WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid geomorphic assessment

  1. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  2. Quantifying and Validating Rapid Floodplain Geomorphic Evolution, a Monitoring and Modelling Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    Gravel bed rivers and their associated wider systems present an ideal subject for development and improvement of rapid monitoring tools, with features dynamic enough to evolve within relatively short-term timescales. For detecting and quantifying topographical evolution, UAV based remote sensing has manifested as a reliable, low cost, and accurate means of topographic data collection. Here we present some validated methodologies for detection of geomorphic change at resolutions down to 0.05 m, building on the work of Wheaton et al. (2009) and Milan et al. (2007), to generate mesh based and pointcloud comparison data to produce a reliable picture of topographic evolution. Results are presented for the River Glen, Northumberland, UK. Recent channel avulsion and floodplain interaction, resulting in damage to flood defence structures make this site a particularly suitable case for application of geomorphic change detection methods, with the UAV platform at its centre. We compare multi-temporal, high-resolution point clouds derived from SfM processing, cross referenced with aerial LiDAR data, over a 1.5 km reach of the watercourse. Changes detected included bank erosion, bar and splay deposition, vegetation stripping and incipient channel avulsion. Utilisation of the topographic data for numerical modelling, carried out using CAESAR-Lisflood predicted the avulsion of the main channel, resulting in erosion of and potentially complete circumvention of original channel and flood levees. A subsequent UAV survey highlighted topographic change and reconfiguration of the local sedimentary conveyor as we predicted with preliminary modelling. The combined monitoring and modelling approach has allowed probable future geomorphic configurations to be predicted permitting more informed implementation of channel and floodplain management strategies.

  3. Geomorphic Assessment of Floods within the Urban Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined urban geomorphic conditions that lead to flooding in urban areas of ... the elimination of vegetation cover as well as deficient drainage networks ... Department of Geography & Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, .... A number of case studies from different parts of the world dealing.

  4. Using HEC-RAS to Enhance Interpretive Capabilities of Geomorphic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of a geomorphic assessment is to characterize and evaluate a fluvial system for determining the past watershed and channel conditions, current geomorphic character and potential future channel adjustments. The geomorphic assessment approach utilized by the Illinois State Water Survey assesses channel response to disturbance at multiple temporal and spatial scales to help identify the underlying factors and events which led to the existing channel morphology. This is accomplished through two phases of investigation that involve a historical and physical analysis of the watershed, disturbance history, and field work at increasing levels of detail. To infer future channel adjustments, the geomorphic assessment protocol combines two methods of analyses that are dependent on the quantity and detail of the available data. The first method is the compilation of multiple lines of evidence using qualitative information related to the dominant fluvial environment, channel gradient, stream power thresholds, and channel evolution models. The second method is the use of hydraulic models which provide additional interpretative skills to evaluate potential channel adjustments. The structured data collection framework of the geomorphic assessment approach is used for the development of a HEC-RAS model. The model results are then used as another tool to determine the influence of bridges and control structures on channel stability, stream power profiles to identify potential channel bed degradation zones, and provide data for physically-based bank stability models. This poster will demonstrate the advantages of using a hydraulic model, such as HEC-RAS, to expand the interpretive capabilities of geomorphic assessments. The results from applying this approach will be demonstrated for the Big Creek watershed of the Cache River Basin in southern Illinois.

  5. Assessment of geomorphic risks and attractiveness to recreational systems: a case of Nalychevo Nature Park (Kamchatka, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, I.; Bredikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Attractiveness of relief, diversity and rareness were always the basic features of overall recreational attractiveness of a territory. Mountainous regions with high geomorphic diversity served as model for first recreation and tourism researches. The above features often favoured sustainability of touristic system. Unique relief forms are commonly referred to natural sites. They differ from the others in structure or have some morphological and morphometric characteristics not found in other forms of the earth's surface. Such monuments form the main natural functional kernel for a recreation system which is created and exists around them. In general, functions of geomorphological sites in recreation can be divided into socio-cultural and economic. Socio-cultural function is the principal function of recreation. It responds to the cultural or spiritual needs of people such as the knowledge in the broader sense, knowledge of the world and their place in it. The economic function is to create consumer demand for goods and services, and sometimes an entire economy sector. Natural sites are particularly vulnerable to dangerous occurrence of endogenous and exogenous processes as guarantee of environmental stability is an essential condition for a proper system functioning. This requires a comprehensive study of relief dynamics, monitoring and forecasting its evolution in recreation areas. Nowadays educational and environmental tourism in Russia develop rapidly. The unique tectonic position of Kamchatka Peninsula (the active geodynamic area dedicated to the subduction zone) formed a variety of landscapes, attracting visitors from all over the world. Recreational development of this region is slow due to remoteness and poor transport accessibility. However, there are 3 state federal reserves and one federal wildlife sanctuary, 4 natural parks of regional significance, 23 nature preserves of regional significance, and 105 natural monuments officially marked in this region

  6. Multivariate geomorphic analysis of forest streams: Implications for assessment of land use impacts on channel condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard. D. Wood-Smith; John M. Buffington

    1996-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses of geomorphic variables from 23 forest stream reaches in southeast Alaska result in successful discrimination between pristine streams and those disturbed by land management, specifically timber harvesting and associated road building. Results of discriminant function analysis indicate that a three-variable model discriminates 10...

  7. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  8. Living Shorelines: Assessing Geomorphic Change and Water Quality in an Urban Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, A.; Schwartz, M. C.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, alternative strategies for shoreline armoring have become increasingly popular with coastal property owners. In Northwest Florida, local agencies implemented plans to attenuate wave action and reduce landward shore recession in an urban bayou by installing living shorelines. Living shorelines are constructed in the inter-tidal zones and incorporate both hard and soft structured stabilization. Generally, the hard component is fossilized oyster shells and the soft component is planted intertidal vegetation, such as Spartina alterniflora (Smooth cordgrass) and Juncus roemererianus (Black needlerush). Living shorelines were intended to comprise both ecological and societal implications by significantly slowing erosion processes for property owners, by utilizing oyster beds to improve water quality, and by fostering new ecological habitats in the marsh grasses. The issue presented with living shoreline management is long-term studies have not been carried out on these engineered systems. For this study, geospatial technology was utilized to create 3D images of terrain by interpolation of data points using a TotalStation to compute geomorphic change. Additionally, water samples were analyzed using traditional wet chemistry laboratory methods to determine total oxidized nitrogen (TON), ammonium, and orthophosphate content in water. Over a short three-month preliminary study, sediment accretion was observed primarily within the vegetation with the bulk of the erosion occurring around the oyster beds. TON was detected at levels between 10 µM and 30 µM, ammonium up to 5 µM, and orthophosphate was only detected in very low levels, consistently quality data will be used to establish baseline data for future research to determine volumetric geomorphic change,and to set a standard for water quality trends, surrounding oyster beds and vegetation in response to climatic events.

  9. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  10. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  11. Assessing geomorphic change along the Trinity River downstream from Lewiston Dam, California, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Wright, Scott A.; Minear, Justin T.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Trinity River Restoration Program, one of the nation’s largest adaptively managed river restoration programs, requires periodic assessment to determine the effectiveness of management actions in restoring channel dynamics and habitat features. This study documents riparian and channel changes along an intensively managed 65-kilometer reach of the Trinity River in California, downstream from Lewiston Dam. The two primary periods of interest, from 1980 to 2001 and from 2001 to 2011, are separated by a shift in restoration activities mandated by the U.S. Department of the Interior December 2000 Record of Decision. The post-2001 restoration strategy increased managed-flow releases, gravel augmentation, watershed restoration, and mechanical channel rehabilitation.

  12. Using a Numerical Model to Assess the Geomorphic Impacts of Forest Management Scenarios on Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S. L.; Eaton, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    In-stream large wood governs the morphology of many small to intermediate streams, while riparian vegetation influences bank strength and channel pattern. Forest management practices such as harvesting and fire suppression therefore dramatically influence channel processes and associated aquatic habitat. The primary objective of this research is to compare the impacts of three common forest scenarios - natural fire disturbance, forest harvesting with a riparian buffer, and fire suppression - on the volume of in-channel wood and the complexity of aquatic habitat in channels at a range of scales. Each scenario is explored through Monte Carlo simulations run over a period of 1000 years using a numerical reach scale channel simulator (RSCS), with variations in tree toppling rate and forest density used to represent each forest management trajectory. The habitat complexity associated with each scenario is assessed based on the area of the bed occupied by pools and spawning sized sediment, the availability of wood cover, and the probability of avulsion. Within the fire scenario, we also use the model to separately investigate the effects of root decay and recovery on equilibrium channel geometry by varying the rooting depth and associated bank strength through time. The results show that wood loading and habitat complexity are influenced by the timing and magnitude of wood recruitment, as well as channel scale. The forest harvesting scenario produces the lowest wood loads and habitat complexity so long as the buffer width is less than the average mature tree height. The natural fire cycle produces the greatest wood loading and habitat complexity, but also the greatest variability because these streams experience significant periods without wood recruitment as forests regenerate. In reaches that experience recurrent fires, width increases in the post-fire period as roots decay, at times producing a change in channel pattern when a threshold width to depth ratio is

  13. Geomorphic assessment of uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Summary report of the workshop by the panel of geomorphologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumm, S.A.; Costa, J.E.; Toy, T.; Knox, J.; Warner, R.; Scott, J.

    1982-01-01

    The following report of the panel of geomorphologists is a summary of the principal findings of the geomorphological Workshop with respect to its three objectives: 1) examination of geomorphic controls on site stability, 2) demonstration of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the siting (and design) of stable tailings disposal containment systems, 3) development (in outline) of a procedure for the evaluation of long-term stability of tailing disposal sites

  14. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  15. Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT): rapid assessment for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Ciecko; David Kimmett; Jesse Saunders; Rachael Katz; Kathleen L. Wolf; Oliver Bazinet; Jeffrey Richardson; Weston Brinkley; Dale J. Blahna

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT) is a set of procedures and tools used to rapidly determine forest ecological conditions and potential threats. FLAT enables planners and managers to understand baseline conditions, determine and prioritize restoration needs across a landscape system, and conduct ongoing monitoring to achieve land management goals. The rapid...

  16. Geomorphic consequences of rapid deglaciation at Pasterze Glacier, Hohe Tauern Range, Austria, between 2010 and 2013 based on repeated terrestrial laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian, M.; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.; Lieb, G. K.

    2018-06-01

    Since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850 CE glaciers in the Alps have been receding dramatically. This study aimed to quantify and characterize the geomorphic and landform changes of a 0.9 km2 large proglacial area at the largest glacier in Austria (Pasterze Glacier, Austria, N 47°04‧, E 12°44‧). Point clouds from multiple terrestrial laserscanning (TLS) and different image data were used to quantify surface elevation changes and distinguish different types of erosional and depositional landforms during the period 2010-2013. Results indicate that the study area is characterized by a total volume loss of 1,309,000 m3. Excluding the area which was deglaciated, the volume loss equals 275,000 m3 in the period 2010-13. The decrease is related to sediment transfer out of study area and due to sediment-buried glacier ice which is slowly melting. The landform classification reveals that drift mantled slopes are most frequent (20.9% of the study area in 2013) next to ice contact terrace landforms (19.7%). In terms of vertical surface elevation changes, our results suggest distinguishing between 3 distinct domains within the study area: (i) a flat valley bottom area consisting of water/sandur areas and ice-cored landforms dominated by widespread subsurface ice melting and lateral fluvial (and thermal) erosion; (ii) a gently-sloping footslope area consisting of ice-contact sediments, former ice marginal channels and deep incised gullies with corresponding debris cones dominated by linear erosion and corresponding deposition; and (iii) a steep lateral slope area mainly built up of consolidated drift material with incised gullies dominated by linear erosion. Our results not only confirm the previously revealed high geomorphic activity for proglacial areas of alpine glaciers in terms of surface elevation variations, they also highlight that landforms might change substantially from one year to the next not only because of erosional/depositional processes, but also

  17. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  18. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  19. Applications of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment: Geomorphic feature extraction and land cover classification from fine-scale elevation and imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, E. J.; Lentz, E. E.; Thieler, E. R.; Remsen, D.; Miner, S.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing the vulnerability of coastal systems to storm events, chronic change and sea-level rise can be improved with high-resolution data that capture timely snapshots of biogeomorphology. Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) coupled with structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry can produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival or exceed lidar and orthoimagery. Here we compare SfM-derived data to lidar and visual imagery for their utility in a) geomorphic feature extraction and b) land cover classification for coastal habitat assessment. At a beach and wetland site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, we used UAS to capture photographs over a 15-hectare coastal area with a resulting pixel resolution of 2.5 cm. We used standard SfM processing in Agisoft PhotoScan to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM). The SfM-derived products have a horizontal uncertainty of +/- 2.8 cm. Using the point cloud in an extraction routine developed for lidar data, we determined the position of shorelines, dune crests, and dune toes. We used the output imagery and DEM to map land cover with a pixel-based supervised classification. The dense and highly precise SfM point cloud enabled extraction of geomorphic features with greater detail than with lidar. The feature positions are reported with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter accuracy. The orthomosaic image produced with SfM provides visual reflectance with higher resolution than those available from aerial flight surveys, which enables visual identification of small features and thus aids the training and validation of the automated classification. We find that the high-resolution and correspondingly high density of UAS data requires some simple modifications to existing measurement techniques and processing workflows, and that the types of data and the quality provided is equivalent to, and in some cases surpasses, that of data

  20. Rapid knowledge assessment (RKA): Assessing students content knowledge through rapid, in class assessment of expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Erin

    Understanding how students go about problem solving in chemistry lends many possible advantages for interventions in teaching strategies for the college classroom. The work presented here is the development of an in-classroom, real-time, formative instrument to assess student expertise in chemistry with the purpose of developing classroom interventions. The development of appropriate interventions requires the understanding of how students go about starting to solve tasks presented to them, what their mental effort (load on working memory) is, and whether or not their performance was accurate. To measure this, the Rapid Knowledge Assessment (RKA) instrument uses clickers (handheld electronic instruments for submitting answers) as a means of data collection. The classroom data was used to develop an algorithm to deliver student assessment scores, which when correlated to external measure of standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) examinations and class score show a significant relationship between the accuracy of knowledge assessment (p=0.000). Use of eye-tracking technology and student interviews supports the measurements found in the classroom.

  1. Tracking geomorphic signatures of watershed suburbanization with multi-temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel K.; Baker, Matthew E.; Miller, Andrew J.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban development practices redistribute surface materials through filling, grading, and terracing, causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape. Many studies document the hydrologic, biologic, or geomorphic consequences of urbanization using space-for-time comparisons of disparate urban and rural landscapes. However, no previous studies have documented geomorphic changes from development using multiple dates of high-resolution topographic data at the watershed scale. This study utilized a time series of five sequential light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived digital elevation models (DEMs) to track watershed geomorphic changes within two watersheds throughout development (2002–2008) and across multiple spatial scales (0.01–1 km2). Development-induced changes were compared against an undeveloped forested watershed during the same time period. Changes in elevations, slopes, hypsometry, and surface flow pathways were tracked throughout the development process to assess watershed geomorphic alterations. Results suggest that development produced an increase in sharp topographic breaks between relatively flat surfaces and steep slopes, replacing smoothly varying hillslopes and leading to greater variation in slopes. Examinations of flowpath distributions highlight systematic modifications that favor rapid convergence in unchanneled upland areas. Evidence of channel additions in the form of engineered surface conduits is apparent in comparisons of pre- and post-development stream maps. These results suggest that topographic modification, in addition to impervious surfaces, contributes to altered hydrologic dynamics observed in urban systems. This work highlights important considerations for the use of repeat LiDAR flights in analyzing watershed change through time. Novel methods introduced here may allow improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic changes during development and help guide future

  2. Assessing the continuity of the upland sediment cascade, fluvial geomorphic response of an upland river to an extreme flood event: Storm Desmond, Cumbria, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Hillslope erosion and accelerated lake sedimentation are often viewed as the source and main storage elements in the upland sediment cascade. However, the continuity of sediment transfer through intervening valley systems has rarely been evaluated during extreme events. Storm Desmond (4th - 6th December, 2015) produced record-breaking rainfall maximums in the UK: 341.4 mm rainfall was recorded in a 24 hour period at Honister Pass, Western Lake District, and 405 mm of rainfall was recorded in a 38 hour period at Thirlmere, central Lake District. The storm was the largest in a 150 year local rainfall series, and exceeded previous new records set in the 2005 and 2009 floods. During this exceptional event, rivers over topped flood defences, and caused damage to over 257 bridges, flooded over 5000 homes and businesses, and caused substantial geomorphic change along upland rivers. This research quantifies the geomorphic and sedimentary response to Storm Desmond along a regulated gravel-bed river: St John's Beck. St John's Beck (length 7.8 km) is a channelised low gradient river (0.005) downstream of Thirlmere Reservoir, which joins the River Greta, and flows through Keswick, where major flooding has occurred, before discharging into Bassenthwaite Lake. St John's Beck has a history of chronic sediment aggradation, erosion and reports of historic flooding date back to 1750. During Storm Desmond, riverbanks were eroded, coarse sediment was deposited across valuable farmland and access routes were destroyed, including a bridge and footpaths, disrupting local business. A sediment budget framework has been used to quantify geomorphic change and sedimentary characteristics of the event along St John's Beck. The volume and sediment size distribution of flood deposits, channel bars, tributary deposits, floodplain scour, riverbank erosion and in-channel bars were measured directly in the field and converted to mass using local estimates of coarse and fine sediment bulk densities

  3. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  4. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Geomorphic evidence is presented for ancient seas on Mars. Several features, similar to terrestrial lacustrine and coastal features, were identified along the northern plains periphery from Viking images. The nature of these features argues for formation in a predominantly liquid, shallow body of standing water. Such a shallow sea would require either relatively rapid development of shoreline morphologies or a warmer than present climate at the time of outflow channel formation.

  5. Influence of system controls on the Late Quaternary geomorphic evolution of a rapidly-infilled incised-valley system: The lower Manawatu valley, North Island New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Fuller, Ian C.

    2018-02-01

    The Manawatu incised-valley estuary was rapidly infilled between 12,000-4700 cal. yr BP. A combination of empirical measurements of sedimentation rates, a reconstruction of relative sea-level (RSL) change, and digital elevation models of key surfaces within the Holocene sedimentary fill of the valley were integrated to produce a numerical model to investigate the influence of the system controls of sea-level change, sediment flux, and accommodation space on the rapid infilling history of the palaeo-estuary. The numerical model indicates that sediment flux into the palaeo-estuary was greatest during the Holocene marine transgression between 12,000-8000 years BP. The average rate of sediment deposition in the estuary during this period was 1.0 M m3 yr- 1. This rapid rate of sedimentation was controlled by the rate of accommodation space creation, as regulated by the rate of sea-level rise and the antecedent configuration of the valley. By the time sea levels stabilised c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the palaeo-estuary had been substantively infilled. Limited accommodation space resulted in rapid infilling of the central basin, though sediment flux into the estuary between 7100 and 4500 cal. yr BP was at a lower rate of 234,000 m3 yr- 1. The limited accommodation space also influenced hydrodynamic conditions in the estuarine central basin, driving export of fine-grained sediment from the estuary. Once the accommodation space of the estuarine basin was infilled sediment bypassed the system, with a consequent reduction in the sedimentation rate in the valley. More accurate partitioning of the sources of sediment driving the infilling is necessary to quantify sediment bypassing. Post-depositional lowering of RSL index points from the valley is driven by neotectonics and sediment compaction.

