although these studies contain ...

  13. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  14. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallowing and conservation agriculture are sustainable farming practices that can be used for soil and water conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of different conservation agriculture practices on rainfall infiltration and soil and water losses across 4 sites, using simulated rainfall. The study ...

  15. Rapid hemostasis at the femoral venous access site using a novel hemostatic pad containing kaolin after atrial fibrillation ablation. (United States)

    Sairaku, Akinori; Nakano, Yukiko; Oda, Noboru; Makita, Yuko; Kajihara, Kenta; Tokuyama, Takehito; Kihara, Yasuki


    Hemostasis at the femoral venous access site after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is often prolonged because of aggressive anticoagulation and the use of several large-sized sheaths. A newly developed hemostatic pad containing a natural mineral called kaolin causes blood to clot quickly. We evaluated the efficacy of this pad for hemostasis at the venous access site after AF ablation. Patients who were scheduled to undergo AF ablation were randomized to be treated with manual compression with (n = 59) or without kaolin-impregnated pads (n = 59) as hemostatic approaches at the femoral venous access site following sheath removal. Hemostasis time, rebleeding frequency, massive hematoma, device-related complications, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were compared between the two groups. Hemostasis time in the patients treated with kaolin-impregnated pads was significantly shorter than in those treated without (6.1 ± 2.3 vs. 14.5 ± 4.0 min; p pads was the only independent variable reducing hemostasis time (β = -0.78; p pads; p = 0.35). Only one patient had a massive groin hematoma, and no patient had device-related complications or DVT. Kaolin-impregnated hemostatic pads safely and effectively decreased hemostasis time for the femoral venous access site in patients undergoing AF ablation. However, whether its use allows earlier postprocedural ambulation is difficult to predict.

  16. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences


    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney


    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  17. Potential of cross-priming amplification and DNA-based lateral-flow strip biosensor for rapid on-site GMO screening. (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhai, Congcong; You, Qimin; Chen, Hongjun


    The requirement to monitor the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in a variety of marked products has generated an increasing demand for reliable, rapid, and time and cost-effective analytical methods. Here we report an on-site method for rapid detection of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV 35S), a common element present in most GMO, using cross-priming amplification (CPA) technology. Detection was achieved using a DNA-based contamination-proof strip biosensor. The limit of detection was 30 copies for the pBI121 plasmid containing the CaMV 35S gene. The certified reference sample of GM maize line MON810 was detectable even at the low relative mass concentration of 0.05%. The developed CPA method had high specificity for the CaMV 35S gene, as compared with other GM lines not containing this gene and non-GM products. The method was further validated using nine real-world samples, and the results were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis. Because of its simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity, this method of detecting the CaMV 35S gene has great commercial prospects for rapid GMO screening of high-consumption food and agriculture products.

  18. New Therapies for Fibrofatty Infiltration (United States)


    14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test three classes of compounds in animal models of muscular dystrophy, and evaluate their therapeutic...potential in preventing fibrofatty infiltration. Animals and drugs required for the project have been procured. A change has been made to the kinase...inhibitor compound to be tested in animal models of disease, as a more efficacious drug was identified with similar substrate specificity. 15

  19. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Sydow, S.N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue.

  20. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences. (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney


    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  1. CONTRAILS: A tool for rapid identification of transgene integration sites in complex, repetitive genomes using low-coverage paired-end sequencing (United States)

    Lambirth, Kevin C.; Whaley, Adam M.; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Bost, Kenneth L.; Piller, Kenneth J.


    Transgenic crops have become a staple in modern agriculture, and are typically characterized using a variety of molecular techniques involving proteomics and metabolomics. Characterization of the transgene insertion site is of great interest, as disruptions, deletions, and genomic location can affect product selection and fitness, and identification of these regions and their integrity is required for regulatory agencies. Here, we present CONTRAILS (Characterization of Transgene Insertion Locations with Sequencing), a straightforward, rapid and reproducible method for the identification of transgene insertion sites in highly complex and repetitive genomes using low coverage paired-end Illumina sequencing and traditional PCR. This pipeline requires little to no troubleshooting and is not restricted to any genome type, allowing use for many molecular applications. Using whole genome sequencing of in-house transgenic Glycine max, a legume with a highly repetitive and complex genome, we used CONTRAILS to successfully identify the location of a single T-DNA insertion to single base resolution. PMID:26697366

  2. Rapid Estimation of Macroseismic Intensity for On-site Earthquake Early Warning in Italy from Early Radiated Energ (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Mucciarelli, M.


    Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) are effective tools for the risk mitigation in active seismic regions. Recently, a feasibility study of a nation-wide earthquake early warning systems has been conducted for Italy considering the RAN Network and the EEW software platform PRESTo. This work showed that a reliable estimations in terms of magnitude and epicentral localization would be available within 3-4 seconds after the first P-wave arrival. On the other hand, given the RAN's density, a regional EEWS approach would result in a Blind Zone (BZ) of 25-30 km in average. Such BZ dimension would provide lead-times greater than zero only for events having magnitude larger than 6.5. Considering that in Italy also smaller events are capable of generating great losses both in human and economic terms, as dramatically experienced during the recent 2009 L'Aquila (ML 5.9) and 2012 Emilia (ML 5.9) earthquakes, it has become urgent to develop and test on-site approaches. The present study is focused on the development of a new on-site EEW metodology for the estimation of the macroseismic intensity at a target site or area. In this analysis we have used a few thousands of accelerometric traces recorded by RAN related to the largest earthquakes (ML>4) occurred in Italy in the period 1997-2013. The work is focused on the integral EW parameter Squared Velocity Integral (IV2) and on its capability to predict the peak ground velocity PGV and the Housner Intensity IH, as well as from these latters we parameterized a new relation between IV2 and the Macroseismic Intensity. To assess the performance of the developed on-site EEW relation, we used data of the largest events occurred in Italy in the last 6 years recorded by the Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture, as well as on the recordings of the moderate earthquake reported by INGV Strong Motion Data. The results shows that the macroseismic intensity values predicted by IV2 and the one estimated by PGV and IH are in good agreement.

  3. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.


    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  4. Two-site Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Rapidly Pulsating sdB Star EC 22221-3152 (United States)

    Barlow, B. N.; Kilkenny, D.; Geier, S.; Dunlap, B. H.; Reichart, D. E.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.


    We present follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B star EC 22221-3152. Using the SAAO 1.0-m telescope and the 0.4-m Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), we monitored the star photometrically for one week. By combining data from both telescopes, we were able to resolve 18 significant periodicities in the light curve. Seven of these signals consist of combination frequencies, a first harmonic, and possible rotational splittings that would be indicative of an 8.2-d rotation period. The remaining 11 periodicities appear to represent independent oscillation modes, including three not originally detected in the discovery work. Time series spectroscopy obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the 4.1-m SOAR telescope reveals possible velocity variations corresponding to two of the observed pulsation modes. From atmospheric model fits to the spectra, we derive {T}{eff}=35600+/- 600 K, log g = 5.86 ± 0.15, and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.4 ± 0.3 and confirm the star’s status as one of the hottest sdBV r stars currently known. Based on observations at the SOAR telescope, a collaboration between CPNq-Brazil, NOAO, UNC, and MSU.

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to PCR: A rapid on-site detection of gene doping. (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas


    Innovation in medical research has been diverted at multiple occasions to enhance human performance. The predicted great progress in gene therapy has raised some concerns regarding its misuse in the world of sports (gene doping) for several years now. Even though there is no evidence that gene doping has ever been used in sports, the continuous improvement of gene therapy techniques increases the likelihood of abuse. Therefore, since 2004, efforts have been invested by the anti-doping community and WADA for the development of detection methods. Several nested PCR and qPCR-based strategies exploiting the absence of introns in the transgenic DNA have been proposed for the long-term detection of transgene in blood. Despite their great sensitivity, those protocols are hampered by limitations of the techniques that can be cumbersome and costly. The purpose of this perspective is to describe a new approach based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of gene doping. This protocol enables a rapid and simple method to amplify nucleic acids with a high sensitivity and specificity and with a simple visual detection of the results. LAMP is already being used in clinical application for the detection of viruses or mutations. Therefore, this technique has the potential to be further developed for the detection of foreign genetic material in elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. "One-stop shop" spectral imaging for rapid on-site diagnosis of lung cancer: a future concept in nano-oncology. (United States)

    Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Krauss, Leslie; Oezkan, Filiz; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Theegarten, Dirk; Sakkas, Leonidas; Sakkas, Antonios; Hohenforst-Scmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Freitag, Lutz


    There are currently many techniques and devices available for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, rapid on-site diagnosis is essential for early-stage lung cancer, and in the current work we investigated a new diagnostic illumination nanotechnology. Tissue samples were obtained from lymph nodes, cancerous tissue, and abnormal intrapulmonary lesions at our interventional pulmonary suites. The following diagnostic techniques were used to obtain the samples: endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy; flexible bronchoscopy; and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible and rigid forceps were used because several of the patients were intubated using a rigid bronchoscope. In total, 30 tissue specimens from 30 patients were prepared. CytoViva® illumination nanotechnology was subsequently applied to each of the biopsy tissue slides. A spectral library was created for adenocarcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, usual interstitial pneumonitis, non-specific interstitial pneumonitis, typical carcinoid tumor, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, thymoma, epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, malt cell lymphoma, and Wegener's granulomatosis. The CytoViva software, once it had created a specific spectral library for each entity, was able to identify the same disease again in subsequent paired sets of slides of the same disease. Further evaluation of this technique could make this illumination nanotechnology an efficient rapid on-site diagnostic tool.

  7. Performance appraisal of rapid on-site malaria diagnosis (ICT malaria Pf/Pv test) in relation to human resources at village level in Myanmar. (United States)

    Cho-Min-Naing; Gatton, M L


    Logistic, economic and technical factors limit rapid access to microscopic confirmation of symptomatic diagnosis of malaria in many rural areas in endemic countries such as Myanmar. A study was conducted to evaluate a rapid on-site immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Pf/Pv) for detection of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in two villages in the Taikkyi region of Myanmar. The ICT Malaria tests were performed by a volunteer health worker (VHW) in Yae-Aye-San village and by a professionally trained midwife (MW) in Kankone village. A total of 1000 symptomatic patients participated in the study by providing blood samples for an ICT test and for microscopy. The ICT performance indices, relative to microscopy, were better for the trained MW compared with the less experienced VHW. For P. falciparum and/or P. vivax infections, the sensitivities were 82.7% for the VHW compared with 93.7% for the MW. For P. falciparum infections, the sensitivities were 82.2% for the VHW and 91.3% for the MW, while the corresponding values for P. vivax infections were 66.7 and 79%, respectively. Although the test kit appeared to perform better in more experienced hands, this study questions whether this difference is related to the use of the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit, or related to other factors such as differences in the quality of blood slides prepared by the VHW and MW for microscopic examination. Overall, the results suggest that a rapid diagnostic assay such as the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit can be used in rural settings by relatively inexperienced persons, such as VHWs, with a reasonable degree of sensitivity, thus providing on-site confirmation of symptomatic diagnosis of malaria.

  8. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke


    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Is intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration really useless in Peyronie's disease?]. (United States)

    Demey, Alexis; Chevallier, Daniel; Bondil, Pierre; Toubol, Jacques; Amiel, Jean


    The value of intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration remains controversial or may even be contraindicated in Peyronie's disease, as it is considered to be ineffective and a source of morbidity. To retrospectively analyse the efficacy and safety of intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration in a selected population only presenting clinical criteria of the acute phase of Peyronie's disease (pain and/or recent onset < 6 months). Intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration (weekly or twice-weekly) was performed in or around the plaque. Evaluation was based on clinical criteria according to the course of pain, the nodule and curvature and the rates of improvement, resolution, stabilization and deterioration of these criteria were studied. In a series of 271 patients, 123 presented criteria of the acute phase of Peyronie's disease. Forty five of these patients were treated exclusively by intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration. The mean age was 52 +/- 8 years. The number of intracavernosal infiltrations was usually less than 10 (n = 40) with less than 8 injections in the majority of patients (n = 36). Follow-up was 6 months. There were no cases of clinical deterioration. The best results were observed on pain, which decreased (13.6%) or totally resolved (61.4%). Curvature was decreased (20.5%), the plaque decreased (25%) or disappeared (9%). When intracavernosal corticosteroid infiltration is ineffective, it appears useless to administer more than 3 injections. No morbidity was observed. In our population, the reputation of inefficacy and morbidity of local corticosteroid therapy appears to be unjustified. There were no cases of deterioration, but, on the contrary, stabilization and especially very marked and rapid efficacy on pain, but a lesser efficacy on curvature and plaque. Local steroid therapy appears justified during the acute phase, as the injection allows corticosteroids to exert their anti-inflammatory action in situ in line with the pathophysiology

  10. Rapid appearance of resolvin precursors in inflammatory exudates: novel mechanisms in resolution. (United States)

    Kasuga, Kie; Yang, Rong; Porter, Timothy F; Agrawal, Nitin; Petasis, Nicos A; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Serhan, Charles N


    Resolution of inflammation is essential. Although supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids is widely used, their availability at sites of inflammation is not known. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach was taken to determine the relationship of circulating omega-3 to inflammatory exudates and the generation of resolution signals. In this study, we monitored resolvin precursors in evolving exudates, which initially paralleled increases in edema and infiltrating neutrophils. We also prepared novel microfluidic chambers to capture neutrophils from a drop of blood within minutes that permitted single-cell monitoring. In these, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvin D1 rapidly stopped neutrophil migration, whereas precursor docosahexaenoic acid did not. In second organ injury via ischemia-reperfusion, resolvin metabolically stable analogues were potent organ protectors reducing neutrophils. Together, these results indicate that circulating omega-3 fatty acids rapidly appear in inflammatory sites that require conversion to resolvins that control excessive neutrophil infiltration, protect organs, and foster resolution.

  11. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing. (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori


    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others


    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  14. Influence of physical, chemical and biological conditions on the infiltration rate of highway stormwater runoff : final report. (United States)


    Double-ring infiltrometer tests were used to measure infiltration rates in situ at three sites in the Piedmont physiographic province and one site in the Coastal Plain physiographic province of Georgia. The accuracy of predicting saturated hydraulic ...

  15. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.


    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  16. Rapid on-site evaluation with dynamic telecytopathology for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of head and neck nonthyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Khurana


    Full Text Available Background: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE at the time of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USGFNA of head and neck lesion is essential for obtaining adequate samples and providing the preliminary diagnosis. We summarize our experience with ROSE of USGFNA on head and neck nonthyroid lesions using telecytopathology. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik stained cytology smears were obtained at ultrasound suite with an Olympus DP-70 digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope, and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a cytopathologist in cytopathology laboratory who rendered a preliminary diagnosis. Live communication was conducted with Vocera voice communication system. The ultrasound suite was located on different floor from the cytopathology laboratory. Accuracy of ROSE via telecytopathology was compared with an equal number of cases that received ROSE, prior to introduction of telecytopathology, via conventional microscopy. Results: Rapid on-site evaluation was performed on a total of 116 USGFNA of head and neck nonthyroid lesions. The telecytopathology system and conventional microscopy was used to evaluate equal number of cases (58 each. Preliminary diagnoses of benign, atypical/suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy were 72.4%, 17.2% and 10.3% for telecytopathology, and 69.0%, 10.3% and 20.7% for conventional microscopy. None of the cases were deemed unsatisfactory. The overall concordance between the preliminary and final diagnoses was 94.8% for telecytopathology and 98.3% for conventional microscopy and was not statistically significant (P = 0.309. The causes of discordant preliminary and final diagnoses were mainly attributed to availability of cell block and Papanicolaou-stained slides for review or flow cytometry results for lymphoma cases at the time of final sign out. Conclusions: Telecytopathology is comparable with conventional microscopy in ROSE of USGFNA of head and

  17. Rapid tests for the detection of the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii strain responsible for an epidemic of surgical-site infections in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto


    Full Text Available A single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, characterised by a particular rpoB sequevar and two highly related pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns has been responsible for a nationwide outbreak of surgical infections in Brazil since 2004. In this study, we developed molecular tests based on polymerase chain reaction restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA and sequencing for the rapid identification of this strain. Sequences of 15 DNA regions conserved in mycobacteria were retrieved from GenBank or sequenced and analysed in silico. Single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to the epidemic strain and located in enzyme recognition sites were detected in rpoB, the 3' region of the 16S rDNA and gyrB. The three tests that were developed, i.e., PRA-rpoB, PRA-16S and gyrB sequence analysis, showed 100%, 100% and 92.31% sensitivity and 93.06%, 90.28% and 100% specificity, respectively, for the discrimination of the surgical strain from other M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, including 116 isolates from 95 patients, one environmental isolate and two type strains. The results of the three tests were stable, as shown by results obtained for different isolates from the same patient. In conclusion, due to the clinical and epidemiological importance of this strain, these tests could be implemented in reference laboratories for the rapid preliminary diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of this epidemic strain.

  18. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS. (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon


    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  19. Urban stormwater infiltration and soil drainage


    RAIMBAULT, G; E. Berthier; MOSINI, ML; Joannis, C.


    Si l'infiltration des eaux pluviales urbaines est de plus en plus recherchée pour réduire les débits de ruissellements et les rejets polluants associés, le dimensionnement des ouvrages de rétention/infiltration doit prendre en compte la variabilité des capacités d'infiltration offertes par les sols. Dans une première partie, la variabilité temporelle de l'infiltration dans les sols urbains est mise en évidence à travers les résultats du suivi hydrologique de bassins versants urbains. Dans la ...

  20. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  1. Stochastic, goal-oriented rapid impact modeling of uncertainty and environmental impacts in poorly-sampled sites using ex-situ priors (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Yandong; Chang, Ching-Fu; Tan, Benjamin; Chen, Ziyang; Sege, Jon; Wang, Changhong; Rubin, Yoram


    Modeling of uncertainty associated with subsurface dynamics has long been a major research topic. Its significance is widely recognized for real-life applications. Despite the huge effort invested in the area, major obstacles still remain on the way from theory and applications. Particularly problematic here is the confusion between modeling uncertainty and modeling spatial variability, which translates into a (mis)conception, in fact an inconsistency, in that it suggests that modeling of uncertainty and modeling of spatial variability are equivalent, and as such, requiring a lot of data. This paper investigates this challenge against the backdrop of a 7 km, deep underground tunnel in China, where environmental impacts are of major concern. We approach the data challenge by pursuing a new concept for Rapid Impact Modeling (RIM), which bypasses altogether the need to estimate posterior distributions of model parameters, focusing instead on detailed stochastic modeling of impacts, conditional to all information available, including prior, ex-situ information and in-situ measurements as well. A foundational element of RIM is the construction of informative priors for target parameters using ex-situ data, relying on ensembles of well-documented sites, pre-screened for geological and hydrological similarity to the target site. The ensembles are built around two sets of similarity criteria: a physically-based set of criteria and an additional set covering epistemic criteria. In another variation to common Bayesian practice, we update the priors to obtain conditional distributions of the target (environmental impact) dependent variables and not the hydrological variables. This recognizes that goal-oriented site characterization is in many cases more useful in applications compared to parameter-oriented characterization.

  2. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Faybishenko


    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  3. Role of slope on infiltration: A review (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.


    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  4. Liquid crystal infiltration of complex dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardo, Stefano; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Vos, W.L


    Liquid crystal infiltration is becoming an important tool to control the optical properties of complex dielectric systems like photonic crystals and disordered dielectrics. We discuss the technical aspects of liquid crystal infiltration in meso-porous structures, give some details of the sample preparation process, and discuss possibilities for tuning the optical properties of both ordered and disordered systems.

  5. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infiltration. The resultant increase in infiltration coupled with physical barriers of ground litter combine to reduce ..... SED 0.79 4.2. 67 compound leaves. Such differences in crown and leaf architecture are likely to affect rainfall interception, throughfall and stemflow as Alnus ... populations of soil fauna are generally greater in.

  6. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  7. Evaluation of a field-deployable reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR for rapid and sensitive on-site detection of Zika virus. (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Li, Yanqiu; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chou, Pin-Hsing; Williams, Dennis; Skillman, Ashley; Frank Cook, R; Brown, Grayson; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R


    The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and its precipitous expansion throughout the Americas has highlighted the urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay suitable for viral detection. Such point-of-need (PON), low-cost diagnostics are essential for ZIKV control in vulnerable areas with limited resources. We developed and evaluated a ZIKV-specific field-deployable RT-iiPCR reagent set targeting the E gene for rapid detection of ZIKV in ZIKV-spiked human and mosquito specimens, and compared its performance to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) RT-qPCR assays targeting the E and NS2B genes, respectively. These assays demonstrated exclusive specificity for ZIKV (African and Asian lineages), had limits of detection ranging from 10 to 100 in vitro transcribed RNA copies/μl and detection endpoints at 10 plaque forming units/ml of infectious tissue culture fluid. Analysis of human whole blood, plasma, serum, semen, urine, and mosquito pool samples spiked with ZIKV showed an agreement of 90% (k = 0.80), 92% (k = 0.82), 95% (k = 0.86), 92% (k = 0.81), 90% (k = 0.79), and 100% (k = 1), respectively, between the RT-iiPCR assay and composite results from the reference RT-qPCR assays. Overall, the concurrence between the ZIKV RT-iiPCR and the reference RT-qPCR assays was 92% (k = 0.83). The ZIKV RT-iiPCR has a performance comparable to the reference CDC and PAHO RT-qPCR assays but provides much faster results (~1.5 h) with a field-deployable system that can be utilized as a PON diagnostic with the potential to significantly improve the quality of the health care system in vulnerable areas.

  8. Optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor for rapid on-site detection of lead(II) in an aquatic environment. (United States)

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Wang, Hongchen


    Lead ions (Pb(2+)), ubiquitous and one of the most toxic metallic pollutants, have attracted increasing attentions because of their various neurotoxic effects. Pb(2+) has been proven to induce a conformational change in G-quadruplex (G4) aptamers to form a stabilizing G4/Pb(2+) complex. Based on this principle, an innovative optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor was developed for Pb(2+) detection in an actual aquatic environment. The proposed sensing system has good characteristics, such as high sensitivity and selectivity, reusability, easy operation, rapidity, robustness, portability, use of a small sample volume, and cost effectiveness. A fluorescence-labeled G4 aptamer was utilized as a molecular probe. A DNA probe, a complementary strand of G4 aptamer, was immobilized onto the sensor surface. When the mixture of Pb(2+) solution and G4 aptamer was introduced into the optofluidic cell, Pb(2+) and the DNA probe bound competitively with the G4 aptamer. A high Pb(2+) concentration reduced the binding of the aptamer and the DNA probe; thus, a low-fluorescence signal was detected. A sensitive sensing response to Pb(2+) in the range of 1.0-300.0 nM with a low detection limit of 0.22 nM was exhibited under optimal conditions. The potential interference of the environmental sample matrix was assessed with spiked samples, and the recovery of Pb(2+) ranged from 80 to 105% with a relative standard deviation value of <8.5%. These observations clearly illustrate that with the use of different DNA or aptamer probes, the sensing strategy presented can be easily extended to the rapid on-site monitoring of other trace analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishment of an endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration service with rapid on-site evaluation: 2 years experience of a single UK centre. (United States)

    Thiryayi, S A; Rana, D N; Narine, N; Najib, M; Bailey, S


    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration (TBFNA) is now well established as a minimally invasive, effective investigation which can provide information on both diagnosis and stage of lung cancer and is also useful in the investigation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy of uncertain aetiology. The service can be provided with or without rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) for specimen triage and provisional diagnosis. We outline our experience from the first 2 years of providing an EBUS service with ROSE, highlighting the practicalities of service provision, pitfalls encountered and lessons learned. Aspirates from all EBUS procedures performed during the first 2 years of our service from 16 October 2012 to 15 October 2014 are included. We describe the activities undertaken prior to each EBUS list, the EBUS TBFNA procedure, specimen handling and procedure for ROSE. A total of 591 aspirates were performed from 352 patients, including 573 (97%) lymph node aspirates, 17 (2.9%) lung mass samples and one aspirate from a retrosternal thyroid cyst (0.1%). There were 498 (84.1%) adequate samples at ROSE, 82 (13.9%) inadequate, one (0.2%) abandoned and 11 (1.9%) where ROSE was not performed. Four hundred and seventy (79.5%) samples showed concordance between the ROSE and final diagnoses. No adequate samples were obtained for 11 patients (3.1%) after final cytological analysis, resulting in a final adequacy rate of 96.9%. In our experience, ROSE provides a clear advantage in providing a patient-centred EBUS service by facilitating specimen triage, ensuring adequate sampling and providing a rapid provisional diagnosis, however, there is a learning curve for both the clinicians and cytopathologists involved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid on-site evaluation with BIOEVALUATOR® during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for diagnosing pulmonary and mediastinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Minami


    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE is used widely during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA. BIOEVALUATOR® is a device used for determining whether the tissues obtained by EBUS-TBNA are appropriate for a pathological diagnosis. This study describes our experience with ROSE using BIOEVALUATOR® during EBUS-TBNA for diagnosing pulmonary and mediastinal diseases. Materials And Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of 35 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA with BIOEVALUATOR® between December 2011 and February 2013. For the diagnosis, the tissue areas were appearing white and red through BIOEVALUATOR® are considered to be appropriate and inappropriate, respectively. We examined their medical records to obtain information concerning the examination of BIOEVALUATOR® results of the patient′s materials (white/red, the diagnosis yield, site and size of lymph nodes and number of needle passes. Results: The median longest diameter of 40 lymph nodes (21 #7, 13 #4R, 4 #4L and 2 #11 from 35 patients was 27.9 (range 12.4-50.6 mm and the median number of needle passes was 2 (range 1-5. The definitive diagnosis was made by EBUS-TBNA in 28 of 35 patients, by thoracotomy in one patient and BIOEVALUATOR® results were white and lymphocytes were seen in the rest six patients. The BIOEVALUATOR® results of other patients without accurate diagnosis were left indefinitive. Finally, the six patients were judged as having benign lymphadenopathy because the lymph node size on computed tomography decreased or remained stable after for at least 8 months. Conclusions: Checking aspirated samples using BIOEVALUATOR® appears useful for determining their adequacy for pathological diagnosis.

  11. Modelling of snowmelt infiltration in heterogeneous seasonally-frozen soil monitored by electrical resistivity measurements (United States)

    French, H. K.; Binley, A. M.; Voss, C.


    Infiltration during snowmelt can be highly heterogeneous due to the formation of ice on the ground surface below the snow cover. In situations where snow is contaminated, such as along highways and airports due to de-icing agents, it is important to predict the zone of infiltration, because this will determine the retention time and potential for degradation in the unsaturated zone. In 2001, infiltration during snowmelt was monitored over a small area (4m2) using time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring at Gardermoen, Norway. Data revealed a spatio-temporal variable infiltration pattern related to micro topography of the ground surface (French and Binley, 2004). In this study, we want to test the suitability of a newly developed numerical model for water and heat transport including phase change in a variably saturated soil against field observations. Monitored weather and snow data defined the boundary conditions of a simulated unsaturated profile with seasonal freezing. The dependency of capillary pressure and permeability on water saturation is taken from van Genuchten equation with the addition of a scaling parameter, to account for the heterogeneity of the hydraulic permeability. Soil physical data and heterogeneity (variance and correlation structure of the permeability) was based on local soil measurements. The available amount of meltwater for infiltration over the area was based on average snowmelt measurements at the site. Different infiltration scenarios were tested. Soil temperatures, TDR measurements of soil moisture, a tracer experiment conducted at an adjacent site and changes in electrical resistivity were used to validate the model of infiltration and thawing. The model was successful in reproducing the thawing and soil moisture patterns observed in the soil, and hence looks like a promising tool for predicting snowmelt infiltration and melting of ground frost in a sandy unsaturated soil. ReferencesFrench, H.K. and Binley, A. (2004) Snowmelt

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Leukemic Infiltration of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Kuang Wu


    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count.

  13. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins. (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin


    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  14. Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todo Tomoki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors that specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells sparing normal cells are a promising cancer therapy. Traditionally, recombinant HSV vectors have been generated through homologous recombination between the HSV genome and a recombination plasmid, which usually requires laborious screening or selection and can take several months. Recent advances in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology have enabled cloning of the whole HSV genome as a BAC plasmid and subsequent manipulation in E. coli. Thus, we sought a method to generate recombinant oncolytic HSV vectors more easily and quickly using BAC technology. Results We have developed an HSV-BAC system, termed the Flip-Flop HSV-BAC system, for the rapid generation of oncolytic HSV vectors. This system has the following features: (i two site-specific recombinases, Cre and FLPe, are used sequentially to integrate desired sequences and to excise the BAC sequences, respectively; and (ii the size of the HSV-BAC-insert genome exceeds the packaging limit of HSV so only correctly recombined virus grows efficiently. We applied this to the construction of an HSV-BAC plasmid that can be used for the generation of transcriptionally-targeted HSV vectors. BAC sequences were recombined into the UL39 gene of HSV ICP4-deletion mutant d120 to generate M24-BAC virus, from which HSV-BAC plasmid pM24-BAC was isolated. An ICP4 expression cassette driven by an exogenous promoter was re-introduced to pM24-BAC by Cre-mediated recombination and nearly pure preparations of recombinant virus were obtained typically in two weeks. Insertion of the ICP4 coding sequence alone did not restore viral replication and was only minimally better than an ICP4-null construct, whereas insertion of a CMVIE promoter-ICP4 transgene (bM24-CMV efficiently drove viral replication. The levels of bM24-CMV replication in tumor cells varied considerably compared to hrR3 (UL39


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek KUMLUTAŞ


    Full Text Available Infiltration or in other words the air leakage in buildings has an important role on heat load calculations. The rate of this loss has been estimated as 20 to 30 % of the total load. The indicated important effect of infiltration on the load calculations needs a reliable method for the determination of air leakeage level in buildings. Meantime, the rate of infiltration has an additional importance at the area of thermal comfort studies which deals with the air quality of enclosed volumes. During this research study, first the mechanism of infiltration and the major components of the phenomena (wind pressure, temperature difference was discussed together with the theoretical considerations. Later, several conventional engineering approachs and emprical methods was reviewed and compared among each others. At the last part of the paper, the modified DIN 4701 method which is presently used in Turkey, and some other algorithms was applied to some pilot buildings and the predictions was compared with experimental results.

  16. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes (United States)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.


    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration. (United States)


    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration...-to-ceiling and wall-to-floor connections shall be caulked or otherwise sealed. When walls are...

  18. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  19. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method


    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A.J. Nowak; Nagel, A.


    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  20. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Near East during the 6th millennium BC: New archeointensity data from Halafian site Yarim Tepe II (Northern Iraq) (United States)

    Yutsis-Akimova, Stanislava; Gallet, Yves; Amirov, Shahmardan


    We present new archeointensity results from a series of groups of pottery fragments that were collected from the multi-layered archeological site Yarim Tepe II in Northern Iraq (Northern Mesopotamia) dated to the 6th millennium BC. This site comprises a 7-m-thick sequence of archeological deposits encompassing the Middle Halaf, Late Halaf and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT), between ∼5750 and ∼5000 BC according to the chronology currently considered for the Halafian archeological period. Three new radiocarbon dates obtained from bone fragments confirm that Yarim Tepe II was likely not occupied before the Middle Halaf, as was independently established from archeological constraints. Archeointensity determinations were carried out using the protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. This procedure takes into account thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects. 114 fragments fulfilled our set of archeointensity selection criteria, with intensity data obtained from at least two but most often three specimens per fragment. Mean archeointensity values were estimated for 23 groups of fragments well distributed across the entire stratigraphic sequence from the averaging of the data obtained from a minimum of three fragments per group. These values were dated using a bootstrap procedure relying on the stratigraphic position of the different groups of fragments and on the different age constraints available inside the Yarim Tepe II sequence. The new data show a significant decrease in geomagnetic field intensity by ∼12 μT between the Middle Halaf and the Late Halaf-HUT time interval. This decrease was accompanied by a short intensity peak, which may have lasted only a few decades, around the Middle Halaf-Late Halaf boundary, at ∼5500 BC. This evolution is quite similar to that observed from Syrian and Bulgarian archeointensity data, even though the precise duration of the intensity peak is presently questionable. The Bulgarian data set

  2. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS. (United States)

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng


    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  3. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman


    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  4. Improving the Hydraulic Performance of Stormwater Infiltration Systems in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, Britta

    Many cities of the Northern Hemisphere are covered by low permeable clay tills, which pose a challenge for stormwater infiltration practices. However, clay tills are amongst the most heterogeneous types of sediments and hydraulic conductivities can vary by several orders of magnitude. This Ph......D study was initiated with the objective to test and evaluate if the hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems can be significantly improved if the site-specific geological heterogeneity is incorporated into the design and siting of such systems. The assessment is based on different field...... investigations on two typical Danish clay till sites, and one modeling study with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is the most critical soil physical parameter when it comes to sizing stormwater infiltration systems. In the first study...