  6. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA

  7. Late cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Patagonian Andes between 42oS and 52oS, southern Chile assessed using fission-track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.N; Herve, F; Stockhert, B.; Brix, M.R.; Adriasola, A

    2001-01-01

    Fission-track (FT) analysis has been applied in the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile to assess the late Cenozoic geomorphic and tectonic response of the overriding plate to subduction of the Chile rise active oceanic spreading centre (Thomson et al., 2001). The timing and nature of tectonic uplift and denudation along the southern parts of the major transpression intra-arc Liquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) system have also been investigated (Thomson, 2001, submitted). Results from 130 FT ages (72 zircon and 58 apatite ages) and 39 apatite track length measurements reveal initiation of rapid cooling and denudation at ca. 30 Ma at the western margin of southern continental South America. This was followed by a ca. 200km eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation to the position of the present day topographic divide between ca. 30 Ma and ca. 12 to 10 Ma. East of the Andean divide less than 3 km of denudation has occurred since the Late Cretaceous. Enhanced denudation is interpreted to be the result of increased tectonic uplift driven by a large increase in convergence rates at ca. 28 to 26 Ma that triggered orographically enhanced precipitation on the west-side of the Patagonian Andes allowing increased erosion by fluvial incision and mass transport processes. The eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation can be related to either coeval eastward migration of the retro-arc deformation front, the effects of subduction erosion in the overriding plate at the Peru-Chile trench or shallowing of the angle of subduction. Away from the influence of the LOF the process of spreading centre subduction and collision itself coincides with an overall slow-down in denudation rates in the overriding plate most likely caused by a major reduction in the main tectonic force driving tectonic uplift in the upper plate to subduction. In contrast to the Andes south of ca. 46 o S, increased cooling and denudation related to transpression induced rock uplift and erosion along

  8. Geomorphic Unit Tool (GUT): Applications of Fluvial Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Wall, E.; Saunders, C.; Bennett, S.; Fortney, S.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic units are the building blocks of rivers and represent distinct habitat patches for many fluvial organisms. We present the Geomorphic Unit Toolkit (GUT), a flexible GIS geomorphic unit mapping tool, to generate maps of fluvial landforms from topography. GUT applies attributes to landforms based on flow stage (Tier 1), topographic signatures (Tier 2), geomorphic characteristics (Tier 3) and patch characteristics (Tier 4) to derive attributed maps at the level of detail required by analysts. We hypothesize that if more rigorous and consistent geomorphic mapping is conducted, better correlations between physical habitat units and ecohydraulic model results will be obtained compared to past work. Using output from GUT for coarse bed tributary streams in the Columbia River Basin, we explore relationships between salmonid habitat and geomorphic spatial metrics. We also highlight case studies of how GUT can be used to showcase geomorphic impact from large wood restoration efforts. Provided high resolution topography exists, this tool can be used to quickly assess changes in fluvial geomorphology in watersheds impacted by human activities.

  9. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Assessment of the Merced River and Historic Bridges in Eastern Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California: Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. Toby; Wright, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    grain size, was used to simulate historical conditions, and the planning scenarios were developed by altering the present-day topography. Roughness was estimated independently of measured water-surface elevations by using the mapped grain-size data and the Keulegan relation of grain size to drag coefficient. The FaSTMECH hydrodynamic model was evaluated against measured water levels by using a 130.9 m3 s-1 flow (approximately a 33-percent annual exceedance probability flood) with 36 water-surface elevations measured by YNP personnel on June 8, 2010. This evaluation run had a root mean square error of 0.21 m between the simulated- and observed water-surface elevations (less than 10 percent of depth), though the observed water-surface elevations had relatively high variation due to the strong diurnal stage changes over the course of the 4.4-hour collection period, during which discharge varied by about 15 percent. There are presently no velocity data with which to test the model. A geomorphic assessment was performed that consisted of an estimate of the magnitude and frequency of bedload and suspended-sediment transport at “Tenaya Bar”, an important gravel-cobble bar located near the upstream end of the study site that determines the amount of flow across the floodplain at the Sugar Pine – Ahwahnee bend. An analysis of select repeat cross-sections collected by YNP since the late 1980s was done to investigate changes in channel cross-sectional area near the Tenaya Bar site. The results of the FaSTMECH models indicate that the maximum velocities in the present-day channel within the study reach are associated with Stoneman and Sugar Pine Bridges, at close to 3.0 m s-1 for the 5-percent annual exceedance probability flood. The modeled maximum velocities at Ahwahnee Bridge are comparatively low, at between 1.5 and 2.0 m s-1, most likely due to the bridge's orientation parallel to down-valley floodplain flows. The results of the FaSTMECH models for the bridge removal

  10. Rapid Carbon Assessment Project: Data Summary and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Skye; Loecke, Terry; Roecker, Stephen; Beaudette, Dylan; Libohova, Zamir; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    The Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) project was undertaken to estimate regional soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the conterminous United States (CONUS) as a one-time event. Sample locations were selected randomly using the NRI (National Resource Inventory) sampling framework covering all areas in CONUS with SSURGO certified maps as of Dec 2012. Within each of 17 regions, sites were selected by a combination of soil and land use/cover groups (LUGR). At each of more than 6,000 sites five pedons were described and sampled to a depth of 100cm (one central and 4 satellites 30m in each cardinal direction). There were 144,833 samples described from 32,084 pedons at 6, 017 sites. A combination of measurement and modeled bulk density was used for all samples. A visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrophotometer was used to scan each sample for prediction of soil carbon contents. The samples of each central pedon were analyzed by the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory for combustion carbon and calcimeter inorganic carbon. SOC stocks were calculated for each pedon using a standard fixed depth technique to depths of 5, 30 and 100cm. Pedon SOC stocks were transformed to better approach normality before LUGR, regional and land use/cover summaries were calculated. The values reported are geometric means. A detailed spatial map can be produced using LUGR mean assignment to correlated pixels. LUGR values range from 1 to 3,000 Mg ha-1. While some artifacts are visible due to the stratified nature of sampling and extrapolation, the predictions are generally smooth and highlight some distinct geomorphic features including the sandhills in the Great Plains in the central US, mountainous regions in the West and coastal wetlands in the East. Regional averages range from 46 Mg ha-1 in the desert Southwest to 182 Mg ha-1 in the Northeast. Regional trends correlate to climate variables such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. While land use/cover classes vary in mean values

  11. Human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates: An example of landslide activity following forest cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, Marie; Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions present unique challenges and opportunities to land use change research. Very few, if any, mountain ecosystems remain unaffected by human impact. Based on the exemplary evidence from local case studies, it is not yet possible to have an overall assessment of the extent and impact of human activities on mountain erosion as mountain regions are typically characterized by rapid changes in geomorphic, cryospheric, climatic, hydrologic, ecological and socio-economic conditions over relatively short distances. Here, we present a conceptual model that allows evaluating human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates. The basic idea behind this model is that the magnitude-frequency distribution of geomorphic processes is dependent on the intensity of human disturbance. The conceptual model is here applied for characterising landslide activity following forest cover change. We selected a tropical Andean catchment with a deforestation rate of 1.4% over the last 45 years. Landslide inventories were established based on historical aerial photographs (1963, 1977, and 1989) and very high-resolution satellite images (2010). Statistical analyses show that the total number of landslides is rising, and that they are increasingly associated with human disturbances (deforestation, road construction). This is particularly the case for shallow landslides that become more frequent after clearcutting. As the human-induced shifts in landslide activity are significant for the low-magnitude events only, the total impact on geomorphic process rates is rather limited in this particular area. This work shows that including information on the magnitude-frequency of geomorphic events before, during and after human disturbances offers new possibilities to quantify the complex response of geomorphic processes to human disturbances.

  12. Human-induced geomorphic change across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.; Molina, A.; Bellin, N.; Christl, M.

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced land cover changes are causing important adverse effects on the ecological services rendered by mountain ecosystems, and the number of case-studies of the impact of humans on soil erosion and sediment yield has mounted rapidly. Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical soil erosion, with direct implications on nutrient cycling, soil fertility and agricultural production. In this study, we present a conceptual model for assessing human-induced erosion for a wide variety of environmental settings and pose that human-induced geomorphic change cannot be assessed solely based on modern erosion rates as natural or baseline erosion rates can be important in e.g. mountainous terrain. As such, we assess the vulnerability of a given ecosystem to human-induced land cover change by quantifying the change in catchment-wide erosion rates resulting from anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover. Human-induced erosion is here approximated by the ratio of the total specific sediment yield to the natural erosional mass flux, and is dimensionless. The conceptual model is applied to three contrasting environmental settings where data on soil production, physical soil erosion and long-term denudation are available: the tropical Andes, subtropical southern Brazil, and semi-arid Spanish Cordillera. The magnitude of human-induced geomorphic change strongly differs between the three regions. The data suggest that the sensitivity to human-induced erosion is ecosystem dependent, and related to soil erosivity and potential vegetation cover disturbances as a result of human impact. It may therefore be expected that the potential for erosion regulation is larger in well-vegetated ecosystem where strong differences may exist in vegetation cover between

  13. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  14. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  15. Building vulnerability to hydro-geomorphic hazards: Estimating damage probability from qualitative vulnerability assessment using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Susanne; Mounaud, Loïc; Magill, Christina; Yao-Lafourcade, Anne-Françoise; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Manville, Vern; Negulescu, Caterina; Zuccaro, Giulio; De Gregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Uchuchoque, Juan Alexis Luque; Arguedas, Anita; Macedo, Luisa; Manrique Llerena, Nélida

    2016-10-01

    The focus of this study is an analysis of building vulnerability through investigating impacts from the 8 February 2013 flash flood event along the Avenida Venezuela channel in the city of Arequipa, Peru. On this day, 124.5 mm of rain fell within 3 h (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggering a flash flood that inundated at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel, affecting more than 280 buildings, 23 of a total of 53 bridges (pedestrian, vehicle and railway), and leading to the partial collapse of sections of the main road, paralyzing central parts of the city for more than one week. This study assesses the aspects of building design and site specific environmental characteristics that render a building vulnerable by considering the example of a flash flood event in February 2013. A statistical methodology is developed that enables estimation of damage probability for buildings. The applied method uses observed inundation height as a hazard proxy in areas where more detailed hydrodynamic modeling data is not available. Building design and site-specific environmental conditions determine the physical vulnerability. The mathematical approach considers both physical vulnerability and hazard related parameters and helps to reduce uncertainty in the determination of descriptive parameters, parameter interdependency and respective contributions to damage. This study aims to (1) enable the estimation of damage probability for a certain hazard intensity, and (2) obtain data to visualize variations in damage susceptibility for buildings in flood prone areas. Data collection is based on a post-flood event field survey and the analysis of high (sub-metric) spatial resolution images (Pléiades 2012, 2013). An inventory of 30 city blocks was collated in a GIS database in order to estimate the physical vulnerability of buildings. As many as 1103 buildings were surveyed along the affected drainage and 898 buildings were included in the statistical analysis. Univariate and

  16. Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national immunisation days in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. ... TM Akande, M Eshetu, G Bonsu ... Conclusion: Rapid assessment is a valuable tool for evaluation of NIDs; it enables timely intervention in covering missed children and helps in careful interpretation of the usual ...

  17. Rapid Geriatric Assessment of Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanker, Jesse; Duque, Gustavo

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive geriatric assessment, combined with a battery of imaging and blood tests, should be able to identify those hip fracture patients who are at higher risk of short- and long-term complications. This comprehensive assessment should be followed by the implementation of a comprehensive multidimensional care plan aimed to prevent negative outcomes in the postoperative period (short and long term), thus assuring a safe and prompt functional recovery while also preventing future falls and fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bend-scale geomorphic classification and assessment of the Lower Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to the Mississippi River for application to pallid sturgeon management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Colvin, Michael E.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Pickard, Darcy; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2018-06-07

    Management actions intended to increase growth and survival of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) age-0 larvae on the Lower Missouri River require a comprehensive understanding of the geomorphic habitat template of the river. The study described here had two objectives relating to where channel-reconfiguration projects should be located to optimize effectiveness. The first objective was to develop a bend-scale (that is, at the scale of individual bends, defined as “cross-over to cross-over”) geomorphic classification of the Lower Missouri River to help in the design of monitoring and evaluation of such projects. The second objective was to explore whether geomorphic variables could provide insight into varying capacities of bends to intercept drifting larvae. The bend-scale classification was based on geomorphic and engineering variables for 257 bends from Sioux City, Iowa, to the confluence with the Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri. We used k-means clustering to identify groupings of bends that shared the same characteristics. Separate 3-, 4-, and 6-cluster classifications were developed and mapped. The three classifications are nested in a hierarchical structure. We also explored capacities of bends to intercept larvae through evaluation of linear models that predicted persistent sand area or catch per unit effort (CPUE) of age-0 sturgeon as a function of the same geomorphic variables used in the classification. All highly ranked models that predict persistent sand area contained mean channel width and standard deviation of channel width as significant variables. Some top-ranked models also included contributions of channel sinuosity and density of navigation structures. The sand-area prediction models have r-squared values of 0.648–0.674. In contrast, the highest-ranking CPUE models have r-squared values of 0.011–0.170, indicating much more uncertainty for the biological response variable. Whereas the persistent sand model documents that

  19. Rapid Assessment of Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencek, Joesph R; Colby, Jennifer M; Nichols, James H

    Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Economy, Environment, Politics SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats TRL Technology Readiness Level US United States WHO World Health...process fills one with the hope of great things to come. From 3-D printed organs to self-assembling asteroid -mining robots, the solution to all the...one to assess the relevant advantages of the new technologies compared to the current systems. For example, if we are considering investment in a

  1. Effects of simultaneous climate change and geomorphic evolution on thermal characteristics of a shallow Alaskan lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    We used a hydrodynamics model to assess the consequences of climate warming and contemporary geomorphic evolution for thermal conditions in a large, shallow Alaskan lake. We evaluated the effects of both known climate and landscape change, including rapid outlet erosion and migration of the principal inlet stream, over the past 50 yr as well as future scenarios of geomorphic restoration. Compared to effects of air temperature during the past 50 yr, lake thermal properties showed little sensitivity to substantial (~60%) loss of lake volume, as the lake maximum depth declined from 6 m to 4 m driven by outlet erosion. The direction and magnitude of future lake thermal responses will be driven largely by the extent of inlet stream migration when it occurs simultaneously with outlet erosion. Maintaining connectivity with inlet streams had substantial effects on buffering lake thermal responses to warming climate. Failing to account for changing rates and types of geomorphic processes under continuing climate change may misidentify the primary drivers of lake thermal responses and reduce our ability to understand the consequences for aquatic organisms.

  2. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  3. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  4. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  5. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites

  6. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  7. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This User's Guide provides instruction in the setup and operation of the equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Instructions are also given on how to load the magnetic disks and access the interactive part of the program. Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  8. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  9. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  10. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  11. The 2010 Chile Earthquake: Rapid Assessments of Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Michelini, A.; Lauciani, V.; Selvaggi, G.; Lomax, A.

    2010-01-01

    After an earthquake underwater, rapid real-time assessment of earthquake parameters is important for emergency response related to infrastructure damage and, perhaps more exigently, for issuing warnings of the possibility of an impending tsunami. Since 2005, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has worked on the rapid quantification of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential, especially for the Mediterranean area. This work includes quantification of earthquake size fr...

  12. Tsunami Rapid Assessment Using High Resolution Images and Field Surveys: the 2010 , Central Chile, and the 2011, Tohoku Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Navarrete-Pacheco, J.; Lagos, M.; Arcas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent extreme tsunamis have shown their major socioeconomic impact and imprint in the coastal landscape. Extensive destruction, erosion, sediment transport and deposition resculpted coastal landscape within few minutes along hundreds of kilometers of the Central Chile, in 2010, and the Northeast coast of Japan, in 2011. In the central coast of Chile, we performed a post-tsunami survey a week after the tsunami due to access restrictions. Our observations focus on the inundation and geomorphic effects of the 2010 tsunami and included an air reconnaissance flight, analysis of pre- and post-event low fly air-photographs and Google Earth satellite images, together with ground reconnaissance and mapping in the field, including topographic transects, during a period of 13 days. Eyewitness accounts enabled us to confirm our observations on effects produced by the tsunami along ~ 500km along the coastline landscape in central Chile For the Tohoku case study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview through the Google crisis response project, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese, other international scientists and us validated our results. The rapid assessment of damage using high-resolution images has proven to be an excellent tool neccessary for effcient postsunami surveys as well as for rapid assessment of areas with access restrictions. All countries, in particular those with less access to technology and infrastructure, can benefit from the use of freely available satellite imagery and DEMs for an initial, pre-field survey, rapid estimate of inundated areas, distances and runup, tsunami effects in the coastal geomorphology and for assisting in hazard management and mitigation after a natural disaster. These data provide unprecedented opportunities for rapid assessment

  13. Program for rapid dose assessment in criticality accident, RADAPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-09-01

    In a criticality accident, a person near fissile material can receive extremely high dose which can cause acute health effect. For such a case, medical treatment should be carried out for the exposed person, according to severity of the exposure. Then, radiation dose should be rapidly assessed soon after an outbreak of an accident. Dose assessment based upon the quantity of induced 24 Na in human body through neutron exposure is expected as one of useful dosimetry techniques in a criticality accident. A dose assessment program, called RADAPAS (RApid Dose Assessment Program from Activated Sodium in Criticality Accidents), was therefore developed to assess rapidly radiation dose to exposed persons from activity of induced 24 Na. RADAPAS consists of two parts; one is a database part and the other is a part for execution of dose calculation. The database contains data compendiums of energy spectra and dose conversion coefficients from specific activity of 24 Na induced in human body, which had been derived in a previous analysis using Monte Carlo calculation code. Information for criticality configuration or characteristics of radiation in the accident field is to be interactively given with interface displays in the dose calculation. RADAPAS can rapidly derive radiation dose to the exposed person from the given information and measured 24 Na specific activity by using the conversion coefficient in database. This report describes data for dose conversions and dose calculation in RADAPAS and explains how to use the program. (author)

  14. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  15. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  16. Human geomorphic footprint and global geomorphic change: implications for hydrogeomorphic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondo, Juan

    2010-05-01

    sedimentation rates in different areas showing that in most of them sedimentation has increased significantly during the last century (by about one order of magnitude in most cases) and that such increase does not seem to be related to climate but rather to human activity. If a global geomorphic change is indeed taking place, an increase in the frequency/intensity of related hazards, such as landslides or floods, should be expected. Data are presented indicating that it could be so. If what the data presented suggest is confirmed by further and deeper analyses, existing hazard and risk assessments for those processes should be reconsidered, because they would likely represent underestimates. The CAMGEO Team is formed by the following persons: Antonio Cendrero1, Gonzalo Méndez2, Jaime Bonachea1, José Gómez-Arozamena1, José Luis Cavallotto5, José Manuel Naredo3, Juan Remondo1, Lazaro V. Zuquette6, Luis Salas1, Luis M. Forte4, Marcilene Dantas-Ferreira6, Maria Angélica de O. Bezerra7, Mario da Silva, Martín A. Hurtado4, Osni J. Pejon6, Victoria Rivas1, Viola M. Bruschi1. 1) Universidad de Cantabria, Spain; 2) Universidad de Vigo, Spain; 3) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; 4) Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina; 5) Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Argentina; 6) Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil; 7) Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  17. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  18. Geomorphic Function and Restoration Potential of Spring Creeks in Southeastern Idaho: Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Hill, Z.; Levell, A.; Maguire, T.; Risso, D.

    2014-12-01

    A large wetland and floodplain complex adjacent to the Snake River in southeastern Idaho, USA, encompasses numerous spring-fed creeks that originate on the floodplain and discharge at their confluence with the Snake River and American Falls Reservoir. Resource managers are implementing a program to restore these spring creeks for the recovery of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and ecosystem health. Our objectives were to evaluate the physical characteristics of these spring creeks, develop a conceptual model of their geomorphic function, compare the restoration potential of individual reaches, and communicate our findings to a broad audience of resource managers and regional stakeholders in order to foster restoration planning. A geomorphic assessment along 38 km of three spring creeks was completed by collecting data at several transects within distinct geomorphic reaches, and by collecting data continuously throughout all reaches. These data were summarized in a GIS database and used to quantify the overall geomorphic functioning of each reach. The geomorphic functional scores were scaled from 0% (non-functional) to 100% (fully functional). Among all three spring creeks, geomorphic function ranged from 29% to 63%, with bank conditions and riparian vegetation being the primary causes of overall channel degradation. Results from the geomorphic assessment fostered the development of a conceptual model for spring creek function, whereby degraded bank conditions represent the primary controlling factor of decreased geomorphic function and fish habitat quality. The reach-based geomorphic functional scoring provides an indicator of relative restoration potential for each reach, and is one of the factors used in determining site-specific priorities for protecting, enhancing, and restoring spring creeks on the Fort Hall Bottoms. The study results, conceptual model and restoration strategy were communicated to resource managers and regional stakeholders through a graphically

  19. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  20. Ethical dimensions of paediatric nursing: A rapid evidence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Cadorin, Lucia; Barisone, Michela; Bressan, Valentina; Iemmi, Marina; Prandi, Marzia; Timmins, Fiona; Watson, Roger; Sasso, Loredana

    2018-02-01

    Paediatric nurses often face complex situations requiring decisions that sometimes clash with their own values and beliefs, or with the needs of the children they care for and their families. Paediatric nurses often use new technology that changes the way they provide care, but also reduces their direct interaction with the child. This may generate ethical issues, which nurses should be able to address in the full respect of the child. Research question and objectives: The purpose of this review is to describe the main ethical dimensions of paediatric nursing. Our research question was, 'What are the most common ethical dimensions and competences related to paediatric nursing?' A rapid evidence assessment. According to the principles of the rapid evidence assessment, we searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases for papers published between January 2001 and March 2015. These papers were then independently read by two researchers and analysed according to the inclusion criteria. Ethical considerations: Since this was a rapid evidence assessment, no approval from the ethics committee was required. Ten papers met our inclusion criteria. Ethical issues in paediatric nursing were grouped into three areas: (a) ethical issues in paediatric care, (b) social responsibility and (c) decision-making process. Few studies investigate the ethical dimensions and aspects of paediatric nursing, and they are mainly qualitative studies conducted in critical care settings based on nurses' perceptions and experiences. Paediatric nurses require specific educational interventions to help them resolve ethical issues, contribute to the decision-making process and fulfil their role as advocates of a vulnerable population (i.e. sick children and their families). Further research is needed to investigate how paediatric nurses can improve the involvement of children and their families in decision-making processes related to their care plan.

  1. Imaging findings and referral outcomes of rapid assessment stroke clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Manuel, D.; Hodgson, T.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Coley, S.C.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Gaines, P.; Cleveland, T.; Thomas, S.; Griffiths, P.D.; Doyle, C.; Venables, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A rapid assessment stroke clinic (RASC) was established to provide a rapid diagnostic service to individuals with suspected transient cerebral or ocular ischaemia or recovered non-hospitalized strokes. In this report we review imaging findings and clinical outcomes of patients proceeding to the carotid surgery programme. METHODS: Between October 2000 and December 2002, 1339 people attended the RASC. The findings of head CT and carotid Doppler ultrasound of the 1320 patients who underwent brain and carotid imaging were reviewed, and the number subsequently proceeding to carotid angiography and intervention was reported. RESULTS: CT head scans were normal in 57% of cases; 38% demonstrated ischaemia or infarction; and 3% yielded incidental or other significant findings not related to ischaemia. On screening with carotid Doppler ultrasound, 7.5% showed greater than 50% stenosis on the symptomatic side. A total of 83 patients (6.2%) proceeded to cerebral angiography and 65 (4.8%) underwent carotid endarterectomy or endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: Rapid-access neurovascular clinics are efficient in selecting patients for carotid intervention, but this is at a cost and the number of potential strokes prevented is small. Alternative management pathways based on immediate medical treatment need to be evaluated

  2. Novel flood risk assessment framework for rapid decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Koursari, Eftychia; Solley, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of catastrophic flooding, have significantly increased over the last few decades. This is due to primarily the increased urbanisation in ever-expanding mega-cities as well as due to the intensification both in magnitude and frequency of extreme hydrologic events. Herein a novel conceptual framework is presented that incorporates the use of real-time information to inform and update low dimensionality hydraulic models, to allow for rapid decision making towards preventing loss of life and safeguarding critical infrastructure. In particular, a case study from the recent UK floods in the area of Whitesands (Dumfries), is presented to demonstrate the utility of this approach. It is demonstrated that effectively combining a wealth of readily available qualitative information (such as crowdsourced visual documentation or using live data from sensing techniques), with existing quantitative data, can help appropriately update hydraulic models and reduce modelling uncertainties in future flood risk assessments. This approach is even more useful in cases where hydraulic models are limited, do not exist or were not needed before unpredicted dynamic modifications to the river system took place (for example in the case of reduced or eliminated hydraulic capacity due to blockages). The low computational cost and rapid assessment this framework offers, render it promising for innovating in flood management.

  3. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Geomorphic and hydrologic study of peak-flow management on the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Marineau, Mathieu D.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the linkages between high-flow events, geomorphic response, and effects on stream ecology is critical to river management. High flows on the gravel-bedded Cedar River in Washington are important to the geomorphic function of the river; however, high flows can deleteriously affect salmon embryos incubating in streambed gravels. A geomorphic analysis of the Cedar River showed evidence of historical changes in river form over time and quantified the effects of anthropogenic alterations to the river corridor. Field measurements with accelerometer scour monitors buried in the streambed provided insight into the depth and timing of streambed scour during high-flow events. Combined with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the recorded accelerometer disturbances allowed the prediction of streambed disturbance at the burial depth of Chinook and sockeye salmon egg pockets for different peak discharges. Insight gained from these analyses led to the development of suggested monitoring metrics for an ongoing geomorphic monitoring program on the Cedar River.

  5. Autogenic geomorphic processes determine the resolution and fidelity of terrestrial paleoclimate records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Straub, Kyle M

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial paleoclimate records rely on proxies hosted in alluvial strata whose beds are deposited by unsteady and nonlinear geomorphic processes. It is broadly assumed that this renders the resultant time series of terrestrial paleoclimatic variability noisy and incomplete. We evaluate this assumption using a model of oscillating climate and the precise topographic evolution of an experimental alluvial system. We find that geomorphic stochasticity can create aliasing in the time series and spurious climate signals, but these issues are eliminated when the period of climate oscillation is longer than a key time scale of internal dynamics in the geomorphic system. This emergent autogenic geomorphic behavior imparts regularity to deposition and represents a natural discretization interval of the continuous climate signal. We propose that this time scale in nature could be in excess of 10 4 years but would still allow assessments of the rates of climate change at resolutions finer than the existing age model techniques in isolation.

  6. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  7. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  8. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  9. Review on Rapid Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Bulk of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, R. P.; Majhi, D. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of rapid visual screening (RVS) procedures available in different countries with a comparison among all the methods. Seismic evaluation guidelines from, USA, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, India, Europe, Italy, UNDP, with other methods are reviewed from the perspective of their applicability to developing countries. The review shows clearly that some of the RVS procedures are unsuited for potential use in developing countries. It is expected that this comparative assessment of various evaluation schemes will help to identify the most essential components of such a procedure for use in India and other developing countries, which is not only robust, reliable but also easy to use with available resources. It appears that Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 154 and New Zealand Draft Code approaches can be suitably combined to develop a transparent, reasonably rigorous and generalized procedure for seismic evaluation of buildings in developing countries.

  10. Geomorphic observations from southwestern terminus of Palghat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 031, India. ∗ .... Geomorphic observations from SW terminus of Palghat Gap, south India. 823. Figure. 2. ... tical point of view to determine an average state.

  11. Rapid habitability assessment of Mars samples by pyrolysis-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter R.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (pyrolysis FTIR) is a potential sample selection method for Mars Sample Return missions. FTIR spectroscopy can be performed on solid and liquid samples but also on gases following preliminary thermal extraction, pyrolysis or gasification steps. The detection of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases can reveal information on sample mineralogy and past habitability of the environment in which the sample was created. The absorption of IR radiation at specific wavenumbers by organic functional groups can indicate the presence and type of any organic matter present. Here we assess the utility of pyrolysis-FTIR to release water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and organic matter from Mars relevant materials to enable a rapid habitability assessment of target rocks for sample return. For our assessment a range of minerals were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance FTIR. Subsequently, the mineral samples were subjected to single step pyrolysis and multi step pyrolysis and the products characterised by gas phase FTIR. Data from both single step and multi step pyrolysis-FTIR provide the ability to identify minerals that reflect habitable environments through their water and carbon dioxide responses. Multi step pyrolysis-FTIR can be used to gain more detailed information on the sources of the liberated water and carbon dioxide owing to the characteristic decomposition temperatures of different mineral phases. Habitation can be suggested when pyrolysis-FTIR indicates the presence of organic matter within the sample. Pyrolysis-FTIR, therefore, represents an effective method to assess whether Mars Sample Return target rocks represent habitable conditions and potential records of habitation and can play an important role in sample triage operations.

  12. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isipradit, Saichin; Sirimaharaj, Maytinee; Charukamnoetkanok, Puwat; Thonginnetra, Oraorn; Wongsawad, Warapat; Sathornsumetee, Busaba; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Soomsawasdi, Piriya; Jitawatanarat, Umapond; Taweebanjongsin, Wongsiri; Arayangkoon, Eakkachai; Arame, Punyawee; Kobkoonthon, Chinsuchee; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    2014-01-01

    The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) study in Thailand. A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA) blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  13. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  14. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  15. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  16. Geomorphic status of regulated rivers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J

    2015-03-01

    River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation

  17. Rapid assessment breast clinics--evolution through audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, D P; Cahill, R A; Birido, N; Jeffers, M; Loftus, B; McInerney, D; Rothwell, J; Geraghty, J G

    2006-11-01

    This observational, cohort study aimed to examine the potential utility of Rapid Assessment Breast Clinics (RABC) beyond cancer detection at presentation. One thousand four hundred and twenty nine women were studied over an 18 month period. 154 (10.7%) had breast cancer - 87.7% of whom were seen expediently with 92.9% being diagnosed at one attendance. One hundred and forty three (10%) of those with a benign diagnosis were found by routine questioning to have significant familial risk separate to their reason for referral. Despite careful triage, considerable contamination of appointment allotment occurred with many who were correctly triaged as non-urgent being seen 'urgently'. One hundred and seventy six attendees (12.3%) had neither the symptom that triggered referral, nor breast lump, nipple discharge nor family history of breast cancer, while 283 (19.8%) had no objective clinical or radiological abnormality. Although RABC reliably categorise malignant versus non-malignant diagnoses despite cluttering by low risk women, a significant proportion of non-cancer patients still require address of future risk rather than reassurance of their present status alone.

  18. Competence of Litter Ants for Rapid Biodiversity Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Saumya E. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Biodiversity Assessment approaches associated with focusing taxa have overcome many of the problems related to large scale surveys. This study examined the suitability of litter ants as a focusing taxon by checking whether diversity and species assemblages of litter ants reflect the overall picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter in two vegetation types: secondary forest and pine plantation in Upper Hanthana forest reserve, Sri Lanka. In each vegetation type, arthropods were sampled using three sampling methods (Winkler extraction, hand collection, and pitfall traps along three 100 m line transects. From the two sites, 1887 litter ants (34 species and 3488 litter arthropods (52 species were collected. Species assemblages composition of both ants and other arthropods differed significantly between the two sites (ANOSIM, p=0.001 with both groups generating distinct clusters for the two sites (SIMPROF, p=0.001. But there was no significant correlation (p>0.05 between abundance and richness of litter ants and those of other arthropods in both vegetation types. The overall finding suggests that the litter ants do not reflect the holistic picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter, but the quality of the habitat for the survival of all litter arthropods.

  19. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, J. Del; de La Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process.

  20. A rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Southern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB was conducted in Southern Zambia to establish the prevalence and causes of blindness in order to plan effective services and advocate for support for eye care to achieve the goals of VISION 2020: the right to sight. METHODS: Cluster randomisation was used to select villages in the survey area. These were further subdivided into segments. One segment was selected randomly and a survey team moved from house to house examining everyone over the age of 50 years. Each individual received a visual acuity assessment and simple ocular examination. Data was recorded on a standard proforma and entered into an established software programme for analysis. RESULTS: 2.29% of people over the age of 50 were found to be blind (VA <3/60 in the better eye with available correction. The major cause of blindness was cataract (47.2% with posterior segment disease being the next main cause (18.8%. 113 eyes had received cataract surgery with 30.1% having a poor outcome (VA <6/60 following surgery. Cataract surgical coverage showed that men (72% received more surgery than women (65%. DISCUSSION: The results from the RAAB survey in Zambia were very similar to the results from a similar survey in Malawi, where the main cause of blindness was cataract but posterior segment disease was also a significant contributor. Blindness in this part of Zambia is mainly avoidable and there is a need for comprehensive eye care services that can address both cataract and posterior segment disease in the population if the aim of VISION 2020 is to be achieved. Services should focus on quality and gender equity of cataract surgery.

  1. CTER—Rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penczek, Pawel A., E-mail: Pawel.A.Penczek@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Fang, Jia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan [The Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M.T. [Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300 kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03 Å without, and 3.85 Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. - Highlights: • We describe methodology for estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment. • Error estimates provide means for automated elimination of inferior micrographs. • High computational efficiency allows real-time monitoring of EM data quality. • Accurate CTF estimation yields structure of the 80S human ribosome at 3.85 Å.

  2. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  3. CTER-rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penczek, Pawel A; Fang, Jia; Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan; Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M T

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03Å without, and 3.85Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  5. Global seafloor geomorphic features map: applications for ocean conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. T.; Macmillan-Lawler, M.; Rupp, J.; Baker, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seafloor geomorphology, mapped and measured by marine scientists, has proven to be a very useful physical attribute for ocean management because different geomorphic features (eg. submarine canyons, seamounts, spreading ridges, escarpments, plateaus, trenches etc.) are commonly associated with particular suites of habitats and biological communities. Although we now have better bathymetric datasets than ever before, there has been little effort to integrate these data to create an updated map of seabed geomorphic features or habitats. Currently the best available global seafloor geomorphic features map is over 30 years old. A new global seafloor geomorphic features map (GSGM) has been created based on the analysis and interpretation of the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) 30 arc-second (~1 km) global bathymetry grid. The new map includes global spatial data layers for 29 categories of geomorphic features, defined by the International Hydrographic Organisation. The new geomorphic features map will allow: 1) Characterization of bioregions in terms of their geomorphic content (eg. GOODS bioregions, Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA)); 2) Prediction of the potential spatial distribution of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) and marine genetic resources (MGR; eg. associated with hydrothermal vent communities, shelf-incising submarine canyons and seamounts rising to a specified depth); and 3) Characterization of national marine jurisdictions in terms of their inventory of geomorphic features and their global representativeness of features. To demonstrate the utility of the GSGM, we have conducted an analysis of the geomorphic feature content of the current global inventory of marine protected areas (MPAs) to assess the extent to which features are currently represented. The analysis shows that many features have very low representation, for example fans and rises have less than 1 per cent of their total area

  6. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in rapid earthquake impact models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary cases. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different impact scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall impact is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and impact assessment requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual impact provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce impact models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then

  7. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  8. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  9. Geomorphic Controls on Floodplain Soil Organic Carbon in the Yukon Flats, Interior Alaska, From Reach to River Basin Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, K. B.; Wohl, E.; Rose, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Floodplains accumulate and store organic carbon (OC) and release OC to rivers, but studies of floodplain soil OC come from small rivers or small spatial extents on larger rivers in temperate latitudes. Warming climate is causing substantial change in geomorphic process and OC fluxes in high latitude rivers. We investigate geomorphic controls on floodplain soil OC concentrations in active-layer mineral sediment in the Yukon Flats, interior Alaska. We characterize OC along the Yukon River and four tributaries in relation to geomorphic controls at the river basin, segment, and reach scales. Average OC concentration within floodplain soil is 2.8% (median = 2.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that OC varies among river basins, among planform types along a river depending on the geomorphic unit, and among geomorphic units. OC decreases with sample depth, suggesting that most OC accumulates via autochthonous inputs from floodplain vegetation. Floodplain and river characteristics, such as grain size, soil moisture, planform, migration rate, and riverine DOC concentrations, likely influence differences among rivers. Grain size, soil moisture, and age of surface likely influence differences among geomorphic units. Mean OC concentrations vary more among geomorphic units (wetlands = 5.1% versus bars = 2.0%) than among study rivers (Dall River = 3.8% versus Teedrinjik River = 2.3%), suggesting that reach-scale geomorphic processes more strongly control the spatial distribution of OC than basin-scale processes. Investigating differences at the basin and reach scale is necessary to accurately assess the amount and distribution of floodplain soil OC, as well as the geomorphic controls on OC.

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID): Registry assessment of peripheral interventional devices core data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert A; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2018-02-01

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible. Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Coastal wetlands, sea level, and the dimensions of geomorphic resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-01

    Geomorphic system resilience is often perceived as an intrinsic property of system structure and interactions but is also related to idiosyncratic place and history factors. The importance of geographical and historical circumstances makes it difficult to generate categorical statements about geomorphic resilience. However, network-based analyses of system structure can be used to determine the dynamical stability (= resilience) based on generally applicable relationships and to determine scenarios of stability or instability. These provide guidelines for assessing place and history factors to assess resilience. A model of coastal wetlands is analyzed, based on interactions among relative sea level, wetland surface elevation, hydroperiod, vegetation, and sedimentation. The system is generally (but not always) dynamically unstable and non-resilient. Because of gradients of environmental factors and patchy distributions of microtopography and vegetation, a coastal wetland landscape may have extensive local variations in stability/resilience and in the key relationships that trigger instabilities. This is illustrated by a case study where dynamically unstable fragmentation is found in two nearby coastal wetlands in North Carolina's Neuse River estuary-Otter Creek Mouth and Anderson Creek. Neither is keeping pace with relative sea level rise, and both show unstable state transitions within the wetland system; but locally stable relationships exist within the wetland systems.