  5. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases. (United States)

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna


    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD20(+) lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4(+) T cells were more numerous than CD8(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20(+) B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site.

  6. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger


    of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation....... By contrast, the thickness of the humous topsoil increases. Presumably, changes in soil organic matter storage and quality caused by the management practice of forest transformation affect the persistence and degree of water repellency in the soil, which in turn influences the hydraulic properties...

  7. Solutions to Overland Flow Incorporating Infiltration (United States)

    Boyraz, Uǧur; Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza


    Overland flow is represented by flood wave propagation and plays an important role in hydrology and hydraulics. Flood wave propagation concerns many disciplines and thus, scientists such as hydrologists, city planners, irrigation practitioners and hydraulic and environmental engineers are studying on developing accurate solutions for flood wave equations. The dynamic wave equations consist of continuity and momentum equations and describe unsteady and non-uniform flow conditions. Diffusion wave equations can be derived from the dynamic wave equations by neglecting the local and convective acceleration terms in the momentum equation. The kinematic wave model obtained by ignoring both inertial and pressure terms is the simplest routing method which substitutes a steady uniform flow relationship in the momentum equation. In order to calculate the overland flow, these three types of flood wave equations are solved with many different numerical techniques. Nevertheless, the dynamic interaction between surface flow and infiltration is not sufficiently investigated. In this study, the effect of infiltration on overland flow is explored by incorporating the integrated Horton equation into the flood wave equations. Integrated Horton method calculates infiltration under variable rainfall intensity. MacCormack explicit finite difference method is employed in solving the coupled infiltration-overland flow problem. Hydrographs for overland flow with and without infiltration effects are obtained under different rainfall intensities and soil conditions and compared. It is found that infiltration affects both the peak and the shape of hydrographs considerably. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity and soil conditions on overland flow is also observed. Keywords: Overland flow; MacCormack; infiltration; Integrated Horton Method; Kinematic waves, Diffusion waves, Dynamic waves.

  8. The relative importance of hydrophobicity in determining runoff-infiltration processes in burned forest soils (United States)

    Wittenberg, Lea; Malkinson, Dan; Voogt, Annelies; Leska, Danny; Argaman, Eli; Keesstra, Saskia


    were taken in concentric circles around the burned trees at two soil depths. We complemented this investigation by conducting a series of laboratory simulations. Non-burned soil was taken for laboratory analysis and rainfall simulations. Four treatment types were conducted: non-burned soil, non-burned soil + pine needles, burned soil without ash (300°C/15 min. after adding pine needles) and burned soil with the residue ash (300°C/15 min. after adding pine needles). Hydrophobicity was measured in all trays. Constant rainfall intensity of 30 mm/hr was simulated until terminal infiltration rates were reached. The experimental trays were oven dried and simulated again to imitate the effect of second rainstorm. Preliminary results indicate strong surface WR (60% >180s) at a distance of 1m and at the subsurface (50% >180s) directly by the trunk. In the control non-burned site stronger WR was found in proximity to the trunks. While in the burned sites extreme values (>300s) were apparent (15-35%) and correlated with distance from the trunk, no corresponding patterns were noticed in the control trees. The attempt to create homogeneous layer of WR under controlled laboratory conditions yielded a scattered pattern of repellency, similar to the field conditions. In contrast to expected, the bare soil and bare soil covered by needles exhibited the highest and lowest infiltration rates, respectively, while the burned hydrophobic soils demonstrated intermediate rates. It is thus suggested that in some soils, WR might enhance infiltration capacity by creating a complex mosaic of runoff-generating and runoff-absorbing micro-patches. In the experimental non-burned soil a rapid crusting of the surface provided lateral connectivity whilst the accumulation of litter and organic matter blanket the surface and enhance the vertical conductivity. To better understand the role of WR in generating hydrological response, it is required to consider the 3D 'sponge like' properties of the WR

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of CT-guided infiltration in the treatment of Arnold's neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sebastien [CHU Sherbrooke, Departement de Radiologie, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire Intervention, Imagerie, Ingenierie et Innovation en Sante, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire Intervention, Imagerie, Ingenierie et Innovation en Sante, Besancon (France); CHU Jean Minjoz, Service de Radiologie A, Besancon (France); Bier, Vincent; Hussein, Hussein Haj [CHU Jean Minjoz, Service de Radiologie A, Besancon (France); Hadjidekov, Vassil [Alexandrovska Hospital, Radiology Department, Sofia (Bulgaria); Fergane, Bernard [CHU Jean Minjoz, Centre d' Evaluation et de Traitement de la Douleur, Besancon (France)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT)-guided infiltration in the treatment of Arnold's neuralgia. A retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from Arnold's neuralgia and having undergone a total of 45 CT-guided infiltrations of the greater occipital nerve (GON), in a proximal site (emergence of the GON, technique 1, n = 24) or in two proximal sites (emergence of the GON and at the site of the first bend of the GON drawn by the GON, technique 2, n = 21). Infiltration was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50% for at least 1 month. There was no significant difference between the two techniques regarding immediate pain relief effect (53.3% for technique 1 vs. 60.5% for technique 2, p = 0.5), but technique 2 yielded better persistence of pain relief effect (p = 0.01), leading to a significantly higher percentage of effective infiltrations with technique 2 (p = 0.03). Infiltrations carried out in a single site yield results that are comparable to those previously published. Infiltrations in two sites provide significantly better results and should now be preferred to other single-site techniques in order to reduce the rate of failure or recurrence of Arnold's neuralgia. (orig.)

  10. Impact of Rapid On-Site Cytological Evaluation (ROSE) on the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration During Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Agarwal, Ritesh


    Whether the use of rapid on-site cytologic evaluation (ROSE) increases the diagnostic yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) remains unclear. This article is a systematic review of studies describing the utility of ROSE in subjects undergoing TBNA. The study included a systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for randomized controlled trials investigating the diagnostic yield of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) or endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-TBNA, with or without ROSE, in subjects with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Five studies (618 subjects; two EBUS-TBNA, two c-TBNA, and one both) were identified. Overall, the studies were of good quality. The pooled risk difference (95% CI) of the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA and c-TBNA was 0.04 (-0.01 to 0.09) and 0.12 (-0.08 to 0.33), respectively, suggesting no added benefit with ROSE. The use of ROSE during EBUS-TBNA (but not c-TBNA) resulted in significantly fewer needle passes (mean difference [95% CI], -1.1 [-2.2 to -0.005]; P < .001). There was no difference in the procedure time during EBUS-TBNA. The complication rate was significantly lower (OR [95% CI], 0.26 [0.10 to 0.71]; P = .009) when ROSE was used during c-TBNA due to fewer additional procedures required to make a diagnosis. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the studies involving c-TBNA but not EBUS-TBNA. There was no publication bias. The use of ROSE neither improved the diagnostic yield nor reduced the procedure time during TBNA. However, the use of ROSE was associated with fewer number of needle passes during EBUS-TBNA and overall lower requirement for additional bronchoscopy procedures during TBNA to make a final diagnosis. PROSPERO; No.: CRD42017058937; URL: Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncertainty and variability of infiltration at Yucca Mountain: Part 1. Numerical model development (United States)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission investigated climate and infiltration at Yucca Mountain to (i) understand important controls and uncertainties influencing percolation through the unsaturated zone on multimillennial time scales and (ii) provide flux boundary conditions for up to 1 million years in performance assessment models of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. This first part of a two-part series describes a procedure for abstracting the results from detailed numerical simulations of local-scale infiltration into a site-scale model considering uncertainty and variability in distributed net infiltration. Part 2 describes site-scale model results and corroboration. A detailed one-dimensional numerical model was used to estimate bare-soil net infiltration at the scales of hours and meters for 442 soil, bedrock, and climate combinations. The set of results are abstracted into three parametric response functions for decadal-average bare-soil infiltration given hydraulic and climatic parameters. The three abstractions describe deep soil, shallow soil over a coarser layer, and shallow soil over a finer layer. The site-scale model considers spatial variability and uncertainty of the input parameters on a 30 m grid, using the abstractions independently in each cell. Two additional abstractions account for overland flow and vegetation. The model uses Monte Carlo simulation, with all input parameters uncertain and spatially variable, to calculate the mean and standard deviation of net infiltration in each grid cell for selected climate states. Using abstractions rather than detailed simulations speeds calculation of infiltration realizations by many orders of magnitude relative to a detailed simulation.

  12. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.


    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  13. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. (United States)

    Muta, Yuki; Odaka, Akio; Inoue, Seiichiro; Komagome, Masahiko; Beck, Yoshifumi; Tamura, Masanori; Arai, Eiichi


    We report a case of acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred with right abdominal pain. Imaging demonstrated marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and peri-cholecystic effusion. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment, therefore cholecystectomy was performed. Pathology indicated infiltration of eosinophils into all layers of the gallbladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had no further symptoms. Eosinophilic cholecystitis is acute acalculous cholecystitis with infiltration of eosinophils. The causes include parasites, gallstones, allergies, and medications. In addition, it may be seen in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic pancreatitis, or both. An allergic reaction to abnormal bile is thought to be the underlying cause. The present case did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of eosinophilic cholecystitis, but this may have been in the process of developing. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.


    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  15. Towards real-time topical detection and characterization of FDG dose infiltration prior to PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rani, Sudheer D. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Shone, Martha D. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Abramson, Vandana G. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Pendyala, Praveen [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Chakravarthy, A.B. [Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Gorge, William J.; Knowland, Joshua G.; Lattanze, Ronald K.; Perrin, Steven R. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); Scarantino, Charles W. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Townsend, David W. [Lucerno Dynamics, LLC, Morrisville, NC (United States); Technology and Research-National University of Singapore, Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Agency for Science, Singapore (Singapore); Abramson, Richard G. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E. [The University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Computational and Engineering Sciences, and Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Internal Medicine, Austin, TX (United States)


    To dynamically detect and characterize {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dose infiltrations and evaluate their effects on positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUV) at the injection site and in control tissue. Investigational gamma scintillation sensors were topically applied to patients with locally advanced breast cancer scheduled to undergo limited whole-body FDG-PET as part of an ongoing clinical study. Relative to the affected breast, sensors were placed on the contralateral injection arm and ipsilateral control arm during the resting uptake phase prior to each patient's PET scan. Time-activity curves (TACs) from the sensors were integrated at varying intervals (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, and 30-40 min) post-FDG and the resulting areas under the curve (AUCs) were compared to SUVs obtained from PET. In cases of infiltration, observed in three sensor recordings (30 %), the injection arm TAC shape varied depending on the extent and severity of infiltration. In two of these cases, TAC characteristics suggested the infiltration was partially resolving prior to image acquisition, although it was still apparent on subsequent PET. Areas under the TAC 0-10 and 0-20 min post-FDG were significantly different in infiltrated versus non-infiltrated cases (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.05). When normalized to control, all TAC integration intervals from the injection arm were significantly correlated with SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} measured over the infiltration site (Spearman ρ ≥ 0.77, p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, testing the ability of the first 10 min of post-FDG sensor data to predict infiltration visibility on the ensuing PET, yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Topical sensors applied near the injection site provide dynamic information from the time of FDG administration through the uptake period and may be useful in detecting infiltrations regardless of PET image field of view. This dynamic information

  16. Forearm compartment syndrome secondary to leukemic infiltrates. (United States)

    Trumble, T


    A 20-year-old white man with leukemia was recently treated with chemotherapy and was admitted to the Massachusetts General Hospital with a fever and a swollen and painful left forearm that worsened despite intravenous antibiotics. The flexor forearm compartment pressures were elevated; therefore, surgical decompression of the flexor compartments was done. All the wound cultures were negative, and biopsy specimens of tissue showed leukemic infiltrates in the muscle and subcutaneous tissue. Tumor infiltrates may result in increased compartmental pressures, and the treatment of these lesions includes chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to provide local control of the tumor.

  17. Low-temperature infiltration identified using infrared thermography in patients with subcutaneous edema revealed ultrasonographically: A case report. (United States)

    Oya, Maiko; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Hidenori; Oe, Makoto; Murayama, Ryoko; Yabunaka, Koichi; Matsui, Yuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    Infiltration is a frequent complication of infusion therapy. We previously demonstrated the usefulness of infrared thermography as an objective method of detecting infiltration in healthy people. However, whether thermography can detect infiltration in clinical settings remains unknown. Therefore, we report two cases where thermography was useful in detecting infiltration at puncture sites. In both cases, tissue changes were verified ultrasonographically. The patients were a 56-year-old male with cholangitis and a 76-year-old female with hepatoma. In both cases, infiltration symptoms such as swelling and erythema occurred one day after the insertion of a peripheral intravenous catheter. Thermographic images from both patients revealed low-temperature areas spreading from the puncture sites; however, these changes were not observed in other patients. The temperature difference between the low-temperature areas and their surrounding skin surface exceeded 1.0°C. Concurrently, ultrasound images revealed that tissues surrounding the vein had a cobblestone appearance, indicating edema. In both patients, subcutaneous tissue changes suggested infiltration and both had low-temperature areas spreading from the puncture sites. Thus, subcutaneous edema may indicate infusion leakage, resulting in a decrease in the temperature of the associated skin surface. These cases suggest that infrared thermography is an effective method of objectively and noninvasively detecting infiltration.

  18. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt


    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  19. MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration therapy. A cost comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Froeling, V.; Roettgen, R.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bretschneider, T. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Hartwig, T.; Disch, A.C. [Charite University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery


    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the costs of MRI-guided and CT-guided cervical nerve root infiltration for the minimally invasive treatment of radicular neck pain. Materials and Methods: Between September 2009 and April 2012, 22 patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age: 48.2 years) underwent MRI-guided (1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips) single-site periradicular cervical nerve root infiltration with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide. A further 64 patients (34 men, 30 women; mean age: 50.3 years) were treated under CT fluoroscopic guidance (Somatom Definition 64, Siemens). The mean overall costs were calculated as the sum of the prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, maintenance, and energy costs), personnel costs and expenditure for disposables that were identified for MRI- and CT-guided procedures. Additionally, the cost of ultrasound guidance was calculated. Results: The mean intervention time was 24.9 min. (range: 12-36 min.) for MRI-guided infiltration and 19.7 min. (range: 5-54 min.) for CT-guided infiltration. The average total costs per patient were EUR 240 for MRI-guided interventions and EUR 124 for CT-guided interventions. These were (MRI/CT guidance) EUR 150/60 for equipment use, EUR 46/40 for personnel, and EUR 44/25 for disposables. The mean overall cost of ultrasound guidance was EUR 76. Conclusion: Cervical nerve root infiltration using MRI guidance is still about twice as expensive as infiltration using CT guidance. However, since it does not involve radiation exposure for patients and personnel, MRI-guided nerve root infiltration may become a promising alternative to the CT-guided procedure, especially since a further price decrease is expected for MRI devices and MR-compatible disposables. In contrast, ultrasound remains the less expensive method for nerve root infiltration guidance. (orig.)

  20. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadsden J


    administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site. Keywords: pain, TAP, liposome bupivacaine 

  1. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel


    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015) of continuous intensive MAR (2.45 × 106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area), groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from ˜ 11 to ˜ 0.4 m d-1). This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface - abundant in many MAR operations - are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity ˜ 0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids ˜ 120 mg L-1) or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016) fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  2. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 30, 2018 ... infiltration with either intravenous (IV) dexamethasone or tramadol after CS. Setting and Design: This study was a ... surgery.[2]. The provision of effective postoperative analgesia is of key importance to facilitate early ambulation, infant care (including breastfeeding .... Nausea and vomiting. 8 (13.3). 10 (16.7).

  3. Obesity, Intrapancreatic Fatty Infiltration, and Pancreatic Cancer. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Huamin


    Obesity and intrapancreatic fatty infiltration are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. The interplay among obesity, inflammation, and oncogenic Kras signaling promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis. Targeting the interaction between obesity-associated inflammation and Kras signaling may provide new strategies for prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.


    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  5. Local infiltration anesthesia in tenolysis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran


    Discussion: This anesthesia technique enables comfortable surgery without tourniquet, unblocked motor function, and less postoperative pain. Preserving motor function is crucial for evaluating the adequacy of tenolysis intraoperatively. We recommend local infiltration anesthesia for suitable patients undergoing tenolysis. [Hand Microsurg 2017; 6(2.000: 58-61

  6. Skin infiltration in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Nagao, K; Kikuchi, A; Kawai, Y; Kizaki, M; Ikeda, Y; Nishikawa, T


    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a type of acute leukemia showing unique clinical, morphological and cytogenetic features. A skin infiltration by APL cells is an extremely rare occasion, but there have been several case reports of leukemia cutis in APL, in which all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may have induced the skin infiltration. However, no immunohistochemical analyses of the APL cells in the skin have been done to date. A 30-year-old woman with APL developed multiple reddish purple nodules on the extremities in her second complete remission. Histological findings revealed a dense infiltration of medium to large atypical cells, which were positive for myeloperoxidase, throughout the dermis. Despite the conventional chemotherapy and ATRA therapy she died from disseminated intravascular coagulation during her third relapse. Leukemic cells in the peripheral blood before the treatment with ATRA revealed CD3-/CD4-/CD5-/CD7-/CD8-/CD10-/CD13++/CD14-/CD19 -/ CD20-/CD33++/CD38++/CD41-/Ia-, but they expressed CD3-/CD4-/CD5-/CD7++/ CD8-/CD10-/CD13++/CD14-/CD19-/CD20-/CD33++ /CD38++/CD41+/Ia+ after the treatment. We suggest that the alternation of the surface molecules on the tumor cells is closely associated with the skin infiltration of APL cells.

  7. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shipmon, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  8. Land cover effects on infiltration and preferential flow pathways in the high rainfall zone of Madagascar (United States)

    Zwartendijk, Bob; van Meerveld, Ilja; Ravelona, Maafaka; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitohaina; Ghimire, Chandra; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno; Jones, Julia


    Shortened slash-and-burn cycles exhaust agricultural land and have resulted in extensive tracts of highly degraded land across the tropics. Land degradation typically results in decreased rainfall infiltration due to a reduced field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil because of a progressive decline in soil organic matter, exposure to raindrop impact, surface sealing and compaction. This results, in turn, in enhanced surface runoff and erosion, and consequently less subsurface flow and groundwater recharge. On the other hand, natural vegetation regrowth or active reforestation can lead to a renewed accumulation of soil organic matter, macropore development and increased infiltration rates. As part of the P4GES project (Can Paying 4 Global Ecosystem Services values reduce poverty?;, we study the effects of land use change and reforestation on water resources in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ) in eastern Madagascar. In this poster, we present the results of infiltration and preferential flow measurements in four different land uses in the southern part of the CAZ: (i) closed canopy forest, (ii) 3-14 year-old regrowth on fallow land (savokas), (iii) exhausted and severely degraded land (tany maty), and (iv) recently reforested sites (6-8 years old). The results show that infiltrability increases significantly after several years of forest regrowth after land abandonment, but it remains unclear whether active replanting decreases the time required for restoration of soil hydrological functioning. Preferential flow pathways differed strikingly between the respective land cover types: infiltration in mature forests was predominantly characterized by macropore flow (preferential flow pathways), whereas infiltration in exhausted agricultural land was dominated by matrix flow (few preferential flow pathways). Occurrence of preferential flow pathways in reforestation and fallow sites varied considerably. These results suggest that land

  9. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.


    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  10. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming


    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  11. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa D′souza


    Full Text Available Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CIL-F has been described as a disorder in which mature lipocytes invade adjacent tissues in the facial region. Its etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. The tumor is congenital in origin and occurs in infancy or early childhood. It is unencapsulated and characterized by diffuse infiltration of mature adipose tissue over normal muscle fibers, rapid growth, associated osseous hyperplasia, and a high recurrence rate postsurgical intervention. Due to its diffuse infiltration and involvement of important facial structures, complete surgical excision is often impossible. CIL-F is rare and there are only a few cases reported in the available literature. We present the case of a 17-year-old female, who reported with the complaint of recurrent unilateral facial swelling, with a history of two previous resections.

  12. Left upper lobe mass and diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate. (United States)

    Jackson, H D; Carney, K J; Knautz, M A; Tenholder, M F


    We encountered a clinical problem in a young man who presented with a left upper lobe mass and a diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate. We thought we had appropriately applied Murphy's Law (the famed bank robber who "went where the money is"), and Ockham's Razor (the philosopher William of Ockham [1285 to 1349]-"Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity") as we rapidly diagnosed the lung mass with computed tomography, scintigraphy, and fine-needle aspiration. However, when his invaluable previous chest radiographs arrived, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, brushings, and postbronchoscopy sputum revealed the more ominous diagnosis in this patient. This case illustrates the complementary nature of current imaging and bronchoscopy techniques; but, even more importantly, it demonstrates the value of the history coupled with the previous radiograph. Even an unusual case can provide lessons in cost containment.

  13. Hemodynamic Effect of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 Epinephrine Infiltration in Maxillofacial Surgeries under General Anesthesia


    Baratollah Shaban; Elham Moradi; Amir Hossein Nejat; Somayeh Sabzali Zanjanhkhah; Touraj Vaezi


    Introduction: Epinephrine-containing lidocaine is the most used anestheic drug in dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes following local infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in subjects undergoing orthognatic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five patients without any systemic disease participated. After general anesthesia, two cartridges of 2% lidocaine + 1:80,000 epinephrine were infiltrated around the surgery site. Syst...

  14. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing


    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  16. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)


    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S


    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  18. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  19. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  20. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Johari, Mohammadkarim


    To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany) revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  1. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Allerstorfer


    Full Text Available Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women’s General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women’s General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8% had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2% a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8% of preterm delivery and one case (2.0% of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5% a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are permeable paved areas, unpaved areas for infiltration, vegetated swales, vegetated buffer strips, bioretention, detention ponds, dry well, infiltration basins and infiltration gallery and many more. Rainwater drainage from the bridge object in Sarisske Luky in Presov district (Slovakia, using infiltration gallery is presented in the paper. Its capacity is not efficient now, so the reconstruction or other supplement solution is needed. From the wide possibilities of solutions, one of them which full fills all criterions about the rainwater infiltration in selected building object is presented and discussed.

  3. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun


    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion


    Jeong-Hye Son; Bock Hur,; Hyeon-Cheol Kim,; Jeong-Kil Park


    This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG) with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc.) in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and cau...

  5. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son


    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  6. A quick and inexpensive method to quantify spatially variable infiltration capacity for artificial recharge ponds using photographic images (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Barahona-Palomo, Marco; Bolster, Diogo; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel


    SummaryThe efficiency of artificial surface ponds (SPs) for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is mostly controlled by the topmost portion of the soil. The most significant soil property controlling recharge is the infiltration capacity (Ic), which is highly variable in space. Assessing its spatial distribution in detail is prohibitive in practice due to high costs, time effort, and limited site accessibility. We present an alternative method for a quick and low-cost quantitative estimation of the spatial distribution of Ic based on satellite images. The fact that hydraulic properties of topsoils and color intensities of digital images depend on some common factors such as moisture content, nature and organization of grains, proportion of iron, and organic and clay content among others, allow us to infer infiltration capacities from color intensities. The relationship between these two variables is site specific and requires calibration. A pilot SP site in Catalonia (Spain) is used as an application example. Two high-resolution digital images of the site are provided at no cost by the local cartographic institute as well as from a popular Internet-based map server. An initial set of local infiltration experiments, randomly located, were found to correlate to color intensities of the digital images. This relationship was then validated against additional independent measurements. The resulting maps of infiltration were then used to estimate the total maximum infiltration of the artificial pond area, the results being consistent with an independent flooding test performed at the site.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Infiltration Models in a Hydromorphic Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four infiltration models were investigated for their capacity to describe water infiltration into hydromorphic (gleysol) soil. The Models were Kostiakov\\'s (1932), Philip\\'s (1957) Kostiakov- Lewis\\'(1982) and Modified Kostiakov (1978). Field measurement of infiltration was made using double ring infiltrometers on an ...

  8. Rapid and Easy Histological Evaluation of Alveolar Human Bone Quality at Dental Implant Sites Using a Nondecalcified Frozen Cryofilm Section Technique: A Technical Report. (United States)

    Ito, Yuichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kanou, Miwa; Takahashi-Nakagawa, Yasuko; Nakajima, Yoichiro; Sunano, Akihiro; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Takaaki


    The evaluation of bone quality at the site of the alveolar bone for a dental implant is very important. This study presents an easy technique for direct evaluation of alveolar bone quality using nondecalcified cryofilm frozen sections on human alveolar bone core samples. Core samples harvested from alveolar bone were immediately frozen in cooled hexanen and slowly cut using a disposable tungsten carbide blade; the sliced sections were collected with adhesive cryofilms. Staining was performed using von toluidine blue and von Kossa for microscopic observations. All core samples clearly showed bone structure components of cortical bone, trabecular bone, bone marrow, blood vessels, and bone-related cells. These results suggest the efficacy of a nondecalcified cryofilm frozen section technique for histological observation of surgical implant sites.

  9. Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds. (United States)

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio


    This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (<1.5 km/km(2)), arable land and pastures as the main land-cover categories, sandy clay loam to loam - clay loam soils and with the geomorphological units named poorly drained plain, channelized drainage plain and, dunes and beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Years of Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program on Depth of Rain Infiltration (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.


    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a USDA program administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) introduced in 1985 to reduce soil erosion by increasing vegetative cover of highly erodible land. The Texas High Plains (THP) leads the US with >890,000 ha enrolled in CRP. Potential benefits of the CRP include, e.g., increased infiltration of rainfall and organic matter, and better soil structure. However, impact of these benefits is not well characterized. Participation in the CRP is done via contracts (10-15 years in length) and since its inception land area of the THP enrolled in CRP has varied significantly allowing the evaluation of years of enrollment (age) on soil structure and impact on rain infiltration. This information is critical for land users to determine how long it is necessary to enroll their land in the CRP to improve soil structure and impact rain infiltration and increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Stable isotopes of water present a useful technique that is used in ecology and hydrology to study water movement through ecosystems and can be used to evaluate the depth of infiltration of rainwater under CRP management. We compared the infiltration depth of rain in land under CRP management to land under continuous dryland cotton with no irrigation. Two locations, in Terry and Lynn counties, were used for this study. The site in Terry County was enrolled in CRP for 25 years (1985) and 22 years (1992) in Lynn County.

  11. Rapid high-throughput analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites using a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping DNaseI hypersensitive sites is commonly used to identify regulatory regions in the genome. However, currently available methods are either time consuming and laborious, expensive or require large numbers of cells. We aimed to develop a quick and straightforward method for the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites that overcomes these problems. Results We have developed a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach for the identification and analysis of genomic regulatory regions. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by simultaneously analysing 20 loci from the ENCODE project for DNaseI hypersensitivity in a range of different cell lines. We were able to obtain reproducible results with as little as 5 × 104 cells per DNaseI treatment. Our results broadly matched those previously reported by the ENCODE project, and both technical and biological replicates showed high correlations, indicating the sensitivity and reproducibility of this method. Conclusion This new method will considerably facilitate the identification and analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. Due to the multiplexing potential of MLPA (up to 50 loci can be examined it is possible to analyse dozens of DNaseI hypersensitive sites in a single reaction. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of MLPA means that fewer than 105 cells per DNaseI treatment can be used, allowing the discovery and analysis of tissue specific regulatory regions without the need for pooling. This method is quick and easy and results can be obtained within 48 hours after harvesting of cells or tissues. As no special equipment is required, this method can be applied by any laboratory interested in the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive regions.

  12. Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

  13. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara


    partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector......A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...

  14. Infiltration performance of engineered surfaces commonly used for distributed stormwater management (United States)

    Valinski, Nicholas A.

    Engineered porous media are commonly used in low impact development (LID) structures to mitigate excess stormwater in urban environments. Differences in infiltrability of these LID systems arise from the wide variety of materials used to create porous surfaces and subsequent maintenance, debris loading, and physical damage. In this study, infiltration capacity of six common materials was tested by multiple replicate experiments with automated mini-disk infiltrometers. The tested materials included porous asphalt, porous concrete, porous brick pavers, flexible porous pavement, engineered soils, and native soils. Porous asphalt, large porous brick pavers, and curb cutout rain gardens showed the greatest infiltration rates. Most engineered porous pavements and soils performed better than the native silt loam soils. Infiltration performance was found to be related more to site design and environmental factors than material choice. Sediment trap zones in both pavements and engineered soil rain gardens were found to be beneficial to the whole site performance. Winter chloride application had a large negative impact on poured in place concrete, making it a poor choice for heavily salted areas.

  15. Method to measure soil matrix infiltration in forest soil (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lei, Tingwu; Qu, Liqin; Chen, Ping; Gao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lili; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu


    Infiltration of water into forest soil commonly involves infiltration through the matrix body and preferential passages. Determining the matrix infiltration process is important in partitioning water infiltrating into the soil through the soil body and macropores to evaluate the effects of soil and water conservation practices on hillslope hydrology and watershed sedimentation. A new method that employs a double-ring infiltrometer was applied in this study to determine the matrix infiltration process in forest soil. Field experiments were conducted in a forest field on the Loess Plateau at Tianshui Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Station. Nylon cloth was placed on the soil surface in the inner ring and between the inner and outer rings of infiltrometers. A thin layer of fine sands were placed onto the nylon cloth to shelter the macropores and ensure that water infiltrates the soil through the matrix only. Brilliant Blue tracers were applied to examine the exclusion of preferential flow occurrences in the measured soil body. The infiltration process was measured, computed, and recorded through procedures similar to those of conventional methods. Horizontal and vertical soil profiles were excavated to check the success of the experiment and ensure that preferential flow did not occur in the measured soil column and that infiltration was only through the soil matrix. The infiltration processes of the replicates of five plots were roughly the same, thereby indicating the feasibility of the methodology to measure soil matrix infiltration. The measured infiltration curves effectively explained the transient process of soil matrix infiltration. Philip and Kostiakov models fitted the measured data well, and all the coefficients of determination were greater than 0.9. The wetted soil bodies through excavations did not present evidence of preferential flow. Therefore, the proposed method can determine the infiltration process through the forest soil matrix. This

  16. Surface biosolids application: effects on infiltration, erosion, and soil organic carbon in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and shrublands. (United States)

    Moffet, C A; Zartman, R E; Wester, D B; Sosebee, R E


    Land application of biosolids is a beneficial-use practice whose ecological effects depend in part on hydrological effects. Biosolids were surface-applied to square 0.5-m2 plots at four rates (0, 7, 34, and 90 dry Mg ha(-1)) on each of three soil-cover combinations in Chihuahuan Desert grassland and shrubland. Infiltration and erosion were measured during two seasons for three biosolids post-application ages. Infiltration was measured during eight periods of a 30-min simulated rain. Biosolids application affected infiltration rate, cumulative infiltration, and erosion. Infiltration increased with increasing biosolids application rate. Application of biosolids at 90 dry Mg ha(-1) increased steady-state infiltration rate by 1.9 to 7.9 cm h(-1). Most of the measured differences in runoff among biosolids application rates were too large to be the result of interception losses and/or increased hydraulic gradient due to increased roughness. Soil erosion was reduced by the application of biosolids; however, the extent of reduction in erosion depended on the initial erodibility of the site. Typically, the greatest marginal reductions in erosion were achieved at the lower biosolids application rates (7 and 34 dry Mg ha(-1)); the difference in erosion between 34 and 90 dry Mg ha(-1) biosolids application rates was not significant. Surface application of biosolids has important hydrological consequences on runoff and soil erosion in desert grasslands that depend on the rate of biosolids applied, and the site and biosolids characteristics.