  10. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  11. Accuracy limits on rapid assessment of gently varying bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, B. Edward; Holland, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Accuracy limits for rapidly probing shallow water bathymetry are investigated as a function of bottom slope and other relevant parameters. The probe scheme [B. E. McDonald and Charles Holland, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2767 (2001)] uses a time reversed mirror (TRM) to ensonify a thin annulus on the ocean bottom at ranges of a few km from a vertical send/ receive array. The annulus is shifted in range by variable bathymetry (perturbation theory shows that the focal annulus experiences a radial shift proportional to the integrated bathymetry along a given azimuth). The range shift implies an azimuth-dependent time of maximum reverberation. Thus the reverberant return contains information that might be inverted to give bathymetric parameters. The parameter range over which the perturbation result is accurate is explored using the RAM code for propagation in arbitrarily range-dependent environments. [Work supported by NRL.

  12. A rapid stability assessment of China's IGS sites after the Ms7. 0 Lushan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and accurate assessment of the stability of surveying and mapping reference points is important for post – disaster rescue, disaster relief and reconstruction activities. Using Precise Point Positioning (PPP technology, a rapid assessment of the stability of the IGS sites in China was performed after the Ms 7. 0 Lushan earthquake using rapid precise ephemeris and rapid precise satellite clock products. The results show that the earthquake had a very small impact and did not cause significant permanent deformation at the IGS sites. Most of the sites were unaffected and remained stable after the earthquake.

  13. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  14. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  15. Milestones: a rapid assessment method for the Clinical Competency Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Nabors, Christopher; Forman, Leanne; Peterson, Stephen J.; Gennarelli, Melissa; Aronow, Wilbert S.; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Chandy, Dipak; Ahn, Chul; Sule, Sachin; Stallings, Gary W.; Khera, Sahil; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Frishman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Educational milestones are now used to assess the developmental progress of all U.S. graduate medical residents during training. Twice annually, each program?s Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) makes these determinations and reports its findings to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The ideal way to conduct the CCC is not known. After finding that deliberations reliant upon the new milestones were time intensive, our internal medicine residency pr...

  16. Evaluation of Geomorphic Changes, Using Landsat Data and its Impact on Coastal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    temporal study with the help of landsat satellite image has been carried out to assess the degree of the geomorphic degradation of different deltaic features and its consequent impact on the demography and socioeconomics of the people. Interactive correlation of the present analyses of the Indus water-flow in relation to the manmade water divergent structures reveals that the massive water divergence to upstream areas by depleting water availability into the downstream areas have caused severe imbalance in the equilibrium between the fluvial and marine hydrodynamics. The dominance of the marine hydrodynamic conditions have caused irreversible damage to the physical environment due to the rapid landward sea invasion. Based on the results of the present study it has been identified that i) the coastline is rapidly retreating; ii) individual creeks and the creeks' network are enlarging by the erosional phenomenon laterally as well as longitudinally; iii) tidally influenced areas are rapidly expanding; iv) overall area of the deltaic lakes is reducing but the frequency of the lakes occurrences is increasing; v) the course and the thalweg of the Indus river is widening seaward and narrowing landward; vi) populated areas along the coastline have been evacuated due to the massive seawater intrusions; vii) agricultural and fishing activities are tremendously declining and viii) food productivity per acre is decreasing. Moreover, it is also revealed that i) the shelf slope is steeping and retreating faster and ii) geometry of the Indus canyon is also rapidly changing. This phenomenon has affected the socio-economic of the coastal community and from many place force them to move from their native places.

  17. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  18. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  19. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  20. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  1. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  2. Rapid assessment of bilateral cochlear implantation for children in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosherbayeva, Lyazzat; Hailey, David; Kozhageldiyeva, Laura

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) compared with unilateral CI for deaf children in the context of the Republic of Kazakhstan health system. Methods. A literature search was conducted, using the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase data bases for studies that compared the effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral CI in children. The search included English language, publications from 2002-2012. Two reviewers independently evaluated all relevant studies. Administrative data relevant to CI in Kazakhstan were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Three relevant systematic reviews and an health technology assessment report were found. There was evidence of incremental benefits from bilateral CI but the quality of the available studies was poor and there was little information on longer term outcomes. No conclusions could be drawn regarding later incremental improvements to speech perception, learning, and quality of life. To date, in the Republic of Kazakhstan there is not full coverage of audiological screening due to the lack of medical equipment. This leads to late detection of hearing-impaired children and a long rehabilitation period, requiring more resources. Age of implantation in children is late and only a small minority attend general schools. The clinical effectiveness of bilateral CI, an expensive health technology, requires further study. Given the current situation in Kazakhstan with audiological screening and access to unilateral CI, there appeared to be other priorities for improving services for children with profound hearing impairment.

  3. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    relative health of the ecosystem. The IBI, though originally for Midwestern streams, has been successfully adapted to other ecoregions and taxa (macroinvertebrates, Lombard and Goldstein, 2004) and has become an important tool for scientists and regulatory agencies alike in determining health of stream ecosystems. The IBI is a specific type of a larger group of methods and procedures referred to as Rapid Bioassessment (RBA). These protocols have the advantage of directly measuring the organisms affected by system perturbations, thus providing an integrated evaluation of system health because the organisms themselves integrate all aspects of their environment and its condition. In addition to the IBI, the RBA concept has also been applied to seep wetlands (Paller et al. 2005) and terrestrial systems (O'Connell et al. 1998, Kremen et al. 1993, Rodriguez et al. 1998, Rosenberg et al. 1986). Terrestrial RBA methods have lagged somewhat behind those for aquatic systems because terrestrial systems are less distinctly defined and seem to have a less universal distribution of an all-inclusive taxon, such as fish in the IBI, upon which to base an RBA. In the last decade, primarily in Australia, extensive development of an RBA using ant communities has shown great promise. Ants have the same advantage for terrestrial RBAs that fish do for aquatic systems in that they are an essential and ubiquitous component of virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. They occupy a broad range of niches, functional groups, and trophic levels and they possess one very important characteristic that makes them ideal for RBA because, similar to the fishes, there is a wide range of tolerance to conditions within the larger taxa. Within ant communities there are certain groups, genera, or species that may be very robust and abundant under even the harshest impacts. There are also taxa that are very sensitive to disturbance and change and their presence or absence is also indicative of the local

  4. Interim Results of a National Test of the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation (RAPiD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traino, H. M.; Alolod, G. P.; Shafer, T.; Siminoff, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Organ donation remains a major public health challenge with over 114 000 people on the waitlist in the United States. Among other factors, extant research highlights the need to improve the identification and timely referral of potential donors by hospital health-care providers (HCPs) to organ procurement organizations (OPOs). We implemented a national test of the Rapid Assessment of hospital Procurement barriers in Donation (RAPiD) to identify assets and barriers to the organ donation and patient referral processes; assess hospital–OPO relationships and offer tailored recommendations for improving these processes. Having partnered with seven OPOs, data were collected at 70 hospitals with high donor potential in the form of direct observations and interviews with 2358 HCPs. We found that donation attitudes and knowledge among HCPs were high, but use of standard referral criteria was lacking. Significant differences were found in the donation-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors of physicians and emergency department staff as compared to other staff in intensive care units with high organ donor potential. Also, while OPO staff were generally viewed positively, they were often perceived as outsiders rather than members of healthcare teams. Recommendations for improving the referral and donation processes are discussed. PMID:22900761

  5. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  6. Eco-geomorphic controls on slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.; Ford, C.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J.; Band, L.

    2009-04-01

    Vegetation controls soil-mantled landscape evolution primarily through growth of roots into soil and rock. Root-soil interactions affect the spatial distribution and rate of shallow landsliding and other hillslope processes. Yet the distribution and tensile strength of roots depends on a number of geomorphically-influenced parameters, including soil moisture. Our field-based study investigated the effects of topography on root distributions, tensile strengths, and cohesion. Systematic differences in plant species distribution and soil properties are found in the hollow-nose topography of soil-mantled landscapes; with hollows containing thick colluvial soils and mesic tree species and noses containing thinner, more differentiated soils and more xeric species. We investigated whether these topographic variations in geomorphic and ecologic properties affected the spatial distribution of root cohesion by measuring the distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of fifteen individual trees in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina. Our soil pits were located to capture variance in plant species (10 species total), topographic positions (nose, hollow), and sizes (a range of DBH between 5 cm and 60 cm). Root tensile strengths showed little variance with different species, but showed strong differences as a function of topography, with nose roots stronger than hollow roots. Similarly, within species, root cellulose content was systematically greater in trees on nose positions compared to those in hollows. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface (at least 70% of biomass occurred within 50 cm of the surface) and variations in this pattern were primarily a function of topographic position. Hollow roots were more evenly distributed in the soil column than those on noses, yet trees located on noses had higher mean root cohesion than those in hollows because of a higher root tensile force. These data provide an

  7. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  8. Downstream ecological effects of dams: A geomorphic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, F.K.; Dietrich, W.E.; Trush, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The damming of a river changes the flow of water, sediment, nutrients, energy, and biota, interrupting and altering most of a river's ecological processes. This article discusses the importance of geomorphological analysis in river conservation and management. To illustrate how subtle geomorphological adjustments may profoundly influence the ecological relationships downstream from dames, three case studies are presented. Then a geomorphically based approach for assessing and possibly mitigating some of the environmental effects of dams by tailoring dam designed and operation is outlined. The cases are as follows: channel simplification and salmon decline on the McKenzie River in Oregon; Channel incision and reduced floodplain inundation on the Oconee river in Georgia; Increased stability of a braided river in New Zealand's south island. 41 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Oo; Myo Khin; Nwe Nwe Oo

    1997-01-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection

  10. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oo, Myint; Khin, Myo; Oo, Nwe Nwe [Department of Medical Research, Yangon (Myanmar)

    1997-12-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection.

  11. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to ...

  12. Scale-dependent geomorphic responses to active restoration and implications for cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, N.; Miller, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The predominant goal of instream habitat restoration is to increase the diversity, density and/or biomass of aquatic organisms through enhanced physical heterogeneity and increased food availability. In physically homogenized systems, habitat restoration is most commonly achieved at the reach-scale through the addition of structures or channel reconfiguration. Despite the completion of over 6,000 restoration projects in the United States, studies of fish responses to habitat restoration have largely produced equivocal results. Paradoxically, restoration monitoring overwhelmingly focuses on fish response without understanding how these responses link to the physical variables being altered and the scale at which geomorphic changes occur. Our study investigates whether instream habitat restoration affects geomorphic conditions at spatial scales relevant to the organism of interest (i.e. the spatial scale of the variables limiting to that organism). We measure the effects of active restoration on geomorphic metrics at three spatial scales (local, unit, and reach) using a before-after-control-impact design in a historically disturbed and heavily managed cutthroat trout stream. Observed trout habitat preferences (for spawning and juvenile/adult residence) are used to identify the limiting physical variables and are compared to the scale of spatially explicit geomorphic responses. Four reaches representing three different stages of restoration (before, one month and one year after) are surveyed for local-scale physical conditions, unit- and reach-scale morphology, resident fish use, and redd locations. Local-scale physical metrics include depth, nearbed and average velocity, overhead cover, particle size, and water quality metrics. Point measurements stratified by morphological unit are used to determine physical variability among unit types. Habitat complexity and availability are assessed at the reach-scale from topographic surveys and unit maps. Our multi

  13. Geomorphic Controls on Aquifer Geometry in Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Densmore, A. L.; Sinha, R.; Gupta, S.; Mason, P. J.; Singh, A.; Joshi, S. K.; Nayak, N.; Kumar, M.; Shekhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Indo-Gangetic foreland basin suffers from one of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world, especially in the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. To understand the effects of this extraction on ground water levels, we must first understand the geometry and sedimentary architecture of the aquifer system, which in turn depend upon its geomorphic setting. We use satellite images and digital elevation models to map the geomorphology of the Sutlej and Yamuna river systems, while aquifer geometry is assessed using ~250 wells that extend to ~300 m depth in Punjab and Haryana. The Sutlej and Yamuna rivers have deposited large sedimentary fans at their outlets. Elongate downslope ridges on the fan surfaces form distributary networks that radiate from the Sutlej and Yamuna fan apices, and we interpret these ridges as paleochannel deposits associated with discrete fan lobes. Paleochannels picked out by soil moisture variations illustrate a complex late Quaternary history of channel avulsion and incision, probably associated with variations in monsoon intensity. Aquifer bodies on the Sutlej and Yamuna fans have a median thickness of 7 and 6 m, respectively, and follow a heavy-tailed distribution, probably because of stacked sand bodies. The percentage of aquifer material in individual lithologs decreases downstream, although the exponent on the thickness distribution remains the same, indicating that aquifer bodies decrease in number down fan but do not thin appreciably. Critically, the interfan area between the Sutlej and Yamuna fans has thinner aquifers and a lower proportion of aquifer material, despite its proximal location. Our data show that the Sutlej and Yamuna fan systems form the major aquifer systems in this area, and that their geomorphic setting therefore provides a first-order control on aquifer distribution and geometry. The large spatial heterogeneity of the system must be considered in any future aquifer management scheme.

  14. Geomorphic tipping points: convenient metaphor or fundamental landscape property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In 2000 Malcolm Gladwell published as book that has done much to publicise Tipping Points in society but also in academia. His arguments, re-expressed in a geomorphic sense, have three core elements: (1) a "Law of the Few", where rapid change results from the effects of a relatively restricted number of critical elements, ones that are able to rapidly connect systems together, that are particularly sensitive to an external force, of that are spatially organised in a particular way; (2) a "Stickiness" where an element of the landscape is able to assimilate characteristics which make it progressively more applicable to the "Law of the Few"; and (3), given (1) and (2) a history and a geography that means that the same force can have dramatically different effects, according to where and when it occurs. Expressed in this way, it is not clear that Tipping Points bring much to our understanding in geomorphology that existing concepts (e.g. landscape sensitivity and recovery; cusp-catastrophe theory; non-linear dynamics systems) do not already provide. It may also be all too easy to describe change in geomorphology as involving a Tipping Point: we know that geomorphic processes often involve a non-linear response above a certain critical threshold; we know that landscapes can, after Denys Brunsden, be though of as involving long periods of boredom ("stability") interspersed with brief moments of terror ("change"); but these are not, after Gladwell, sufficient for the term Tipping Point to apply. Following from these issues, this talk will address three themes. First, it will question, through reference to specific examples, notably in high Alpine systems, the extent to which the Tipping Point analogy is truly a property of the world in which we live. Second, it will explore how 'tipping points' become assigned metaphorically, sometimes evolving to the point that they themselves gain agency, that is, shaping the way we interpret landscape rather than vice versa. Third, I

  15. Anthropogenic control on geomorphic process rates: can we slow down the erosion rates? (Geomorphology Outstanding Young Scientist Award & Penck Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.

    2012-04-01

    The surface of the Earth is changing rapidly, largely in response to anthropogenic perturbation. Direct anthropogenic disturbance of natural environments may be much larger in many places than the (projected) indirect effects of climate change. There is now large evidence that humans have significantly altered geomorphic process rates, mainly through changes in vegetation composition, density and cover. While much attention has been given to the impact of vegetation degradation on geomorphic process rates, I suggest that the pathway of restoration is equally important to investigate. First, vegetation recovery after crop abandonment has a rapid and drastic impact on geomorphic process rates. Our data from degraded catchments in the tropical Andes show that erosion rates can be reduced by up to 100 times when increasing the protective vegetation cover. During vegetation restoration, the combined effects of the reduction in surface runoff, sediment production and hydrological connectivity are stronger than the individual effects together. Therefore, changes in erosion and sedimentation during restoration are not simply the reverse of those observed during degradation. Second, anthropogenic perturbation causes a profound but often temporary change in geomorphic process rates. Reconstruction of soil erosion rates in Spain shows us that modern erosion rates in well-vegetated areas are similar to long-term rates, despite evidence of strong pulses in historical erosion rates after vegetation clearance and agriculture. The soil vegetation system might be resilient to short pulses of accelerated erosion (and deposition), as there might exist a dynamic coupling between soil erosion and production also in degraded environments.

  16. Log Distribution, Persistence, and Geomorphic Function in Streams and Rivers, in the Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, L.; Burchsted, D.; Warren, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood provides critical ecosystem services such as fish habitat, temperature regulation and bank stabilization. In the northeastern U.S., the distribution of large wood is documented; however, there is little understanding of the movement, longevity and geomorphic function. This research examines the hypothesis that tree species control the persistence and geomorphic function of instream wood in the Appalachian region of the northeastern U.S. To do this, we assessed size, location, and species of logs in New Hampshire rivers, including locations in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF) where these data were collected ten years ago. We expanded the previous dataset to include assessment of geomorphic function, including creation of diversion channels, pool formation, and sediment storage, among others. We also added new sites in the WMNF and sites on a large rural river in southwestern NH to increase the range of geomorphic variables to now include: confined and unconfined channels; 1st to 4th order streams; low to high gradient; meandering, multithreaded, and straight channels; and land use such as historic logging, modern agriculture, and post-agricultural abandonment. At each study site, we located all large logs (>10cm diameter, > 1m length) and log jams (>3 accumulated logs that provide a geomorphic function) along 100m-700m reaches. We marked each identified log with a numbered tag and recorded species, diameter, length, orientation, GPS location, tag number, and photographs. We assessed function and accumulation, decay, stability, and source classes for each log. Along each reach we measured riparian forest composition and structure and channel width. Preliminary analysis suggests that tree species significantly affects the function of logs: yellow birch and American sycamore are highly represented. Additionally, geomorphic setting also plays a primary role, where unconfined reaches have large logs that provide important functions; those functions

  17. A Rapid Assessment Tool for affirming good practice in midwifery education programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Judith T; Johnson, Peter; Lobe, Erika; Myint, Khine Haymar; Aung, Nan Nan; Moe, Thida; Linn, Nay Aung

    2016-03-01

    to design a criterion-referenced assessment tool that could be used globally in a rapid assessment of good practices and bottlenecks in midwifery education programs. a standard tool development process was followed, to generate standards and reference criteria; followed by external review and field testing to document psychometric properties. review of standards and scoring criteria were conducted by stakeholders around the globe. Field testing of the tool was conducted in Myanmar. eleven of Myanmar׳s 22 midwifery education programs participated in the assessment. the clinimetric tool was demonstrated to have content validity and high inter-rater reliability in use. a globally validated tool, and accompanying user guide and handbook are now available for conducting rapid assessments of compliance with good practice criteria in midwifery education programming. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  19. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  20. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  1. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol...... for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews....

  2. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS--an improved rapid-assessment approach to characterising fish landings in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries.

  3. Rapid assessment of health needs in mass emergencies: review of current concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, D

    1991-01-01

    The increase in the number of natural disasters and their impact on population is of growing concern to countries at risk and agencies involved in health and humanitarian action. The numbers of persons killed or disabled as a result of earthquakes, cyclones, floods and famines have reached record levels in the last decade. Population density, rampant urbanization and climatic changes have brought about risk patterns that are exposing larger and larger sections of populations in developing countries to life-threatening natural disasters. Despite substantial spending on emergency relief, the approaches to relief remain largely ad hoc and amateurish, resulting generally in inappropriate and/or delayed action. In recent years, mass emergencies of the kind experienced in Bangladesh or the Sahelian countries have highlighted the importance of rapid assessment of health needs for better allocation of resources and relief management. As a result, the development of techniques for rapid assessment of health needs has been identified as a priority for effective emergency action. This article sketches the health context of disasters in terms of mortality and morbidity patterns; it describes initial assessment techniques currently used and their methodological biases and constraints; it also discusses assessment needs which vary between different types of disasters and the time frame within which assessments are undertaken. Earthquakes, cyclones, famines, epidemics or refugees all have specific risk profiles and emergency conditions which differ for each situation. Vulnerability to mortality changes according to age and occupation, for earthquakes and famines. These risk factors then have significant implications for the design of rapid assessment protocols and checklists. Experiences from the field in rapid survey techniques and estimation of death rates are discussed, with emphasis on the need for a reliable denominator even for the roughest assessment. Finally, the

  4. Predicting Geomorphic and Hydrologic Risks after Wildfire Using Harmonic and Stochastic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, J.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; Nourbakhshbeidokhti, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is a landscape-scale disturbance that often alters hydrological processes and sediment flux during subsequent storms. Vegetation loss from wildfires induce changes to sediment supply such as channel erosion and sedimentation and streamflow magnitude or flooding. These changes enhance downstream hazards, threatening human populations and physical aquatic habitat over various time scales. Using Williams Canyon, a basin burned by the Waldo Canyon Fire (2012) as a case study, we utilize deterministic and statistical modeling methods (Fourier series and first order Markov chain) to assess pre- and post-fire geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics, including of precipitation, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, a satellite-based proxy of vegetation biomass), streamflow, and sediment flux. Local precipitation, terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanning, and satellite-based products are used for these time series analyses. We present a framework to assess variability of periodic and nonperiodic climatic and multivariate trends to inform development of a post-wildfire risk assessment methodology. To establish the extent to which a wildfire affects hydrologic and geomorphic patterns, a Fourier series was used to fit pre- and post-fire geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics to yearly temporal cycles and subcycles of 6, 4, 3, and 2.4 months. These cycles were analyzed using least-squares estimates of the harmonic coefficients or amplitudes of each sub-cycle's contribution to fit the overall behavior of a Fourier series. The stochastic variances of these characteristics were analyzed by composing first-order Markov models and probabilistic analysis through direct likelihood estimates. Preliminary results highlight an increased dependence of monthly post-fire hydrologic characteristics on 12 and 6-month temporal cycles. This statistical and probabilistic analysis provides a basis to determine the impact of wildfires on the temporal dependence of

  5. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  6. Fire passage on geomorphic fractures in Cerrado: effect on vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; José Marcelo Imaña Encinas; Flávio Luiz de Souza Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Geomorphic fracture is a natural geologic formation that sometimes forms a deep fissure in the rock with the establishment of soil and vegetation. The objective of this work was to analyze vegetation within geomorphic fractures under the effect of wildfire passage. The biometric variables evaluated before and after fire passage were: diameter, height, leaf area index, timber volume, grass biomass, number of trees and shrubs and of species. Results (in fractures) were compared to adjacent area...

  7. Geomorphic control on the δ15N of mountain forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, R. G.; Galy, A.; West, A. J.; Hovius, N.; Roberts, G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mountain forests are subject to high rates of physical erosion which can export particulate nitrogen from ecosystems. However, the impact of geomorphic processes on nitrogen budgets remains poorly constrained. We have used the elemental and isotopic composition of soil and plant organic matter to investigate nitrogen cycling in the mountain forest of Taiwan, from 24 sites with distinct geomorphic (topographic slope) and climatic (precipitation, temperature) characteristics. The organic carbon...

  8. Extreme Changes in Stream Geomorphic Conditions induced by Fluvial Scour in Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, O.; Ozcan, O.

    2016-12-01

    The numerous complexities associated with bridge scour have caused scour to be one of the most active topics of stream geomorphic research. The assessment of local scouring mechanism around bridge piers provides information for decision-making regarding the pile footing design, predicting the safety of bridges under critical scoured conditions, and as a result, may help prevent unnecessary loses. In the study, bridge design plans and HEC-RAS modeling were used for the assessment of changes in stream geomorphic conditions. The derived fluvial scour depths were compared with the field measurements and the empirical formula which is based on stream flow discharge rate, streambed condition and shape of river. Preliminary results revealed that bridge damage resulting from the flood event in 2003 induced substantial scour around bridge piles. Afterwards, significant stream bed change was observed under the influence of fluvial scour in another flood occurred in 2009. Consequently, geomorphic conditions of the stream bed should be considered in the structural design of the bridges.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit (BRT in the Metropolitan City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit is an innovative, high capacity, lower cost public transit solution in metropolitan cities. Idea is to dedicate lanes for quick and efficient transport of passengers to their destinations. In the present investigation the environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit  in Tehran metropolitan city is brought out. For this purpose bus rapid transit Lane No. 10 is investigated. The bus rapid transit Lane No.10 is about 10 km in distance that moves up and down between Azadi and Simon Bolivar Squares. About 77500 passengers using 50 buses are transited per day in lane No. 10. These 50 buses cover a distance of 9600 km/day. The results of present study showed that about 6.5 million liters of fuel is saved annually. It should be pointed out that environmental costs are also reduced for about US$ 1.7 million/yr. The overall score of environmental impact assessment stands at +10 that is indicative of Lane No. 10 compatibility with the environmental considerations.

  10. Characterizing the geomorphic setting of precariously balanced rocks using terrestrial laser scanning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, D. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is rapidly becoming an effective three-dimensional imaging tool. Precariously balanced rocks are a subset of spheroidally weathered boulders. They are balanced on bedrock pedestals and are formed in upland drainage basins and pediments of exhumed plutons. Precarious rocks are used as negative evidence of earthquake-driven extreme ground motions. Field surveys of PBRs are coupled with cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating techniques to determine their exhumation rates. These rates are used in statistical simulations to estimate the magnitudes and recurrences of earthquake-generated extreme ground shaking as a means to physically validate seismic hazard analyses. However, the geomorphic setting of PBRs in the landscape is poorly constrained when interpreting their exhumation rates from CRN surface exposure dates. Are PBRs located on steep or gentle hillslopes? Are they located near drainages or hillslope crests? What geomorphic processes control the spatial distribution of PBRs in a landscape, and where do these processes dominate? Because the fundamental hillslope transport laws are largely controlled by local hillslope gradient and contributing area, the location of a PBR is controlled by the geomorphic agents and their rates acting on it. Our latest efforts involve using a combination of TLS and airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to characterize the geomorphic situation of PBRs. We used a Riegl LPM 800i (LPM 321) terrestrial laser scanner to scan a ~1.5 m tall by ~1 m wide precariously balanced rock in the Granite Dells, central Arizona. The PBR was scanned from six positions, and the scans were aligned to a point cloud totaling 3.4M points. We also scanned a ~50 m by ~150 m area covering PBR hillslopes from five scan positions. The resulting 5.5M points were used to create a digital terrain model of precarious rocks and their hillslopes. Our TLS- and ALSM-generated surface models and DEMs provide a

  11. Integrating channel form and processes in the Gangetic plains rivers: Implications for geomorphic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.

    2018-02-01

    Geomorphic diversity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales has been studied in the western Ganga plains (WGP), India, to isolate the dominating factors at each scale that have the potential to cause major geomorphic change. The Ganga River and its major tributaries draining the WGP have been investigated in terms of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and planform morphology to assess the influence of potential controls such as climate, geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and sediment transport. These data were then compared with those from the rivers draining the eastern Ganga plains (EGP) to understand the geomorphic diversity across the Ganga plains and the causal factors. Our investigations suggest that in-channel geomorphic diversity over decadal scale in rivers with low width-to-depth (W/D) ratio is caused by periodic incision/aggradation, but it is driven by channel avulsion in rivers characterized by high W/D ratio. Similarly, planform (reach-scale) parameters such as sinuosity and braid-channel-ratio are influenced by intrinsic factors such as changes in hydrological conditions and morphodynamics (cutoffs, small-scale avulsion) that are in turn impacted by natural and human-induced factors. Finally, we have isolated the climatic and hydrologic effects on the longitudinal profile concavity of alluvial trunk channels in tectonically stable and unstable landscapes. We demonstrate that the rivers flowing through a tectonically stable landscape are graded in nature where higher discharge tends to create more concave longitudinal profiles compared to those in tectonically unstable landscape at 103-year scale.

  12. Human impact on the geomorphic evolution of the HOAL catchment, Lower Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Kraushaar, Sabine; Strauss, Peter; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of human settlement extensive land cover and land use changes have induced significant geomorphic landscape changes as water and sediment dynamics have been transformed. The presented project focuses on the reconstruction of Holocene geomorphic landscape evolution and the assessment of recent geomorphic processes in the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria - an area intensively agriculturally used since the middle ages and often overlooked in its geomorphic evolution. The study area is a small catchment (ca. 66 ha) which is located in the western part of Lower Austria comprising a land use history as well as environmental settings typical for wide regions across the Northern foothills of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The catchment elevation ranges from 268 to 323 m a.s.l. and has a mean slope angle of 8%. The climate in this region can be characterized as humid. The lithology mainly consists of Tertiary marly to sandy deposits which are superimposed by Quaternary sediments (e.g. loesses). Dominant soil types are Cambisols, Luvisols, and Planosols. Furthermore, the catchment is used as a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) implemented for the long-term research of water-related flow and transport processes in the landscape (http://hoal.hydrology.at). The main objective of this research project is to reconstruct Holocene landscape evolution by analyzing physical parameters of sediment cores taken from colluvial and alluvial sediment archives with additional 14C and OSL dating as well as by the measurement of truncated and covered standardized Luvisol profiles. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  13. Geomorphic hazards and intense rainfall: the case study of the Recco Stream catchment (Eastern Liguria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faccini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A critical pluviometric event occurred in the central-eastern Ligurian Riviera, 15 km from Genoa, on 1 June 2007. This event caused landslides and hydraulic problems between Sori and Camogli and in the inland area of the Recco Valley.

    An analysis of the heavy rainfall was conducted. Hourly precipitation data revealed a critical event between 04:00 a.m. and 07:00 a.m. local time, with more than 220 mm of precipitation over three hours.

    Slope movements were mainly debris flows that detached from the lateral valleys of the Recco Stream catchment and from well-maintained, wooded slopes that were also characterised by cultivated terraces.

    Numerous slide planes corresponded to the interface between the surface cover and the underlying bedrock, which presents an unfavourable geologic structure in terms of stability assessment.

    In most cases, the displaced material had a limited thickness. Debris cover was rapidly channelled along small valleys, which controlled the critical hydraulic conditions in the secondary drainage network.

    Man-made drainage systems were partially or totally blocked in a very short time and, like the natural watercourses, accumulated thick and extensive alluvial fans.

    Most of the instability phenomena occurred in areas that had been designated medium or low-risk areas during land planning, and in sectors that were defined as stable, because they lacked geomorphic indicators connected to landslide risks.

    The above considerations highlight some gaps of the Recco Stream Master Plan. Therefore, to update this land planning tool, it is necessary to extensively investigate local geomorphological characteristics and to adopt a different method for assigning weights to the geohazard maps.

  14. A web-based rapid assessment tool for production publishing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong

    2010-02-01

    Solution assessment is a critical first-step in understanding and measuring the business process efficiency enabled by an integrated solution package. However, assessing the effectiveness of any solution is usually a very expensive and timeconsuming task which involves lots of domain knowledge, collecting and understanding the specific customer operational context, defining validation scenarios and estimating the expected performance and operational cost. This paper presents an intelligent web-based tool that can rapidly assess any given solution package for production publishing workflows via a simulation engine and create a report for various estimated performance metrics (e.g. throughput, turnaround time, resource utilization) and operational cost. By integrating the digital publishing workflow ontology and an activity based costing model with a Petri-net based workflow simulation engine, this web-based tool allows users to quickly evaluate any potential digital publishing solutions side-by-side within their desired operational contexts, and provides a low-cost and rapid assessment for organizations before committing any purchase. This tool also benefits the solution providers to shorten the sales cycles, establishing a trustworthy customer relationship and supplement the professional assessment services with a proven quantitative simulation and estimation technology.

  15. Rapid humanitarian assessments and rationality: a value-of-information study from Iraq, 2003-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles

    2007-03-01

    Rapid assessments are one of the standard informational tools in humanitarian response and are supposed to contribute to rational decision-making.(1) The extent to which the assessment organisation itself behaves rationally, however, is an open question. This can be evaluated against multiple criteria, such as the cost and value of the information it collects and its ability to adapt flexibly design or samples when the survey environment changes unforeseeably. An unusual data constellation from two concurrent recent (2003-04) rapid assessments in northern Iraq permits us to model part of the actual assessment behaviour in terms of geographical, community and prior substantive information attributes. The model correctly predicts the decisions, in 79 per cent of the 2,425 local communities in focus, that data collector teams in the Emergency Mine Action Survey made to visit or not to visit. The analysis demonstrates variably rational behaviour under conditions of insecurity, repeated regrouping and incomplete sampling frames. A pronounced bias towards very small rural settlements is irrational for the overall results, but may be a rational strategy of individual survey workers seeking to prolong their employment. Implications for future assessments are sketched in the areas of tools for urban surveys, greater adaptability, including early feedback from users, and sensibility to value-of-information concepts.

  16. Wet meadow ecosystems and the longevity of biologically-mediated geomorphic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Upland meadows represent a ubiquitous feature of montane landscapes in the U.S. West and beyond. Characterized by flat valley floors flanked by higher-gradient hillslopes, these meadows are important features, both for the diverse ecosystems they support but also because they represent depositional features in what is primarily an erosional environment. As such, they serve as long-term chronometers of both geological and ecological processes in a portion of the landscape where such records are rare, and provide a useful microcosm for exploring many of the questions motivating critical zone science. Specifically, meadows can offer insights into questions regarding the longevity of theses biologically-mediated landscapes, and the geomorphic thresholds associated with transitions between metastable landscape states. Though categorically depositional, wet meadows have been shown to rapidly shift into erosional landscapes characterized by deep arroyos, declining water tables, and sparse, semi-arid ecosystems. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed explaining this shift: intensive ungulate usage, removal of beaver, climatic shifts, and intrinsic geomorphic evolution. Even less is known about the mechanisms controlling the construction of these meadow features. Evidence seems to suggest these channels oscillate between two metastable conditions: deeply incised, single-threaded channels and sheet-flow dominated valley-spanning wetlands. We present new evidence exploring the subsurface architecture of wet meadows and the bidirectional process cascades potentially responsible for their temporal evolution. Using a combination of near surface geophysical techniques and detailed stratigraphic descriptions of incised and un-incised meadows throughout the Silvies River Basin, OR, we examine mechanisms responsible both for the construction of these features and their apparently rapid transition from depositional to erosional. Our investigation focuses specifically on potential

  17. Bio-geomorphic feedback causes alternative stable landscape states: insights from coastal marshes and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Many bio-geomorphic systems, such as hill slopes, river floodplains, tidal floodplains and dune areas, seem to be vulnerable to shifts between alternative bare and vegetated landscape states, and these shifts seem to be driven by bio-geomorphic feedbacks. Here we search for empirical evidence for alternative stable state behavior in intertidal flats and marshes, where bio-geomorphic interactions are known to be intense. Large-scale transitions have been reported worldwide between high-elevation vegetated marshes and low-elevation bare flats in intertidal zones of deltas, estuaries, and coastal embayments. It is of significant importance to understand and predict such transitions, because vegetated marshes provide significant services to coastal societies. Previous modeling studies suggest that the ecological theory of catastrophic shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states potentially explains the transition between bare flats and vegetated marshes. However, up to now only few empirical evidence exists. In our study, the hypothesis is empirically tested that vegetated marshes and bare tidal flats can be considered as alternative stable landscape states with rapid shifts between them. We studied historical records (1930s - 2000s) of intertidal elevation surveys and aerial pictures from the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Our results demonstrated the existence of: (1) bimodality in the intertidal elevation distribution, i.e., the presence of two peaks in the elevation frequency distribution corresponding to a completely bare state and a densely vegetated state; (2) the relatively rapid transition in elevation when intertidal flats evolve from bare to vegetated states, with sedimentation rates that are 2 to 8 times faster than during the stable states; (3) a threshold elevation above which the shift from bare to vegetated state has a high chance to occur. Our observations demonstrate the abrupt non-linear shift between low-elevation bare flats and high

  18. An approach for evaluating the repeatability of rapid wetland assessment methods: The effects of training and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple ob...

  19. A Rapid Assessment of Instructional Strategies to Teach Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea; LeBlanc, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate a rapid assessment procedure to identify effective instructional strategies to teach auditory-visual conditional discriminations to children diagnosed with autism. We replicated and extended previous rapid skills assessments (Lerman, Vorndran, Addison, & Kuhn, 2004) by evaluating the effects…

  20. Geomorphic Flood Area (GFA): a QGIS tool for a cost-effective delineation of the floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Albano, Raffaele; Sole, Aurelia; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Flood Prone Areas using Digital Elevation Models, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16(10), 781-790. Manfreda, S., Nardi, F., Samela, C., Grimaldi, S., Taramasso, A. C., Roth, G., & Sole, A. (2014). Investigation on the Use of Geomorphic Approaches for the Delineation of Flood Prone Areas, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 863-876. Manfreda, S., Samela, C., Gioia, A., Consoli, G., Iacobellis, V., Giuzio, L., & Sole, A. (2015). Flood-prone areas assessment using linear binary classifiers based on flood maps obtained from 1D and 2D hydraulic models. Natural Hazards, Vol. 79 (2), pp 735-754. Samela, C. (2016), 100-year flood susceptibility maps for the continental U.S. derived with a geomorphic method. University of Basilicata. Dataset. Samela, C., Manfreda, S., Paola, F. D., Giugni, M., Sole, A., & Fiorentino, M. (2016). DEM-Based Approaches for the Delineation of Flood-Prone Areas in an Ungauged Basin in Africa. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 21(2), 1-10. Samela, C., Troy, T.J., Manfreda, S. (2017). Geomorphic classifiers for flood-prone areas delineation for data-scarce environments, Advances in Water Resources (under review).