  17. Combining a Clostridial enzyme exhibiting unusual active site plasticity with a remarkably facile sigmatropic rearrangement: rapid, stereocontrolled entry into densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates for chemical biology. (United States)

    Panigrahi, Kaushik; Applegate, Gregory A; Malik, Guillaume; Berkowitz, David B


    Described is an efficient stereocontrolled route into valuable, densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates that takes advantage of (i) a Clostridial enzyme to set the absolute stereochemistry and (ii) a new [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the thiono-Claisen variety that is among the fastest sigmatropic rearrangements yet reported. Here, a pronounced rate enhancement is achieved by distal fluorination. This rearrangement is completely stereoretentive, parlaying the enzymatically established β-C-O stereochemistry in the substrate into the δ-C-S stereochemistry in the product. The final products are of interest to chemical biology, with a platform for Zn-aminopeptidase A inhibitors being constructed here. The enzyme, Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaADH), recently expressed by our group, reduces a spectrum of γ,δ-unsaturated β-keto-α,α-difluorophosphonate esters (93-99% ee; 10 examples). The resultant β-hydroxy-α,α-difluorophosphonates possess the "L"-stereochemistry, opposite to that previously observed for the CaADH-reduction of ω-keto carboxylate esters ("D"), indicating an unusual active site plasticity. For the thiono-Claisen rearrangement, a notable structure-reactivity relationship is observed. Measured rate constants vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, depending upon thiono-ester structure. Temperature-dependent kinetics reveal an unusually favorable entropy of activation (ΔS(‡) = 14.5 ± 0.6 e.u.). Most notably, a 400-fold rate enhancement is seen upon fluorination of the distal arene ring, arising from favorable enthalpic (ΔΔH(‡) = -2.3 kcal/mol) and entropic (ΔΔS(‡) = 4 e.u., i.e. 1.2 kcal/mol at rt) contributions. The unusual active site plasticity seen here is expected to drive structural biology studies on CaADH, while the exceptionally facile sigmatropic rearrangement is expected to drive computational studies to elucidate its underlying entropic and enthalpic basis.

  18. A multi-site validation in India of the line probe assay for the rapid diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis directly from sputum specimens. (United States)

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, K S; Chauhan, D S; Malhotra, Bharti; Reddy, Kishore; Dave, P V; Mundade, Yamuna; Patel, Pranav; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Das, Ram; Solanki, Rajesh; Wares, Douglas Fraser; Sahu, Suvanand; O'Brien, Rick; Paramasivan, C N; Dewan, Puneet K


    Rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H) are key first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Failure to detect resistance to these two drugs early results in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes. The study purpose was to validate the use of the GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) to detect resistance to R and H in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains directly from smear-positive sputum samples in India. Smear positive sputum specimens from 320 patients were subjected to LPA and results compared against those from conventional Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture and drug susceptibility testing (C&DST). All specimens with discordant R DST results were subjected to either sequencing of the rpoB gene and/or repeat DST on liquid culture (MGIT 960) at a National Reference Laboratory. Significantly higher proportion of interpretable results were observed with LPA compared to LJ C&DST (94% vs. 80%, p-value turnaround testing time, including specimen transportation time, on LPA was 11 days as compared with 89 days for LJ C&DST. LPA proved highly accurate in the rapid detection of R resistance. The reduction in time to diagnosis may potentially enable earlier commencement of the appropriate drug therapy, leading to some reduction of transmission of drug-resistant strains.

  19. A highly efficient tumor-infiltrating MDSC differentiation system for discovery of anti-neoplastic targets, which circumvents the need for tumor establishment in mice. (United States)

    Liechtenstein, Therese; Perez-Janices, Noemi; Gato, Maria; Caliendo, Fabio; Kochan, Grazyna; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Arce, Frederick; Guerrero-Setas, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaria, Enrique; Breckpot, Karine; Escors, David


    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) exhibit potent immunosuppressive activities in cancer. MDSCs infiltrate tumors and strongly inhibit cancer-specific cytotoxic T cells. Their mechanism of differentiation and identification of MDSC-specific therapeutic targets are major areas of interest. We have devised a highly efficient and rapid method to produce very large numbers of melanoma-infiltrating MDSCs ex vivo without inducing tumors in mice. These MDSCs were used to study their differentiation, immunosuppressive activities and were compared to non-neoplastic counterparts and conventional dendritic cells using unbiased systems biology approaches. Differentially activated/deactivated pathways caused by cell type differences and by the melanoma tumor environment were identified. MDSCs increased the expression of trafficking receptors to sites of inflammation, endocytosis, changed lipid metabolism, and up-regulated detoxification pathways such as the expression of P450 reductase. These studies uncovered more than 60 potential novel therapeutic targets. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that P450 reductase is the target of pro-drugs such as Paclitaxel, which depletes MDSCs following chemotherapy in animal models of melanoma and in human patients. Conversely, P450 reductase protects MDSCs against the cytotoxic actions of other chemotherapy drugs such as Irinotecan, which is ineffective for the treatment of melanoma.

  20. A Simplified Infiltration Model for Predicting Cumulative Infiltration during Vertical Line Source Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Fan


    Full Text Available Vertical line source irrigation is a water-saving irrigation method for enhancing direct water and nutrient delivery to the root zone, reducing soil evaporation and improving water and nutrient use efficiency. To identify its influencing factors, we performed computer simulations using the HYDRUS-2D software. The results indicate that for a given soil, the line source seepage area, but not the initial soil water content and buried depth, has a significant effect on the cumulative infiltration. We thus proposed a simplified method, taking into account the seepage area for predicting the cumulative infiltration based on the Philip model. Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of the simplified method using experimental data and found the cumulative infiltrations predicted by the simplified method were in very good agreement with the observed values, showing a low mean average error of 0.028–0.480 L, a root mean square error of 0.043–0.908 L, a percentage bias of 0.321–0.900 and a large Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient close to 1.0 (NSE ≥ 0.995. The results indicate that this simplified infiltration model, for which the only emitter parameter required is the seepage area, could provide a valuable and practical tool for irrigation design.

  1. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.


    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  2. A multi-site validation in India of the line probe assay for the rapid diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis directly from sputum specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Rifampicin (R and isoniazid (H are key first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Failure to detect resistance to these two drugs early results in treatment failure and poor clinical outcomes. The study purpose was to validate the use of the GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA to detect resistance to R and H in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains directly from smear-positive sputum samples in India.Smear positive sputum specimens from 320 patients were subjected to LPA and results compared against those from conventional Lowenstein Jensen (LJ culture and drug susceptibility testing (C&DST. All specimens with discordant R DST results were subjected to either sequencing of the rpoB gene and/or repeat DST on liquid culture (MGIT 960 at a National Reference Laboratory.Significantly higher proportion of interpretable results were observed with LPA compared to LJ C&DST (94% vs. 80%, p-value <0.01. A total of 248 patients had both LJ and LPA DST results available; 232 (93.5% had concordant R DST results. Among the 16 discordant R DST results, 13 (81% were resolved in agreement with LPA results. Final LPA performance characteristics were sensitivity 96% (CI: 90%-98%, specificity 99% (CI: 95%-99%, positive predictive value 99% (CI: 95%-99%, and negative predictive value 95% (CI: 89%-98%. The median turnaround testing time, including specimen transportation time, on LPA was 11 days as compared with 89 days for LJ C&DST.LPA proved highly accurate in the rapid detection of R resistance. The reduction in time to diagnosis may potentially enable earlier commencement of the appropriate drug therapy, leading to some reduction of transmission of drug-resistant strains.

  3. Estimation and inter-comparison of infiltration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Sihag


    Full Text Available Infiltration models are very helpful in designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems. The main objective of the present work is estimation and inter-comparison of infiltration models which are used to evaluate the infiltration rates of National Institute of Technology (NIT-campus in district of Kurukshetra, Haryana (India and for this study, field infiltration tests were carried out at ten different locations comprising of 109 observations by use of double ring infiltrometer. The potential of three infiltration models (Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov and US- Soil Conservation Service (SCS were evaluated by least–square fitting to observed infiltration data. Three statistical comparison criteria including maximum absolute error (MAE, Bias and root mean square error (RMSE were used to determine the best performing infiltration models. In addition, a novel infiltration model was developed from field tests data using nonlinear regression modeling which suggests improved performance out of other three models. In case of nonexistence of observed infiltration data, this novel model can be used to artificially generate infiltration data for NIT campus.

  4. Peripheral corneal infiltrates associated with contact lens wear. (United States)

    Suchecki, J K; Ehlers, W H; Donshik, P C


    We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of peripheral corneal infiltrates associated with contact lens wear. We conducted a retrospective study of 52 patients with contact lens associated peripheral corneal infiltrates. Demographic data, clinical characteristics of the infiltrates, contact lens parameters, treatment modality, and the time to resolution for the infiltrates were analyzed. Forty-four of the 52 patients in this study presented with a single infiltrate, while the remaining 8 patients had multiple infiltrates. Types of contact lenses worn were as follows: 40% of the patients wore disposable extended wear contact lenses; 21% wore conventional extended wear lenses; 19% wore conventional daily wear lenses; 12% used frequent replacement daily wear lenses; 6% wore rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses; and 2% used disposable lenses as daily wear. Although there was no predilection for a specific quadrant of the cornea, when a subgroup of extended wear contact lens patients was analyzed, 19 of their 40 infiltrates were located in the superior quadrant. The epithelium was intact in 42% of the infiltrates, while 58% of the infiltrates had epithelial involvement, either punctate staining or frank defect. Eight of the 16 patients who had corneal cultures performed had positive cultures. All patients who had positive cultures used extended wear contact lenses. Smoking did not appear to have an effect on the associated inflammatory reaction, positive cultures, or time to resolution. Seventy-five percent of patients were treated with topical antibiotics. Antibiotic steroids were prescribed for 23% of patients, and 2% of patients were treated with topical steroids. The mean time to resolution for all infiltrates was 1.74 weeks. Focal peripheral infiltrates with or without epithelial disturbance represent a distinct clinical complication associated with contact lens wear. All patients in this study had resolution of their infiltrates without

  5. Spatial distribution of water infiltration in erosion-affected arable soils of morainic landscapes (United States)

    Hájek, Daniel; Gerke, Horst H.; Deumlich, Detlef; Dumbrovský, Miroslav


    In heterogeneous morainic soil landscapes, the effect of soil erosion and compaction on water infiltration can be highly complex while the erosion and tillage history may depend on the slope position. The aim was to evaluate compaction effects on the water infiltration of cultivated soils at contrasting landscape positions for no-till and conventionally tilled plots of the eroded landscape. Infiltration was measured using use the Guelph permeameter in two depths (20 and 40 cm) at two different locations with more-or-less eroded Luvisols. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) was calculated from the steady infiltration rate of two pressure steps. Data from 4 locations at the arable soil of the CarboZalf-D field site Holzendorf (Uckermark) were characterized by relatively large spatial heterogeneity in top- and subsoil and without spatial trends. For the erosion plots in Müncheberg, infiltration data were obtained at 6 locations, 3 at a conventionally tilled and 3 at the neighboring no-till plot (i.e., one location each at the up-, mid-, and downslope positions). Here, the Kfs-values were always larger in the top- than in the subsoils and larger for the conventionally tilled than for the no-till plot. In contrast to expected tillage-induced subsoil compaction, the subsoil Kfs-values of the no-till plot were smaller than those of the tilled plot. The sampling time was before harvest of the Sudan grass crop in Müncheberg such that the plant root system was still intact while it was after harvest and soil tillage at the CarboZalf plots. The results suggest that the soil state at the time of infiltration measurement was more important for describing the soil hydraulic properties than the spatial distribution of compacted regions.

  6. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements (United States)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence


    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal

  7. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki


    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  8. Immune infiltrates as predictive markers of survival in pancreatic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia eProtti


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The tumor microenvironment is composed by multiple cell types, molecular factors and extracellular matrix forming a strong desmoplastic reaction, which is a hallmark of the disease. A complex cross-talk between tumor cells and the stroma exists with reciprocal influence that dictates tumor progression and ultimately the clinical outcome. In this context, tumor infiltrating immune cells through secretion of chemokine and cytokines exert an important regulatory role. Here we review the correlation between the immune infiltrates, evaluated on tumor samples of pancreatic cancer patients underwent surgical resection, and disease free and/or overall survival after surgery. Specifically, we focus on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, mast cells and macrophages that all contribute to a Th2-type inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment. In these patients tumor immune infiltrates not only do not contribute to disease eradication but rather the features of Th2-type inflammation and immunosuppression is significantly associated with more rapid disease progression and reduced survival.

  9. Adaptive divergence in wine yeasts and their wild relatives suggests a prominent role for introgressions and rapid evolution at noncoding sites. (United States)

    Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Bensasson, Douda; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo


    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main yeast in wine fermentation, the opportunity to examine divergence at the molecular level between a domesticated lineage and its wild counterpart arose recently due to the identification of the closest relatives of wine strains, a wild population associated with Mediterranean oaks. As genomic data are available for a considerable number of representatives belonging to both groups, we used population genomics to estimate the degree and distribution of nucleotide variation between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives. We found widespread genomewide divergence, particularly at noncoding sites, which, together with above average divergence in trans-acting DNA binding proteins, may suggest an important role for divergence at the level of transcriptional regulation. Nine outlier regions putatively under strong divergent selection were highlighted by a genomewide scan under stringent conditions. Several cases of introgressions, originating in the sibling species Saccharomyces paradoxus, were also identified in the Mediterranean oak population. FZF1 and SSU1, mostly known for conferring sulphite resistance in wine yeasts, were among the introgressed genes, although not fixed. Because the introgressions detected in our study are not found in wine strains, we hypothesize that ongoing divergent ecological selection segregates the two forms between the different niches. Together, our results provide a first insight into the extent and kind of divergence between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. "Mind the Gap": Raman Evidence for Rapid Inactivation of CTX-M-9 β-Lactamase Using Mechanism-Based Inhibitors that Bridge the Active Site. (United States)

    Heidari-Torkabadi, Hossein; Bethel, Christopher R; Ding, Zhe; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Bonnet, Richard; Bonomo, Robert A; Carey, Paul R


    CTX-M β-lactamases are one of the fastest growing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) families found in Escherichia coli rendering this organism extremely difficult to treat with β-lactam antibiotics. Although they are grouped in class A β-lactamases, the CTX-M family possesses low sequence identity with other enzymes. In addition, they have high hydrolytic activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins, despite having smaller active sites compared to other ESBLs in class A. Similar to most class A enzymes, most of the CTX-M β-lactamases can be inhibited by the clinical inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam), but the prevalence of inhibitor resistance is an emerging clinical threat. Thus, the mechanistic details of inhibition pathways are needed for new inhibitor development. Here, we use Raman microscopy to study the CTX-M-9 inactivation reaction with the three commercially available inhibitors and compare these findings to the analysis of the S130G variant. Characterization of the reactions in CTX-M-9 single crystals and solution show the formation of a unique cross-linked species, probably involving Ser70 and Ser130, with subsequent hydrolysis leading to an acrylate species linked to Ser130. In solution, a major population of this species is seen at 25 ms after mixing. Support for this finding comes from the CTX-M-9 S130G variant that reacts with clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam in solution, but lacks the characteristic spectroscopic signature for the Ser130-linked species. Understanding the mechanism of inactivation of this clinically important ESBL-type class A lactamase permits us to approach the challenge of inhibitor resistance using knowledge of the bridging species in the inactivation pathway.

  11. Enhanced microglial clearance of myelin debris in T cell-infiltrated central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Ladeby, Rune; Fenger, Christina


    Acute multiple sclerosis lesions are characterized by accumulation of T cells and macrophages, destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes, and axonal damage. There is, however, limited information on neuroimmune interactions distal to sites of axonal damage in the T cell-infiltrated central nervous...... system. We investigated T-cell infiltration, myelin clearance, microglial activation, and phagocytic activity distal to sites of axonal transection through analysis of the perforant pathway deafferented dentate gyrus in SJL mice that had received T cells specific for myelin basic protein (TMBP...... with TMBP but not TOVA enhanced the microglial response to axonal transection and microglial phagocytosis of myelin debris associated with the degenerating axons. Because myelin antigen-specific immune responses may provoke protective immunity, increased phagocytosis of myelin debris might enhance...

  12. Adhesive bonding to polymer infiltrated ceramic. (United States)

    Schwenter, Judith; Schmidli, Fredy; Weiger, Roland; Fischer, Jens


    Aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of adhesive bonding to the polymer-infiltrated ceramic VITA Enamic [VE]. Shear bond strength was measured with three resin composite cements: RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, Clearfil SA and Variolink II on polished surfaces of VE and its components silicate ceramic [SC] and polymer [PM] (n=12). Further, the effect of etching VE with 5% HF for 15-240 s and the application of silane coupling agents was analyzed in a screening test (n=6). Shear bond strength measurements were performed after 24 h of water storage at 37°C. Significant bonding to polished substrates could only be achieved on VE and SC when silane coupling agents were used. Etching of VE with 5% HF increased shear bond strength. Following silanization of etched VE, a further increase in shear bond strength could be established. Etching for more than 30 s did not improve shear bond strength.

  13. Wear and morphology of infiltrated white spot lesions. (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Rahiotis, Christos; Schubert, Edward W; Baratieri, Luiz N; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich


    To evaluate the toothbrush wear resistance of infiltrated artificial white spot lesions following two infiltration strategies, and to assess their ultramorphology. Flat enamel surfaces from freshly extracted bovine teeth were polished and immersed in a Buskes demineralising solution for 30 days to create incipient caries-like lesions (white spots). Two experimental regions on the surface of each tooth were infiltrated with an infiltrant and a commercial etch-and-rinse adhesive. Toothbrush abrasion was applied for 20,000 cycles. Vertical wear loss of the infiltrated areas was measured after 10,000 and 20,000 cycles against unabraded and abraded enamel using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM; multiple t-tests, α=0.05). Each lesion's surface and cross-section were evaluated under CLSM and scanning electron microscopy after etching and infiltration to assess ultramorphology. After 20,000 abrasion cycles, a statistically non-significant difference in vertical wear loss was measured for the infiltrant versus the adhesive compared with the original enamel (42.6±20.7 μm vs. 40.4±18.5 μm, p>0.05). Irregular surface profiles were common for the adhesive-infiltrated group as a result of peeling and blistering of the resin-covering layer. Ultramorphology of the infiltrated lesions revealed different patterns of penetration regarding density and depth. Although both infiltration strategies had equivalent wear resistance to toothbrush abrasion, surface and morphological aspects pointed to improved surface stability and infiltration quality for the infiltrant material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.


    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  15. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Soil and General Agriculture


    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA.

  16. Infiltration and sorptivity studies on some landform technologies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration and sorptivity were studied under four different Vertisol management technologies on the Accra Plains of Ghana. The technologies ... Les valeurs initiales de l'infiltration cummulative et de la vitesse d' infiltration à la fois étaient trouvées d' être les plus élevées dans les couches cambrées. Ceci était suivi par la ...

  17. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau (United States)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.


    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  18. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with silica and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas


    The management of demineralized dentin resulting from dental caries or acid erosion remains an oral healthcare clinical challenge. This paper investigates, through a range of studies, the ability of colloidal silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles to infiltrate the collagen structure of demineralized dentin. Dentin samples were completely demineralized in 4 N formic acid. The remaining collagen matrix of the dentin samples was subsequently infiltrated with a range of nano-particulate colloidal silica and HA solutions. The effectiveness and extent of the infiltration was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Silica nanoparticles have the ability to penetrate dentin and remain embedded within the collagen matrix. It is suggested that particle size plays a major role in the degree of dentin infiltration, with smaller diameter particles demonstrating a greater infiltrative capacity. The infiltration of demineralized dentin with sol-gel HA nanoparticles was limited but was significantly increased when combined with the deflocculating agent sodium hexametaphosphate. The use of acetone as a transport vehicle is reported to enhance the infiltration capacity of sol-gel HA nanoparticles. Collagen infiltrated with HA and silica nanoparticles may provide a suitable scaffold for the remineralization of dentin, whereby the infiltrated particles act as seeds within the collage matrix and given the appropriate remineralizing environment, mineral growth may occur. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions differing in ICDAS codes. (United States)

    Paris, Sebastian; Bitter, Kerstin; Naumann, Michael; Dörfer, Christof E; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik


    Resin infiltration of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions has been shown to inhibit further demineralization. However, the effect of resin infiltration in cavitated lesions is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate infiltration patterns of proximal caries lesions differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal caries lesions with and without cavitations (ICDAS codes 2-5) were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and resin infiltrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three sections from each lesion were prepared and analyzed using a dual-fluorescence staining technique and confocal microscopy. The dimensions of the demineralized and cavitated lesions areas, as well as the resin-infiltrated parts within these lesions, were measured. The demineralized parts were infiltrated from 73% to 100% (median values) but the cavities were filled only negligibly (0-5%). Teeth that had an ICDAS code of 5 showed a significantly lower percentage infiltration/filling of lesions compared to teeth with ICDAS codes of 2 and 3. It was concluded that under in vitro conditions the tested infiltrant penetrates most parts of the demineralized enamel but is not capable of filling up cavities and therefore the efficacy of caries infiltration, particularly in lesions with larger cavitations, might be impaired. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco


    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  1. Best Practices for Periarticular Infiltration With Liposomal Bupivacaine for the Management of Pain After Shoulder Surgery: Consensus Recommendation. (United States)

    Joshi, Girish P; Hawkins, Richard J; Frankle, Mark A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    Postsurgical pain, like that associated with major upper extremity surgery, can be significant and usually require the use of opioid analgesics. However, opioids are associated with significant adverse effects, including respiratory depression, which often drive the use of multimodal therapy with nonopioid analgesics, including local and regional analgesia techniques. However, use of older local anesthetics provides a limited duration of analgesia. An innovative formulation of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel), which is approved for surgical site infiltration, can provide a longer duration of analgesia. Because optimal pain relief relies on the success of the surgical site infiltration technique, a group convened to address best practices for periarticular injection techniques for shoulder surgery. This article reviews the neuroanatomy of the shoulder, recommends optimal solutions (i.e., analgesic cocktails) and volume for injection, and provides a detailed description of the infiltration technique to develop the best approach to periarticular injection for major shoulder surgery.

  2. Increased NY-ESO-1 expression and reduced infiltrating CD3+ T cells in cutaneous melanoma. (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Mara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Muzikansky, Alona; Kalil, Jorge; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Duncan, Lyn M


    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P = 0.007) and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.017). When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P = 0.010) or as isolated cells (P = 0.002) than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  3. Increased NY-ESO-1 Expression and Reduced Infiltrating CD3+ T Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Giavina-Bianchi


    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79, rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10 and not in benign nevi (0/20. Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P=0.007 and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P<0.02. NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P=0.017. When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P=0.010 or as isolated cells (P=0.002 than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  4. Lupus erythematosus: clinical and histopathological study of oral manifestations and immunohistochemical profile of the inflammatory infiltrate. (United States)

    Lourenço, Silvia V; de Carvalho, Fabio R G; Boggio, Paula; Sotto, Mirian N; Vilela, Maria A C; Rivitti, Evandro A; Nico, Marcello M S


    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, which may affect the oral mucosa in either its cutaneous and systemic forms, with varied prevalence. Forty-six patients with confirmed diagnosis of LE, presenting oral lesions were included in the study. Oral mucosal lesions were analyzed clinically, their histopathological features were investigated and inflammatory infiltrate constitution was assessed using immunohistochemistry against the following clusters of differentiation: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68 and CD1a. From 46 patients with specific LE oral lesions 34 were females (25 with cutaneous LE and nine with systemic LE) and 12 were males (11 with cutaneous LE and one with systemic LE). Clinical aspects of lesions varied, and lips and buccal mucosa were the most affected sites. Histologically, lesions revealed lichenoid mucositis with perivascular infiltrate and thickening of basement membrane. Inflammatory infiltrate was predominantly composed by T lymphocytes of the CD4 subtype, with a minor prevalence of B lymphocytes, isolated macrophages and rare Langerhans cells. Oral lesions of lupus erythematosus show a variety of clinical aspects and histologically consist of a lichenoid mucositis with deep inflammatory infiltrate, composed predominantly of T CD4 positive lymphocytes.

  5. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration]. (United States)

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías


    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  6. Infiltration mechanism controls nitrification and denitrification processes under dairy waste lagoon. (United States)

    Baram, S; Arnon, S; Ronen, Z; Kurtzman, D; Dahan, O


    Earthen waste lagoons are commonly used to store liquid wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations. The fate of ammonium (NH) and nitrate (NO) was studied in the vadose zone below earthen-clay dairy farm waste lagoons using three independent vadose zone monitoring systems. The vadose zone was monitored from 0.5 to 30 m below land surface through direct sampling of the sediment porewater and continuous measurement of the sediment profile's water content variations. Four years of monitoring revealed that wastewater infiltration from the lagoon is controlled by two mechanisms: slow (mm d), constant infiltration from the lagoon bed; and rapid (m h) infiltration of wastewater and rainwater via preferential flow in desiccation cracks formed in the unsaturated clay sediment surrounding the lagoon banks. The preferential flow mechanism is active mainly during wastewater-level fluctuations and intensive rain events. The vadose zone below the waste sources remained unsaturated throughout the monitoring period, and all infiltrating NH was oxidized in the upper 0.5 m. The NH oxidation (nitrification) was coupled with NO reduction (denitrification) and depended on the sediment water content, which was controlled by the infiltration mechanism. Coupled nitrification-denitrification (CND) resulted in 90 to 100% reduction in the total nitrogen mass in the vadose zone, with higher removal under high water content (∼0.55 m m). Mass balance of nitrogen and isotopic composition of NO indicated that CND, rather than cation exchange capacity, is the key factor regulating nitrogen's fate in the vadose zone underlying earthen waste lagoons. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Methodology using a portable X-ray fluorescence device for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds: a model study for application to plutonium contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshii

    Full Text Available Workers decommissioning the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant damaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami are at risk of injury with possible contamination from radioactive heavy atoms including actinides, such as plutonium. We propose a new methodology for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF device. In the present study, stable lead was used as the model contaminant substitute for radioactive heavy atoms. First, the wound model was developed by placing a liquid blood phantom on an epoxy resin wound phantom contaminated with lead. Next, the correlation between the concentration of contaminant and the XRF peak intensity was formulated considering the thickness of blood exiting the wound. Methods to determine the minimum detection limit (MDL of contaminants at any maximal equivalent dose to the wound by XRF measurement were also established. For example, in this system, at a maximal equivalent dose of 16.5 mSv to the wound and blood thickness of 0.5 mm, the MDL value for lead was 1.2 ppm (3.1 nmol. The radioactivity of 239Pu corresponding to 3.1 nmol is 1.7 kBq, which is lower than the radioactivity of 239Pu contaminating puncture wounds in previous severe accidents. In conclusion, the established methodology could be beneficial for future development of a method to evaluate plutonium contamination in wounds. Highlights: Methodology for evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in a wound was established. A portable X-ray fluorescence device enables on-site, rapid and direct evaluation. This method is expected to be used for evaluation of plutonium contamination in wounds.

  8. Methodology using a portable X-ray fluorescence device for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds: a model study for application to plutonium contamination. (United States)

    Yoshii, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Kouta; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Inagaki, Masayo; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Kurihara, Osamu; Sakai, Kazuo


    Workers decommissioning the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant damaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami are at risk of injury with possible contamination from radioactive heavy atoms including actinides, such as plutonium. We propose a new methodology for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. In the present study, stable lead was used as the model contaminant substitute for radioactive heavy atoms. First, the wound model was developed by placing a liquid blood phantom on an epoxy resin wound phantom contaminated with lead. Next, the correlation between the concentration of contaminant and the XRF peak intensity was formulated considering the thickness of blood exiting the wound. Methods to determine the minimum detection limit (MDL) of contaminants at any maximal equivalent dose to the wound by XRF measurement were also established. For example, in this system, at a maximal equivalent dose of 16.5 mSv to the wound and blood thickness of 0.5 mm, the MDL value for lead was 1.2 ppm (3.1 nmol). The radioactivity of 239Pu corresponding to 3.1 nmol is 1.7 kBq, which is lower than the radioactivity of 239Pu contaminating puncture wounds in previous severe accidents. In conclusion, the established methodology could be beneficial for future development of a method to evaluate plutonium contamination in wounds. Highlights: Methodology for evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in a wound was established. A portable X-ray fluorescence device enables on-site, rapid and direct evaluation. This method is expected to be used for evaluation of plutonium contamination in wounds.

  9. Comparison of Infiltrability Measurements in the Thornbush Savanna, Namibia (United States)

    Classen, Nikolaus; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette


    Large proportions of Namibian Savannas are affected by strong bush encroachment leading to a reduction in grazing capacity. Especially woody plant encroachment is expected to have an impact on hydrology by increasing plant transpiration, bare soil evaporation and reducing soil water availability (HUXMAN et al. 2005). Although the processes are not fully understood, the role of soil water balance is highlighted by many studies. Especially the small-scale interactions of vegetation and soil are of high relevance. To characterize the water balance of different sites in the Namibian thornbush savanna long-term studies were conducted. In addition we applied three methods to quantify the infiltration rate (IR) at four central Namibian thornbush savanna sites differing in soil texture and vegetation type: a single ring (own construction, 14 cm inner diameter), a disc-infiltrometer (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment BV) and a hood infiltrometer (UGT Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH). At each site, the measurements we conducted along short transect lines (15 m) in positions with differing plant influence (canopy of Acacia trees and shrubs, grass and dwarf-shrub tussocks, bare soil, termitaria). All three methods resulted in different mean IR as well as spatial distribution patterns. Using statistical analysis by ANOVA, dominant controlling variables were elaborated. The poster will demonstrate which of the methods is defensible with respect to the research question. References : HUXMAN, T. E., B. P. WILCOX, et al. (2005): Ecohydrological implications of woody plant encroachment. Ecology 86(2): 308-319. Acknowledgment: The work was founded by BMBF within the Project Biota South (support code 01LC 0624 A2).

  10. Impact of Rain Water Infiltration on the Stability of Earth Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Ahmed


    Full Text Available Slope failure occurs very often in natural and man-made slopes which are subjected to frequent changes in ground water level, rapid drawdown, rainfall and earthquakes. The current study discusses the significance of water infiltration, pore water pressure and degree of saturation that affect the stability of earth slopes. Rainwater infiltration not only mechanically reduces the shear strength of a slope material, but also chemically alters the mineral composition of the soil matrix. It results in the alteration of macro structures which in turn decreases the factor of safety. A few case studies are discussed in this paper to quantitatively observe the variation in factor of safety (FOS of various earth slopes by changing the degree of saturation. The results showed that most of the earth slopes get failed or become critical when the degree of saturation approaches to 50 % or more.

  11. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard


    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  12. Implications of infiltrating immune cells within bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Jeong, Juhyeon; Oh, Eun Ji; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Sun Och


    The implications of infiltrating immune cells, especially T cells and macrophages, in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have rarely been studied. We aimed to investigate the significance of infiltrating immune cells in the BM microenvironment as a prognostic factor for DLBCL patients. Using the initial pretreatment BM biopsy obtained from 198 DLBCL patients, we semiquantitatively evaluated CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages that infiltrate into the paratrabecular and interstitial areas of BM by immunohistochemistry and analyzed their clinicopathological and prognostic implications. Levels of infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages were significantly higher in BM with DLBCL involvement (BMI-positive group) than in that without DLBCL involvement (BMI-negative group). Infiltration of CD8+ T cells significantly increased in cases with advanced Ann Arbor stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, extranodal site involvement ≥2 sites, higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk. High levels of CD3+ T cells were significantly associated with age ≤60, and high levels of CD163+ macrophages were associated with advanced Ann Arbor stage and higher IPI risk. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells was significantly related to inferior overall and recurrence-free survival rate, even in the BMI-negative group. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells within the pretreatment BM was related to poor prognosis, and might be a useful prognostic factor of DLBCL patients. Therefore, evaluation of CD8+ T cells is helpful for predicting prognosis in initial pretreatment BM biopsy of DLBCL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperature...

  14. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh


    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  15. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon. (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta


    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  16. Soil infiltration characteristics in the Tarim River floodplain (United States)

    Overflow from rivers play an important role for ecological conservation in Tarim Basin, however, there was limited information on infiltration from overflow of the Tarim River. The objective of this study was to investigate steady infiltration rate for three types of land use (forest, shrub and bare...

  17. Lidocaine with epinephrine infiltration does not impair wound healing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Local anaesthetic agents are frequently used to infiltrate wounds to delay nociceptive input in postoperative pain management. Aim: This study investigates the comparative effects of wound infiltration with lidocaine plain and lidocaine with epinephrine for postoperative pain relief at normal clinical doses.

  18. Oral biofilm and caries-infiltrant interactions on enamel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Attin, Thomas; Mohn, Dirk


    ...-infiltrated enamel [4–6] , only very little is known about the interaction of oral microflora with resin-infiltrated enamel. It is known that biofilms develop on all orally exposed surfaces and consist of different cross-linked bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances [7] . Bacteria in biofilms show a higher pathogenicity compared to thei...

  19. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall characteristics affect crust formation, infiltration rate and erosion depending on intrinsic soil properties such as texture and mineralogy. The current study investigated the effects of rainfall pattern on crust strength, steady state infiltration rate (SSIR) and erosion in soils with various texture and minerals. Soil samples ...

  20. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)


    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  1. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook [Marynoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  2. Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delmonico, M.J.; Harris, T.; Visser, M.; Park, S.M.; Conroy, M.B.; Velasquez-Mieyer, P.; Boudreau, R.; Manini, T.D.; Nevitt, M.C.; Newman, A.; Goodpaster, B.


    Background: Sarcopenia is thought to be accompanied by increased muscle fat infiltration. However, no longitudinal studies have examined concomitant changes in muscle mass, strength, or fat infiltration in older adults. Objective: We present longitudinal data on age-related changes in leg

  3. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices.......We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  4. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard


    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...

  5. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations (United States)


    declared anyone found within the restricted zones hostile. Friendly population buffers involved screening and removing all guerrilla supporters and...terrain was advantageous to infiltrators. The difficulty to secure border regions intensified if adjacent states were weak, developing or hostile to...region facilitated infiltration into South Vietnam because of mountainous terrain, double canopy jungle, and opportunistic international border seams. The


    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  7. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode...

  8. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries. (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H


    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  9. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer (United States)

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J


    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  10. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.


    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  11. Temporal damping effect of the Yucca Mountain fractured unsaturated rock on transient infiltration pulses (United States)

    Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua


    SummaryPerformance assessment of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ) as the site for an underground repository of high-level radioactive waste relies on the crucial assumption that water percolation processes in the unsaturated zone can be approximated as a steady-state condition. Justification of such an assumption is based on temporal damping effects of several geological units within the unsaturated tuff formation. In particular, the nonwelded tuff of the Painbrush Group (PTn unit) at Yucca Mountain, because of its highly porous physical properties, has been conceptualized to have a significant capacity for temporally damping transient percolation fluxes. The objective of this study is to investigate these damping effects, using a three-dimensional (3-D) mountain-scale model as well as several one-dimensional (1-D) models. The 3-D model incorporates a wide variety of the updated field data for the highly heterogeneous unsaturated formation at Yucca Mountain. The model is first run to steady state and calibrated using field-measured data and then transient pulse infiltrations are applied to the model top boundary. Subsequent changes in percolation fluxes at the bottom of and within the PTn unit are examined under episodic infiltration boundary conditions. The 1-D model is used to examine the long-term response of the flow system to higher infiltration pulses, while the damping effect is also investigated through modeling tracer transport in the UZ under episodic infiltration condition. Simulation results show the existence of damping effects within the PTn unit and also indicate that the assumption of steady-state flow conditions below the PTn unit is reasonable. However, the study also finds that some fast flow paths along faults exist, causing vertical-flux quick responses at the PTn bottom to the episodic infiltration at the top boundary.

  12. Cyclic biogeochemical processes and nitrogen fate beneath a subtropical stormwater infiltration basin (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P.


    A stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida, USA, was monitored from 2007 through 2008 to identify subsurface biogeochemical processes, with emphasis on N cycling, under the highly variable hydrologic conditions common in humid, subtropical climates. Cyclic variations in biogeochemical processes generally coincided with wet and dry hydrologic conditions. Oxidizing conditions in the subsurface persisted for about one month or less at the beginning of wet periods with dissolved O2 and NO3- showing similar temporal patterns. Reducing conditions in the subsurface evolved during prolonged flooding of the basin. At about the same time O2 and NO3- reduction concluded, Mn, Fe and SO42 - reduction began, with the onset of methanogenesis one month later. Reducing conditions persisted up to six months, continuing into subsequent dry periods until the next major oxidizing infiltration event. Evidence of denitrification in shallow groundwater at the site is supported by median NO3--N less than 0.016 mg L- 1, excess N2 up to 3 mg L- 1 progressively enriched in δ15N during prolonged basin flooding, and isotopically heavy δ15N and δ18O of NO3- (up to 25‰ and 15‰, respectively). Isotopic enrichment of newly infiltrated stormwater suggests denitrification was partially completed within two days. Soil and water chemistry data suggest that a biogeochemically active zone exists in the upper 1.4 m of soil, where organic carbon was the likely electron donor supplied by organic matter in soil solids or dissolved in infiltrating stormwater. The cyclic nature of reducing conditions effectively controlled the N cycle, switching N fate beneath the basin from NO3- leaching to reduction in the shallow saturated zone. Results can inform design of functionalized soil amendments that could replace the native soil in a stormwater infiltration basin and mitigate potential NO3- leaching to groundwater by replicating the biogeochemical conditions under the observed basin.

  13. Investigation and modeling of the residential infiltration of fine particulate matter in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Xu, Chunyu; Li, Na; Yang, Yibing; Li, Yunpu; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Civitarese, Anna; Xu, Dongqun


    The objective of this study was to estimate the residential infiltration factor (Finf) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and to develop models to predict PM2.5 Finf in Beijing. Eighty-eight paired indoor-outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected by Teflon filters for seven consecutive days during both non-heating and heating seasons (from a total of 55 families between August, 2013 and February, 2014). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 were measured by gravimetric method, and elemental concentrations of sulfur in filter deposits were determined by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry. PM2.5 Finf was estimated as the indoor/outdoor sulfur ratio. Multiple linear regression was used to construct Finf predicting models. The residential PM2.5 Finf in non-heating season (0.70 ± 0.21, median = 0.78, n = 43) was significantly greater than in heating season (0.54 ± 0.18, median = 0.52, n = 45, p pollution and human health in Beijing. The Finf predicting models developed in this study hold promise for incorporating PM2.5 Finf into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification. Failure to consider the differences between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement. This study was conducted in Beijing to investigate residential PM2.5 infiltration factor and to develop a localized predictive model in both nonheating and heating seasons. High variations of PM2.5 infiltration factor between the two seasons and across homes within each season were found, highlighting the importance of including infiltration factor in the assessment of exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin in epidemiological studies. Localized predictive models for PM2.5 infiltration factor were also developed.

  14. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Zhang


    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  15. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors. (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K; Sacks, Jason D


    Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant infiltration to the indoor environment. Therefore, relying solely on central-site monitoring data introduces exposure error in the epidemiological analysis. The amount of exposure error produced by using the central-site monitoring data may differ by city. The objective of this analysis was to cluster cities with similar exposure distributions based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting characteristics. Factors related to residential infiltration and commuting were developed from the American Housing Survey (AHS) from 2001 to 2005 for 94 Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs). We conducted two separate cluster analyses using a k-means clustering algorithm to cluster CBSAs based on these factors. The first only included residential infiltration factors (i.e. percent of homes with central air conditioning (AC) mean year home was built, and mean home size) while the second incorporated both infiltration and commuting (i.e. mean in-vehicle commuting time and mean in-vehicle commuting distance) factors. Clustering on residential infiltration factors resulted in 5 clusters, with two having distinct exposure distributions. Cluster 1 consisted of cities with older, smaller homes with less central AC while homes in Cluster 2 cities were newer, larger, and more likely to have central AC. Including commuting factors resulted in 10 clusters. Clusters with shorter in-vehicle commuting times had shorter in-vehicle commuting distances. Cities with newer homes also tended to have longer commuting times and distances. This is the first study to employ cluster analysis to group cities based on exposure factors. Identifying cities with similar exposure distributions may help explain city

  16. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.


    Two infiltration trenches were constructed in a densely built-up area in central Copenhagen and equipped with on-line sensors measuring rain, runoff flow from the connected surfaces and water level in the trenches. The paper describes the field site, the measuring system and the results from...... overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils...

  17. Ocular manifestations of leukemia: leukemic infiltration versus infectious process. (United States)

    Gordon, K B; Rugo, H S; Duncan, J L; Irvine, A R; Howes, E L; O'Brien, J M; Carter, S R


    To determine whether specific guidelines can be developed to distinguish whether retinal infiltration in leukemia patients represents infection or neoplasia. Retrospective noncomparative interventional case series. Six patients recently seen at University of California San Francisco with retinal infiltrates in a setting of leukemia, for which adequate written and photographic information of disease course was available. Observation consisted of retrospective review of clinic charts, hospital medical records, and fundus photographs. Determination of whether retinal infiltrates represented neoplasia or infection was made by review of medical records. In this series, neoplastic retinal infiltrates were found in patients who had newly diagnosed leukemia and those who were in blast crisis. In contrast, the two patients who were in complete remission, but had undergone bone marrow transplantation, had retinal infiltrates attributable to infection. Every patient with retinal infiltrates in the setting of newly or previously diagnosed leukemia requires a systemic and central nervous system workup before the initiation of ophthalmologic treatment. The systemic status of the patient is highly informative in determining whether infection or neoplasia is responsible for the infiltration.

  18. Time-lapse electrical surveys to locate infiltration zones in weathered hard rock tropical areas (United States)

    Wubda, M.; Descloitres, M.; Yalo, N.; Ribolzi, O.; Vouillamoz, J. M.; Boukari, M.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.


    In West Africa, infiltration and groundwater recharge processes in hard rock areas are depending on climatic, surface and subsurface conditions, and are poorly documented. Part of the reason is that identification, location and monitoring of these processes is still a challenge. Here, we explore the potential for time-lapse electrical surveys to bring additional information on these processes for two different climate situations: a semi-arid Sahelian site (north of Burkina and a humid Sudanian site (north of Benin), respectively focusing on indirect (localized) and direct (diffuse) recharge processes. The methodology is based on surveys in dry season and rainy season on typical pond or gully using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and frequency electromagnetic (FEM) apparent conductivity mapping. The results show that in the Sahelian zone an indirect recharge occurs as expected, but infiltration doesn't takes place at the center of the pond to the aquifer, but occurs laterally in the banks. In Sudanian zone, the ERT survey shows a direct recharge process as expected, but also a complicated behavior of groundwater dilution, as well as the role of hardpans for fast infiltration. These processes are ascertained by groundwater monitoring in adjacent observing wells. At last, FEM time lapse mapping is found to be difficult to quantitatively interpreted due to the non-uniqueness of the model, clearly evidenced comparing FEM result to auger holes monitoring. Finally, we found that time-lapse ERT can be an efficient way to track infiltration processes across ponds and gullies in both climatic conditions, the Sahelian setting providing results easier to interpret, due to significant resistivity contrasts between dry and rain seasons. Both methods can be used for efficient implementation of punctual sensors for complementary studies. However, FEM time-lapse mapping remains difficult to practice without external information that renders this method less attractive for

  19. Additive manufacturing technologies: 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Ian; Rosen, David; Stucker, B


    .... This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also...

  20. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  1. A case of migratory air space infiltration after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Hatakeyama, Shinobu; Tachibana, Akio; Suzuki, Kazue [Yaizu Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Oka, Teruaki [Kantou Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suda, Takahumi; Chida, Kingo; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine


    A 54-year-old woman underwent conserving surgery for right breast cancer, and received a cumulative dose of 50 Gy of radiation therapy to the remaining part of the right breast. About five months after the termination of irradiation, cough and low-grade fever developed. The chest radiograph showed an infiltrative shadow in the right lung field. Organizing pneumonia was identified in the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. After prednisolone was given to the patient the clinical symptoms and infiltrates seen in the radiograph disappeared. In the course of tapering the prednisolone dose, new infiltrative shadows developed in the upper right lung and the left lung. The histologic changes were shown by transbronchial lung biopsy to be organizing pneumonia. The increased dose of prednisolone resulted in the rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms and chest radiograph abnormalities. This case suggests that breast radiation after conserving surgery for breast cancer may cause a pathologic process similar to that of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. (author)

  2. Monitoring water infiltration in aggregated volcanic ash soil using multi-offset GPR (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Saito, H.; Kuroda, S.


    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), one of the electromagnetic (EM) exploration techniques, is regarded as an effective method to monitor soil water infiltration process in rapid and non-destructive fashion. From EM wave velocity data, we can estimate dielectric permittivity of the soil. The dielectric permittivity is then used to calculate volumetric water contents from one of empirically derived equations relating dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content. In many GPR surveys, wide angle reflection and refraction (WARR) or common midpoint (CMP) survey techniques with a pair of GPR antennas are used to obtain EM wave velocities. WARR and CMP, however, are not suitable to monitor dynamic processes, such as soil water infiltration processes, as it takes time to complete each survey. A multi-offset (MO) GPR survey technique allows one to obtain EM wave velocity profiles in short time by scanning soil profiles with multiple GPR antennas. In this study, the MO GPR survey was used to monitor changes in soil water content distribution during infiltration test. A field experiment was conducted at an experimental field at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology where top soils consisted mainly with well aggregated volcanic as soils. The GPR system used in this study was composed of a transmitter and multiple receivers of 250 MHz GPR. Ground truth of soil water content was obtained simultaneously with soil moisture sensors such as Profile Probe.

  3. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.


    The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  4. Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis of the Face: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Mahadevappa


    Full Text Available Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a rare lesion that comprises a subgroup of lipomatous tumor-like lesions of infancy and childhood. It is characterized by (1 no encapsulation, (2 diffuse infiltration of mature adipose tissue over normal muscle fiber and surrounding structures of face, (3 osseous hyperplasia of subjacent bone, and (4 a high recurrence rate. We report a case of a nine-month-old infant who presented with swelling over right face since birth. Early diagnosis of this lesion provides better surgical approach to control the infiltrative nature of its growth with recurrence and aesthetic appearance.

  5. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  6. Acoustic location of infiltration openings in buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.


    Unnecessary air infiltration (''draftiness'') in buildings can be a major cause for excessive energy consumption. A method for using sound to locate, for subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltration leakage paths in buildings has been investigated. The results of pertinent analytical studies, laboratory experiments, and field applications of this acoustic-location method are reported; and a plan is provided to encourage national implementation of the method. Low-cost, readily available equipment and procedures are described whereby the average building contractor or homeowner can use acoustic leak location to pinpoint many of the air infiltration openings in a building.

  7. Xeroderma pigmentosum: Carcinome spinocellulaire infiltrant et délabrant du visage, chez une fillette de 3 ans et demi [Xeroderma pigmentosum: Squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating and disfiguring facial, in a girl of 3 years and a half

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Salissou


    Full Text Available Most of serious complications observed during the development of Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP are cancerous. These include skin, eyes, tongue, nervous system, etc. We report the case of a 3 1/2-year-old girl with squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating and disfiguring the face with rapid onset of death. RÉSUMÉ La plupart des complications graves observées au cours de l’évolution du Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP sont de nature cancéreuse. Celles-ci concernent notamment la peau, mais également les yeux, la langue, le système nerveux, etc. Nous rapportons le cas d’une fillette âgée de 3 ans et demie ayant présenté un carcinome épidermoïde infiltrant et délabrant du visage avec la survenue rapide de décès.

  8. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  9. Analgesic control after hip arthroscopy: a randomised, double-blinded trial comparing portal with intra-articular infiltration of bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F


    Abstract: The optimum anaesthetic and analgesic management following hip arthroscopy is yet to be determined. There is, in addition, some concern over the use of intraarticular local anaesthetic. We compared the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular infiltration compared with portal infiltration of bupivacaine following hip arthroscopy. Patients were randomised to receive either 10ml of 0.25% bupivacaine either into the joint or around the portal sites following completion of surgery. 73 patients were recruited (40 intra-articular). The portal infiltration group required significantly more rescue analgesia immediately after surgery (2.33mg vs.0.57mg, p=0.036). Visual Analogue Scale pain scores were not significantly different at 1 and 2 hours following surgery, but at 6 hours the portal group had significantly lower VAS scores (p=0.0036). We believe that the initial pain following surgery results from capsular injury and this explains the need for more rescue analgesia in the portal infiltration group. Further work is needed to establish the ideal regimen. A combination of portal and intra-articular infiltration may be the most efficacious.

  10. Distinct disease phases in muscles of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy patients identified by MR detected fat infiltration. (United States)

    Janssen, Barbara H; Voet, Nicoline B M; Nabuurs, Christine I; Kan, Hermien E; de Rooy, Jacky W J; Geurts, Alexander C; Padberg, George W; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Heerschap, Arend


    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an untreatable disease, characterized by asymmetric progressive weakness of skeletal muscle with fatty infiltration. Although the main genetic defect has been uncovered, the downstream mechanisms causing FSHD are not understood. The objective of this study was to determine natural disease state and progression in muscles of FSHD patients and to establish diagnostic biomarkers by quantitative MRI of fat infiltration and phosphorylated metabolites. MRI was performed at 3T with dedicated coils on legs of 41 patients (28 men/13 women, age 34-76 years), of which eleven were re-examined after four months of usual care. Muscular fat fraction was determined with multi spin-echo and T1 weighted MRI, edema by TIRM and phosphorylated metabolites by 3D (31)P MR spectroscopic imaging. Fat fractions were compared to clinical severity, muscle force, age, edema and phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP. Longitudinal intramuscular fat fraction variation was analyzed by linear regression. Increased intramuscular fat correlated with age (pmuscle strength (pMuscles were nearly dichotomously divided in those with high and with low fat fraction, with only 13% having an intermediate fat fraction. The intramuscular fat fraction along the muscle's length, increased from proximal to distal. This fat gradient was the steepest for intermediate fat infiltrated muscles (0.07±0.01/cm, pmuscles in this intermediate phase showed a decreased PCr/ATP (pmuscles, the intramuscular fat distribution needs to be taken into account. Our results indicate that healthy individual leg muscles become diseased by entering a progressive phase with distal fat infiltration and altered energy metabolite levels. Fat replacement then relatively rapidly spreads over the whole muscle.

  11. Angiocentric Glioma: The Infiltrative Glioma with Ependymal Differentiation. (United States)

    Ersen, Ayca; Canda, M Serefettin; Men, Suleyman; Yucesoy, Kemal; Kalemci, Orhan; Canda, Tulay


    Angiocentric glioma is an epileptogenic, infiltrative, low grade glial tumor, with ependymal and astrocytic differentiation, most commonly seen in young adults and the pediatric age group. Herein we report a case of 21-year-old male patient who presented with fever and pharmaco-resistant seizures. Computed tomography revealed an iso-dense mass lesion in the gyrus rectus of the left frontal lobe. On magnetic resonance imaging the mass was hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with no contrast enhancement. Histopathological examination revealed monomorphous tumor cells diffusely infiltrating the neuropil with circumferential, radial, or longitudinal angiocentric alignment and subpial aggregation with perpendicular alignment of the cells to the pial surface. Among central nervous system tumors with ependymal differentiation, this distinct entity is the one with an infiltrating growth pattern. In spite of the infiltrating pattern, it does not seem to have a potential for aggressive behavior.

  12. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    -sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full scientific...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...... of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by monitoring...

  13. (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff and soil losses under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  14. Rapid Biolayer Interferometry Measurements of Urinary CXCL9 to Detect Cellular Infiltrates Noninvasively After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Gandolfini


    Discussion: Together, our proof-of-principle results demonstrate that BLI-based urinary CXCL9 detection has potential as a point-of-care noninvasive biomarker to diagnose and guide therapy for ACR in kidney transplantation recipients.

  15. Nonlocal gap soliton in liquid infiltrated photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, F.H.; Rosberg, C.R.; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure.......We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure....

  16. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G


    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  17. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas. (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores


    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.


    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  19. Effects of soil physical properties on erodibility and infiltration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plot A has a steady infiltration rate after 11/2 hour at 0 cm/hr. While plot B had a steady infiltration rate after 30 minutes at 1cm/hr. The soil moisture count for plot A ranged between 9.54% to 14.56% while that of plot B range between 10.64% to 11.26%. The particle sizes analysis indicated that the soil type in plot A is mainly ...

  20. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  1. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge. (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los


    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  2. Determination of infiltration and percolation rates along a reach of the Santa Fe River near La Bajada, New Mexico (United States)

    Thomas, Carole L.; Stewart, Amy E.; Constantz, Jim E.


    Two methods, one a surface-water method and the second a ground-water method, were used to determine infiltration and percolation rates along a 2.5-kilometer reach of the Santa Fe River near La Bajada, New Mexico. The surface-water method uses streamflow measurements and their differences along a stream reach, streamflow-loss rates, stream surface area, and evaporation rates to determine infiltration rates. The ground-water method uses heat as a tracer to monitor percolation through shallow streambed sediments. Data collection began in October 1996 and continued through December 1997. During that period the stream reach was instrumented with three streamflow gages, and temperature profiles were monitored from the stream-sediment interface to about 3 meters below the streambed at four sites along the reach. Infiltration is the downward flow of water through the stream- sediment interface. Infiltration rates ranged from 92 to 267 millimeters per day for an intense measurement period during June 26- 28, 1997, and from 69 to 256 millimeters per day during September 27-October 6, 1997. Investigators calculated infiltration rates from streamflow loss, stream surface-area measurements, and evaporation-rate estimates. Infiltration rates may be affected by unmeasured irrigation-return flow in the study reach. Although the amount of irrigation-return flow was none to very small, it may result in underestimation of infiltration rates. The infiltration portion of streamflow loss was much greater than the evaporation portion. Infiltration accounted for about 92 to 98 percent of streamflow loss. Evaporation-rate estimates ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 millimeters per day based on pan-evaporation data collected at Cochiti Dam, New Mexico, and accounted for about 2 to 8 percent of streamflow loss. Percolation is the movement of water through saturated or unsaturated sediments below the stream-sediment interface. Percolation rates ranged from 40 to 109 millimeters per day during June 26

  3. [Study on the permeability of the infiltration glass of GI- I slip casting aluminous ceramic core]. (United States)

    Du, C; Wan, Q; Chao, Y


    In order to explore the infiltration condition of GI- I slip casting aluminous ceramic core glass material to aluminous ceramic substratum and provide reference for clinical use, the linear change relationship between the minimal infiltration depth and infiltration time was determined by measuring the minimal depth of glass material infiltrated to aluminous ceramic substratum from one to six hours. The result showed: there is a high linear relationship between the minimal infiltration depth for GI- I infiltration glass and the infiltration time. For clinical use, the minimal infiltration time for GI- I slip casting aluminous ceramic core at least 2.5 hrs and 5 hrs for bridge framework.

  4. Correlation between inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial lining in 214 cases of periapical cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Albertini Roquim Alcantara


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periapical cysts, identify their clinical and microscopic features and correlate their microscopic features with the inflammatory infiltrate present in the lesion site. A total of 214 cases were collected over a 10-year period. Clinical data, including gender, age, race, symptoms and location of the lesion, were recorded. Two independent examiners with no prior knowledge of the patients' clinical data conducted the microscopic evaluations. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's or chi-square tests at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that periapical cysts were more prevalent in white women, with a mean age of 35 years, and in the anterosuperior region. The majority of the lesions were lined by atrophic cystic epithelium, which was associated with moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the cystic capsule (p < 0.01, with a diffuse localization pattern (p = 0.03 and absence of neutrophils (p = 0.01. Our findings suggest that periapical cysts lined by atrophic epithelium are related to the presence of moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate.

  5. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  6. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.


    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  7. Pedological perspective of gully erosion sites within Kendu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ESP); fragile soil structure; high dispersibility; ... sites differed mainly in the ESP, which influenced the soil structure stability, water infiltration rate, and soil dispersibility. ...... Okoth PF (2003). A Hierarchical Method for Soil Erosion Assessment and.

  8. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (United States)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi


    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  9. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling


    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  10. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations. (United States)

    Brandão, S F; Campos, T P R


    This article proposes a combination of californium-252 ((252)Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: (252)Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0-5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the (252)Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis.

  11. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations (United States)

    Brandão, S F


    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  12. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild


    demonstrate global loss of peri-islet BM and IM components only at sites of leukocyte infiltration into the islet. Stereological analyses reveal a correlation between incidence of insulitis and the number of islets showing loss of peri-islet BM versus islets with intact BMs, suggesting that leukocyte...... penetration of the peri-islet BM is a critical step. Protease- and protease inhibitor-specific microarray analyses (CLIP-CHIP) of laser-dissected leukocyte infiltrated and noninfiltrated pancreatic islets and confirmatory quantitative real time PCR and protein analyses identified cathepsin S, W, and C...... activity at sites of leukocyte penetration of the peri-islet BM in association with a macrophage subpopulation in NOD mice and human type 1 diabetic samples and, hence, potentially a novel therapeutic target specifically acting at the islet penetration stage. Interestingly, the peri-islet BM and underlying...

  13. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater (United States)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  14. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities (United States)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.


    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  15. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 6. Caries inhibition by resin infiltration. (United States)

    Lasfargues, J J; Bonte, E; Guerrieri, A; Fezzani, L


    Resin infiltration has made possible an innovative way of treating initial carious lesions that fits perfectly with the concept of minimal intervention dentistry. Infiltration of carious lesions represents a new approach to the treatment of non-cavitated lesions of proximal and smooth surfaces of deciduous and permanent teeth. The major advantage of this method is that it is a non-invasive treatment, preserving tooth structure and that it can be achieved in a single visit. While this therapy can rightly be categorised as minimum intervention dentistry, clinical experience is limited and further controlled clinical trials are required to assess its long-term results. The inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration should now be considered an alternative to invasive restorations, but involves early detection of lesions and does not allow for appropriate monitoring of the caries risk.

  16. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma with prominent plasma cell infiltration. (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So


    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare, benign, adnexal neoplasm thought to be eccrine ductal differentiation displaying variable clinical findings and characteristic histological features. It usually occurs as a solitary nodule on the extremities of an elderly person. Histological findings typically show a proliferation of anastomosing strands, cords, and columns of monomorphous epithelial cells that harbor eccrine duct formations embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. Acrosyringial nevus, though usually regarded as an identical lesion, is sometimes regarded as a different entity showing prominent plasma cell infiltration. We report two cases of solitary ESFA with prominent plasma cell infiltration. Clinicopathological features of both cases suggest that acrosyringeal nevus and ESFA may be of the same disease entity. Prominent plasma cell infiltration may be just one of the common histological features of ESFA.

  17. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–Dependent Leukocytic Infiltrates Are Responsible for Autoimmune Disease in Mrl-Faslpr Mice


    Tesch, Gregory H.; Maifert, Stefanie; Schwarting, Andreas; Rollins, Barrett J.; Kelley, Vicki Rubin


    Infiltrating leukocytes may be responsible for autoimmune disease. We hypothesized that the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 recruits macrophages and T cells into tissues that, in turn, are required for autoimmune disease. Using the MRL-Faslpr strain with spontaneous, fatal autoimmune disease, we constructed MCP-1–deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. In MCP-1–intact MRL-Faslpr mice, macrophages and T cells accumulate at sites (kidney tubules, glomeruli, pulmonary bronchioli, lymph nod...

  18. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  19. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent


    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  20. Recurrent eyelid basal cell carcinoma with sclerochoroidal infiltration: echographic findings. (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Doro, D; Milizia, E; Steindler, P


    In an 82-year-old woman with a recurrent right lid basal cell carcinoma infiltrating the upper temporal orbit, a solid yellowish lesion was found ophthalmoscopically in the superotemporal periphery of the right eye. On standardized echography examination, the 2.5-mm elevated subretinal lesion was medium to high reflective with irregular structure, whereas the adjacent orbital mass was medium to low reflective and the sclera was thinned with at least one passage between the orbital and ocular lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first echographic report of sclerochoroidal infiltration from a lid basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate

  2. Tumor-infiltrating B cells come into vogue. (United States)

    Linnebacher, Michael


    Lymphocyte infiltration into solid tumors has been recognized as a main determinator of positive prognosis. For the most part this is attributed to cytotoxic T cells capable of directly destroying malignant cells. However, when considering the complex composition of the human immune system, recent findings of Nielsen et al on a potentially central role of tumor-infiltrating B cells is not really surprising. In this commentary article, I want to highlight the enormous potential impact of this observation for basic and translational research, prognostic procedures and ultimately for the development of future therapeutic concepts.

  3. Infiltrating lipoma of the chin: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Santhosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Lipoma, also known as universal tumor or ubiquitous tumor, can occur anywhere in the body, its incidence being 0.1-5% of all head and neck neoplasms. They are benign neoplasms composed of mature adipocytes. There are various types of lipoma based on the constituent tissue type and location of the lipoma. Though lipomas are slow growing and seldom invade adjacent tissue, some variants do exhibit infiltrative behavior. Here, a case of infiltrating type of lipoma of the chin region is presented, which had suddenly increased size in the last 1 year, which led the patient to seek surgical treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  5. Factors affecting the spatial patterns of soil infiltration capacity at the hillslope scale (United States)

    Seifert, Winnie; Coles, Anna; Appels, Willemijn; Hopp, Luisa; McDonnell, Jeffrey


    The quantification of soil infiltration capacity (Ic) and its relation to soil properties have been the subject of many studies in the past decades. However, the controls on the spatial organization of infiltration capacity in the landscape are still poorly understood. A better understanding of the patterns of Ic is important since these patterns govern runoff generation and possible threshold runoff responses in low-angled terrain prone to overland flow. In this study we present spatial patterns of Ic on a 5 ha low-angled agricultural field in Southern Saskatchewan and explore above- and below-ground controls. The study site is located in the semi-arid region of western Canada with a mean annual precipitation of 350 mm. Runoff on these loess soils (Brown Chernozems) is mainly generated during spring snowmelt and occurs as infiltration-excess overland flow over frozen ground. Hillslopes in that region typically have a slope of 1-4%. Infiltration capacity was measured on the 5 ha field in late summer 2013 at 63 randomly distributed locations, using a single ring infiltrometer (Cornell Sprinkle Infiltrometer). Geostatistical analyses were carried out to explore the spatial organization of Ic. Soil depth was measured at 17 locations across the field, the roughness of the soil surface was described for each Ic measuring location and the microtopography on a 456 cm2 area was determined at 60 locations. Hillslope-scale topographic controls will be examined by correlating terrain indices with the Ic pattern. Furthermore, three dye tracer experiments with Brilliant Blue were carried out at a low, medium and high Ic spot to investigate the question if local scale macroporosity can explain the spatial distribution of Ic. Infiltration capacities range from 0 to 79.4 mm h-1 with a median of 11.7 mm h-1 and show no significant correlation with surface roughness, microtopography or soil depth. However, first geostatistical analyses suggest that there is a spatial organization of

  6. Assesment of hydraulics properties of technosoil constructed with waste material using Beerkan infiltration (United States)

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Peyneau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beaudet, Laure; Cannavo, Patrice; Sere, Geoffroy


    For the characterization of hydraulics soils functions, in situ infiltration experiments are commonly used. The BEST method based on the infiltration through a single ring is well suited for soils containing coarse material. Technosols built from Civil engineering waste material such as brick waste, concrete waste, track ballast and demolition rubble wastes contain large part of coarse material. In this work, different materials made of civil engineering wastes mixed with organic wastes are tested for greening applications in an urban environment using in situ lysimeters. Beerkan infiltrations experiments were performed on these technosols. Experimental data are used to estimate hydraulics properties through the BEST method. The results shows from a hydraulic point of view that studied technosols can achieve the role of urban soil for greening application. Five combinations of artefacts were tested either as "growing material" (one combination) or "structural material" (4 combinations) - as support for traffic. Structural materials consisted in 27 wt.% earth material, 60 wt.% mineral coarse material and 3 wt.% organic material. These constructed technosols were studied in situ using lysimeters under two contrasted climatic conditions in two sites in France (Angers, in northwestern France and Homécourt, in northeastern France). Constructed technosols exhibited high porosities (31-48 vol% for structural materials, 70 vol% for the growing material). The dry bulk density of the growing material is estimated to 0.66 kg/m3 and 1.59 kg/m3 for structural material. The particle size distribution analysis, involving manual sieving (> 2 mm) and complemented by a grain size analysis (method (2006) for the estimation of the shape parameter n of hydraulics functions (Van-Genuchten -Mualem, 1980). This n parameter was estimated to 2.23 for growing materials and 2.29 for structural materials. Beerkan infiltrations experiments data were inversed using the BEST method, the results

  7. Dynamic soil water repellency during infiltration of water, ethanol, and aqueous ethanol solutions in post wildfire soils (United States)

    Beatty, Sarah; Smith, James


    were not well related in organic-mineral layered heterogeneous systems over a few cm's. However, in combination, they did provide readily interpretable differences in repellency across materials and across different sites. Further trends in wettable and non-wettable fluid behaviours and porous media characteristics were well expressed in late-time average infiltration rates. These relational results were more reliable and generated greater insights than calculations of Ks and S. Calculations of Ks and S resulted in a large number of negative values, and introduced more uncertainty in all calculated results, including those that were positive. Evaluated in the laboratory in an analogous capacity, homogenized soil materials were used in 20 column experiments to isolate individual material characteristics and evaluate these relationships when within-layer heterogeneity was removed/minimized. Real promise exists in examining differences in wettable and non-wettable infiltration data sets, the governing mechanisms driving these systems at different points in time, and the utility of traditional numerical approaches when base assumptions/conditions are not well met.