  1. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  2. A geomorphic process law for detachment-limited hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphic process laws are used to assess the shape evolution of structures at the Earth's surface over geological time scales, and are routinely used in landscape evolution models. There are two currently available concepts on which process laws for hillslope evolution rely. In the transport-limited concept, the evolution of a hillslope is described by a linear or a non-linear diffusion equation. In contrast, in the threshold slope concept, the hillslope is assumed to collapse to a slope equal to the internal friction angle of the material when the load due to the relief exists the material strength. Many mountains feature bedrock slopes, especially in the high mountains, and material transport along the slope is limited by the erosion of the material from the bedrock. Here, I suggest a process law for detachment-limited or threshold-dominated hillslopes, in which the erosion rate is a function of the applied stress minus the surface stress due to structural loading. The process law leads to the prediction of an equilibrium form that compares well to the shape of many mountain domes.

  3. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  4. The Key Role of Eyewitnesses in Rapid Impact Assessment of Global Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Etivant, C.; Frobert, L.; Godey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties in rapid impact assessments of global earthquakes are intrinsically large because they rely on 3 main elements (ground motion prediction models, building stock inventory and related vulnerability) which values and/or spatial variations are poorly constrained. Furthermore, variations of hypocentral location and magnitude within their respective uncertainty domain can lead to significantly different shaking level for centers of population and change the scope of the disaster. We present the strategy and methods implemented at the Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) to rapidly collect in-situ observations on earthquake effects from eyewitnesses for reducing uncertainties of rapid earthquake impact assessment. It comprises crowdsourced information (online questionnaires, pics) as well as information derived from real time analysis of web traffic (flashourcing technique), and more recently deployment of QCN (Quake Catcher Network) low cost sensors. We underline the importance of merging results of different methods to improve performances and reliability of collected data.We try to better understand and respond to public demands and expectations after earthquakes through improved information services and diversification of information tools (social networks, smartphone app., browsers adds-on…), which, in turn, drive more eyewitnesses to our services and improve data collection. We will notably present our LastQuake Twitter feed (Quakebot) and smartphone applications (IOs and android) which only report earthquakes that matter for the public and authorities, i.e. felt and damaging earthquakes identified thanks to citizen generated information.

  5. Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Jian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R2 > 0.98 between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin and the luminous intensity of V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 was obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (R2 > 0.96 between the amount of mycotoxin and the luminous intensity from the cultures of 10 major mycotoxin-producing pathogens were also observed. In addition, Fusarium proliferatum (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 17.49% exhibited greater luminescence suppression than Fusarium semitectum (IC50 = 92.56% or Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 = 28.61%, which was in agreement with the existing higher levels of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and deoxynivalenol, which were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

  6. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution.

  7. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  8. Rapid assessment of household needs in the Houston area after Tropical Storm Allison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Stephen C; Reynolds, Kaye M; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Arafat, Raouf R

    2002-09-01

    Tropical Storm Allison, which hit landfall near Galveston, Texas, on June 5, 2001, caused the most severe flood-related damage ever recorded in the Houston metropolitan area. The main goal of the public health response to tropical storm Allison was to evaluate the immediate health needs of the community. To estimate damage and household needs, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in the areas most affected by flooding with use of a modified cluster sampling method facilitated by Geographical Information Systems methodology. A total of 420 households participated in the survey, 210 each from the 2 sampling areas. We found a 4-fold increase in illness among persons living in flooded homes compared with those living in nonflooded homes. These findings suggest a need for rapid resolution of flood-related damage and the possibility that residents should seek temporary housing during clean-up and repair. In addition, we obtained reliable estimates of damage and household needs to help guide relief efforts. The findings underscore the usefulness of a rapid-needs assessment as a tool to identify actual health threats and to facilitate delivery of resources to those with the greatest and most immediate need.

  9. Problems in developing an instrument for the rapid assessment of personality status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, E; Manley, C; Leddy, D; Cicchetti, D; Tyrer, P

    2000-06-01

    To assess the validity of a quick assessment instrument (10 minutes) for assessing personality status, the Rapid Personality Assessment Schedule (PAS-R). The PAS-R was evaluated in psychotic patients recruited in one of the centres involved in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of intensive vs standard case management (the UK700 case management trial). Patients were assessed using both a full version of the PAS (PAS-I - ICD version) and the PAS-R. The weighted kappa statistic was used to gauge the (criterion-related) validity of the PAS-R using the PAS-I as the gold standard. Both measure code personality status using a four-point rating of severity in addition to recording individual categories of personality disorder. One hundred fifty-five (77%) of 201 patients recruited were assessed with both instruments. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.31, suggesting only moderate agreement between the PAS-I and PAS-R instruments under the four-point rating format, and 0.39 for the dichotomous personality disorder/no disorder separation. The sensitivity (64%) and specificity (82%) of the PAS-R in predicting PAS-I personality disorder were as satisfactory as for other screening instruments but still somewhat disappointing, and the PAS-R had an overall diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The PAS-R is a quick and rough method of detecting personality abnormality but is not a substitute for a fuller assessment.

  10. Rapid assessment of tinnitus-related psychological distress using the Mini-TQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an abridged version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) to be used as a quick tool for the assessment of tinnitus-related psychological distress. Data from 351 inpatients and 122 outpatients with chronic tinnitus were used to analyse item statistics and psychometric properties. Twelve items with an optimal combination of high item-total correlations, reliability and sensitivity in assessing changes were selected for the Mini-TQ. Correlation with the full TQ was >0.90, and test-retest reliability was 0.89. Validity was confirmed by associations with general psychological symptom patterns. Treatment effects indicated by the Mini-TQ were slightly greater than those indicated by the full TQ. The Mini-TQ is recommended as a psychometrically approved and solid tool for rapid and economical assessment of subjective tinnitus distress.

  11. Evaluation of work posture and quantification of fatigue by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), poor body postures, and low back injuries are the most common problems occurring in many industries including small-medium industries. This study presents assessment and evaluation of ergonomic postures of material handling worker. That evaluation was carried out using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). REBA is a technique to quantize the fatigue experienced by the worker while manually lifting loads. Fatigue due to abnormal work posture leads to complaints of labor-perceived pain. REBA methods were used to an assessment of working postures for the existing process by a procedural analysis of body postures involved. This study shows that parts of the body have a high risk of work are the back, neck, and upper arms with REBA score 9, so action should be taken as soon as possible. Controlling actions were implemented to those process with high risk then substantial risk reduction was achieved.

  12. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  13. The Use of Aerial RGB Imagery and LIDAR in Comparing Ecological Habitats and Geomorphic Features on a Natural versus Man-Made Barrier Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton P. Anderson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mississippi (MS barrier island chain along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is subject to rapid changes in habitat, geomorphology and elevation by natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The purpose of this study was to compare habitat type coverage with respective elevation, geomorphic features and short-term change between the naturally-formed East Ship Island and the man-made Sand Island. Ground surveys, multi-year remotely-sensed data, habitat classifications and digital elevation models were used to quantify short-term habitat and geomorphic change, as well as to examine the relationships between habitat types and micro-elevation. Habitat types and species composition were the same on both islands with the exception of the algal flat existing on the lower elevated spits of East Ship. Both islands displayed common patterns of vegetation succession and ranges of existence in elevation. Additionally, both islands showed similar geomorphic features, such as fore and back dunes and ponds. Storm impacts had the most profound effects on vegetation and geomorphic features throughout the study period. Although vastly different in age, these two islands show remarkable commonalities among the traits investigated. In comparison to East Ship, Sand Island exhibits key characteristics of a natural barrier island in terms of its vegetated habitats, geomorphic features and response to storm impacts, although it was established anthropogenically only decades ago.

  14. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA FILHO, Omar Gabriel; LARA, Tulio Silva; AYUB, Priscila Vaz; OHASHI, Amanda Sayuri Cardoso; BERTOZ, Francisco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic) was acceptable. Results From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. Conclusion RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis. PMID:21986660

  15. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lees, C. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R{sup 2} = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R{sup 2} = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  16. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Millard, James D; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J.; Lees, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R"2 = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R"2 = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R"2 = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  18. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Neugarten

    Full Text Available The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES, the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower, regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection, and cultural (nature tourism ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF. Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamaro, Luciano; Cano, Carlos Andres; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hole, David; Juhn, Daniel; McKinnon, Madeleine; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Steininger, Marc; Wright, Timothy Max

    2016-01-01

    The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower), regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection), and cultural (nature tourism) ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions. PMID:28006005

  20. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  1. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  2. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) - Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices Core Data Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L; Nc, Durham; Md, Silver Spring; Japan, Tokyo; Ny, New York; Ri, Providence; Vt, Burlington; Mass, Newton; Colo, Denver; Ariz, Tempe; Calif, Santa Clara; Minn, Minneapolis; Nh, Lebanon

    2018-01-25

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible.Methods and Results:Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators.

  4. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  5. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state

  6. Tracking Geomorphic Signatures of Watershed Suburbanization with Multi-Temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban development practices redistribute surface materials through filling, grading and terracing, causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape. Many studies document the hydrologic, biologic, or geomorphic consequences of urbanization using space-for-t...

  7. Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) and the 2009 Victorian Bushfires impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habili, N; Corby, N; Cechet, R P, E-mail: nariman.habili@ga.gov.a [Risk and Impact Analysis Group, Geoscience Australia G.PO Box 378, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    The Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) is a vehicular data collection system (image and GPS) used for building/infrastructure damage and inventory assessment. The system consists of Ethernet cameras attached to a tripod mounted on a motor vehicle, a GPS receiver and software written in C++. RICS was deployed following the 2009 Victorian Bushfires and the collected data was used by the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission for the impact assessment (field survey) which quantified the extent and severity of the damage caused to residential buildings by the fire-storm. The regions of Kilmore East, Murrindindi, Churchill, Maiden Gully - Bendigo and Bunyip had nearly 5400 residential structures within the fire perimeter. Analysis utilising both aerial and vehicular (RICS) imagery indicates that just over 2100 homes were destroyed and an additional 800 received minor damage.

  8. Face and Convergent Validity of Persian Version of Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Armal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Rapid Office Stress Assessment (ROSA checklist. Material & Methods: This methodological study was conducted according of IQOLA method. 100 office worker were selected in order to carry out a psychometric evaluation of the ROSA checklist by performing validity (face and convergent analyses. The convergent validity was evaluated using RULA checklist. Results: Upon major changes made to the ROSA checklist during the translation/cultural adaptation process, face validity of the Persian version was obtained. Spearman correlation coefficient between total score of ROSA check list and RULA checklist was significant (r=0.76, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the translated version of the ROSA checklist is acceptable in terms of face validity, convergent validity in target society, and hence provides a useful instrument for assessing Iranian office workers

  9. Development of a qPCR method to rapidly assess the function of NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Silke; Tiper, Irina; Japp, Emily; Sun, Wenji; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-05-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare, but important subset of T cells which account for ~0.2% of the total circulating T cell population. NKT cells are known to have anti-tumor functions and rapidly produce high levels of cytokines following activation. Several clinical trials have sought to exploit the effector functions of NKT cells. While some studies have shown promise, NKT cells are approximately 50% lower in cancer patients compared to healthy donors of the same age and gender, thus limiting their therapeutic efficacy. These studies indicate that baseline levels of activation should be assessed before initiating an NKT cell based immunotherapeutic strategy. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive method to rapidly assess NKT cell function. We utilized artificial antigen presenting cells in combination with qPCR in order to determine NKT cell function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and breast cancer patients. We found that NKT cell activation can be detected by qPCR, but not by ELISA, in healthy donors as well as in breast cancer patients following four hour stimulation. This method utilizing CD1d-expressing aAPCs will enhance our knowledge of NKT cell biology and could potentially be used as a novel tool in adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  11. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  13. Utilizing web-based geodata for rapid disaster identification and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Schmitt, Michael; Sickert, Salomon; Metzger, Alex; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Developing methods to rapidly locate and quantify the impact of natural disasters can aid both the coordination of emergency response, and the long-term understanding of natural hazards in a range of environmental settings. Gaining such quantitative data in the aftermath of landslide events is particularly challenging, as the localized nature, steep terrain, and frequent damage to infrastructure caused by common triggering events (e.g. earthquakes, storms) complicates traditional methods of survey and data communication. As a result, the first, and often best overview of disastrous events is typically provided by eyewitness or first-responder photographs distributed through official, or social media networks. Although these images allow for an initial qualitative assessment of the event, their ad-hoc nature does not currently allow for either precise location, or quantitative evaluation of key event parameters (e.g. structural setting, geology, geometry, size, transport path, or total fall height). Here we present two tools designed to facilitate initial location and assessment of key event parameters using a combination of freely available geodata and information derived from eyewitness observations. These tools are currently under development, and rely on the adaptation of existing photogrammetric techniques in order to allow users to rapidly map and quantify event parameters from a combination of ad-hoc media photographs, and existing orthophoto and digital terrain model data (e.g. LiDAR, SRTM, ASTER). By incorporating results in freely-available GIS platforms such as Google Earth, local authorities will be able to to better assess and disseminate information regarding the impact of natural disasters in the critical hours following an event. We expect that quantitative data derived from events will provide important information to allow geohazard researchers to better assess landslide generation, and authorities to better plan responses to future triggering

  14. Relevance of new multispectral imagery for assessing tropical forest disturbance: RapidEye and WorldView-2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess utility of RapidEye imagery for predicting leaf nitrogen concentration and evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution in the Dukuduku forest, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. RapidEye...

  15. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  16. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Xie, Yuanbo; Hao, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  17. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  18. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  19. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.).

  20. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  1. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao; Song Fengrui; Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. ► The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. ► Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. ► DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality

  2. Scaling considerations related to interactions of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    by the spatial distribution of soil physical properties and bioturbations, but also by geomorphic attributes. Interactions among preferential flow paths can induce rapid pore water pressure response within soil mantles and trigger landslides during storm peaks. Alternatively, in poorly developed and unstructured soils, infiltration occurs mainly through the soil matrix and a lag time exists between the rainfall peak and development of pore water pressures at depth. Deep, slow-moving mass failures are also strongly controlled by secondary porosity within the regolith with the timing of activation linked to recharge dynamics. As such, understanding both small and larger scale processes is needed to estimate geomorphic impacts, as well as streamflow generation and contaminant migration.

  3. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  4. Fire passage on geomorphic fractures in Cerrado: effect on vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic fracture is a natural geologic formation that sometimes forms a deep fissure in the rock with the establishment of soil and vegetation. The objective of this work was to analyze vegetation within geomorphic fractures under the effect of wildfire passage. The biometric variables evaluated before and after fire passage were: diameter, height, leaf area index, timber volume, grass biomass, number of trees and shrubs and of species. Results (in fractures were compared to adjacent areas (control. The effect of wildfire passage on vegetation within geomorphic fractures was not significant because fire followed plant biomass bed and when it met the fracture (wetter, it changed from soil surface to canopy surface (jump fire effect, affecting without significance the number of plants or species; so, fracture could be plants refuge against fire passage. We could infer in our experimental model that quality of plant biomass bed could be more significant than quantity, and microclimate variability recruits plants to the refuge (geomorphic fracture.

  5. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  6. The “jaundice hotline” for the rapid assessment of patients with jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Hussaini, Hyder; McGovern, Dermot; Farrow, Richard; Maskell, Giles; Dalton, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Problem Patients with jaundice require rapid diagnosis and treatment, yet such patients are often subject to delay. Design An open referral, rapid access jaundice clinic was established by reorganisation of existing services and without the need for significant extra resources. Background and setting A large general hospital in a largely rural and geographically isolated area. Key measures for improvement Waiting times for referral, consultation, diagnosis, and treatment, length of stay in hospital, and general practitioners' and patients' satisfaction with the service. Strategies for change Referrals were made through a 24 hour telephone answering machine and fax line. Initial assessment of patients was carried out by junior staff as part of their working week. Dedicated ultrasonography appointments were made available. Effects of change Of 107 patients seen in the first year of the service, 62 had biliary obstruction. The mean time between referral and consultation was 2.5 days. Patients who went on to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography waited 5.7 days on average. The mean length of stay in hospital in the 69 patients who were admitted was 6.1 days, compared with 11.5 days in 1996, as shown by audit data. Nearly all the 36 general practices (95%) and the 30 consecutive patients (97%) that were surveyed rated the service as above average or excellent. Lessons learnt An open referral, rapid access service for patients with jaundice can shorten time to diagnosis and treatment and length of stay in hospital. These improvements can occur through the reorganisation of existing services and with minimal extra cost. PMID:12142314

  7. Relationships between Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Clinical Assessments, Biomarkers, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Li; Liu, Jiang-Hong; Zhan, Shu-Qin

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement sleep. RBD is closely related to α-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Many studies have investigated the markers of imaging and neurophysiological, genetic, cognitive, autonomic function of RBD and their predictive value for neurodegenerative diseases. This report reviewed the progress of these studies and discussed their limitations and future research directions. Data Sources: Using the combined keywords: “RBD”, “neurodegenerative disease”, “Parkinson disease”, and “magnetic resonance imaging”, the PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2018. Study Selection: A total of 150 published articles were initially identified citations. Of the 150 articles, 92 articles were selected after further detailed review. This study referred to all the important English literature in full. Results: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SCARB2 (rs6812193) and MAPT (rs12185268) were significantly associated with RBD. The olfactory loss, autonomic dysfunction, marked electroencephalogram slowing during both wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, and cognitive impairments were potential predictive markers for RBD conversion to neurodegenerative diseases. Traditional structural imaging studies reported relatively inconsistent results, whereas reduced functional connectivity between the left putamen and substantia nigra and dopamine transporter uptake demonstrated by functional imaging techniques were relatively consistent findings. Conclusions: More longitudinal studies should be conducted to evaluate the predictive value of biomarkers of RBD. Moreover, because the glucose and dopamine metabolisms are not specific for assessing cognitive cognition, the molecular metabolism directly related to cognition should be investigated

  8. Landscape evolution space and the relative importance of geomorphic processes and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2009-08-01

    The concept of landscape evolution space (LES) is introduced as a tool for assessing landscapes and geomorphic systems, intended to be a systematic means for assessing the various factors that contribute to the potential for change in geomorphic systems. The LES conceptual model is based on the energy and mass available to drive and accommodate landscape evolution. An n-dimensional landscape evolution space is defined not only by spatial coordinates, but also by the availability of mass and energy. The LES is thus a space or hypervolume representing the resources available for geomorphic evolution and landscape change. An expression for LES is derived based on elevation, material density, surface area, and inputs of solar, meteoric, and biological energy and mass. Though primarily an heuristic device, the LES model can be used to address concrete problems. Two examples are given. In one, increased surface area due to topographic roughening and dissection of an incised plateau is found to only slightly offset erosional removals of mass in terms of the magnitude of the LES. In the other, sensitivity of coastal plain rivers to several impacts of sea level and climate change is explored. The LES model also leads to the concept of a geomorphological niche, representing the resources available to drive or support a specific process or suite of processes. Considerations of landscape evolution have traditionally focused on the interplay of endogenic vs. exogenic processes, uplift vs. denudation, or soil formation vs. erosion. The LES model explicitly broadens the conceptual framework of landscape evolution beyond the traditional dialectics.