  8. Predicting Soil Infiltration and Horizon Thickness for a Large-Scale Water Balance Model in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaomi Saito


    Full Text Available Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective of this study was to predict soil infiltration characteristics and horizon (soil layer thickness using vegetation data for a large-scale water balance model in an arid region. Double-ring infiltrometer tests (at 23 sites, horizon thickness measurements (58 sites and vegetation surveys (35 sites were conducted in a 30 km × 50 km area in Western Australia during 1999 to 2003. The relationships between soil parameters and vegetation data were evaluated quantitatively by simple linear regression. The parameters for initial-term infiltration had strong and positive correlations with biomass and canopy coverage (R2 = 0.64 − 0.81. The horizon thickness also had strong positive correlations with vegetation properties (R2 = 0.53 − 0.67. These results suggest that the soil infiltration parameters and horizon thickness can be spatially predicted by properties of vegetation using their linear regression based equations and vegetation maps. The background and reasons of the strong ecological connectivity between soil and vegetation in this region were also considered.

  9. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice. (United States)

    Carr, Jacquelyn S; King, Stephanie; Dekaney, Christopher M


    While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage.

  10. Composite vascular grafts with high cell infiltration by co-electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zhikai, E-mail:; Wang, Hongjie; Gao, Xiangkai; Liu, Tong; Tan, Yongjun


    There is an increasing demand for functional small-diameter vascular grafts (diameter < 6 mm) to be used in clinical arterial replacement. An ideal vascular graft should have appropriate biomechanical properties and be biocompatible. Electrospinning has become a popular polymer processing technique for vascular tissue engineering, but the grafts fabricated by electrospinning often have relatively small pores and low porosity, which limit cell infiltration into scaffolds and hinder the regeneration and remodeling of grafts. In the present study, we aimed to develop an efficient method to prepare electrospun composite vascular grafts comprising natural and synthetic materials. We fabricated grafts made of polycaprolactone, gelatin, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by co-electrospinning, and the scaffolds were further functionalized by immobilizing heparin on them. The PVA fibers degraded rapidly in vivo and generated electrospun scaffolds with high porosity, which significantly enhanced cell proliferation and infiltration. The mechanical properties of the grafts are suitable for use in artery replacement. Heparin functionalization of the grafts yielded a good antithrombogenic effect, which was demonstrated in platelet adhesion tests. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the heparin release from the grafts enhanced the growth of endothelial cells, which is important for the endothelium of implanted grafts. The results of this study indicate that our method is effective and controllable for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements for blood vessel transplantation. - Highlights: • This study indicate an effective method for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements. • Co-electrospinning were used to fabricate grafts made of polycaprolactone (PCL), gelatin (GT), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • PVA was used to create large pores within the hybrid scaffolds, thereby enhancing cell infiltration

  11. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to leaf tissue in response to infiltration conditions. (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Nitin, N


    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in plant tissues following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a promising technique for rapid protein production. However, transformation rates and transient expression levels can be sub-optimal depending on process conditions. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is an early, critical step in the gene transfer pathway. Bacterial attachment levels and patterns may influence transformation and, by extension, transient expression. In this study, attachment of A. tumefaciens to lettuce leaf tissue was investigated in response to varying infiltration conditions, including bacterial density, surfactant concentration, and applied vacuum level. Bacterial density was found to most influence attachment levels for the levels tested (10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL), with the relationship between bacterial density and attachment levels following a saturation trend. Surfactant levels tested (Break-Thru S240: 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 µL/L) also had a significant positive effect on bacterial attachment while vacuum level (5, 25, and 45 kPa) did not significantly affect attachment in areas exposed to bacteria. In planta transgene transient expression levels were measured following infiltration with 10(8) , 10(9) , and 10(10) CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Notably, the highest attachment level tested led to a decrease in transient expression, suggesting a potential link between bacterial attachment levels and downstream phenomena that may induce gene silencing. These results illustrate that attachment can be controlled by adjusting infiltration conditions and that attachment levels can impact transgene transient expression in leaf tissue. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Vapocoolant Spray Versus Lidocaine Infiltration for Radial Artery Cannulation: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Rüsch, Dirk; Koch, Tilo; Seel, Florian; Eberhart, Leopold


    Local infiltration with lidocaine is a frequently used measure to prevent pain during arterial cannulation. Its administration is associated with pain. Vapocoolants like ethyl chloride or alkanes also affect rapid-onset anesthesia. However, their administration causes less discomfort compared with administration of lidocaine. The effectiveness of vapocoolants in mitigating discomfort associated with arterial cannulation never has been studied. The authors therefore compared vapocoolant with lidocaine for reducing discomfort caused by arterial cannulation. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. University hospital, single center. One hundred sixty adult patients requiring arterial cannulation before induction of general anesthesia for cardiac surgery or carotid endarterectomy. Patients received either lidocaine infiltration or vapocoolant spray prior to arterial cannulation. Overall discomfort resulting from the whole procedure (applying local/topical anesthesia followed by arterial puncture) was rated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. Puncture failure rate and time required for the intervention also were recorded. One hundred forty-three patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. Mean pain scores in the vapocoolant group were 3.4 (±1.58) compared with 4.5 (±2.29) in the lidocaine group (difference 1.1±0.33; p = 0.032; Mann-Whitney U-test). The higher puncture failure rate in the lidocaine group (n = 11 v 4) was not significant (p = 0.06; Fisher's exact test). The time required for the intervention was longer in the lidocaine group (138±44 s v 128±44 s; p = 0.019; Mann-Whitney U-test). Vapocoolant spray is an alternative to lidocaine infiltration to mitigate discomfort associated with arterial cannulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infiltration of soft tissue by myeloma after internal fixation of pathologic femoral fracture; Infiltracion de partes blandas por mieloma, tras la fijacion interna de una fractura patologica femoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.; Escape, I.; Bastart, F.; Solduga, C. [Hospital de Barcelona. Barcelona (Spain)


    a 75-year-old man with multiple myeloma presented with a pathologic fracture of distal right femoral diaphysis, which was fixed with Ender nails. Two and a half months later, the patients was readmitted with rapidly progressive swelling of right thigh. Ultrasound computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed infiltration of anterior right thigh muscles, extending upward to the iliopsoas muscle and retroperitoneal space, above ipsilateral renal vein. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the soft tissue of the thigh revealed diffuse myelomatous infiltration by plasma blasts. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. Slip-cast and hot-solution infiltrated porous yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported tubular fuel cells (United States)

    Hanifi, Amir Reza; Paulson, Scott; Torabi, Alireza; Shinbine, Alyssa; Tucker, Michael C.; Birss, Viola; Etsell, Thomas H.; Sarkar, Partha


    Hot solution infiltration was investigated as a flexible and rapid method to incorporate anode and cathode components into fully sintered, porous ceramic tubular templates for use as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Composed of either a porous 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or 5 wt% NiO-YSZ support structure, a thin Ni-YSZ anode functional layer and an outer ca. 10 μm dense YSZ electrolyte, closed end tubes were first hot solution (ca. 100 °C) infiltrated on the inside with NiO-SDC (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) to serve as the anode. Cathodes were either LSM (nominally La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ) infiltrated into a thin porous YSZ layer on the outer electrolyte surface, or an LSCF-GDC composite (Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ) on a thin GDC buffer layer. Although hot solution infiltration of the Ni, Ce and Sm salts into the anode support structure did not result in complete penetration (with the Ni contents in the tube wall ranging between 4 and 10 vol.%), well-sealed full cells produced power densities as high as 275, 196 and 153 mW cm-2 at 800, 750 and 700 °C, respectively. Hot solution infiltration of active SOFC electrode materials is thus shown to be a very flexible approach for the evaluation of their performance.

  15. Comparison of preoperative infraorbital block with peri-incisional infiltration for postoperative pain relief in cleft lip surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaonkar V


    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, children undergoing cleft lip surgery were either given infra-orbital nerve block (n=25 or peri-incisional infiltration (n=25 pre-operatively with 0.25% bupivacaine in 1:2,00,000 adrenaline. The overall course of anesthesia in both the groups was smooth, with excellent hemodynamic stability, indicating better pain relief during the intra-operative period. The concentration of the anesthetic agent required was reduced and recovery from anesthesia was rapid and complete. There was excellent postoperative analgesia. The children were calm and comfortable postoperatively. We conclude that infra-orbital nerve block with 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline provides more prolonged analgesia than peri-incisional infiltration in cleft lip repair. Infra-orbital block given by modified approach is easy to perform and free of side-effects.

  16. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    75. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. A A Bamigboye,1,2 MMed, FCOG (SA), PhD, Hon DL; J Hofmeyr,2,3 FRCOG, DSc; M Labeodan,4 PhD. 1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the ...

  17. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.


    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  18. Immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, D.; van den Oord, J. J.; Vianney de Jong, J. M.


    In order to test the hypothesis that the immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the cellular composition of the spinal cord inflammatory infiltrate was analysed in eight cases of sporadic ALS by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The majority of the

  19. On chemiluminescent emission from an infiltrated chiral sculptured thin film (United States)

    Jamaian, Siti S.; Mackay, Tom G.


    The theory describing the far-field emission from a dipole source embedded inside a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF), based on a spectral Green function formalism, was further developed to allow for infiltration of the void regions of the CSTF by a fluid. In doing so, the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism — which accommodates constituent particles that are small compared to wavelength but not vanishingly small — was used to estimate the relative permittivity parameters of the infiltrated CSTF. For a numerical example, we found that left circularly polarized (LCP) light was preferentially emitted through one face of the CSTF while right circularly polarized (RCP) light was preferentially emitted through the opposite face, at wavelengths within the Bragg regime. The centre wavelength for the preferential emission of LCP/RCP light was red shifted as the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid increased from unity, and this red shift was accentuated when the size of the constituent particles in our homogenization model was increased. Also, the bandwidth of the preferential LCP/RCP emission regime decreased as the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid increased from unity.

  20. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic pollutant and nitrogen removal performance of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, and operated under different organic pollutant loadings, was investigated. The intermittent aeration strategy not only significantly increased removal rates of organic pollutants and ...

  1. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham


    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  2. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high.

  3. Organizing pneumonia and pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration associated with daptomycin. (United States)

    Cobb, Elizabeth; Kimbrough, Robert C; Nugent, Kenneth M; Phy, Michael P


    To report a case of organizing pneumonia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates in a patient receiving daptomycin. An 84-year-old man developed bilateral, irregularly shaped nodules and infiltrates in the mid and peripheral lung and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes following treatment with intravenous daptomycin for infection of his left knee prosthesis. His other symptoms included decreased appetite, weight loss (6.8 kg over 4-6 wk), malaise, and generalized weakness after 4 weeks of daptomycin therapy. Transthoracic needle biopsy revealed organizing pneumonia with scattered eosinophils. His symptoms and results of computed tomography (CT) scan improved in the month following discontinuation of daptomycin. The Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable reaction to daptomycin. Pulmonary reactions have been reported with numerous drugs and have a wide range of clinical and radiographic presentations. Clinical trials have shown that daptomycin is well tolerated and has an adverse effect profile similar to that of vancomycin and the semisynthetic penicillins. This case report suggests that chronic use of daptomycin caused organizing pneumonia with eosinophilic infiltrates in a patient treated for an infected knee prosthesis. A definite mechanism for this reaction is not known. We speculate that the chronic administration of daptomycin allowed drug accumulation in surfactant in the alveolar spaces. This may result in higher concentrations of drug near the alveolar epithelial surface, which could injure the epithelium, resulting in organizing pneumonia. Development of new pulmonary infiltrates in patients treated with chronic daptomycin therapy should alert healthcare workers to this potential association.

  4. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltra......This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...... infiltration is not widely available, and is important because many municipalities are considering infiltration as an alternative to traditional stormwater systems. This study analyzes groundwater level observations from an urban catchment located in Perth, Western Australia. The groundwater observation data...... is analyzed using a distributed and dynamic hydrological model to simulate the groundwater response. The model explicitly couples a soakwell model with a groundwater model so that the performance of the soakwells is reduced by the increase of groundwater levels. The groundwater observation data is used...

  5. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih


    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  6. Tumescent steroid infiltration to reduce postoperative swelling after craniofacial surgery. (United States)

    Neil-Dwyer, J G; Evans, R D; Jones, B M; Hayward, R D


    Steroids are often administered to paediatric craniomaxillofacial patients perioperatively to reduce postoperative facial swelling, although there is little evidence of their efficacy. Preoperative tumescent infiltration using 7 ml x kg(-1) of a solution consisting of 0.1 mg x ml(-1) triamcinolone acetate, 0.0125% bupivacaine, 0.025% lignocaine, 3 units x ml(-1) hyaluronidase and 1:1000000 adrenaline in Hartmann's solution was evaluated from a retrospective case controlled study of patients undergoing standard fronto-orbital remodelling for simple craniosynostosis (n = 20). Eye closure (i.e. inability to open the eyes) was used as a marker for severe facial swelling. Patients receiving the tumescent infiltration demonstrated significantly less eye closure (P < 0.005), implying that the tumescent infiltration had a significant effect on facial swelling. The avoidance of eye closure allowed more effective monitoring for neurological and ophthalmological complications, which is a significant clinical benefit. The infiltration solution has the advantage of a lower corticosteroid dose than previously reported dexamethasone-based perioperative regimens, thereby minimising any unwanted metabolic effects. The technique is advocated for the reduction of postoperative facial swelling in craniomaxillofacial surgical patients. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  7. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal


    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  8. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with cerebral abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, O. [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Cirak, B. [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Bekerecioglu, M. [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Plastic Surgery; Kutluhan, A. [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Otorrinolaringology; Ugras, S. [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology; Tali, T. [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology


    The aim of this study was to describe a possible variant of encephalo-craniocutaneous lipomatosis syndrome. Three cases of congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face, associated with cutaneous, subcutaneous, and cerebral abnormalities, are presented. This neurocutaneous syndrome appears very similar to encephalo-craniocutaneous lipomatosis syndrome but lacks the typical eye lesions. (orig.)

  9. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Uestuen; Karli-Oguz, Kader [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Emir, Suna; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver [Department of Paediatrics, Hacettepe University Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Koese, Guelsen [Paediatric Clinic, SSK Ankara Training Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)


    An extremely rare case of congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) associated with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly is reported in a 3-month-old boy. MRI not only thoroughly evaluated the extent of the lesion, but also demonstrated the cerebral anomaly. MRI is indispensable in the evaluation of patients suspected of having CILF. (orig.)

  10. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus


    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  11. Treatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon (Resin Infiltration) (United States)


    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled T reatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon ( Resin ... Resin Infiltration) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Treatment of White Spot lesions with Icon ( Resin In filtration) 7. FUNDING

  12. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  13. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 16, 2011 ... PANINI TSM (1993) A portable rainfall simulatorfor rough and smooth morphologies. Quad. Di Sci del Suelo 5 15-19. RAO KPC, STEENHUIS TS, COGLE AL, SRINIVASAN ST, YULE. DF and SMITH GD (1998) Rainfall infiltration and runoff from an Alifisol in semi-arid India. I. No-till systems. Soil Till. Res. 48.

  14. The Role of Infiltrative Local Anaesthesia in Thyroidectomy | Ojuka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: General anaesthesia is the anaesthetic agent of choice during thyroidectomy, however, recent reports there is a role for local anaesthesia. This study reports on the experience of thyroidectomy performed under infiltrative local anaesthesia in a rural surgical setting. Methods: This was a review of patients who ...

  15. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 12, 2013 ... Rainfall characteristics affect crust formation, infiltration rate and erosion depending on ..... (0.43 kg∙m-2) crusts than SL soils with kaolinite (1.77 kg∙m-2) or ..... especially for coarser-textured soils, regardless of the rainfall type.

  16. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert


    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We

  17. The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Sine Reker


    Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide...

  18. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 23, 2012 ... A relationship between rainfall events and water level fluctuations (WLF) on a monthly basis was proposed in the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for the purpose of groundwater recharge estimation. In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous. RIB models is ...

  19. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon


    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  20. Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2013 ... Postoperative analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine 0.15mg/kg 4hourly and 10mg/kg of intravenous paracetamol ... Conclusion: Bupivacaine wound infiltration produced statistically significant elevations in pulmonary function tests results ... (appendix IV), the Micro spirometer (Micro Medical.

  1. Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function after elective lower abdominal operations. ... Postoperative analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine 0.15mg/kg 4hourly and 10mg/kg of intravenous paracetamol as rescue analgesia. Results: PEFR, FVC and FEV1 were reduced in both the ...

  2. Resin infiltration of caries lesions: an efficacy randomized trial. (United States)

    Paris, S; Hopfenmuller, W; Meyer-Lueckel, H


    Resin infiltration is an innovative approach to arrest progression of caries lesions. The aim of this randomized split-mouth placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess whether resin infiltration of proximal lesions is more effective than non-operative measures alone with respect to the inhibition of caries progression. In 22 young adults, 29 pairs of interproximal lesions with radiological extension into the inner half of enamel or the outer third of dentin were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. In the test group, lesions were infiltrated (Icon, pre-product; DMG). A placebo treatment was performed in the control group. All participants received instructions for diet, flossing, and fluoridation. The primary outcome after 18 months was radiographic lesion progression (assessed by digital subtraction radiography). No unwanted effects could be observed. In the effect group, 2/27 lesions (7%) and in the control group 10/27 lesions (37%) showed progression (p = 0.021; McNemar). Infiltration of interproximal caries lesions is efficacious in reducing lesion progression.

  3. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1 leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2 the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN, MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the

  4. Investigations of infiltration processes from flooded areas by column experiments (United States)

    Mohrlok, U.; Bethge, E.; Golalipour, A.


    In case of inundation of flood plains during flood events there is an increased risk of groundwater contamination due to infiltration of increasingly polluted river water. Specifically in densely populated regions, this groundwater may be used as source for drinking water supply. For the evaluation of this a detailed quantitative understanding of the infiltration processes under such conditions is required. In this context the infiltration related to a flood event can be described by three phases. The first phase is defined by the saturation of the unsaturated soils. Within the second phase infiltration takes place under almost saturated conditions determined by the hydraulic load of the flood water level. The drainage of the soils due to falling groundwater table is characterizing the third phase. Investigations by soil columns gave a detailed insight into the infiltration processes caused by flooding. Inflow at the soil top was established by a fixed water table fed by a Mariotte bottle. Free outflow and a groundwater table were used as lower boundary condition. Inflow and outflow volume were monitored. The evolution of the matrix pressure was observed by micro-tensiometers installed at several depths within the soil column. The flow processes during phase one and two were characterized by a tracer test. Some of the experiments were repeated in order to study the influence of preliminary events. Main results were a difference in infiltration due to the lower boundary condition with regard to inflow rate, outflow dynamics and matrix pressure evolution which is directly related to the water content evolution. Further, the influence of preliminary events was different for the different boundary conditions. A replacement of pre-event water could be observed which was confirmed by volume balances calculated for the infiltration experiments. Although these water balances were almost closed significant dynamics of the matrix pressure remained in soil column in the

  5. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles. (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Streicher, Katie; Shen, Nan; Higgs, Brandon W; Morehouse, Chris; Greenlees, Lydia; Amato, Anthony A; Ranade, Koustubh; Richman, Laura; Fiorentino, David; Jallal, Bahija; Greenberg, Steven A; Yao, Yihong


    Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of transcriptional changes in myositis muscle or other

  6. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ziaja


    Full Text Available Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand’s hernia. Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  7. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz


    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  8. Dentin infiltration ability of different classes of adhesive systems. (United States)

    Langer, Alina; Ilie, Nicoleta


    This study evaluates the dentin infiltration ability of various types of adhesives and compares four classes of adhesive systems with regard to this property. The infiltration is determined quantitatively, characterized as tag length and ratio of infiltration, and qualitatively, characterized as homogeneity, regularity, and continuity of the resin tags. Flat dentin surfaces from 140 halves of caries-free molars were bonded with four classes of adhesive systems. The adhesives (n = 20) were labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate and applied on the occlusal dentin following the manufacturer's recommendations and were subsequently light cured, 20 s. Then a 2-mm thick composite layer was applied and light cured, 20 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C, 24 h. Two slices were sectioned mesio-distally from each sample and were investigated with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The measurements were done at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm from the enamel-dentin junction. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the general linear model. The class of adhesive, the composition, and the dentin position were significant factors affecting the investigated parameters. The use of etch and rinse adhesives in comparison to self-etch adhesives provided the formation of longer, more homogeneous, very regularly distributed but mostly fractured tags. A comparison of adhesives confirmed that etch and rinse systems remain better in bond infiltration. While the importance of tags formation on bonding is still controversially discussed, adhesive systems with a high ratio of infiltration might better protect the tooth against microorganism contamination.

  9. Oral biofilm and caries-infiltrant interactions on enamel. (United States)

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Attin, Thomas; Mohn, Dirk


    This study aimed to analyze interactions between oral biofilms and a dental triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)-based resin infiltration material on enamel. Demineralized enamel specimens (14 days, acidic buffer, pH 5.0) were either infiltrated with a commercial TEGDMA resin and subjected to a three-species biofilm (Streptococcus mutans UAB 159, Streptococcus oralis OMZ 607 and Actinomyces oris OMZ 745) (group 1), applied to the biofilm (group 2), or merely resin infiltrated (group 3). A control group received no treatment (4). Biofilm formation and metabolic activity of biofilms were measured for group (1) and (2) after 24h CFU and a resazurin assay. Resin biodegradation was measured for group (1) and (3) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry after 6 and 24h incubation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images were taken to study the biofilm and material's autofluorescence in groups (1-4) after 24h. SEM and CLSM images showed reduced biofilm formation on resin-infiltrated specimens (group 1) compared to group 2, while no biofilm was detectable on groups 3 and 4. CFU data (log10 CFU per mL) of group 1 showed significantly reduced bacterial numbers (pbiofilm reducing effect, while monomer leakage was not affected by bacterial presence. Resin infiltrated enamel surfaces are constantly exposed to the oral microflora. Yet, it is not known how biofilms interact with enamel-penetrated resins and if and to which extent accessory alignments in oral hygiene are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, F.C.; Lucke, T.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.


    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  11. Soil Infiltration Rate and its Controlling Factors of Different Land Uses in the TahamChai Catchment, Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Vaezi


    Full Text Available Introduction Soil infiltration rate is the major soil hydraulic property which can be affected by the soil physical characteristics and management practices. The use of land can affect various soil properties such as physical and hydraulic properties. Differences of the hydraulic soil characteristics such as infiltration rate in various land uses can affect their potential to runoff production as well as soil loss in the catchment. The knowledge of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of various land uses can help to better management of soil and water in the catchment. It is very essential in the semi-arid catchments where vegetation cover is generally poor, the soils are often instable against erosive factors especially when the rainfalls are consecutive and intensive. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the soil physical and hydraulic characteristics in the TahamChai catchment, in a semi-arid region, NW Zanjan. Various land uses consist of pastures, rainfed and irrigated lands can be observed in the catchment, which cover about 62%, 33%, and 5% of the catchment area, respectively. The pastures have been covered with poor vegetation and are intensively exhausted by over-grazing. Rainfed lands are mostly under winter wheat cultivation. Soil erosion and sedimentation were the major environmental problem in this catchment. Materials and Methods The maps of land use and slope gradient were provided for study area. A total of 20 sites were selected based on the surface area of each land use in the catchment located between 34 46-36 53 N latitudes and 48 17-48 37 E longitudes. The study area consisted of ten sites in the pasture, seven sites in the rainfed and three sites in the irrigated lands. The geographical positions of study sites were determined by a global positing system (GPS. Soil infiltration rates were measured by double rings method at three replications in each site. Variation of soil

  12. Verification of a two-dimensional infiltration model for the resin transfer molding process (United States)

    Hammond, Vincent H.; Loos, Alfred C.; Dexter, H. Benson; Hasko, Gregory H.


    A two-dimensional finite element model for the infiltration of a dry textile preform by an injected resin was verified. The model, which is based on the finite element/control volume technique, determines the total infiltration time and the pressure increase at the mold inlet associated with the RTM process. Important input data for the model are the compaction and permeability behavior of the preform along with the kinetic and rheological behavior of the resin. The compaction behavior for several textile preforms was determined by experimental methods. A power law regression model was used to relate fiber volume fraction to the applied compaction pressure. Results showed a large increase in fiber volume fraction with the initial application of pressure. However, as the maximum fiber volume fraction was approached, the amount of compaction pressure required to decrease the porosity of the preform rapidly increased. Similarly, a power law regression model was used to relate permeability to the fiber volume fraction of the preform. Two methods were used to measure the permeability of the textile preform. The first, known as the steady state method, measures the permeability of a saturated preform under constant flow rate conditions. The second, denoted the advancing front method, determines the permeability of a dry preform to an infiltrating fluid. Water, corn oil, and an epoxy resin, Epon 815, were used to determine the effect of fluid type and viscosity on the steady state permeability behavior of the preform. Permeability values measured with the different fluids showed that fluid viscosity had no influence on the permeability behavior of 162 E-glass and TTI IM7/8HS preforms. Permeabilities measured from steady state and advancing front experiments for the warp direction of 162 E-glass fabric were similar. This behavior was noticed for tests conducted with corn oil and Epon 815. Comparable behavior was observed for the warp direction of the TTI IM7/8HS preform

  13. Micro-hardness and mineral loss of enamel lesions after infiltration with various resins: influence of infiltrant composition and application frequency in vitro. (United States)

    Paris, S; Schwendicke, F; Seddig, S; Müller, W-D; Dörfer, C; Meyer-Lueckel, H


    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of infiltrant composition and application frequency on micro-hardness and lesion progression after resin infiltration of artificial enamel lesions. In each of 100 bovine enamel samples, three artificial caries lesions were created (pH=4.95, 50 days). After etching two of the lesions (37% phosphoric acid) specimens were randomly allocated to five infiltrants (four experimental infiltrants with different monomer and solvent compositions and penetration coefficients, and one commercial infiltrant [Icon, DMG]). Lesions were then infiltrated and light-cured, and infiltration repeated afterwards for one of the lesions. Infiltrated samples were cut into halves, with one half being demineralised for further 50 days. Micro-hardness (VHN) and integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) were evaluated at baseline and after second demineralisation. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse influence of material composition and application frequency on micro-hardness and lesion progression (integrated mineral loss difference ΔΔZ). Resin infiltration significantly increased micro-hardness and reduced lesion progression compared to untreated artificial lesions (phardness nor lesion progression were significantly influenced by material composition (p>0.05, ANOVA). In contrast, twice application resulted in significantly increased micro-hardness and demineralisation resistance of infiltrated lesions (phardness and demineralisation resistance of enamel lesions; these effects are significantly enhanced if resins are applied twice. Experimental resins did not outperform the commercial infiltrant. This in vitro study demonstrated that resin infiltration significantly increases both micro-hardness and demineralisation resistance of enamel caries lesions. Twice application of the infiltrant seems to increase these effects. In contrast, the composition of the infiltrant had no significant influence on investigated

  14. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Watlet


    Full Text Available Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1 upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2 deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3 a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of

  15. Performance of infiltration swales with regard to operation in winter times in an Alpine region. (United States)

    Fach, Stefan; Engelhard, Carolina; Wittke, Nina; Rauch, Wolfgang


    In cold climate regions winter conditions significantly influence the performance of stormwater infiltration devices. Frozen soil and water storage by snow changes their operation. In this paper winter operation of a grassed infiltration swale was investigated using on-site and laboratory measurements. The field investigation of a grassed swale at a parking place in an Alpine region showed that the swale fulfilled its function properly. Although the top layer was frozen for some time, the storage capacity of the swale was sufficient to store the precipitation until the conditions improved. The soil attenuated the air temperature, at 20 cm below ground surface the soil was only frozen for one week. winter maintenance proved to be a problem, together with the snow from the parking place a lot of gravel and fine particles were deposited at one end of the swale. This decreased the hydraulic conductivity at that point significantly. The laboratory tests with soil columns showed an increase of flow time through the soil column with decreasing soil moisture content. For soil temperatures below 0 degrees C the hydraulic conductivity was reduced for increasing initial soil moisture contents. All in all the hydraulic conductivity was best around 0 degrees C for all soil water contents. However, also at minus 5 degrees C the coefficient of hydraulic conductivity was always at least above 10(-6) m/s, thus within the range of tolerated hydraulic conductivity specified in the national guidelines. Nevertheless, the handling of the soil was found to have high influence on the results. The results indicate that in the Alpine region infiltration swales operate sufficiently under winter conditions although with decreased performance.

  16. Infiltration of natural caries lesions with experimental resins differing in penetration coefficients and ethanol addition. (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, Sebastian


    Resin infiltration of enamel caries lesions requires materials optimized for penetration into the capillary structures of the lesion body. With increasing penetration coefficients (PC) improved penetration and caries-inhibiting properties of low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) could be observed in artificial caries lesions. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the penetrativity of experimental resins varying in PC and ethanol addition into natural caries lesions using this technique. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spot lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: code 2) were etched for 2 min using 15% hydrochloric acid gel. After drying, the lesions were stained with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate and 1 of 4 experimental resins (PC63; PC185; PC204; PC391) was applied for 5 min. The materials consisted of bisphenol-A-glycidyl-methacrylate (B), tri-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (T) and ethanol (E) in ratios (B:T:E) of PC63: 25:75:0; PC185: 20:60:20; PC204: 0:100:0; PC391: 0:80:20. Excess material was removed before light curing. The teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the lesion surfaces and unbound dye was bleached by immersion in hydrogen peroxide. The remaining lesion pores were stained with fluorescein solution. Lesion and penetration depths were analyzed using confocal microscopy (n = 60). At deep lesion sites the percentage penetration of PC204 was significantly higher compared to PC63 and PC391 (p 0.05). It can be concluded that materials with high PC (infiltrants) are capable of penetrating almost completely into enamel parts of natural caries lesions in vitro. A solvent-free resin mainly consisting of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate seems to be preferable. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Macrophage Infiltration Is a Causative Factor for Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy through the Activation of Collagen Production in Fibroblasts. (United States)

    Saito, Takeyuki; Hara, Masamitsu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Kijima, Ken; Yoshizaki, Shingo; Harimaya, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji


    Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy causes lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leading to leg pain and disability in activities of daily living in elderly individuals. Although previous studies have been performed on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that infiltrating macrophages were a causative factor for LF hypertrophy. Induction of macrophages into the mouse LF by applying a microinjury resulted in LF hypertrophy along with collagen accumulation and fibroblasts proliferation at the injured site, which were very similar to the characteristics observed in the severely hypertrophied LF of human. However, we found that macrophage depletion by injecting clodronate-containing liposomes counteracted LF hypertrophy even with microinjury. For identification of fibroblasts in the LF, we used collagen type I α2 linked to green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and selectively isolated green fluorescent protein-positive fibroblasts from the microinjured LF using laser microdissection. A quantitative RT-PCR on laser microdissection samples revealed that the gene expression of collagen markedly increased in the fibroblasts at the injured site with infiltrating macrophages compared with the uninjured location. These results suggested that macrophage infiltration was crucial for LF hypertrophy by stimulating collagen production in fibroblasts, providing better understanding of the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher Numbers of T-Bet+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Associate with Better Survival in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Chen, Lujun; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Yuqi; Yang, Min; Rui, Xiaohui; Shi, Liangrong; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting; Lu, Binfeng


    T-bet, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is a key marker of type I immune response within the tumor microenvironment, and has been previously reported by us to serve as an important prognostic indicator for human gastric cancer patients and a potential biomarker for immunotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the clinical significance and prognostic value of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the infiltration density of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis was used to further analyze the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups in cancer tissues. Our immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased number of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in the human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups including CD4+ , CD8+ T cells and NK cells. In addition, we also observed a significant association of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes density in the tumor nest of cancer with not only serum CA125 levels but also with distant metastasis. However no association was observed with other characteristics like patients' age, pathological type, FIGO stage, tumor site and tumor size. Furthermore, the survival analysis showed that higher density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes both in tumor nest and tumor stroma of cancer tissues was significantly associated with better patient survival. In addition, the density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor nest appeared to be an independent risk factor for predicting patients' postoperative prognoses. Our data indicated that the key transcription factor T-bet might play an important role in the type I immune cells mediated antitumor response, and the density of T-bet+ lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues

  20. Higher Numbers of T-Bet+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Associate with Better Survival in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xu


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: T-bet, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is a key marker of type I immune response within the tumor microenvironment, and has been previously reported by us to serve as an important prognostic indicator for human gastric cancer patients and a potential biomarker for immunotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the clinical significance and prognostic value of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: The immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the infiltration density of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis was used to further analyze the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups in cancer tissues. Results: Our immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased number of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in the human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups including CD4+ , CD8+ T cells and NK cells. In addition, we also observed a significant association of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes density in the tumor nest of cancer with not only serum CA125 levels but also with distant metastasis. However no association was observed with other characteristics like patients' age, pathological type, FIGO stage, tumor site and tumor size. Furthermore, the survival analysis showed that higher density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes both in tumor nest and tumor stroma of cancer tissues was significantly associated with better patient survival. In addition, the density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor nest appeared to be an independent risk factor for predicting patients’ postoperative prognoses. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the key transcription factor T-bet might play an important role in the type I immune cells mediated antitumor response, and the

  1. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Steiger, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Jane C.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (US). Mackay School of Mines; Wood, Tom [Parsons Engineering, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lore, Jason [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zawislanski, Peter T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  2. Infiltration, water holding capacity and growth patterns of biological soil crusts on sand dunes under arid and temperate climates (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Yair, A.; Veste, M.


    Water repellency and, once wetted, finer pores and grains, pore clogging as well as higher water holding capacities of biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known to inhibit infiltration and to promote surface runoff, thereby holding moisture inside the crusts and redirecting rain off the slope towards the dune base. On the other hand, available water is crucial for growth and development of crust microphytes, mosses and vascular plants. In a 2-factorial design we studied the relation between crust microstructure, infiltration and water holding capacity under arid and temperate conditions (Factor A: Climate) on BSCs sampled along a catena on mobile sand dunes (Factor B: Catena). The arid and temperate study sites were located near Nizzana, Israel (precipitation: ~80 mm a-1, PET: ~2500 mm a-1) and Lieberose, Germany (precipitation: ~600 mm a-1, PET: ~750 mm a-1), respectively. BSCs were sampled near the dune crest, at the center of the dune slope and at the dune base at each site. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize BSC development and microstructure. Infiltration was determined using microinfiltrometry under controlled moisture conditions in the lab, water holding capacities were determined after water saturation of the dry BSCs. Wettability of the crusts was characterized using a "repellency index", which was calculated from water and ethanol sorptivities. It was found that thickness and density of biogenic elements in the BSCs increased downslope at each study site and correlated positively with water holding capacities and negatively with infiltration and wettability with one exception: At the dune base of the temperate site, where water holding capacity was highest, infiltration and wettability increased again due to emergence of mosses. It is hypothesized that a positive feedback between crust growth and surface runoff intensifies downslope, resulting in highest water availability in the topsoil of the dune base. Under arid conditions, low


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lebedinskaya


    Full Text Available Morphology, topography, and immunohistochemical features of leukocyte infiltrates were studied in various sites of the liver samples from the patients with metastatic disease, been affected by hepatitis B and C viruses at different degree of activity. Liver of СВА mice with implanted САО-1 tumour was also under study. Histochemical, and functional features, as well as immune phenotype of these cells were investigated. It has been shown that the major fraction of leukocyte infiltrates, mostly associated with implanted tumours in experimental mice, and in the areas adjacent to the tumor in humans, like as on the peak of viral hepatitis activity, is composed of lymphocytes. They are presented by large numvers of activated proliferating and differentiating cells bearing specific antigens, as well as natural killers and T-lymphocytes, possessing high-level killer activity towards NK-sensitive, and autologous lines of cancer cells. Hence, the results of our study, generally, confirm the data from literature reporting on existence of a special lymphocyte subpopulation, NKT cells, in human or murine liver affected by hepatitis virus or malignant tumors. The data concerning functional properties of these cells may be used for development of immunotherapy methods of viral diseases and oncological conditions complicated by liver metastases.

  4. MRI findings in deep infiltrating endometriosis: A pictorial essay. (United States)

    Thalluri, Anitha L; Knox, Steven; Nguyen, Thi


    Endometriosis is an important gynaecological disorder which can impact significantly on an individual's quality of life and has major implications on fertility. Deep infiltrating endometriosis is a severe form of endometriosis which can cause obliteration of anatomic compartments. Laparoscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometriosis, although is an invasive procedure that has the potential to be hindered by obliterative disease. Ultrasound is often employed as the first-line imaging modality when endometriosis is suspected, however, MRI is more accurate in assessment of complex disease. Pre-operative MRI is highly specific in the diagnosis of endometriosis and characterization of disease extent, and plays a key role in guiding surgical management. MRI findings in deep infiltrating endometriosis are described. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  6. Influence of spontaneous vegetation in stormwater infiltration system clogging. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Barraud, Sylvie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe


    The paper presents the role of spontaneous vegetation on the hydraulic performance of an infiltration basin. The objective of the research was more particularly to study this role of different types of spontaneous vegetation found in situ in an infiltration basin near Lyon. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of three areas covered by Phalaris arundinacea, Polygonum mite, Rumex crispus and similar non-vegetated zones was compared. Eight field campaigns were carried out from July 2010 to May 2011 in order to compare the performance of each type of vegetation and its evolution over time. The results suggest a positive impact of vegetation on hydraulic performance in particular in summer during the growth of the plants. The hydraulic conductivity in this period was twice to four times higher than in bare areas or in vegetated zones during the plant rest periods. Some species were also found more appropriate to limit clogging (Phalaris arundinacea) likely due to its specific structure and growth process.

  7. Analysis of hydrological and geotechnical aspects related to landslides caused by rainfall infiltration (United States)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; La Sala, Gabriella; Vena, Mirko; Donato, Antonio


    A landslide is defined as a perceptible downward and outward movement of slope-forming soil, rock, and vegetation under the influence of gravity. Landslides can be triggered by both natural and human-induced changes in the environment. However rainfall is recognized as a major precursor for many types of slope movements. As a result of rainfall events and subsequent infiltration into the subsoil, the soil moisture can be significantly changed with a decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil layers and/or increase in pore-water pressure in saturated layers. As a consequence, in these cases, the shear strength can be reduced enough to trigger the failure. An effective way to develop such an understanding is by means of computer simulation using numerical model. As part of the project PON "Integrated Early Warning System" our main objective was just to develop a numerical models that was able to consider the relation between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability taking into account several components, including specific site conditions, mechanical, hydraulic and physical soil properties, local seepage conditions, and the contribution of these to soil strength. In this work the mechanism behind rainfall-triggered landslides is modeled by using combined infiltration, seepage and stability analyses. This method allows the evaluation of the terrain and its response based on geological, physical, hydrogeological and mechanical characteristics. The model is based on the combined use of two modules: an hydraulic module, to analyze the subsoil water circulation due to the rainfall infiltration under transient conditions and a geotechnical module, which provides indications regarding the slope stability. With regard to hydraulic module, variably saturated porous media flows have been modeled by the classical nonlinear Richards equation; in the geotechnical module the differential equilibrium equations have been solved taking into account the linear constitutive

  8. Macrophage-independent T cell infiltration to the site of injury-induced brain inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fux, Michaela; van Rooijen, Nico; Owens, Trevor


    We have addressed the role of macrophages in glial response and T cell entry to the CNS after axonal injury, by using intravenous injection of clodronate-loaded mannosylated liposomes, in C57BL6 mice. As expected, clodronate-liposome treatment resulted in depletion of peripheral macrophages which...

  9. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per


    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp...

  10. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  11. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment.

  12. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltrate in human dental pulpitis. (United States)

    Bruno, K F; Silva, J A; Silva, T A; Batista, A C; Alencar, A H G; Estrela, C


    To evaluate the microscopic characteristics and densities (per mm(2) ) of tryptase(+) mast cells, CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes, foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes, CD20(+) B lymphocytes, CD68(+) macrophages, and CD31(+) blood vessels in human dental pulpitis (n=38) and healthy pulpal tissue (n=6). The pulps of 38 human teeth with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis were removed by pulpectomy. The pulp tissue was immersed in 10% buffered formalin for evaluation using light microscopy. Tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, foxp3, CD20, CD68, and CD31 expressions were analysed using immunohistochemistry; other microscopic features, such as intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition, were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin stain. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at α=5%. Two microscopic patterns of pulpitis were found: group 1 (G1) (n=15) had an intense inflammatory infiltrate and mild collagen deposition; conversely, group 2 (G2) (n=23) had a scarce inflammatory infiltrate and intense collagen deposition. The numbers of CD68(+) macrophages (P=0.004) and CD20(+) B (P=0.068) lymphocytes and the density of blood vessels (P=0.002) were higher in G1 than in G2. However, a similar number of CD4(+) and CD45RO(+) T lymphocytes was found in both groups (P>0.05). When present, tryptase(+) mast cells were equally distributed in G1 and G2, whereas foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes were detected in 59% and 14% of the samples of G1 and G2. Controls exhibited lower numbers of foxp3, tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, CD68 and CD20 positive cells than G1 and G2. Irreversible pulpitis had distinct microscopic features with important quantitative and qualitative differences in inflammatory cell infiltration. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  13. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC, i...

  14. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak


    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  15. Infiltration of Supermicron Aerosols into a Simulated Space Telescope (United States)


    schematic for measuring supermicron particle infiltration into a simulated space telescope (SST) 7 in 4. CO2 concentration profiles of the...7001, Engelhard), one inside the SST and one in the chamber, were used to measure CO2 concentration changes with time, as the CO2 concentration flowing...rate calculations, the background CO2 concentration in the chamber must be subtracted from the measured values prior to evaluating the C02

  16. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (United States)

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun


    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TKA. Main outcomes were numeric rating scale (NRS) at postoperative day (POD) 0–2 and opioid consumption. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Results: Four randomized controlled trial (RCTs) including 297 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the groups regarding NRS score at POD 0 (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −0.849, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.345 to −0.353, P = .001), POD 1 (WMD = −0.960, 95% CI: −1.474 to −0.446, P = .000), and POD 2 (WMD = −0.672, 95% CI: −1.163 to −0.181, P = .007) after TKA. Significant differences were found in terms of opioid consumption at POD 0 (WMD = −3.761, 95% CI: −6.192 to −1.329, P = .002), POD 1 (WMD = −4.795, 95% CI: −8.181 to −1.409, P = .006), and POD 2 (WMD = −2.867, 95% CI: −4.907 to −0.827, P = .006). Conclusion: Combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration could significantly reduce NRS scores and opioid consumption in comparison with periarticular infiltration alone following TKA. Additionally, there is a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting in the combined groups. PMID:28930857

  17. Genomic Correlates of Immune-Cell Infiltrates in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Giannakis


    Full Text Available Large-scale genomic characterization of tumors from prospective cohort studies may yield new insights into cancer pathogenesis. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 619 incident colorectal cancers (CRCs and integrated the results with tumor immunity, pathology, and survival data. We identified recurrently mutated genes in CRC, such as BCL9L, RBM10, CTCF, and KLF5, that were not previously appreciated in this disease. Furthermore, we investigated the genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltration and found that higher neoantigen load was positively associated with overall lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, memory T cells, and CRC-specific survival. The association with TILs was evident even within microsatellite-stable tumors. We also found positive selection of mutations in HLA genes and other components of the antigen-processing machinery in TIL-rich tumors. These results may inform immunotherapeutic approaches in CRC. More generally, this study demonstrates a framework for future integrative molecular epidemiology research in colorectal and other malignancies.

  18. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda


    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  19. Wildfire Impacts on Infiltration and Hillslope-Scale Hydrologic Response (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Martin, D. A.; Moody, J. A.


    Changes in infiltration processes after wildfire produce increased runoff from hillslopes, leading to destructive floods and debris flows that endanger human lives and the built environment. While several conceptual models have been proposed to explain the post-fire changes in runoff-generation processes, few models have focused on the unsaturated zone and effects of ash. The goal of this research is to provide a process-based characterization of infiltration and the role of the unsaturated zone in post-fire runoff production. We are deploying sensors to estimate soil-water content, matric potential, temperature, and electrical conductivity in the unsaturated zone after a wildfire in Southern California, USA. Atmospheric variables such as wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and net solar radiation will also be measured to determine evaporation fluxes. Precipitation will be recorded using tipping-bucket raingages. Surface runoff will be measured using small flumes. The full complement of deployed sensors is designed to close the hillslope-scale water balance. We will use our instrumental record from the surface and the unsaturated zone to analyze state variables, hydraulic properties, and connectivity patterns influencing infiltration and runoff immediately after wildfire and as surface and subsurface recovery progresses. Our ultimate objective is better quantification of hydrologic thresholds when burned areas are most vulnerable to natural hazards such as debris flow initiation.

  20. [Postoperative pain in tonsillectomy in general anesthesia and local infiltration]. (United States)

    Melchor, M A; Villafruela, M A; Muñoz, B; Domingo, C; Ontañón, M; García, A; Guerrero, J A; Alvarez Vicent, J J


    The aim of this study is to demonstrate that blockade by bupivacaine of nociceptors located at the same level than the anterior tonsillar pillar, can reduce the pain in the postoperative period following tonsillectomy, thus, making easier the recovery of these patients at home. For this purpose, fifty children aged 2 to 13 years old, are studied. A double blind study is performed distributing the children randomly in two groups. One group is infiltrated prior to surgery with 1 cm3 of bupivacaine 0.25% + epinephrine 1:200,000 in three points of the anterior tonsillar pilla, while the other group is infiltrated with normal saline. The pain in the immediate postoperative period (60 minutes) is classified in five categories by a visual pain scale (scored 1-10). Short term postoperative (7 days) is also classified in five categories by a scale (scored 1-10) based in the information provided by the mother. Statistical analyses of the data is performed considering the statistical significance of the correlations obtained from the Chi2 and Student's tests. pre-incisional infiltration in the anterior tonsillar pillar with bupivacaine in the tonsillectomy will cause a remarkable reduction in the intensity of the postoperative pain.

  1. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  2. High-temperature-pressure polymerized resin-infiltrated ceramic networks. (United States)

    Nguyen, J F; Ruse, D; Phan, A C; Sadoun, M J


    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental "classic" CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks were made from glass-ceramic powder (VITA Zahnfabrik) formed by slip casting and were either sintered or not. They were silanized, infiltrated by urethane dimethacrylate, with or without initiator, and polymerized under HT/HP (300 MPa, 180°C) to obtain resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic network (RIGCN) CB. HT/HP polymerized CB were also made from an experimental "classic" composite. Flexural strength (σf), fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness were determined and analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffé multiple-means comparisons (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf). Fractured surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of RIGCN CB were significantly higher. Sintering induced significant increases in σf and hardness, while the initiator significantly decreased hardness. The results suggested that RIGCN and HT/HP polymerization could be used to obtain CB with superior mechanical properties, suitable for CAD/CAM applications.

  3. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen V; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte V


    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  4. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... a 19. year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order...

  5. Water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity in a natural Mediterranean oak forest: impacts of hydrology-oriented silviculture on soil hydraulic properties (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Cerdà, Artemi; Cullotta, Sebastiano; del Campo, Antonio; González-Sanchis, María; Iovino, Massimo; Maetzke, Federico


    the practice of forest management persist for almost one century. It is therefore important to monitor managed sites over longer periods, since short-term investigations are insufficient to detect changes that may influence e.g. larger parts of watersheds (Bens et al., 2006). In addition, soil hydraulic properties exhibit strong spatial and temporal variations and a large number of determinations are required to assess the magnitude of the variation within the selected area (Logsdon and Jaynes, 1996). The use of simple and rapid field techniques is therefore important to obtain reliable data with a sustainable effort (Bagarello et al., 2014; Di Prima et al., 2016). The Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer (BEST) parameters procedure by Lassabatere et al. (2006) is very attractive for practical use since it allows an estimation of both the soil water retention and the hydraulic conductivity functions from cumulative infiltration collected during a ponded field experiment and a few routinely laboratory determinations. Lassabatere et al. (2006) suggested to measure the infiltration time of small volumes of water repeatedly poured on the soil surface confined by a ring inserted to a depth of about 1 cm into the soil. BEST considers a zero ponded infiltration model which was assumed to be appropriate for an infiltration run performed with small, but positive, pressure heads. This assumption was supported by numerical tests carried out by Touma et al. (2007). Recently, Di Prima (2015) developed a method to automate data collection with a compact infiltrometer under constant head conditions. The device, maintaining a small quasi-constant head of water (i.e., 2-3 mm) on the infiltration surface, is equipped with a differential pressure transducer to measure the stepwise drop of water level in the reservoir, and, in turn, to quantify cumulative infiltration into the soil. The data acquisition system has been designed with low cost components and it is based on the open source

  6. Assessing clogging development in infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment by electrical resistivity and induced polarisation methods (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Himi, Mahjoub; Lovera, Raúl; de la Rocha, Angelica; Foch, Montserrat; Salvadó, Humbert; Casas, Albert


    Infiltration-percolation is a low technology process used to treat primary and secondary effluents. It consists in the intermittent application of sewage on buried sand filters where the infiltrated water percolates through unsaturated porous medium. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems are: low energy requirements, operation and maintenance that may be conducted by unskilled staff, and low sludge production because their simplicity and low operation costs. Nevertheless, clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. For this reason it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. The preliminary results of this research conducted at the Hostalets de Pierola wastewater treatment plant (near Barcelona, Spain) show that electrical resistivity and induced polarisation geophysical methods can be very useful for delineating the clogging expansion. Then, this non-destructive metodology can help take the preventive measures for enlarge the lifetime of the treatment system.

  7. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although macrophages (MPhi are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS, the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte

  8. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone


    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  9. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo


    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  10. CDH1 promoter hypermethylation and E-cadherin protein expression in infiltrating breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldeira, José Roberto F; Prando, Erika C; Quevedo, Francisco C


    BACKGROUND: The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) maps, at chromosome 16q22.1, a region often associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human breast cancer. LOH at this site is thought to lead to loss of function of this tumor suppressor gene and was correlated with decreased disease-free survival, poor......, by Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP), the methylation pattern of the CDH1 gene and its possible correlation with the expression of E-cadherin and other standard immunohistochemical parameters (Her-2, ER, PgR, p53, and K-67) in a series of 79 primary breast cancers (71 infiltrating ductal, 5...... cancers associated with a decrease in E-cadherin expression in a subgroup of cases characterized by loss of expression of other important genes to the mammary carcinogenesis process, probably due to the disruption of the mechanism of maintenance of DNA methylation in tumoral cells....

  11. Effects of Preform Density on Structure and Property of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Gaseous Silicon Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yu


    Full Text Available The 3-D needled C/C preforms with different densities deposited by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI method were used to fabricate C/C-SiC composites by gaseous silicon infiltration (GSI. The porosity and CVI C thickness of the preforms were studied, and the effects of preform density on the mechanical and thermal properties of C/C-SiC composites were analyzed. The results show that with the increase of preform density, the preform porosity decreases and the CVI C thickness increases from several hundred nanometers to several microns. For the C/C-SiC composites, as the preform density increases, the residual C content increases while the density and residual Si content decreases. The SiC content first keeps at a high level of about 40% (volume fraction, which then quickly reduces. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties increase to the highest values when the preform density is 1.085g/cm3, with the flexure strength up to 308.31MP and fracture toughness up to 11.36MPa·m1/2, which then decrease as the preform density further increases. The thermal conductivity and CTE of the composites, however, decrease with the increase of preform density. It is found that when the preform porosity is too high, sufficient infiltration channels lead to more residual Si, and thinner CVI C thickness results in the severe corrosion of the reinforcing fibers by Si and lower mechanical properties. When the preform porosity is relatively low, the contents of Si and SiC quickly reduce since the infiltration channels are rapidly blocked, resulting in the formation of large closed pores and not high mechanical properties.

  12. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study on undisturbed soil column from headwater catchment (United States)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Tesar, Miroslav


    Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments with tracer breakthrough were carried out in the laboratory on intact column of sandy loam soil taken from Roklan site (Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic). In the case of isothermal experiment, the temperature of infiltrating water was almost equal to the initial temperature of the sample. For the non-isothermal case the infiltration was performed using water approximately 10 °C colder than was the initial temperature of soil sample. The experiments were otherwise conducted under the same initial and boundary conditions. Pressure heads and temperatures in two depths (8.8 and 15.3 cm) inside the soil were monitored as well as the temperature of water entering and leaving the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample by gravity and outflow was measured using tipping bucket flowmeter. Permeability of the sample calculated for steady state stages of the experiment showed that significant difference between water flow rates recorded during two experiment could not be justified only by temperature induced changes of water viscosity and density. Results of deuterium breakthrough were nearly identical for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  13. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert


    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  14. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models. (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J


    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  15. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge. DESIGN: Open study. SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 55...... with polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance....... RESULTS: Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p

  16. Survival of resin infiltrated ceramics under influence of fatigue. (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Elsafi, Mohamed H


    to evaluate influence of cyclic fatigue on two resin infiltrated ceramics and three all-ceramic crowns manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. CAD/CAM anatomically shaped crowns were manufactured using two resin infiltrated ceramics (Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic), two reinforced glass ceramic milling blocks ((IPS)Empress CAD and (IPS)e.max CAD) and a veneered zirconia core ((IPS)Zir CAD). (IPS)e.max CAD and (IPS)Zir CAD were milled into 0.5mm thick anatomically shaped core structure which received standardized press-on veneer ceramic. The manufactured crowns were cemented on standardized resin dies using a resin adhesive (Panavia F2.0). Initial fracture strength of half of the specimens was calculated using one cycle load to failure in a universal testing machine. The remaining crowns were subjected to 3.7 million chewing cycles (load range 50-200N at 3s interval) in a custom made pneumatic fatigue tester. Survival statistics were calculated and Weibull modulus was measured from fitted load-cycle-failure diagrams. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to fractographically analyze fractured surfaces. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). Dynamic fatigue resulted in significant reduction (F=7.54, Presin infiltrated ceramics and (IPS)Empress demonstrated the highest percent of fracture incidences under the influence of fatigue (35-45% splitting). None of the tested veneered zirconia restorations were fractured during testing, however, chipping of the veneer ceramics was observed in 6 crowns. The lowest percent of failure was observed for (IPS)e.max crowns manifested as 3 cases of minor chipping in addition to two complete fracture incidences. SEM images demonstrated the internal structure of the tested materials and detected location and size of the critical crack. The internal structure of the tested materials significantly influenced their fatigue behavior. Resin infiltrated ceramics were least influenced

  17. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik


    was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  18. Gene-specific sex effects on eosinophil infiltration in leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Volkova, Valeriya; Čepičková, Marie; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie


    Roč. 7, podzim (2016), č. článku 59. ISSN 2042-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30186S; GA ČR GP13-41002P; GA MŠk LH12049; GA ČR GA16-22346S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania major * Mouse model * Eosinophii infiltration * Genetic control * QTL * Sex influence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2016

  19. Genomic Analysis of Immune Cell Infiltrates Across 11 Tumor Types. (United States)

    Iglesia, Michael D; Parker, Joel S; Hoadley, Katherine A; Serody, Jonathan S; Perou, Charles M; Vincent, Benjamin G


    Immune infiltration of the tumor microenvironment has been associated with improved survival for some patients with solid tumors. The precise makeup and prognostic relevance of immune infiltrates across a broad spectrum of tumors remain unclear. Using mRNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) from 11 tumor types representing 3485 tumors, we evaluated lymphocyte and macrophage gene expression by tissue type and by genomic subtypes defined within and across tumor tissue of origin (Cox proportional hazards, Pearson correlation). We investigated clonal diversity of B-cell infiltrates through calculating B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire sequence diversity. All statistical tests were two-sided. High expression of T-cell and B-cell signatures predicted improved overall survival across many tumor types including breast, lung, and melanoma (breast CD8_T_Cells hazard ratio [HR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.81, P = .01; lung adenocarcinoma B_Cell_60gene HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.87, P = 7.80E-04; melanoma LCK HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94, P = 6.75E-04). Macrophage signatures predicted worse survival in GBM, as did B-cell signatures in renal tumors (Glioblastoma Multiforme [GBM]: macrophages HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.17 to 2.26, P = .004; renal: B_Cell_60gene HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.32, P = .009). BCR diversity was associated with survival beyond gene segment expression in melanoma (HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.32 to 5.40, P = .02) and renal cell carcinoma (HR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.87, P = .006). These data support existing studies suggesting that in diverse tissue types, heterogeneous immune infiltrates are present and typically portend an improved prognosis. In some tumor types, BCR diversity was also associated with survival. Quantitative genomic signatures of immune cells warrant further testing as prognostic markers and potential biomarkers of response to cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Advances in modeling of chemical vapor infiltration for tube fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Technology


    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) can be used for fabrication of tube-shaped components of ceramic matrix composites. Recent experimental work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes process and materials development studies using a small tube reactor. Use of FCVI for this geometry involves significant changes in fixturing as compared to disk-shaped preforms previously fabricated. The authors have used their computer model of the CVI process to simulate tube densification and to identify process modifications that will decrease processing time. This report presents recent model developments and applications.

  1. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer during pregnancy. (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Vingiani, Andrea; Peccatori, Fedro; Viale, Giuseppe; Loi, Sherene; Pruneri, Giancarlo


    Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is one of the most exciting breast cancer biomarkers, yet no data is available on its prevalence in tumours diagnosed during pregnancy. We evaluated the prevalence of TILs (stromal and intratumoural) in pregnant and non-pregnant young breast cancer patients. 11/116 (9.6%) of the non-pregnant and 2/86 (2.3%) pregnant patients had TILs ≥ 50% (p pregnancy. The low prevalence could reflect the state of low host immunity associated with pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration. (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S


    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  4. Effect of laser therapy on immune cells infiltrate after excisional wounds in diabetic rats. (United States)

    de Loura Santana, Cristiano; de Fátima Teixeira Silva, Daniela; de Souza, Amanda Pires; Jacinto, Marcos Vinicius; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; França, Cristiane Miranda


    Diabetes alters innate and specific immunity, causing an imbalanced tissue repair process. Very active neutrophils and macrophages are found for a long time in chronic wounds in those individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the main effector cells of immunity (neutrophils, macrophages, and T lymphocytes) and to compare the effects of two laser therapy regimens in the postoperative treatment of excision wounds. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats and a punch was used to cause wounds in the dorsum of each individual. The animals were randomly allocated to a control group (CG), in which the wound was untreated, a single-dose laser group (SLG), in which the wound was submitted to single dose of laser therapy at wavelength of 660 nm, output power of 30 mW, energy density of 4 J/cm(2), and 26-second exposure time, and a fractionated-dose laser group (FLG), submitted to 1 J/cm(2) of laser therapy on Days 1, 3, 8, and 10. Euthanasia was performed on five animals from each group Days 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, and 22. The wound was removed and routinely processed for immunohistochemistry against elastase, CD3, CD68, and CD206 antibodies. The samples were photographed and labeled cells were counted by a blinded observer. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis. Neutrophils were predominant in the SLG on Day 1, whereas these cells were mostly found in the CG on Day 3 (P laser therapy can alter the composition of inflammatory infiltrate in diabetic wounds, leading to a more balanced response transiting from a rapid neutrophil infiltration through to M2 macrophage polarization, especially with a single application of 4 J/cm(2) in the immediate postoperative period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors. (United States)

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta


    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75-100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation.

  6. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  7. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Askari


    Full Text Available Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory experiment. Newton –Raphson method was esed to estimate wetting front during calculation using visual Basic for Application (VBA in MS Word. The result showed that  contributed the highest error in estimation of cumulative infiltration and was followed by K, H0, H1, and t respectively. It also showed that the calculated cumulative infiltration is always lower than both measured cumulative infiltration and volumetric soil water content.

  8. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies; Sensitivitaet der MRT fuer alveolaere Infiltrate. Experimentelle Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinikum fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Muhle, C. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Freitag, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Statistik


    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T{sub 2}-TSE and T{sub 2}-HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T{sub 2}-HASTE and T{sub 2}-TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T{sub 2}-weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p<0.01) and 60% at 200 ml (p<0.01). With 2D- and 3D-GRE the infiltrates were not visible, although the lung parenchyma signal increase was statistically significant. On 2D-GRE the increase in signal intensity reached 0.74% (p=0.32) after 100 ml and 5.6% (p<0.01) after 200 ml for 3D-GRE: 2.2% [p=0.02] at 100 ml and 4.4% at 200 ml [p<0.001]. The CT controls revealed a significant increase of lung density of 17. H.E. at 100 ml (p=0.02) and 75 H.E. at 200 ml (p<0.01). Conclusions: MRI with T{sub 2}-weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to

  9. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck


    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... indicated that rapid progression of the disease was to be expected. However, only two of the patients showed rapid progression, while the remaining two patients are still alive after more than 3 years. In TIL in primary melanomas, a possible correlation was suggested between HLA-A2 and the preferential...... out of three subcutaneous metastases. The V gene families, which were highly expressed in the primary tumour were generally not, or only very weakly, expressed in metastases and vice versa, possibly reflecting a change in the phenotype of the metastatic melanoma target cells. With regards to patient...

  10. A challenge to the conventional wisdom that simultaneous etching and resin infiltration always occurs in self-etch adhesives. (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Chersoni, Stefano; Frankenberger, Roland; Pashley, David H; Prati, Carlo; Tay, Franklin R


    This study provided morphological evidence that discrepancies between the depth of demineralisation and the depth of resin infiltration can occur in some mild self-etch adhesives. Sound dentine specimens derived from extracted human third molars were bonded with 5 one-step and 5 two-step self-etch adhesives. One millimeter thick slabs containing the resin-dentine interfaces were immersed in 50 wt% aqueous ammoniacal silver nitrate and processed for TEM examination. A zone of partially etched but uninfiltrated dentine was identified beneath the hybrid layers in the milder versions of both one-step and two-step self-etch adhesives. This zone was characterised by the occurrence of silver deposits along the interfibrillar spaces of mineralised collagen fibrils. The silver infiltrated interfibrillar spaces were clearly identified from the one-step self-etch adhesives Xeno III, iBond, Brush&Bond and the experimental adhesive, and were thinner and only occasionally observed in the two-step self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil Protect Bond. The more aggressive one-step and two-step adhesives that exhibit more abrupt transitions from completely demineralised to mineralised dentin were devoid of these silver-infiltrated interfibrillar spaces beneath the hybrid layers. Incomplete resin infiltration observed in some self-etch adhesives may be caused by the reduced etching potential of the acidic monomers toward the base of hybrid layers, or the presence of acidic but non-polymerisable hydrolytic adhesive components, creating potential sites for the degradation of the bonded created by these self-etch adhesives.