  9. Geomorphic consequences of volcanic eruptions in Alaska: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Eruptions of Alaska volcanoes have significant and sometimes profound geomorphic consequences on surrounding landscapes and ecosystems. The effects of eruptions on the landscape can range from complete burial of surface vegetation and preexisting topography to subtle, short-term perturbations of geomorphic and ecological systems. In some cases, an eruption will allow for new landscapes to form in response to the accumulation and erosion of recently deposited volcaniclastic material. In other cases, the geomorphic response to a major eruptive event may set in motion a series of landscape changes that could take centuries to millennia to be realized. The effects of volcanic eruptions on the landscape and how these effects influence surface processes has not been a specific focus of most studies concerned with the physical volcanology of Alaska volcanoes. Thus, what is needed is a review of eruptive activity in Alaska in the context of how this activity influences the geomorphology of affected areas. To illustrate the relationship between geomorphology and volcanic activity in Alaska, several eruptions and their geomorphic impacts will be reviewed. These eruptions include the 1912 Novarupta–Katmai eruption, the 1989–1990 and 2009 eruptions of Redoubt volcano, the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, and the recent historical eruptions of Pavlof volcano. The geomorphic consequences of eruptive activity associated with these eruptions are described, and where possible, information about surface processes, rates of landscape change, and the temporal and spatial scale of impacts are discussed.A common feature of volcanoes in Alaska is their extensive cover of glacier ice, seasonal snow, or both. As a result, the generation of meltwater and a variety of sediment–water mass flows, including debris-flow lahars, hyperconcentrated-flow lahars, and sediment-laden water floods, are typical outcomes of most types of eruptive activity. Occasionally, such flows can be quite

  10. Rapid in situ assessment for predicting soil quality using an algae-soaked disc seeding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Hakyeong; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-11-16

    The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations. Herein, we describe a convenient and rapid algae-soaked disc seeding assay for assessing soil quality in the field based on soil algae. The collection of algae is easy and rapid and the method predicts the short-term quality of contaminated, remediated, and amended farm and paddy soils. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is yet to be extensively evaluated, and the method cannot be applied to loamy sand soil in in situ evaluations. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is recommended for prediction of soil quality in in situ evaluations because it reflects all variations in the environment. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay will help to develop management strategies for in situ evaluation.

  11. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  12. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunisation coverage: increasing rapidity and maintaining precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Vaccination programmes targeting disease elimination aim to achieve very high coverage levels (e.g. 95%). We calculated the precision of different clustered lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) designs in computer-simulated surveys to provide local health officers in the field with preset LQAS plans to simply and rapidly assess programmes with high coverage targets. We calculated sample size (N), decision value (d) and misclassification errors (alpha and beta) of several LQAS plans by running 10 000 simulations. We kept the upper coverage threshold (UT) at 90% or 95% and decreased the lower threshold (LT) progressively by 5%. We measured the proportion of simulations with d unvaccinated individuals if the coverage was LT% (pLT) to calculate alpha (1-pLT). We divided N in clusters (between 5 and 10) and recalculated the errors hypothesising that the coverage would vary in the clusters according to a binomial distribution with preset standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.1 from the mean lot coverage. We selected the plans fulfilling these criteria: alpha LQAS plans dividing the lot in five clusters with N = 50 (5 x 10) and d = 4 to evaluate programmes with 95% coverage target and d = 7 to evaluate programmes with 90% target. These plans will considerably increase the feasibility and the rapidity of conducting the LQAS in the field.

  13. Assessment of variable fluorescence fluorometry as an approach for rapidly detecting living photoautotrophs in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R.; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H.; Riley, Scott C.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2018-03-01

    Variable fluorescence fluorometry, an analytical approach that estimates the fluorescence yield of chlorophyll a (F0, a proximal measure of algal concentration) and photochemical yield (FV/FM, an indicator of the physiological status of algae) was evaluated as a means to rapidly assess photoautotrophs. Specifically, it was used to gauge the efficacy of ballast water treatment designed to reduce the transport and delivery of potentially invasive organisms. A phytoflagellate, Tetraselmis spp. (10-12 μm) and mixed communities of ambient protists were examined in both laboratory experiments and large-scale field trials simulating 5-d hold times in mock ballast tanks. In laboratory incubations, ambient organisms held in the dark exhibited declining F0 and FV/FM measurements relative to organisms held under lighted conditions. In field experiments, increases and decreases in F0 and FV/FM over the tank hold time corresponded to those of microscope counts of organisms in two of three trials. In the third trial, concentrations of organisms ≥ 10 and protists) increased while F0 and FV/FM decreased. Rapid and sensitive, variable fluorescence fluorometry is appropriate for detecting changes in organism concentrations and physiological status in samples dominated by microalgae. Changes in the heterotrophic community, which may become more prevalent in light-limited ballast tanks, would not be detected via variable fluorescence fluorometry, however.

  14. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  15. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

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    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  16. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Yao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2012-11-08

    This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of toxic herbal medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  18. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients and Hyrax (14 patients expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion and T1 (six months after screw stabilization. Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes.

  19. Rivers rapid assessment protocols and insertion of society in monitoring of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water resources has been detected and changes both institutional and in the legislation have been demanded. The careless use of rivers has ecological changes as direct consequence, causing serious modifications in the landscape and fluvial regime, besides altering the availability of habitats and the trophic composition of the aquatic environment. Pressed by this scenario, scientists have been developing assessment methods that are efficient both for the evaluation itself and for supporting decision taking in the environmental management processes. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to present the Rapid River Assessment Protocols (RAPs and to emphasize how these protocols can promote the community participation in water resources monitoring. The RAPs can used to evaluate in an integrated form the characteristics of a river section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment and it is characterized by its economic viability and easy applicability. In regions with poor financial resources and serious problems of water quality, the RAPs can be used in environmental management programs. By using these protocols, the integration of the community in water resources monitoring generates data which represent the quality of fluvial ecosystems throughout time, without requesting high costs or specialized professionals. The RAPs in a simplified but not simplistic tool, which can be used in activities that aim at promoting a quick and reliable assessment of the “health” of a river.

  20. Post-Flood Rapid Needs Assessment in Srinagar City, Jammu and Kashmir State, India, September, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Somashekar, Dundaiah; Sodha, Samir V; Laserson, Kayla F; Venkatesh, Srinivasa; Chauhan, Himanshu

    2018-03-21

    Torrential rainfall and flooding from September 2-6, 2014 submerged >350 villages in Jammu and Kashmir state. We conducted rapid needs assessment in capital Srinagar from 27 September to 1 October to assess population health and safety needs. Based on Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology, we selected 7 households each from 30 census blocks using 2-stage cluster sampling. We collected information on demographics, needs, and illnesses using structured questionnaire. Of the 210 households surveyed, an estimated 57% (CI: 41%-73%) reported significant damage, 50% (CI: 36%-63%) were evacuated, and 16% (CI: 10%-22%) reported injuries. Households lacked electricity (22%; CI: 8.8%-36%), tap water (13%; CI: 5%-21%), working toilets (11%; CI: 4%-19%), and adequate food supply (14%; CI: 8%-20%). Moreover, 55% (CI: 45%-64%) of households reported cough, cold, fever, rashes, or diarrhea; 68% (CI: 59%-77%) experienced agitation, anxiety, depression, or nightmares since the flooding. Of the households with a member on medicines for non-communicable diseases, 40% did not have a week's supply. Restoring basic essentials (30%; CI: 22%-37%) and repairing houses (30%; CI: 19%-40%) were the most urgent needs expressed. Floods damaged >1/2 of households in Srinagar, disrupting basic essentials, and causing mental trauma. These findings helped authorities prioritize assistance with psychological symptoms and availability of prescription medicines. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 5).

  1. Application of two electrical methods for the rapid assessment of freezing resistance in Salix epichloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarouhas, V.; Kenney, W.A.; Zsuffa, L. [University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2000-09-01

    The importance of early selection of frost-resistant Salix clones makes it desirable to select a rapid and accurate screening method for assessing freezing resistance among several genotypes. Two electrical methods, stem electrical impedance to 1 and 10 khz alternating current, and electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue, were evaluated for detecting freezing resistance on three North America Salix epichloro Michx., clones after subjecting them to five different freezing temperatures (-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 deg C). Differences in the electrical impedance to 1 and 10 kHz, and the ratio of the impedance at the two frequencies (low/high) before and after the freezing treatment (DZ{sub low}, DZ{sub high}, and DZ{sub ratio}, respectively) were estimated. Electrolyte leakage was expressed as relative conductivity (RC{sub t}) and index of injury (IDX{sub t}). Results from the two methods, obtained two days after the freezing stress, showed that both electrical methods were able to detect freezing injury in S. eriocephala. However, the electrolyte leakage method detected injury in more levels of freezing stress (-3, -4, and -5 deg C) than the impedance (-4, and -5 deg C), it assessed clonal differences in S. eriocephala freezing resistance, and it was best suited to correlate electrical methods with the visual assessed freezing injury. No significant impedance or leakage changes were found after the -1 and -2 deg C freezing temperatures. (author)

  2. A method for the rapid on-site assessment of handleability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Atkin, B.P. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The handleability monitor has been specifically designed to provide a simple, rapid and on-site assessment of the whole or part consignment of a coal blend in its 'as-prepared' or 'as-received' condition. Evaluation has been carried out at a number of user's coal-handling plants, on both metallurgical and power station coals from a variety of sources world-wide (Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom and USA). The results are used to predict which coals could routinely pass through handling plant at line capacity, without causing blockage or decay, and have also been correlated with the operator's perception of the coal's handling characteristics and problems caused (blockages in chutes, hoppers, etc.) on the coal handling plant. Monitors were located at a coal fired power station and at a coal handling plant at an iron and steel works. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates from surveys of community-acquired urinary tract infection in women, by assessing operating curves, sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of any set of LQAS parameters was above 99% and between 79 and 90%, respectively. Operating curves showed high concordance of the LQAS classification with true AMR prevalence estimates. LQAS-based AMR surveillance is a feasible approach that provides timely and locally relevant estimates, and the necessary information to formulate and evaluate guidelines for empirical treatment.

  4. Rapid assessment of the bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum (Delle Chiaje, 1822) in marinas, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchin, Dan

    2012-10-01

    A rapid assessment, using the abundance and distribution range method, was used to evaluate the status of a large branching bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum attached to the immersed part of marina pontoons in the Canary Islands. Colonies were also found attached to the hulls of leisure craft berthed alongside pontoons at three marinas in Lanzarote during 2012. Low levels of abundance and distribution of the bryozoan occurred in marinas with a freshwater influence whereas in a sheltered marina lacking direct freshwater inputs colonies occurred at ∼2 per metre of combined pontoon length. While the occurrence of this bryozoan is recent it may be expected to occur elsewhere in Macaronesia most probably spread by leisure craft. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  6. Correlates of historical suicide attempt in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Tolliver, Bryan K; Kemp, David E; Ganocy, Stephen J; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen L; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2009-07-01

    A rapid-cycling course in bipolar disorder has previously been identified as a risk factor for attempted suicide. This study investigated factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I or II disorder. Cross-sectional data at the initial assessment of patients who were enrolled into 4 clinical trials were used to study the factors associated with suicide attempt. An extensive clinical interview and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and other clinical variables. Chi-square, t test, and logistic regression or Poisson regression were used to analyze the data where appropriate, with odds ratios (ORs) for relative risk estimate. The data were collected from September 1995 to June 2005. In a univariate analysis, 41% of 561 patients had at least 1 lifetime suicide attempt. Earlier age of depression onset, bipolar I subtype, female sex, unmarried status, and a history of drug use disorder, panic disorder, sexual abuse, and psychosis were associated with significantly higher rates of attempted suicide (all p drug abuse (OR = 1.62, p = .0317) were independent predictors for increased risk of attempted suicide. However, white race was associated with a lower risk for suicide attempt (OR = 0.47, p = .0160). Psychosis during depression (p = .0003), bipolar I subtype (p = .0302), and physical abuse (p = .0195) were associated with increased numbers of suicide attempts by 248%, 166%, and 162%, respectively; white race was associated with a 60% decrease in the number of suicide attempts (p = .0320). In this highly comorbid group of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, 41% had at least 1 suicide attempt. Among the demographics, female sex was positively associated, but white race was negatively associated, with the risk for suicide attempt. Independent clinical variables for increased risk and

  7. Factor Analysis and Modelling for Rapid Quality Assessment of Croatian Wheat Cultivars with Different Gluten Characteristics

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    Želimir Kurtanjek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis and multivariate chemometric modelling for rapid assessment of baking quality of wheat cultivars from Slavonia region, Croatia, have been applied. The cultivars Žitarka, Kata, Monika, Ana, Demetra, Divana and Sana were grown under controlled conditions at the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek during three years (2000–2002. Their quality properties were evaluated by 45 different chemical, physical and biochemical variables. The measured variables were grouped as: indirect quality parameters (6, farinographic parameters (7, extensographic parameters (5, baking test parameters (2 and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC of gluten proteins (25. The aim of this study is to establish minimal number (three, i.e. principal factors, among the 45 variables and to derive multivariate linear regression models for their use in simple and fast prediction of wheat properties. Selection of the principal factors based on the principal component analysis (PCA has been applied. The first three main factors of the analysis include: total glutenins (TGT, total ω-gliadins (Tω- and the ratio of dough resistance/extensibility (R/Ext. These factors account for 76.45 % of the total variance. Linear regression models gave average regression coefficients (R evaluated for the parameter groups: indirect quality R=0.91, baking test R=0.63, farinographic R=0.78, extensographic R=0.95 and RP-HPLC of gluten data R=0.90. Errors in the model predictions were evaluated by the 95 % significance intervals of the calibration lines. Practical applications of the models for rapid quality assessment and laboratory experiment planning were emphasized.

  8. A vision for regular, rapid assessments of the tropical northwestern Atlantic’s coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Lang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA Program, consisting of non-fixed, transect- based visual surveys, provides "snapshot" characterizations of a number of structurally or functionally important benthic and fish indicators on tropical northwestern Atlantic (TNWA coral reefs and Brazil. To ameliorate the confounding factors inherent in multiyear temporal variation, a region-wide collaborative program for conducting rapid reef assessments at regular (five-year intervals in sites that are representative of each sub-region of the TNWA is proposed. Member institutions of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean (AMLC and individual colleagues are invited to join in developing the vision. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 23-29. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.El Programa de Evaluación Rápida del Atlántico y el Golfo (AGRRA, por sus siglas en inglés consiste en sondeos visuales no-fijos, basados en transectos, que permiten caracterizaciones puntuales de un número de peces y organismos bénticos que sean estructural o funcionalmente importantes como indicadores en arrecifes del Atlántico tropical noroeste (ATNO y de Brasil. Para disminuir los factores de confusión inherentes a variaciones temporales multianuales, se propone un programa de colaboración a nivel regional, que sirva para conducir evaluaciones rápidas de los arrecifes en intervalos regulares (cinco años, en los sitios que sean representativos de cada sub-región del ATNO. Se invita a las instituciones miembro de la Asociación de Laboratorios Marinos y del Caribe (ALMC, así cómo a colegas individuales para participar en el desarrollo de esta visión.

  9. Rapid assessment of malaria transmission using age-specific sero-conversion rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveta Stewart

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission intensity is a crucial determinant of malarial disease burden and its measurement can help to define health priorities. Rapid, local estimates of transmission are required to focus resources better but current entomological and parasitological methods for estimating transmission intensity are limited in this respect. An alternative is determination of antimalarial antibody age-specific sero-prevalence to estimate sero-conversion rates (SCR, which have been shown to correlate with transmission intensity. This study evaluated SCR generated from samples collected from health facility attendees as a tool for a rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity.The study was conducted in north east Tanzania. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Age-specific antibody prevalence was analysed using a catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood to generate SCR. A pilot study, conducted near Moshi, found SCRs for AMA-1 were highly comparable between samples collected from individuals in a conventional cross-sectional survey and those collected from attendees at a local health facility. For the main study, 3885 individuals attending village health facilities in Korogwe and Same districts were recruited. Both malaria parasite prevalence and sero-positivity were higher in Korogwe than in Same. MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 SCR rates for Korogwe villages ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.07 to 0.21 respectively. In Same district there was evidence of a recent reduction in transmission, with SCR among those born since 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.002 to 0.008 and AMA-1 0.005 to 0.014 ] being 5 to 10 fold lower than among individuals born prior to 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.02 to 0.04 and AMA-1 0.04 to 0.13]. Current health facility specific estimates of SCR showed good correlations with malaria incidence rates in infants in a contemporaneous clinical trial (MSP-1(19 r(2 = 0.78, p<0.01 & AMA-1 r

  10. Quantifying the Geomorphic Dynamics of the Extensively Impacted Lower Yuba River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Carley, J. K.; Barker, R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Reedy, G.; Johnson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally it is has been thought that rivers possess the capability of adjusting their attributes to accommodate varying flow and sediment transport regimes so that sediment in- and out-fluxes are balanced and landform conditions are “stable”. In reality, however, geomorphic drivers and boundary conditions are much more independently dynamic than classically envisioned, such that landforms may always be in a state of adjustment that is normal and appropriate. Rather than thinking of landforms as stable, it is more appropriate to think of them, and the ecosystem services with which they are associated, as resilient in response to change. Knowledge of historic, pre-human baseline conditions or regional reference conditions is limited and may not be as applicable in understanding natural geomorphic and ecosystem services as once envisioned. In light of this natural complexity, a geomorphic assessment of conditions after a large dam or other facility is built and operated may not be as simple as documenting geomorphic instability and attributing that to human impacts relative to the presumed stable baseline conditions. Rather than compare anthropogenically-impacted conditions to theoretical baseline or reference conditions, a more effective approach is to deduce the geomorphic processes in a system under different regimes and evaluate the implications for resiliency of ecosystem services. Through a mechanistic understanding of environmental systems, it may be possible to rationally rehabilitate an ecosystem to achieve resiliency in cases where it has been lost or is desirable to instill, even if it was not historically present. This analytic paradigm is being used to assess the history and on-going geomorphic dynamism of the lower Yuba River (LYR) in northern California. Despite a legacy of massive hydraulic mining waste deposition, dredger re-working of the river valley, dam construction, and flow regulation, the river has been described as lacking the

  11. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  12. Development and validation of an instrument for rapidly assessing symptoms: the general symptom distress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Meek, Paula

    2011-03-01

    criterion measures such as depression. Collectively, these results suggest that the GSDS is a straightforward and useful instrument for rapidly assessing symptoms that can disrupt health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The geomorphic legacy of water and erosion control structures in a semiarid rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.

    2018-01-01

    Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.