  11. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Starr, T.L. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  12. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Starr, T.L. (Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))


    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  13. Dupuytren Disease Infiltrating a Full-Thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie George; Igali, Laszlo; Figus, Andrea


    Although the role of the skin in the development and propagation of Dupuytren disease remains unclear, dermofasciectomy and full-thickness skin grafting (FTSG) appears to delay recurrence. In 2011, a 71-year-old, left-handed man presented with recurrent Dupuytren disease in the dominant hand. In 1991, he originally underwent a primary dermofasciectomy and FTSG for Dupuytren disease involving the palmar skin. Twenty years later, the left middle finger was drawn into flexion by a recurrent cord, and the old graft and adjacent palmar skin were clinically involved by fibromatosis. We performed a revision dermofasciectomy and FTSG. Microscopic analysis of the excised graft demonstrated dense infiltration of the entire skin graft by Dupuytren disease, with areas of active and burnt-out fibromatosis distinct from hypertrophic scarring. This report of Dupuytren fibromatosis infiltrating a skin graft raises questions about the pathophysiology of Dupuytren disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying expert diagnosis variability when grading tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (United States)

    Toro, Paula; Corredor, Germán.; Wang, Xiangxue; Arias, Viviana; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Madabhushi, Anant; Romero, Eduardo


    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have proved to play an important role in predicting prognosis, survival, and response to treatment in patients with a variety of solid tumors. Unfortunately, currently, there are not a standardized methodology to quantify the infiltration grade. The aim of this work is to evaluate variability among the reports of TILs given by a group of pathologists who examined a set of digitized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer samples (n=60). 28 pathologists answered a different number of histopathological images. The agreement among pathologists was evaluated by computing the Kappa index coefficient and the standard deviation of their estimations. Furthermore, TILs reports were correlated with patient's prognosis and survival using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. General results show that the agreement among experts grading TILs in the dataset is low since Kappa values remain below 0.4 and the standard deviation values demonstrate that in none of the images there was a full consensus. Finally, the correlation coefficient for each pathologist also reveals a low association between the pathologists' predictions and the prognosis/survival data. Results suggest the need of defining standardized, objective, and effective strategies to evaluate TILs, so they could be used as a biomarker in the daily routine.

  15. Local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulins without systemic intramuscular administration: An alternative cost effective approach for passive immunization against rabies. (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Gaunta, Pyare Lal; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman


    Presently the dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) which is an integral part of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is calculated based on body weight though the recommendation is to infiltrate the wound(s). This practice demands large quantities of RIG which may be unaffordable to many patients. In this background, we conducted this study to know if the quantity and cost of RIG can be reduced by restricting passive immunization to local infiltration alone and avoiding systemic intramuscular administration based on the available scientific evidence. Two hundred and sixty nine category III patients bitten by suspect or confirmed rabid dogs/animals were infiltrated with equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIGs) in and around the wound. The quantity of ERIG used was proportionate to the size and number of wounds irrespective of their body weight. They were followed with a regular course of rabies vaccination by intra-dermal route. As against 363 vials of RIGs required for all these cases as per current recommendation based on body weight, they required only 42 vials of 5ml RIG. Minimum dose of RIGs given was 0.25 ml and maximum dose given was 8 ml. On an average 1.26 ml of RIGs was required per patient that costs Rs. 150 ($3). All the patients were followed for 9 months and they were healthy and normal at the end of observation period. With local infiltration, that required small quantities of RIG, the RIGs could be made available to all patients in times of short supply in the market. A total of 30 (11%) serum samples of patients were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all showed antibody titers >0.5 IU/mL by day 14. In no case the dose was higher than that required based on body weight and no immunosuppression resulted. To conclude, this pilot study shows that local infiltration of RIG need to be considered in times of non-availability in the market or unaffordability by poor patients. This

  16. Microhardness and Penetration of Artificial White Spot Lesions Treated with Resin or Colloidal Silica Infiltration. (United States)

    Mandava, Jyothi; Reddy, Y Shilpa; Kantheti, Sirisha; Chalasani, Uma; Ravi, Ravi Chandra; Borugadda, Roopesh; Konagala, Ravi Kumar


    Infiltration of early enamel lesions by materials having remineralizing capacity seems to improve aesthetics and arrests caries progression. To evaluate and compare the surface microhardness and penetration depth of a low viscosity resin and colloidal silica nanoparticle infiltrates into artificially created white spot lesions. Forty extracted human central incisors were embedded in acrylic resin blocks exposing the labial surfaces of the crowns. The specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to create white spot lesions on labial surfaces. The samples were then divided into two groups (n=20 each), where in Group 1-resin infiltration (ICON DMG, Hamburg, Germany) and Group 2-colloidal silica infiltration (Arrow Fine chemicals, Rajkot, Gujarat, India) was done. Samples were subjected to vicker's microhardness testing at baseline, after demineralization and after treatment with resin or colloidal silica infiltrates. Then, the crowns were sectioned longitudinally and penetration depth of the infiltrants was measured using confocal laser scanning microscope and compared the readings to lesion depth. All the collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using t-test. Resin infiltration group showed significantly greater increase in microhardness compared to colloidal silica infiltration (p=0.001). The percentage of penetration of the resin group was 67.14% and that of colloidal silica group was 54.53% indicating significant difference between the two. Resin infiltrates performed better in regaining the baseline microhardness and penetrating deep into the porous white spot lesions, when compared to colloidal silica infiltrates.

  17. Infiltration of Macrophages Correlates with Severity of Allograft Rejection and Outcome in Human Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bergler

    Full Text Available Despite substantial progress in recent years, graft survival beyond the first year still requires improvement. Since modern immunosuppression addresses mainly T-cell activation and proliferation, we studied macrophage infiltration into the allografts of 103 kidney transplant recipients during acute antibody and T-cell mediated rejection. Macrophage infiltration was correlated with both graft function and graft survival until month 36 after transplantation.Macrophage infiltration was significantly elevated in antibody-mediated and T-cell mediated rejection, but not in kidneys with established IFTA. Treatment of rejection with steroids was less successful in patients with more prominent macrophage infiltration into the allografts. Macrophage infiltration was accompanied by increased cell proliferation as well as antigen presentation. With regard to the compartmental distribution severity of T-cell-mediated rejection was correlated to the amount of CD68+ cells especially in the peritubular and perivascular compartment, whereas biopsies with ABMR showed mainly peritubular CD68 infiltration. Furthermore, severity of macrophage infiltration was a valid predictor of resulting creatinine values two weeks as well as two and three years after renal transplantation as illustrated by multivariate analysis. Additionally performed ROC curve analysis showed that magnitude of macrophage infiltration (below vs. above the median was a valid predictor for the necessity to restart dialysis. Having additionally stratified biopsies in accordance to the magnitude of macrophage infiltration, differential CD68+ cell infiltration was reflected by striking differences in overall graft survival.The differences in acute allograft rejection have not only been reflected by different magnitudes of macrophage infiltration, but also by compartment-specific infiltration pattern and subsequent impact on resulting allograft function as well as need for dialysis initiation. There is

  18. Infiltration well to reduce the impact of land use changes on flood peaks: a case study of Way Kuala Garuntang catchment, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia (United States)

    Kusumastuti, D. I.; Jokowinarno, D.; Khotimah, S. N.; Dewi, C.; Yuniarti, F.


    Significant land use changes due to rapid development, a central issue in Bandar Lampung and high rainfall intensity are the main triggers for frequent flooding. This study was carried out to define design rainfall intensity based on analysis of hourly temporal rainfall pattern for calculating design discharge, predict the impact of land use changes on flood peaks, and predict the impact of infiltration well on flood peak reduction. The results showed that rainfall distribution pattern for storm duration of 4 h are 40, 35, 20 and 5% for the first, second, third and fourth hour, respectively. Analysis on land use changes underlined that if 30% of the catchment area is maintained for green land then flood peaks can be decreased. However, with city development, land conversions are intended for settlements, industries and trading areas which will increase flood peaks significantly. Application of infiltration well in the catchment can reduce surface runoff depends on the density and dimension of the well. The results suggest that using infiltration well with diameters between 0.8 to 1.4 m which are applied each in every 4000 m2 of land area will reduce flood peaks from 6.9 to 12.6%. While the application of infiltration well with density of 500 m2 will reduce flood peaks from 55.21 to 99.8%. Commitment and relevant government policies and community participation will encourage to undertake flood reduction measures.

  19. Site Selection Methodology for the Land Treatment of Wastewater. (United States)


    several different preapplication and crop alternatives. Table A9 presents the hydraulic assimilative rapacity and drainage re- quirements of each of...requirements for slow in- filtration. Land area requirements for rapid infiltration are a function of the soil hydraulic assimilation rapacity and the

  20. Multi-instrument Method to Map Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Snowmelt Infiltration (United States)

    Hyde, K.; Beverly, D.; Thayer, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Parsekian, A.; Kelleners, T.


    Mapping spatial patterns of relative soil moisture over time may improve understanding of snowmelt infiltration processes in heterogeneous systems. Conventional soil water measurement methods disturb soil properties and rocky materials generally limit installation of monitoring instruments to shallow depths in mountainous landscapes with snowmelt dominated hydrology. Modifications to existing technology combined with low impact installation methods provide high temporal and spatial resolution of relative soil moisture as well as a temperature profile and water table level. Closely spaced (10cm) electrical resistance pads are combined in a small diameter (2.54 cm) tube with temperature probes each 50cm, a pressure transducer, and a tube to extract groundwater for stable isotope analysis. This vertical probe array (VPA) extends 3.2m and is installed in a small diameter (4 cm) bore using a backpack drill limiting soil disturbance. Two VPAs are installed in the Snowy Range of Wyoming, one in a forested mountainous environment impacted by mortality by insects and disease and the other (limited to resistance pads only) in recently burned sagelands. Each VPA is co-located with meteorological stations. Eddy-covariance, sap flux, electrical resistivity, snowpack survey, and other hillslope eco-hydrology measurements accompany the fully instrumented VPA. Data are sampled and recorded at 5 or 15 minute intervals starting in December 2014. Over the winter both sites exhibit highly variable patterns of relatively dry soils with steady increase in wetness. Abrupt increases in relative wetness occurred with short periods of warming temperatures in Spring. Following a temperature increase in the forested site the relative moisture dramatically increased over a period of several hours at all depths as water level rose 1m within 8 hours. In contrast, following snowmelt relative moisture in the sageland site increased gradually and systematically with depth over a period of two weeks

  1. Leukemic gingival infiltrate as an indicator of chemotherapeutic failure following monoclonal antibody therapy: a case report. (United States)

    Sollecito, Thomas P; Draznin, Julia; Parisi, Ernesta; Duffy, Kathleen; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Luger, Selina M; Schuster, Stephen J; Tsai, Donald; Porter, David L


    Treatment options are limited for patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), particularly when the disease is refractory to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. Targeted drug therapy offers the advantage of delivering higher doses of non-cross resistant chemotherapy with potentially less systemic toxicity. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories) is an immunoconjugate that consists of humanized anti-CD 33 antibody linked to the potent anti-tumor antibiotic calicheamicin and has been an effective therapy for some patients with relapsed AML. However, the overall utility of gemtuzumab ozogamicin is not well defined. For instance, it is not known how well this antibody will target extramedullary disease. This article reports gemtuzumab treatment of refractory AML in a 32-year-old man. At the time of recurrence, his bone marrow was hypoplastic and without leukemia, but the condition progressed resulting in marked leukemic infiltration of the oral mucosa. This case history raises the possibility that leukemic sanctuary sites may exist, and that monoclonal antibody therapy may have sub-optimal activity in non-medullary sites of disease.

  2. Solid tumor-targeted infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes retained by a superantigen fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Sun

    Full Text Available Successful immune-mediated regression of solid tumors is difficult because of the small number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs that were traffic to the tumor site. Here, the targeting of tumor-specific infiltrating CTLs was dependent on a fusion protein consisting of human epidermal growth factor (EGF and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA with the D227A mutation. EGF-SEA strongly restrained the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180 tumors (control versus EGF-SEA, mean tumor weight: 1.013 versus 0.197 g, difference  = 0.816 g. In mice treated with EGF-SEA, CD4+, CD8+ and SEA-reactive T lymphocytes were enriched around the EGFR expressing tumor cells. The EGF receptors were potentially phosphorylated by EGF-SEA stimulation and the fusion protein promoted T cells to release the tumoricidal cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforins and granzyme B proteins near the surface of carcinomas, causing the death of many tumor cells. We additionally show that labeled EGF-SEA was directly targeted to the tumor tissue after intravenous (i.v. injection. The findings demonstrate that antibody-like EGF-SEA plays an important role in arresting CTLs in the solid tumor site and has therapeutic potential as a tumor-targeting agent.

  3. Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Bernander, Robert E.


    Composites of zirconium carbide matrix material reinforced with carbon fibers can be fabricated relatively rapidly in a process that includes a melt infiltration step. Heretofore, these and other ceramic matrix composites have been made in a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process that takes months. The finished products of the CVI process are highly porous and cannot withstand temperatures above 3,000 F (approx.1,600 C). In contrast, the melt-infiltration-based process takes only a few days, and the composite products are more nearly fully dense and have withstood temperatures as high as 4,350 F (approx.2,400 C) in a highly oxidizing thrust chamber environment. Moreover, because the melt- infiltration-based process takes much less time, the finished products are expected to cost much less. Fabrication begins with the preparation of a carbon fiber preform that, typically, is of the size and shape of a part to be fabricated. By use of low-temperature ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the carbon fibers in the preform are coated with one or more interfacial material(s), which could include oxides. The interfacial material helps to protect the fibers against chemical attack during the remainder of the fabrication process and against oxidation during subsequent use; it also enables slippage between the fibers and the matrix material, thereby helping to deflect cracks and distribute loads. Once the fibers have been coated with the interfacial material, the fiber preform is further infiltrated with a controlled amount of additional carbon, which serves as a reactant for the formation of the carbide matrix material. The next step is melt infiltration. The preform is exposed to molten zirconium, which wicks into the preform, drawn by capillary action. The molten metal fills most of the interstices of the preform and reacts with the added carbon to form the zirconium carbide matrix material. The zirconium does not react with the underlying fibers because they

  4. Multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic in total knee arthroplasty; is posterior capsular infiltration worth the risk? a prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Pinsornsak, P; Nangnual, S; Boontanapibul, K


    Multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic provides effective control of pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There is little information about the added benefits of posterior capsular infiltration (PCI) using different combinations of local anaesthetic agents. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the control of pain using multimodal infiltration with and without infiltration of the posterior capsule of the knee. In a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of patients scheduled for unilateral primary TKA, 86 were assigned to be treated with multimodal infiltration with (Group I) or without (Group II) PCI. Routine associated analgesia included the use of bupivacaine, morphine, ketorolac and epinephrine. All patients had spinal anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) post-operatively. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the use of morphine were recorded 24 hours post-operatively. Side effects of the infiltration, blood loss, and length of stay in hospital were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to: VAS pain scores in the first 24 hours post-operatively (p = 0.693), the use of morphine in the PCA (p = 0.647), blood loss (p = 0.625), and length of stay (p = 0.17). There were no neurovascular complications in either group. The multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic with infiltration of the posterior capsule did not provide significant added analgesic benefits or reduce the use of morphine after TKA. Multimodal infiltration is a satisfactory technique for the management of pain in these patients without the attendant risks of PCI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017; 99-B:483-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Using lithium glass infiltration to enhance the properties of alumina bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar


    Full Text Available The use of an infiltration process to improve the properties of sintered materials has been widely investigated. This work describes the research carried out in the manufacturing of lithium glass-infiltrated alumina. The infiltration material consisted of a mixture of elements such as Li2O, ZrO2, SiO2 Al2O3, CaO and La2O3. Alumina specimens were sintered in air at 1400 °C for 2 hours. A number of samples were then submitted to the infiltration process at 1400 °C for 15 minutes. Sintered and infiltrated specimens were characterized by X ray diffraction, apparent density, open porosity, flexural strengths and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the infiltration process considerably improves the properties of alumina bodies.

  6. ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Kiggans, J O; Stracener, Dan


    A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

  7. Chiasmatic infiltration secondary to late malignant transformation of retinoma. (United States)

    Mataftsi, Asimina; Zografos, Leonidas; Balmer, Aubin; Uffer, Sylvie; Stupp, Roger; Janzer, Robert C; Pica, Alessia; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L


    To report the lethal course of malignant transformation of retinoma in an adult. Case report. A 40-year-old patient presented with retinoma in his right eye and retinoblastoma in his left eye. Enucleation was recommended but refused and the patient received whole eye radiotherapy elsewhere. Five years later he presented again, with temporal hemianopsia of the left eye secondary to chiasmatic invasion. Diagnosis of retinoblastoma infiltration was confirmed by stereotactic biopsy of the chiasmatic lesion. Treatment with intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy led to partial remission, and was followed by stereotactic irradiation of the chiasmatic mass and right optic nerve. The left eye was enucleated. Death occurred one year later due to cerebrospinal fluid metastases. Extraocular extension of retinoblastoma diagnosed in adulthood has never, to our knowledge, been reported. This case stresses the importance of lifelong retinoma monitoring and the necessity for radical treatment in the event of malignant transformation.

  8. Immunohistochemical evaluation of mononuclear infiltrates in canine lupoid onychodystrophy. (United States)

    Mueller, R S; West, K; Bettenay, S V


    Claw biopsy samples of 11 dogs with lupoid onychodystrophy were evaluated. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with antibodies against CD 3 as a T-cell marker, BLA 36 and HM 57 (CD 79alpha) as B-cell markers, and lysozyme, Mac 387, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II as a marker for histiocytes using an immunoperoxidase and avidin-biotin technique. Inflammatory cells were counted in five high-power fields. The inflammatory infiltrate comprised predominantly B cells and T cells. Macrophages were typically only present in small numbers. CD 3, BLA 36, lysozyme, and MHC class II preserved significant antigenicity during formalin fixation and short decalcification for 24-48 hours, whereas CD 79alpha and particularly Mac 387 seemed to be more susceptible to denaturation by the decalcification process.

  9. Epidemiology of contact lens-induced infiltrates: an updated review. (United States)

    Steele, Kelsy R; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta


    Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are well established as a risk associated with soft contact lens wear. The incidence of symptomatic CIEs during extended soft lens wear ranges from 2.5 to six per cent; when asymptomatic CIEs are included, the incidence can be as high as 20-25 per cent. In daily soft lens wear, the annual incidence of symptomatic CIEs is about three per cent. There are various accepted methods of categorising CIEs, and a scoring system based on clinical signs and symptoms is a good approach to grade severity. Lens-related risk factors include extended wear, silicone hydrogel material, the use of multipurpose solutions, bacterial bioburden and reusable lenses. Recent studies report that daily disposable lenses reduce the risk of CIEs. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  10. Supercontinuum generation in fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bang, Ole; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    Supercontinuum generation in a capillary tube infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal is investigated theoretically in the near infrared region. A liquid crystal with a high electronic nonlinearity is chosen, which makes it possible to generate 100 nm wide supercontinua using IO ps pulses...... with peak power 1.5 kW in a 10 cm long waveguide. The possibility of tuning the spectrum of the generated Supercontinuum by changing the dispersion of the waveguide is also considered. It is found that the broadening of the spectrum in both the normal and anomalous regime is mainly due to self phase...... modulation, and therefore the dispersion of the waveguide is only of minor importance. The tuning of the dispersion is achieved by varying the temperature of the liquid crystal inside the capillary...

  11. [Treatment of infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers in elderly patients]. (United States)

    Quintens, H; Guy, L; Mazerolles, C; Théodore, C; Amsellem, D; Roupret, M; Wallerand, H; Roy, C; Saint, F; Bernardini, S; Lebret, T; Soulié, M; Pfister, C


    Total cystectomy is the reference treatment for infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers. With the progress in anesthesia and postoperative intensive care, this treatment can be applied to a population of elderly subjects provided there is a strict oncological and geriatric evaluation of the patient. Recent series reporting total cystectomies in subjects over 75 years of age report comparable morbidity and mortality rates to the general population. Strategies to preserve the vesical reservoir can be indicated in selected cases. Their objectives are to guarantee local control and follow-up identical to radical cystectomy, while preserving a functional bladder and good quality of life. The strategies including transurethral resection with radiochemotherapy are analyzed. Thus, with multidisciplinary consensus and adapted management, elderly patients with significant comorbidities should not be automatically excluded from access to effective treatment of these cancers. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Definitive radiation therapy for infiltrative thyroid carcinoma in dogs. (United States)

    Pack, L; Roberts, R E; Dawson, S D; Dookwah, H D


    The medical records of eight dogs with histopathologically confirmed infiltrative thyroid carcinoma treated with external beam radiation were reviewed and a retrospective analysis of survival and local tumor control were performed. The dogs received a definitive radiotherapy protocol of 46.8-48 Gray. All dogs had a reduction in tumor size to a clinically undetectable level on follow up examinations. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a median survival time of 24.5 months. Pulmonary metastasis was detected in three dogs and one of these dogs had concurrent bone metastasis. One dog had bone metastasis alone. Two dogs were alive at the censor. This study suggests that fractionated, definitive radiation therapy using multiple, moderate doses of radiation is an effective treatment for local control of invasive thyroid carcinoma in dogs.

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M


    Over the past few years melanoma incidence has been rising steadily, resulting in an increase in melanoma related mortality. Until recently, therapeutic options for metastatic melanoma were scarce. Chemotherapy and, in some countries, IL-2 were the only registered treatment modalities. In the last...... five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...... promising, immunotherapeutic strategy for patients with metastatic melanoma. This review will discuss the development of TIL as a treatment option for melanoma, its mode of action and simplification over time, and the possibilities to expand this therapy to other types of cancer. Also, the future directions...

  14. Subacute liver failure by pseudocirrhotic metastatic breast cancer infiltration. (United States)

    Jüngst, Christoph; Krämer, Jens; Schneider, Günther; Lammert, Frank; Zimmer, Vincent


    Hepatic metastases are common in the clinical course of breast cancer and typically appear as mass lesions. This report describes the case of a 70-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer and no previously known liver disease presenting with the first episode of variceal bleeding and subacute hepatic failure. Imaging studies indicated liver cirrhosis without signs of malignant focal lesions. Comprehensive diagnostic work-up was negative for specific causes of liver disease and provided no evidence for tumor recurrence. Finally transjugular liver biopsy revealed a marked diffuse desmoplastic infiltration by breast cancer cells. Malignant pseudocirrhosis is an unusual pattern of metastatic, tumor spread representing a rare but important differential diagnosis of progressive liver failure. Liver biopsy is the key procedure to establish the diagnosis as imaging studies may mimic cirrhosis.

  15. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite (United States)

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.


    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  16. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  17. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole


    POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal E......7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The difference......Here, we firstly demonstrate the photonic bandgap effect with PMMA mPOF by filling the air holes with liquid crystal, and subsequently change the light guidance mechanism from index guiding to bandgap guiding. The triangular structure PMMA mPOF used in the experiment is fabricated. A 60 cm length m...

  18. Site Features (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  19. Infiltrating regulatory B cells control neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. (United States)

    Mutnal, Manohar B; Hu, Shuxian; Schachtele, Scott J; Lokensgard, James R


    Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a subset of B lymphocytes, regulatory B cells (Bregs), which modulate immune function. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments were undertaken to elucidate the role of these Bregs in controlling neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. We used multicolor flow cytometry to phenotype lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating the brain, along with in vitro cocultures to assess their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. This distinctive subset of CD19(+)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells was found to infiltrate the brains of chronically infected animals, reaching highest levels at the latest time point tested (30 d postinfection). B cell-deficient Jh(-/-) mice were found to develop exacerbated neuroimmune responses as measured by enhanced accumulation and/or retention of CD8(+) T cells within the brain, as well as increased levels of microglial activation (MHC class II). Conversely, levels of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were found to be significantly lower in Jh(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type (Wt) animals. Further experiments showed that in vitro-generated IL-10-secreting Bregs (B10) were able to inhibit cytokine responses from microglia following stimulation with viral Ags. These in vitro-generated B10 cells were also found to promote proliferation of regulatory T cells in coculture studies. Finally, gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that reconstitution of Wt B cells into Jh(-/-) mice restored neuroimmune responses to levels exhibited by infected Wt mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Bregs modulate T lymphocyte as well as microglial cell responses within the infected brain and promote CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. A Percolation‐Based Approach to Scaling Infiltration and Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Hunt


    Full Text Available Optimal flow paths obtained from percolation theory provide a powerful tool that can be used to characterize properties associated with flow such as soil hydraulic conductivity, as well as other properties influenced by flow connectivity and topology. A recently proposed scaling theory for vegetation growth appeals to the tortuosity of optimal paths from percolation theory to define the spatio‐temporal scaling of the root radial extent (or, equivalently, plant height. Root radial extent measures the maximum horizontal distance between a plant shoot and the root tips. We apply here the same scaling relationship to unsteady (horizontal flow associated with plant transpiration. The pore‐scale travel time is generated from the maximum flow rate under saturated conditions and a typical pore size. At the field‐scale, the characteristic time is interpreted as the growing season duration, and the characteristic length is derived from the measured evapotranspiration in that period. We show that the two scaling results are equivalent, and they are each in accord with observed vegetation growth limits, as well as with actual limiting transpiration values. While the conceptual approach addresses transpiration, most accessed data are for evapotranspiration. The equivalence of the two scaling approaches suggests that, if horizontal flow is the dominant pathway in plant transpiration, horizontal unsteady flow follows the same scaling relationship as root growth. Then, we propose a corresponding scaling relationship to vertical infiltration, a hypothesis which is amenable to testing using infiltration results of Sharma and co‐authors. This alternate treatment of unsteady vertical flow may be an effective alternative to the commonly applied method based on the diffusion of water over a continuum as governed by Richards’ equation.

  1. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater. (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H


    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bochdalek hernia presenting with initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity in a leukemic child. (United States)

    Kang, Zhen; Min, Xiangde; Wang, Liang


    Local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity is a rare initial presentation of Bochdalek hernia. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia in a child with leukemia that demonstrated initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan and progressed to an obvious diaphragmatic hernia on subsequent follow-up. We suggest that initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan may indicate a potential diaphragmatic hernia.

  3. Bochdalek hernia presenting with initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity in a leukemic child


    Kang, Zhen; Min, Xiangde; Wang, Liang


    Local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity is a rare initial presentation of Bochdalek hernia. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia in a child with leukemia that demonstrated initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan and progressed to an obvious diaphragmatic hernia on subsequent follow-up. We suggest that initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan may indicate a potential diaphragmatic hernia.

  4. Bochdalek hernia presenting with initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity in a leukemic child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Kang, MS


    Full Text Available Local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity is a rare initial presentation of Bochdalek hernia. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia in a child with leukemia that demonstrated initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan and progressed to an obvious diaphragmatic hernia on subsequent follow-up. We suggest that initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan may indicate a potential diaphragmatic hernia.

  5. A Prospective, Quantitative Evaluation of Fatty Infiltration Before and After Rotator Cuff Repair


    Lansdown, Drew A.; Lee, Sonia; Sam, Craig; Krug, Roland; Feeley, Brian T.; Ma, C Benjamin


    Background: Current evaluation of muscle fatty infiltration has been limited by subjective classifications. Quantitative fat evaluation through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for an improved longitudinal evaluation of the effect of surgical repair on the progression of fatty infiltration. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that (1) patients with isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears would have less progression in fatty infiltration compared with patients with full-thickness ...

  6. Resin infiltration of natural proximal caries lesions regarding different stages of disease in vitro


    Büchting, Andrea


    INTRODUCTION: Resin infiltration provides a treatment option for non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. Although further demineralisation of early non-cavitated lesions can be hampered by this treatment, it is uncertain; weather caries infiltration of cavitated lesions is possible. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the performance of resin infiltration regarding proximal caries lesions (n=72) differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. METHOD...

  7. Effect of Repeated Acid Challenges on the Color Stability of Resin-Infiltrated Enamel White Spot Lesions (United States)


    Gomez J, Lara JS, Cortes A. (2012). Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions: a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Journal of Dental Research, 91...infiltration in masking white spot lesions and inhibiting caries , few studies have examined the durability of resin-infiltration against acid challenges. We...infiltration in masking white spot lesions and inhibiting caries , few studies have examined the durability of resin-infiltration against acid challenges. We

  8. Double porosity models for the description of water infiltration in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars


    In this paper some of the possibilities of applying double porosity and permeability models to the problem of water infiltration in wood are explored. It is shown that the double porosity model can capture a number of commonly reported anomalies including two-stage infiltration/sorption and appar......In this paper some of the possibilities of applying double porosity and permeability models to the problem of water infiltration in wood are explored. It is shown that the double porosity model can capture a number of commonly reported anomalies including two-stage infiltration...

  9. Initial conditions of urban permeable surfaces in rainfall-runoff models using Horton’s infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Høegh Ravn, Nanna


    Infiltration is a key process controlling runoff, but varies depending on antecedent conditions. This study provides estimates on initial conditions for urban permeable surfaces via continuous simulation of the infiltration capacity using historical rain data. An analysis of historical rainfall...... records show that accumulated rainfall prior to large rain events does not depend on the return period of the event. Using an infiltration-runoff model we found that for a typical large rain storm, antecedent conditions in general lead to reduced infiltration capacity both for sandy and clayey soils...

  10. Influence of caries infiltrant contamination on shear bond strength of different adhesives to dentin. (United States)

    Jia, Liuhe; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette


    To analyze whether the contamination with a caries infiltrant system impairs the adhesive performance of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives on dentin. Dentin contamination with the caries infiltrant system (Icon, DMG) was simulated by applying either hydrochloric acid (15 % HCl, Icon Etch, 15 s), the resin infiltrant (Icon infiltrant, 4 min), or both prior to the application of the respective adhesives (each group n = 10). In the control groups, the etch-and-rinse adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr) and the self-etching adhesive (iBOND Self Etch, Hereaus) were applied without former contamination with the infiltrant system. Additionally, the adhesive performance of the resin infiltrant alone was tested. Shear bond strength of a nano-hybrid composite was analyzed after thermocycling (5,000×, 5-55°C) of the specimens and analyzed by ANOVA/Scheffé post hoc tests (p adhesives (Optibond FL: 20.5 ± 3.6, iBOND Self Etch: 17.9 ± 2.6) significantly. Hydrochloric acid contamination increased the number of adhesive failures. The adhesive performance of the caries infiltrant system alone was insufficient. The contamination with the caries infiltrant system impaired the shear bond strength of conventional dental adhesives. Contamination of the caries infiltrant system on dentin should be avoided due to the detrimental effect of hydrochloric acid etching.

  11. Double Porosity Models For the Description of Water Infiltration In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristian, Krabbenhøft; Damkilde, Lars


    In this paper some of the possibilities of applying double porosity and permeability models to the problem of water infiltration in wood are explored. It is shown that the double porosity model can capture a number of commonly reported anomalies including two-stage infiltration/sorption and appar......In this paper some of the possibilities of applying double porosity and permeability models to the problem of water infiltration in wood are explored. It is shown that the double porosity model can capture a number of commonly reported anomalies including two-stage infiltration...

  12. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 12, 2013 ... of quartz promotes rapid soil organic matter (SOM) mineralisa- tion resulting in poor ... by primary minerals such as quartz (Mandiringana et al., 2005; ... the exact effects of these climatic changes on surface sealing, crusting ...

  13. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance...... measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment...

  14. (99m)Tc-labeled rituximab for imaging B lymphocyte infiltration in inflammatory autoimmune disease patients. (United States)

    Malviya, G; Anzola, K L; Podestà, E; Laganà, B; Del Mastro, C; Dierckx, R A; Scopinaro, F; Signore, A


    The rationale of the present study was to radiolabel rituximab with 99m-technetium and to image B lymphocytes infiltration in the affected tissues of patients with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases, in particular, the candidates to be treated with unlabelled rituximab, in order to provide a rationale for 'evidence-based' therapy. Rituximab was labelled with (99m)Tc via 2-ME reduction method. In vitro quality controls of (99m)Tc-rituximab included stability assay, cysteine challenge, SDS-PAGE, immunoreactive fraction assay and competitive binding assay on CD20+ve Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells. For the human pilot study, 350-370 MBq (100 μg) of (99m)Tc-rituximab were injected in 20 patients with different chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Whole body anteroposterior planar scintigraphic images were acquired 6 and 20 h p.i. Rituximab was labelled to a high labelling efficiency (>98%) and specific activity (3515-3700 MBq/mg) with retained biochemical integrity, stability and biological activity. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-rituximab in patients showed a rapid and persistent spleen uptake, and the kidney appeared to be a prominent source for the excretion of radioactivity. Inflamed joints showed a variable degree of uptake at 6 h p.i. in patients with rheumatoid arthritis indicating patient variability; similarly, the salivary and lacrimal glands showed variable uptake in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, Behçet's disease and sarcoidosis. Inflammatory disease with particular characteristics showed specific uptake in inflammatory lesions, such as, dermatopolymyositis patients showed moderate to high skin uptake, a sarcoidosis patient showed moderate lung uptake, a Behçet's disease patient showed high oral mucosa uptake and a polychondritis patient showed moderate uptake in neck cartilages. In one patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, we did not find any non-physiological uptake. Rituximab can be efficiently labelled with (99m)Tc with high

  15. Multispectral imaging for highly accurate analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasaturo, A.; Di Blasio, S.; Verweij, D.; Blokx, W.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Vries, I.J.M. de; Figdor, C.G.


    AIMS: The quality and quantity of the infiltration of immune cells into tumour tissues have substantial impacts on patients' clinical outcomes, and are associated with response to immunotherapy. Therefore, the precise analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is becoming an important

  16. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  17. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian


    Immune cells often infiltrate testicular germ cell neoplasms, including pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The composition and distribution of infiltrating immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in testis samples with CIS......, suggesting the absence of active immune surveillance in testicular germ cell cancer....

  18. The impact of subterranean termite activity on water infiltration and topsoil properties in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Verbeeten, E.


    Few quantitative experimental studies have been carried out on the influence of subterranean termite activity on the water infiltration capacity of crusted soils in the semi-arid Sahelian region. These studies found increased infiltration rates on soils that were affected by foraging galleries of

  19. Intérêt pronostique de l'infiltration du chorion dans les tumeurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Zakhama

    Urinary bladder neoplasms;. Survival analysis;. Recurrence;. Disease progression. Prognostic interest of tumoral infiltration depth of chorion in the evolution of pT1 bladder tumors. Abstract. Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of tumor infiltration depth of the lamina propria and invasion or ...

  20. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls (United States)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  1. Infiltration of commercially available, anode supported SOFC’s via inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell-Williams, T.B.; Tomov, R.I.; Saadabadi, S.A.; Krauz, M.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Glowacki, B.A.; Kumar, R.V.


    Commercially available anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (NiO-8YSZ/8YSZ/LSCF- 20 mm in diameter) were anode infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) using a scalable drop-on-demand inkjet printing process. Cells were infiltrated with two different precursor solutions—water based or

  2. New procedure for sampling infiltration to assess post-fire soil water repellency (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; L. E. Ashmun


    The Mini-disk Infiltrometer has been adapted for use as a field test of post-fire infiltration and soil water repellency. Although the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test is the common field test for soil water repellency, the Mini-disk Infiltrometer (MDI) test takes less time, is less subjective, and provides a relative infiltration rate. For each test, the porous...

  3. Recharging infiltration of precipitation water through the light soil, in the absence of surface runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżyk Franciszek


    Full Text Available The article presents the value of recharging infiltration of precipitation through the light soil and its distribution over time, based on five-year of lysimetric research. The effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the infiltration was studied. In lysimeters does not occur the phenomenon of surface runoff, and thus, by analogy, the results of the research can be applied to agriculturally used lowland areas with sandy soils. The results showed that the infiltration is very changeable in time. On its value, in addition to precipitation, the greatest influence has evapotranspiration. The largest infiltration occurs in March after the spring thaws (IE = 70-81% monthly precipitation and the smallest in August (IE = 1.2-15.0% precipitation, depending on the type of fertilizer used and the level of fertilization. The soil fertilization, especially by using organic fertilizer (compost, is a factor, which has significantly influence on reduction of the recharging infiltration. The soil fertilization with compost reduced the infiltration of 7.4-9.0%, and with mineral fertilization of 5.4-7.0% of annual precipitation totals, compared with the infiltration through the soil not fertilized. The average annual index of infiltration was 21.8-25.3% of annual precipitation totals in variant of soil fertilized and 30.7% in case of the soil not fertilized.

  4. Preoperative Factors Associated with Infiltrative Histologic Growth Patterns in Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woong Park


    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcoma (STS with an infiltrative histologic growth pattern, when compared to STS with an expansile pattern, may pose difficulties in local control. Preoperative assessment of the presence of infiltrative histologic growth pattern would be helpful in deciding treatment strategies. A review of 144 patients who underwent surgery for extremity STS was performed. Microscopically, the histologic growth pattern was defined as infiltrative if the penetration of the tumor cells into the surrounding tissue was observed. Possible clinicopathologic factors that might be associated with infiltrative histologic growth pattern were investigated with regard to patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and MRI findings. Of the 144 tumors, 71 (49% showed infiltrative histologic growth pattern. On multivariate analysis, histological subtypes other than liposarcoma (OR = 4.57, p=0.02 and infiltrative border on MRI (OR = 2.48, p=0.01 were independent factors associated with infiltrative histologic growth pattern. Predictive index based on these two factors showed a significant improved accuracy (ROC-AUC = 0.647 for predicting infiltrative histologic growth pattern compared to either factor alone. Our data suggests that liposarcoma histology and tumor border on MRI can predict histologic growth pattern in extremity STS.

  5. Monitoring infiltration and recharge of playa lakes in the Texas Southern High Plains (United States)

    Preliminary results from playa lakes monitored by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) suggest that a small volume of deep infiltration and recharge to the Ogallala aquifer occurs along the margins of the lake beds, while the majority of infiltration associated with a typical inundation remains ...

  6. Differences in nasal cellular infiltrates between allergic children and age-matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, J. G.; Kleinjan, A.; Severijnen, L. W.; Hoeve, L. J.; Fokkens, W. J.


    Little is known about the cellular infiltrates in the nasal mucosa of children. This study was set up to compare the nasal cellular infiltrates in biopsy specimens from allergic children and controls. Atopic children were distinguished from controls on the basis of symptoms of allergic rhinitis

  7. Differences in nasal cellular infiltrates between allergic children and age-matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Vinke; L.W. Severijnen; L.J. Hoeve (Hans); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex)


    textabstractLittle is known about the cellular infiltrates in the nasal mucosa of children. This study was set up to compare the nasal cellular infiltrates in biopsy specimens from allergic children and controls. Atopic children were distinguished from controls on the

  8. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra


    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  9. Primary demyelinating disease simulating infiltrating glioma on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasu, Yoko; Suda, Kinya; Handa, Jyoji; Hazama, Fumitada (Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan))


    Demyelinating diseases of the brain may show mass effects and/or contrast enhancement on CT scans, simulating the appearance of infiltrating glioma. A 36-year-old male, had suffered from gait disturbance and convulsive attacks involving the right lower limb since the age of 30. He had gradually developed character changes and urine incontinence. Six months prior to admission he experienced several attacks of generalized convulsions. On admission, he showed a mild hemiparesis, bilateral Babinski signs, and ataxic gait. He was disoriented and had memory disturbance and moria. CT scan showed low density areas in the bilateral frontal lobes Fand corpus callosum associated with a mild mass effect. Contrast study revealed irregular enhancement along the edge of the low density area and another small enhancing lesion in the left temporal lobe. This CT finding was interpreted as that of ''butterfly'' glioma. Craniotomy and right frontal lobectomy were performed. Histological study, however, demonstrated demyelination in the white matter associated with perivascular proliferation of lymphocytes. The final diagnosis was the 'transitional sclerosis' of Poser.

  10. Acute Renal Failure due to Lymphomatous Infiltration: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah Kais


    Full Text Available Renal lymphoma occurs most often as a part of a multi-systemic disseminated lymphoma or as a recurrence of the tumor. Renal involvement usually occurs late in the course of the disease and is clinically silent. Acute renal failure (ARF from lymphomatous infiltration has been described but is quite rare. We report a 50-year-old Caucasian woman, who presented with features of ARF. Physical examination showed that her arterial blood pressure was 190/100 mm Hg with no lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Her urine output was about 100 ml/day, and urinanalysis revealed + proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Biochemical findings revealed severely impaired renal function with a serum creatinine of 693 µmol/L. The patient′s lactate dehydrogenase was elevated at 632 U/L. An abdominal ultrasound showed bilateral, large non-obstructed kidneys and a hypoechoic mass arising in the right lobe of the liver. An ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy showed typical features of B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The patient expired two days later, even before any specific treatment could be started.

  11. Modelling of stormwater infiltration for stream restoration. Beder (Aarhus) case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Bockhorn, Britta; Klint, K. E.

    Stormwater management using Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging as an alternative to traditional structural engineering solutions. Here stormwater infiltration is analyzed as a means for increasing the flow in a stream with unacceptably low flows during the dry season. The analyses were...... to assess the impact of stormwater runoff infiltration on (1) the water balance; (2) stream flow of the local stream Hovedgrøften; and (3) the risk of polluting the primary aquifer. The hydrogeological model was developed in a deterministic groundwater model (MIKE SHE) which was coupled dynamically...... in order to evaluate the impact of implementing stormwater runoff infiltration. The ‘Baseline scenario’ was run for a 5 year period and was used to establish the water balance, the stream flow and the groundwater flow. The ‘realistic infiltration scenario’ simulated stormwater runoff infiltration from a 6...

  12. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.


    contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration systems may...... act as effective pollution traps and on the other, they may pose a potential solid waste disposal problem that future stormwater management based on local infiltration will have to face. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... and the sub-surface infiltration system seemed to be equally good at retaining pollution. This indicates that the runoff sludge found in such infiltration systems plays an important role both as a source and a sorbent for stormwater contaminants. The study does not point at a considerable risk for groundwater...

  13. Factors affecting the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS in clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, B.; Klint, K.E.S.; Locatelli, Luca


    The influence of small scale soil heterogeneity on the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS was studied using field data from a clayey glacial till and groundwater simulations with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. Simulations of homogeneous soil blocks...... with hydraulic properties ranging from sand to clay showed that infiltration capacities vary greatly for the different soil types observed in glacial till. The inclusion of heterogeneities dramatically increased infiltration volume by a factor of 22 for a soil with structural changes above and below the CaC03...... boundary. Infiltration increased further by 8% if tectonic fractures were included and by another 61% if earthworm burrows were added. Comparison of HydroGeoSphere infiltration hydrographs with a simple soakaway model (Roldin et al. 2012) showed similar results for homogenous soils but indicated...

  14. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  15. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed...

  16. Microstructure of C/C composites prepared by chemical vapor infiltration method with vaporized kerosene as a precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail:; Qian Junmin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jin Zhihao [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiao Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    The microstructures of two types of C/C composites prepared from different carbon felts by a rapid densification method, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration with vaporized kerosene as a precursor, at 1080-1120 deg. C for 6 h were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman micro-spectrometry techniques. The experimental results show that the fibers in the two composites are both surrounded by ring-shaped pyrocarbons with rough laminar texture, but the thickness, the surface morphology of the pyrocarbons and the graphitizability of the composites depend much on the configurations of carbon felts. The C/C composite fabricated from a higher porosity carbon felt possesses larger thickness and rougher surface of pyrocarbon, and has a lower graphitizability after heat treatment at 2300 deg. C for 2 h.

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Infiltration Control Landfill Cover Demonstration at Marine Corps Base, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karr, Leslie


    .... Demonstration caps were installed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay in 1994. The study used an innovative but simple concept to manipulate the fate of rain water falling on waste sites with moderate to high precipitation...

  19. Site calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...... between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [2]. The possible measurement sector for power performance...... according to [1] is also described in [2] and no results from the site calibration have shown any necessary exclusion from this sector. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU....

  20. Multimodal MR imaging model to predict tumor infiltration in patients with gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Christopher R.; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia Health Systems, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raghavan, Prashant [University of Maryland, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shaffrey, Mark E.; Sheehan, Jason P.; Elias, W.J.; Liu, Kenneth C.; Helm, Greg A. [University of Virginia, Department of Neurosurgery, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Schiff, David [University of Virginia, Department of Neurology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lopes, M.B. [University of Virginia, Department of Neurosurgery, Charlottesville, VA (United States); University of Virginia, Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Cupino, A. [Loma Linda University, School of Public Health, Loma Linda, CA (United States)


    Gliomas remain difficult to treat, in part, due to our inability to accurately delineate the margins of the tumor. The goal of our study was to evaluate if a combination of advanced MR imaging techniques and a multimodal imaging model could be used to predict tumor infiltration in patients with diffuse gliomas. Institutional review board approval and written consent were obtained. This prospective pilot study enrolled patients undergoing stereotactic biopsy for a suspected de novo glioma. Stereotactic biopsy coordinates were coregistered with multiple standard and advanced neuroimaging sequences in 10 patients. Objective imaging values were assigned to the biopsy sites for each of the imaging sequences. A principal component analysis was performed to reduce the dimensionality of the imaging dataset without losing important information. A univariate analysis was performed to identify the statistically relevant principal components. Finally, a multivariate analysis was used to build the final model describing nuclear density. A univariate analysis identified three principal components as being linearly associated with the observed nuclear density (p values 0.021, 0.016, and 0.046, respectively). These three principal component composite scores are predominantly comprised of DTI (mean diffusivity or average diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) and PWI data (rMTT, Ktrans). The p value of the model was <0.001. The correlation between the predicted and observed nuclear density was 0.75. A multi-input, single output imaging model may predict the extent of glioma invasion with significant correlation with histopathology. (orig.)

  1. Immunoresponsiveness of cancer patients: effect of blood transfusion and immune reactivity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Iudicone, P; Di Girolamo, M; Buzzonetti, A; Guglielmetti, M; Lapponi, P; Traietti, P; Monno, D; Giuliani, E


    The immunoreactivity of cancer patients submitted to surgery and perioperatively transfused was investigated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were tested for the natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity, for the in vitro synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The serum levels and the production of PGE2 by PBMC were significantly higher in patients than in controls, whereas no significant differences in the tested immunological variables emerged between the two groups of subjects. Instead, TIL produced significant larger amounts of spontaneous PGE2 (p < 0.001) and significant lower amounts of IFN-gamma (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) than autologous PBMC, suggesting an involvement of PGE2 in the impairment of the host immunoreactivity at the tumor site. To evaluate the immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion, the patients were reexamined 8 to 20 days after surgery. No differences were found in the NK cytotoxic activity, lymphokine synthesis, serum levels, and production of PGE2 between transfused and untransfused patients. These results do not support the hypothesis that blood transfusions negatively affect the immune response of neoplastic patients.

  2. Numerical results on the contribution of an earthworm hole to infiltration (United States)

    Pezzotti, Dario; Barontini, Stefano; Casali, Federico; Comincini, Mattia; Peli, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto; Rizzo, Gabriele; Tomirotti, Massimo; Vitale, Paolo


    On 9 March 2016 the WormEx I experiment was launched at the experimental site of Cividate Camuno (274ma.s.l., Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps), aiming at contributing to understand how the soil-fauna digging activity affects soil-water flow. Particularly the experiment investigates the effects of earthworms holes on the soil-water constitutive laws, in the uppermost layers of a shallow anthropized soil. In this framework a set of simulations of the water flow in presence of an earthworm hole was preliminarily performed. The FV-FD numerical code AdHydra was used to solve the Richards equation in an axis-symmetric 2D domain around a vertical earthworm hole. The hole was represented both as a void cylinder and as a virtual porous domain with typical constitutive laws of a Δ-soil. The hypothesis of Poiseuille flow and the Jourin-Borelli law applied to determine its conductivity and soil-water retention relationship. Different scenarios of hole depth and infiltration rate were explored. As a result a meaningful change in the downflow condition was observed when burrows intersect a layered soil, both in saturated and partially unsaturated soils, in case a perched water table onsets at the interface between an upper and more conductive soil layer and a lower and less conductive one. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the streamflow generation processes and soil-water movement in shallow layered soils.

  3. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta


    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  4. Remineralization potential of fully demineralized dentin infiltrated with silica and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas


    This study investigates the potential of a novel guided tissue regeneration strategy, using fully demineralized dentin infiltrated with silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs), to remineralize dentin collagen that is completely devoid of native hydroxyapatite. Dentin blocks were fully demineralized with 4N formic acid and subsequently infiltrated with silica and HA NPs. The remineralizing potential of infiltrated dentin was assessed following a twelve week exposure to an artificial saliva solution by means of TEM, EDS and micro-CT. Measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at regular intervals for the duration of the study to quantify the P and Ca levels, the mineral volume percentage and mineral separation of the infiltrated dentin specimens compared to sound dentin and non-infiltrated controls. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with nano-HA restored up to 55% of the P and Ca levels at baseline. A local increase in the concentration of calcium phosphate compounds over a period of twelve weeks resulted in a higher concentration in P and Ca levels within the infiltrated specimens when compared to the non-infiltrated controls. Remineralization of demineralized dentin with silica NPs by immersion in artificial saliva was the most effective strategy, restoring 20% of the P levels of sound dentin. Micro-CT data showed a 16% recovery of the mineral volume in dentin infiltrated with silica NPs and a significant decrease in the mineral separation to levels comparable to sound dentin. Demineralized dentin infiltrated with silica NPs appears to encourage heterogeneous mineralization of the dentin collagen matrix following exposure to an artificial saliva solution. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histologic Assessment of Drug-Eluting Grafts Related to Implantation Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Tille


    Full Text Available Drug-eluting vascular prostheses represent a new direction in vascular surgery to reduce early thrombosis and late intimal hyperplasia for small calibre grafts. Subcutaneous implantation in rats is a rapid and cost-effective screening model to assess the drug-elution effect and could, to some extent, be useful to forecast results for vascular prostheses. We compared biological and histological responses to scaffolds in different implantation sites. Polycaprolactone (PCL, paclitaxel-loaded PCL (PCL-PTX and dexamethasone-loaded PCL (PCL-DXM electrospun scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously and in an infrarenal abdominal aortic model in rats for up to 12 weeks. At the conclusion of the study, a histological analysis was performed. Cellular graft invasion revealed differences in the progression of cellular infiltration between PCL-PTX and PCL/PCL-DXM groups in both models. Cell infiltration increased over time in the aortic model compared to the subcutaneous model for all groups. Cell counting revealed major differences in fibroblast, macrophage and giant cell graft colonisation in all groups and models over time. Macrophages and giant cells increased in the PCL aortic model; whereas in the subcutaneous model these cell types increased only after three weeks or even decreased in the drug-eluting PCL groups. Other major findings were observed only in the aortic replacement such as extracellular matrix deposition and neo-angiogenesis. The subcutaneous implant model can be used for screening, especially when drug-eluting effects are studied. However, major histological differences were observed in cell type reaction and depth of cell penetration compared to the aortic model. Our results demonstrate that the implantation site is a critical determinant of the biological response.

  6. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas

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    SHEN Jun-lin


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI in grading diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Methods Forty-three patients with pathologically proven diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas were collected, and underwent preoperative MRI conventional sequences (including axial T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR and axial SWI. The ability of showing intratumoral small vessels and hemorrhagic focuses were compared between SWI and conventional techniques. The signal intensities, distribution of venules and bleeding incidence of the tumors were observed respectively on SWI, and the numbers of intratumoral small vessels and cerebral microbleeds, and the sectional areas of bleedings were compared within the three grades of astrocytomas. Results There were significant differences between SWI and conventional sequences in displaying numbers of small vessels and microbleeds and sizes of bleedings (P < 0.01, for all. Low-grade astrocytomas (WHO Ⅱ displayed mainly as hyperintense, while high-grade (WHO Ⅲ, Ⅳ ones showed mainly equisignal or low intensities; venules inside low-grade astrocytomas were sparse, but abundant inside high-grade ones; the incidence of hemorrhage in low-grade astrocytomas was less frequent than that in high-grade ones. The numbers of venules in three groups were 3.77 ± 1.11, 11.86 ± 1.22 and 20.00 ± 1.32, respectively. The numbers of cerebral microbleeds were 0.47 ± 0.39, 3.32 ± 0.42 and 4.38 ± 0.46, respectively. The sectional areas of bleedings were (0.78 ± 1.31 cm2, (3.05 ± 4.40 cm2 and (4.23 ± 4.55 cm2, respectively. The differences among the three groups were all statistically significant (P < 0.01, for all. Conclusion SWI was more sensitive than conventional techniques in showing small vessels and bleeding sites in astrocytomas. The signal intensities, distribution of venules and bleeding incidence of tumors were significantly different between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas. The

  7. The Effects of More Extreme Rainfall Patterns on Infiltration and Nutrient Losses in Agricultural Soils (United States)

    Hess, L.; Basso, B.; Hinckley, E. L. S.; Robertson, G. P.; Matson, P. A.


    In the coming century, the proportion of total rainfall that falls in heavy storm events is expected to increase in many areas, especially in the US Midwest, a major agricultural region. These changes in rainfall patterns may have consequences for hydrologic flow and nutrient losses, especially in agricultural soils, with potentially negative consequences for receiving ground- and surface waters. We used a tracer experiment to examine how more extreme rainfall patterns may affect the movement of water and solutes through an agricultural soil profile in the upper Midwest, and to what extent tillage may moderate these effects. Two rainfall patterns were created with 5m x 5m rainout shelters at the Kellogg Biological Station LTER site in replicated plots with either conventional tillage or no-till management. Control rainfall treatments received water 3x per week, and extreme rainfall treatments received the same total amount of water but once every two weeks, to simulate less frequent but larger storms. In April 2015, potassium bromide (KBr) was added as a conservative tracer of water flow to all plots, and Br- concentrations in soil water at 1.2m depth were measured weekly from April through July. Soil water Br- concentrations increased and peaked more quickly under the extreme rainfall treatment, suggesting increased infiltration and solute transfer to depth compared to soils exposed to control rainfall patterns. Soil water Br- also increased and peaked more quickly in no-till than in conventional tillage treatments, indicating differences in flow paths between management systems. Soil moisture measured every 15 minutes at 10, 40, and 100cm depths corroborates tracer experiment results: rainfall events simulated in extreme rainfall treatments led to large increases in deep soil moisture, while the smaller rainfall events simulated under control conditions did not. Deep soil moisture in no-till treatments also increased sooner after water application as compared to

  8. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

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    Michel Drancourt


    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  9. The infiltration-centrifugation technique for extraction of apoplastic fluid from plant leaves using Phaseolus vulgaris as an example. (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan M; Rico, Arantza; McCraw, Sarah; Fones, Helen N; Preston, Gail M


    The apoplast is a distinct extracellular compartment in plant tissues that lies outside the plasma membrane and includes the cell wall. The apoplastic compartment of plant leaves is the site of several important biological processes, including cell wall formation, cellular nutrient and water uptake and export, plant-endophyte interactions and defence responses to pathogens. The infiltration-centrifugation method is well established as a robust technique for the analysis of the soluble apoplast composition of various plant species. The fluid obtained by this method is commonly known as apoplast washing fluid (AWF). The following protocol describes an optimized vacuum infiltration and centrifugation method for AWF extraction from Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean) cv. Tendergreen leaves. The limitations of this method and the optimization of the protocol for other plant species are discussed. Recovered AWF can be used in a wide range of downstream experiments that seek to characterize the composition of the apoplast and how it varies in response to plant species and genotype, plant development and environmental conditions, or to determine how microorganisms grow in apoplast fluid and respond to changes in its composition.

  10. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan


    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  11. Histamine deficiency exacerbates myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction through impaired macrophage infiltration and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis (United States)

    Deng, Long; Hong, Tao; Lin, Jinyi; Ding, Suling; Huang, Zheyong; Chen, Jinmiao; Jia, Jianguo; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Timothy C.; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo


    Histamine is a biogenic amine that is widely distributed and has multiple functions, but the role it plays in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the origin and contribution of endogenous histamine to AMI. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the unique enzyme responsible for histamine generation. Using HDC-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice in which EGFP expression is controlled by the HDC promoter, we identified HDC expression primarily in CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells (IMCs) that markedly increase in the early stages of AMI. Deficiency of histamine in HDC knockout mice (HDC−/−) reduced cardiac function and exacerbated the injury of infarcted heart. Furthermore, administering either an H1 receptor antagonist (pyrilamine) or an H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) demonstrated a protective effect of histamine against myocardial injury. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays showed that histamine deficiency promotes the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and inhibits macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, CD11b+Gr-1+ IMCs are the predominant HDC-expressing sites in AMI, and histamine plays a protective role in the process of AMI through inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and facilitation of macrophage infiltration. PMID:26278136

  12. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshan Sivanandhan

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites. In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90% in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1 were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%. Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1 were marginally higher than control plants.

  13. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fike, J.R.; Gobbel, G.T.; Chou, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others


    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal {sup 125}I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of {alpha}-defluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity {sup 125}I sources. Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. {alpha}-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm{sup 2} were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation injury may be possible by manipulating the response of normal cells to injury. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Hemodynamic Effect of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 Epinephrine Infiltration in Maxillofacial Surgeries under General Anesthesia

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    Baratollah Shaban


    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine-containing lidocaine is the most used anestheic drug in dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes following local infiltration of 2%lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in subjects undergoing orthognatic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five patients without any systemic disease participated. After general anesthesia, two cartridges of 2% lidocaine + 1:80,000 epinephrine were infiltrated around the surgery site. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and blood sugar (BS were measured in three stages: before the injection (M1, at the end of injection (M2, and 10 min after injection (M3. Results: No significant difference observed in SBP, DBP, and MAP at the end of injection and 10 min later. HR was increased significantly after injection and remained significantly higher than baseline after 10 min. BS increased slightly at the end of injection and continued to increase after 10 min. However, changes in BS were not significant. Conclusion: Using two cartridges of epinephrine-containing lidocaine have slight systemic changes in healthy subjects; as a result, this dosage could be used in patients with cardiovascular complications undergoing general anesthesia.

  15. Hemodynamic Effect of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 Epinephrine Infiltration in Maxillofacial Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratollah Shaban


    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine-containing lidocaine is the most used anestheic drug in dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes following local infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in subjects undergoing orthognatic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five patients without any systemic disease participated. After general anesthesia, two cartridges of 2% lidocaine + 1:80,000 epinephrine were infiltrated around the surgery site. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and blood sugar (BS were measured in three stages: before the injection (M1, at the end of injection (M2, and 10 min after injection (M3. Results: No significant difference observed in SBP, DBP, and MAP at the end of injection and 10 min later. HR was increased significantly after injection and remained significantly higher than baseline after 10 min. BS increased slightly at the end of injection and continued to increase after 10 min. However, changes in BS were not significant. Conclusion: Using two cartridges of epinephrine-containing lidocaine have slight systemic changes in healthy subjects; as a result, this dosage could be used in patients with cardiovascular complications undergoing general anesthesia.

  16. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. RAGE regulates immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis in choroidal neovascularization.

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    Mei Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD. METHODS: RAGE null (RAGE-/- mice and age-matched wild type (WT control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs towards S100B was investigated. RESULTS: RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001. RAGE-/- mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05. S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE-/- retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE-/- mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE-/- mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001. A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05-0.01 but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology.

  18. Ultrasound Imaging for Ovarian and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis. (United States)

    Exacoustos, Caterina; Zupi, Errico; Piccione, Emilio


    The main challenges of imaging for endometriosis are the detection of nonovarian disease and the evaluation of the extension of the disease into pelvic structures. Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) has been proposed as the first-line imaging technique because it allows extensive exploration of the pelvis. The "typical" endometrioma is a unilocular cyst with homogeneous low-level echogenicity (ground glass echogenicity) of the cyst fluid. The use of color Doppler helps avoid classifying malignancies as endometriomas, defining the presence of vascular flow in papillations. The real-time dynamic TVS examination of adhesions and pouch of Douglas (POD) obliteration, using the sliding sign technique, seems to be useful in the identification of women at increased risk for bowel endometriosis. Transvaginal ultrasound allows an accurate assessment of the vagina, particularly the areas of the posterior and lateral vaginal fornixes, the retrocervical area with torus uterinum and uterosacral ligaments, and the rectovaginal septum. The slightly filled bladder permits an evaluation of the bladder walls and the presence of endometriotic nodules which appear as hypoechoic linear or spherical lesions bulging toward the lumen, involving the serosa, muscularis, or (sub)mucosa of the bladder. Deep nodules of the rectum appear as hypoechoic lesions, linear or nodular retroperitoneal thickening with irregular borders, penetrating into the intestinal wall distorting its normal structure with the presence of few vessels observed with power Doppler evaluation. Adenomyosis can be observed with the two-dimensional (2D) TVS showing the typical myometrial features and 3D evaluation of the junctional zone. Although the sensitivity and specificity of TVS in the prediction of deeply infiltrating endometriosis and adenomyosis is high, their assessment by TVS is difficult and needs a great expertise. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Photoluminescence of sequential infiltration synthesized ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Gosztola, David J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Suh, Hyo-Seon; Connolly, Aine


    For the past several years there have been ongoing efforts to incorporate zinc oxide (ZnO) inside polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), in the form of nanoparticles or quantum dots, to combine their optical properties for multiple applications. We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside the polymer. PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid oxide material with enhanced photonic, or sensing, properties. This is much easier than micromachining films of ZnO or other similar oxides because they are difficult to etch. The amount of ZnO formed inside the polymer film is magnitudes higher than equivalent amount deposited on a flat 2D surface, and the intensity of the photoemission suggests there is an enhancement created by the polymer-ZnO interaction. Photoemission from thin films exhibit photoemission similar to intrinsic ZnO with oxygen vacancies. These vacancies can be removed by annealing the sample at 500°C in an oxygen rich environment. SiS ZnO exhibits unusual photoemission properties for thick polymer films, emitting at excitations wavelengths not found in bulk or standard ZnO. Finally we have shown that patterning the polymer and then doing SiS ZnO treatment afterwards allows modifying or manipulating the photoemission spectra. This opens the doors to novel photonic applications.

  20. Measurement and modeling of mass-infiltration events into macropores (United States)

    Franz, T. E.; Nolan, J. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Slater, L. D.


    The spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture is a key state variable in ecohydrology. Because lateral redistribution of water in the subsurface occurs on a different timescale than rainfall dynamics the effect of subsurface processes on dryland plant communities is largely unknown. However, prior soil moisture measurements taken in central Kenya indicate that macropores may be responsible for generating substantial subsurface flow in hillslopes. Therefore inclusion of macropore (and other subsurface) dynamics in ecohydrological models is likely necessary to describe vegetation response to the slower dynamics of the lateral redistribution of water on hillslopes. Despite their importance, there are currently no general approaches for describing macropore effects on hillslope ecohydrological dynamics. One difficulty is the lack of methods for observing the temporal and spatial signatures of preferential flow caused by macropores. To address this issue, we used multi-point direct-current resistivity to measure the spatial and temporal changes in soil moisture in an experimental laboratory tank following a mass-infiltration event into an open cavity representative of a large macropore. We compare the resulting high-resolution data to a full numerical simulation of the tank system derived from the PC-PROGRESS HYDRUS (2D/3D) software. Using the empirical data, we estimate the effective hydraulic soil parameters for the tank with the software’s inverse solution option. We also compare our experimental data with a known analytical solution to the system (Barenblatt, 1996). We find that the analytical solution provides good agreement with the empirical data and numerical approximation. These results indicate that analytical approaches may be able to characterize field-scale macropore dynamics.