  15. Quantifying geomorphic change at ephemeral stream restoration sites using a coupled-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Sankey, Joel B.; Dean, David; Caster, Joshua J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Henderson-DeLong, Whitney; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2017-01-01

    Rock-detention structures are used as restoration treatments to engineer ephemeral stream channels of southeast Arizona, USA, to reduce streamflow velocity, limit erosion, retain sediment, and promote surface-water infiltration. Structures are intended to aggrade incised stream channels, yet little quantified evidence of efficacy is available. The goal of this 3-year study was to characterize the geomorphic impacts of rock-detention structures used as a restoration strategy and develop a methodology to predict the associated changes. We studied reaches of two ephemeral streams with different watershed management histories: one where thousands of loose-rock check dams were installed 30 years prior to our study, and one with structures constructed at the beginning of our study. The methods used included runoff, sediment transport, and geomorphic modelling and repeat terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys to map landscape change. Where discharge data were not available, event-based runoff was estimated using KINEROS2, a one-dimensional kinematic-wave runoff and erosion model. Discharge measurements and estimates were used as input to a two-dimensional unsteady flow-and-sedimentation model (Nays2DH) that combined a gridded flow, transport, and bed and bank simulation with geomorphic change. Through comparison of consecutive DEMs, the potential to substitute uncalibrated models to analyze stream restoration is introduced. We demonstrate a new approach to assess hydraulics and associated patterns of aggradation and degradation resulting from the construction of check-dams and other transverse structures. Notably, we find that stream restoration using rock-detention structures is effective across vastly different timescales.

  16. Rapid Assessment of the Ce-Co-Fe-Cu System for Permanent Magnetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Gandha, K.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Palasyuk, A.; Simsek, E.; Kramer, M. J.; Ott, R. T.

    2018-04-01

    This work focuses on the rapid synthesis and characterization of quaternary Ce(CoFeCu)5 alloy libraries to assess their potential viability as permanent magnets. Arrays of bulk specimens with controlled compositions were synthesized via laser engineered net shaping (LENS) by feeding different ratios of alloy powders into a melt pool created by a laser. Based on the assessment of the magnetic properties of the LENS printed samples, arc-melted and cast ingots were prepared with varying Fe (5-20 at.%) and Co (60-45 at.%) compositions while maintaining constant Ce (16 at.%) and Cu (19 at.%) content. The evolution of the microstructure and phases with varying chemical compositions and their dependence on magnetic properties are analyzed in as-cast and heat-treated samples. In both the LENS printed and cast samples, we find the best magnetic properties correspond to a predominantly single-phase Ce(CoFeCu)5 microstructure in which high coercivity (H c > 10 kOe) can be achieved without any microstructural refinement.

  17. Feasibility of rapid ethical assessment for the Ethiopian health research ethics review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Newport, Melanie; Farsides, Bobbie; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in the process of ethical medical research in developing countries, including Ethiopia, is translating universal principles of medical ethics into appropriate informed consent documents and their implementation. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) has been suggested as a feasible approach to meet this application gap. In the past few years REA has been employed in few research project in Ethiopia and have been found to be a useful and practical approach. Feasibility assessment of REA for the Ethiopian research setting was conducted between 2012-2013 in order to inform the subsequent introduction of REA into research ethics review and governance system in the country. REA was found to be an appropriate, relevant and feasible venture. We argue that REA can be integrated as part of the ethics review and governance system in Ethiopia. REA tools and techniques are considered relevant and acceptable to the Ethiopian research community, with few practical challenges anticipated in their implementation. REA are considered feasible for integration in the Ethiopian ethics review system.

  18. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Fernandes, Mariana dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years) were obtained at treatment onset (T1), three months after SARME (T2) and 6 months after expansion (T3). The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards. PMID:26154457

  19. Rapid Assessment of the Ce-Co-Fe-Cu System for Permanent Magnetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Gandha, K.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Palasyuk, A.; Simsek, E.; Kramer, M. J.; Ott, R. T.

    2018-06-01

    This work focuses on the rapid synthesis and characterization of quaternary Ce(CoFeCu)5 alloy libraries to assess their potential viability as permanent magnets. Arrays of bulk specimens with controlled compositions were synthesized via laser engineered net shaping (LENS) by feeding different ratios of alloy powders into a melt pool created by a laser. Based on the assessment of the magnetic properties of the LENS printed samples, arc-melted and cast ingots were prepared with varying Fe (5-20 at.%) and Co (60-45 at.%) compositions while maintaining constant Ce (16 at.%) and Cu (19 at.%) content. The evolution of the microstructure and phases with varying chemical compositions and their dependence on magnetic properties are analyzed in as-cast and heat-treated samples. In both the LENS printed and cast samples, we find the best magnetic properties correspond to a predominantly single-phase Ce(CoFeCu)5 microstructure in which high coercivity ( H c > 10 kOe) can be achieved without any microstructural refinement.

  20. Earthquake Magnitude and Shaking Intensity Dependent Fragility Functions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Nollet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated web application, referred to as ER2 for rapid risk evaluator, is under development for a user-friendly seismic risk assessment by the non-expert public safety community. The assessment of likely negative consequences is based on pre-populated databases of seismic, building inventory and vulnerability parameters. To further accelerate the computation for near real-time analyses, implicit building fragility curves were developed as functions of the magnitude and the intensity of the seismic shaking defined with a single intensity measure, input spectral acceleration at 1.0 s implicitly considering the epicentral distance and local soil conditions. Damage probabilities were compared with those obtained with the standard fragility functions explicitly considering epicentral distances and local site classes in addition to the earthquake magnitudes and respective intensity of the seismic shaking. Different seismic scenarios were considered first for 53 building classes common in Eastern Canada, and then a reduced number of 24 combined building classes was proposed. Comparison of results indicate that the damage predictions with implicit fragility functions for short (M ≤ 5.5 and medium strong motion duration (5.5 < M ≤ 7.5 show low variation with distance and soil class, with average error of less than 3.6%.

  1. Geomorphic determinants of species composition of alpine tundra, Glacier National Park, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Malanson,; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Because the distribution of alpine tundra is associated with spatially limited cold climates, global warming may threaten its local extent or existence. This notion has been challenged, however, based on observations of the diversity of alpine tundra in small areas primarily due to topographic variation. The importance of diversity in temperature or moisture conditions caused by topographic variation is an open question, and we extend this to geomorphology more generally. The extent to which geomorphic variation per se, based on relatively easily assessed indicators, can account for the variation in alpine tundra community composition is analyzed versus the inclusion of broad indicators of regional climate variation. Visual assessments of topography are quantified and reduced using principal components analysis (PCA). Observations of species cover are reduced using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). A “best subsets” regression approach using the Akaike Information Criterion for selection of variables is compared to a simple stepwise regression with DCA scores as the dependent variable and scores on significant PCA axes plus more direct measures of topography as independent variables. Models with geographic coordinates (representing regional climate gradients) excluded explain almost as much variation in community composition as models with them included, although they are important contributors to the latter. The geomorphic variables in the model are those associated with local moisture differences such as snowbeds. The potential local variability of alpine tundra can be a buffer against climate change, but change in precipitation may be as important as change in temperature.

  2. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  3. MouthLab: A Tricorder Concept Optimized for Rapid Medical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gene Y; Tang, Hai; Feller-Kopman, David; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The goal of rapid medical assessment (RMA) is to estimate the general health of a patient during an emergency room or a doctor's office visit, or even while the patient is at home. Currently the devices used during RMA are typically "all-in-one" vital signs monitors. They require time, effort and expertise to attach various sensors to the body. A device optimized for RMA should instead require little effort or expertise to operate and be able to rapidly obtain and consolidate as much information as possible. MouthLab is a battery powered hand-held device intended to acquire and evaluate many measurements such as non-invasive blood sugar, saliva and respiratory biochemistry. Our initial prototype acquires standard vital signs: pulse rate (PR), breathing rate (BR), temperature (T), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), blood pressure (BP), and a three-lead electrocardiogram. In our clinical study we tested the device performance against the measurements obtained with a standard patient monitor. 52 people participated in the study. The measurement errors were as follows: PR: -1.7 ± 3.5 BPM, BR: 0.4 ± 2.4 BPM, T: -0.4 ± 1.24 °F, SpO2: -0.6 ± 1.7%. BP systolic: -1.8 ± 12 mmHg, BP diastolic: 0.6 ± 8 mmHg. We have shown that RMA can be easily performed non-invasively by patients with no prior training.

  4. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  5. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  6. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty

    2016-01-01

    in this study. The embryonic zebrafish model is recommended as a well-established method for rapidly assessing the toxicity of homeopathic drugs. PMID:28127503

  7. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  8. Geomorphic domains and linear features on Landsat images, Circle Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remote sensing study using Landsat images was undertaken as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). Geomorphic domains A and B, identified on enhanced Landsat images, divide Circle quadrangle south of Tintina fault zone into two regional areas having major differences in surface characteristics. Domain A is a roughly rectangular, northeast-trending area of relatively low relief and simple, widely spaced drainages, except where igneous rocks are exposed. In contrast, domain B, which bounds two sides of domain A, is more intricately dissected showing abrupt changes in slope and relatively high relief. The northwestern part of geomorphic domain A includes a previously mapped tectonostratigraphic terrane. The southeastern boundary of domain A occurs entirely within the adjoining tectonostratigraphic terrane. The sharp geomorphic contrast along the southeastern boundary of domain A and the existence of known faults along this boundary suggest that the southeastern part of domain A may be a subdivision of the adjoining terrane. Detailed field studies would be necessary to determine the characteristics of the subdivision. Domain B appears to be divisible into large areas of different geomorphic terrains by east-northeast-trending curvilinear lines drawn on Landsat images. Segments of two of these lines correlate with parts of boundaries of mapped tectonostratigraphic terranes. On Landsat images prominent north-trending lineaments together with the curvilinear lines form a large-scale regional pattern that is transected by mapped north-northeast-trending high-angle faults. The lineaments indicate possible lithlogic variations and/or structural boundaries. A statistical strike-frequency analysis of the linear features data for Circle quadrangle shows that northeast-trending linear features predominate throughout, and that most northwest-trending linear features are found south of Tintina fault zone. A major trend interval of N.64-72E. in the linear

  9. Using Geomorphic Change Detection to Understand Restoration Project Success Relative to Stream Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A.; Segura, C.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) jams have long been utilized as a stream restoration strategy to create fish habitat, with a strong focus on Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest. These projects continue to be implemented despite limited understanding of their success in streams of different size. In this study, we assessed the changes triggered by LW introductions in 10 alluvial plane bed reaches with varying drainage areas (3.9-22 km²) and bankfull widths (6.4-14.7 m) in one Oregon Coast Range basin. In this basin, LW was added in an effort to improve winter rearing habitat for Coho salmon. We used detailed topographic mapping (0.5 m² resolution) to describe the local stream and floodplain geometry. Pebble counts were used to monitor changes in average substrate size after the LW addition. Field surveys were conducted immediately after the LW were installed, in the summer of 2016, and one year after installation, in the summer of 2017. We used geomorphic change detection analysis to quantify the amount of scour and deposition at each site along with changes in average bankfull width. Then we determined the relative amount of change among all sites to identify which size stream changed the most. We also modeled fluctuations in water surface elevation at each site, correlating frequency and inundation of the LW with geomorphic changes detected from the topographic surveys. Preliminary results show an increase in channel width and floodplain connectivity at all sites, indicating an increase in off-channel habitat for juvenile Coho salmon. Bankfull widths increased up to 75% in small sites and up to 25% in large sites. Median grain size became coarser in large streams (increased up to 20%), while we saw a similar amount of fining at smaller sites. The overall increase in channel width is compensated by an overall decrease in bed elevation at both large and small sites, suggesting the maintenance of overall geomorphic equilibrium. Further work will include quantifying these

  10. Rapid assessment of infrastructure of primary health care facilities - a relevant instrument for health care systems management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ngoli, Baltazar; Flessa, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    Health care infrastructure constitutes a major component of the structural quality of a health system. Infrastructural deficiencies of health services are reported in literature and research. A number of instruments exist for the assessment of infrastructure. However, no easy-to-use instruments to assess health facility infrastructure in developing countries are available. Present tools are not applicable for a rapid assessment by health facility staff. Therefore, health information systems lack data on facility infrastructure. A rapid assessment tool for the infrastructure of primary health care facilities was developed by the authors and pilot-tested in Tanzania. The tool measures the quality of all infrastructural components comprehensively and with high standardization. Ratings use a 2-1-0 scheme which is frequently used in Tanzanian health care services. Infrastructural indicators and indices are obtained from the assessment and serve for reporting and tracing of interventions. The tool was pilot-tested in Tanga Region (Tanzania). The pilot test covered seven primary care facilities in the range between dispensary and district hospital. The assessment encompassed the facilities as entities as well as 42 facility buildings and 80 pieces of technical medical equipment. A full assessment of facility infrastructure was undertaken by health care professionals while the rapid assessment was performed by facility staff. Serious infrastructural deficiencies were revealed. The rapid assessment tool proved a reliable instrument of routine data collection by health facility staff. The authors recommend integrating the rapid assessment tool in the health information systems of developing countries. Health authorities in a decentralized health system are thus enabled to detect infrastructural deficiencies and trace the effects of interventions. The tool can lay the data foundation for district facility infrastructure management.

  11. Varying effects of geomorphic change on floodplain inundation and forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, R.; Johnson, E. L.; Edwards, B. L.; King, S. L.; Hupp, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Overbank flooding in floodplains is an important control on vegetation, but effects of changing flooding are difficult to predict because sensitivities of plant communities to multidimensional flooding (frequency, depth, duration, and timing) are not well understood. We used HEC-RAS to model the changing flooding regime in the lower White River floodplain, Arkansas, in response to rapid incision of the Mississippi River in the 1930s, and quantified flood frequency, depth, and duration by forest community type. Incision has decreased flooding especially in terms of frequency, which is one of the most important variables for ecological processes. Modeled depth-duration curves varied more among floodplain reaches than among forest communities within the same reach, but forest communities are now arranged in accordance with new flood regimes in place after river incision. Forest responses to subtle geomorphic change are slower than other vegetation communities, so detection of the full ramifications of ecohydrologic change may require decades.

  12. Automated identification of stream-channel geomorphic features from high‑resolution digital elevation models in West Tennessee watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-17

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) enable investigations of stream-channel geomorphology with much greater precision than previously possible. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the DEM Geomorphology Toolbox, containing seven tools to automate the identification of sites of geomorphic instability that may represent sediment sources and sinks in stream-channel networks. These tools can be used to modify input DEMs on the basis of known locations of stormwater infrastructure, derive flow networks at user-specified resolutions, and identify possible sites of geomorphic instability including steep banks, abrupt changes in channel slope, or areas of rough terrain. Field verification of tool outputs identified several tool limitations but also demonstrated their overall usefulness in highlighting likely sediment sources and sinks within channel networks. In particular, spatial clusters of outputs from multiple tools can be used to prioritize field efforts to assess and restore eroding stream reaches.

  13. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  14. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  15. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

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    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  16. Geodetic Imaging for Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes: Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Sartori, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, J.; National CenterAirborne Laser Mapping Operational Center

    2010-12-01

    To the residents of an area struck by a strong earthquake quantitative information on damage to the infrastructure, and its attendant impact on relief and recovery efforts, is urgent and of primary concern. To earth scientists a strong earthquake offers an opportunity to learn more about earthquake mechanisms, and to compare their models with the real world, in hopes of one day being able to accurately predict the precise locations, magnitudes, and times of large (and potentially disastrous) earthquakes. Airborne laser scanning (also referred to as airborne LiDAR or Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) is particularly well suited for rapid assessment of earthquakes, both for immediately estimating the damage to infrastructure and for providing information for the scientific study of earthquakes. ALS observations collected at low altitude (500—1000m) from a relatively slow (70—100m/sec) aircraft can provide dense (5—15 points/m2) sets of surface features (buildings, vegetation, ground), extending over hundreds of square kilometers with turn around times of several hours to a few days. The actual response time to any given event depends on several factors, including such bureaucratic issues as approval of funds, export license formalities, and clearance to fly over the area to be mapped, and operational factors such as the deployment of the aircraft and ground teams may also take a number of days for remote locations. Of course the need for immediate mapping of earthquake damage generally is not as urgent in remote regions with less infrastructure and few inhabitants. During August 16-19, 2010 the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) mapped the area affected by the magnitude 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake (Northern Baja California Earthquake), which occurred on April 4, 2010, and was felt throughout southern California, Arizona, Nevada, and Baja California North, Mexico. From initial ground observations the fault rupture appeared to extend 75 km

  17. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  18. Ecologically relevant geomorphic attributes of streams are impaired by even low levels of watershed effective imperviousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietz, Geoff J.; Sammonds, Michael J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    -20% of their watershed is covered by impervious surfaces (total imperviousness, TI; Bledsoe and Watson, 2001; Chin, 2006; Table 1). Many of these studies may, however, underestimate the influence of urbanization by using insensitive channel metrics and assessing streams in early stages of urbanization. Most importantly, TI, as a measure of urban density, may not adequately represent the way in which urbanization alters the master variables of flow and sediment within a watershed.Hydrologists have long recognized that, rather than the proportion of impervious cover within a watershed, it is the proportion that is directly connected to the stream through stormwater drainage systems that may be a better predictor of urban-induced hydrologic change (Leopold, 1968). Referred to as effective imperviousness (EI) the proportion of impervious cover directly connected to the stream through stormwater drainage systems may also be a better predictor of geomorphic response than is TI. Over the last decade a direct measure of EI has been found to be a better predictor of ecological response in urban streams (Walsh et al., 2012), but use of such a metric has not found its way into geomorphic studies even though TI has been found to be ineffective (e.g., Bledsoe et al., 2012). A direct measure of EI - one that specifically accounts for the drainage from each impervious surface rather than using a generic reduction factor (e.g., Booth and Jackson, 1997; Wang et al., 2001) - has not previously been used in geomorphic investigations. In this paper, we advance on past studies by testing if EI is a stronger predictor than TI for urban-induced channel change.A second limitation of previous studies of urban-induced morphologic change is the common focus on channel dimensions (Chin, 2006). These are important for infrastructure and flood protection but do not necessarily have a strong mechanistic link to stream ecosystems. While some notable exceptions exist (Finkenbine et al., 2000; Mc

  19. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  20. Impact of a smoking ban in public places: a rapid assessment in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Bharathi; Plumettaz, Chloé; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues in the Seychelles 9 months after legislation was implemented. Survey officers observed compliance with the smoking ban in 38 most popular hospitality venues and administered a structured questionnaire to two customers, two workers and one manager in each venue. Virtually no customers or workers were seen smoking in the indoor premises. Patrons, workers and managers largely supported the ban. The personnel of the hospitality venues reported that most smokers had no difficulty refraining from smoking. However, a third of workers did not systematically request customers to stop smoking and half of them did not report adequate training. Workers reported improved health. No substantial change in the number of customers was noted. A ban on public smoking was generally well implemented in hospitality venues but some less than optimal findings suggest the need for adequate training of workers and strengthened enforcement measures. The simple and inexpensive methodology used in this rapid survey may be a useful approach to evaluate the implementation and impact of clean air policy in low and middle-income countries.

  1. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  3. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  4. Radiometric and geometric assessment of data from the RapidEye constellation of satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Sampath, Aparajithan; Brunn, A.; Trosset, G.; Hoffmann, D.; Roloff, S.; Thiele, M.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface using imagery acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. The RapidEye (RE) satellite constellation acquires high-resolution satellite images covering the entire globe within a very short period of time by sensors identical in construction and cross-calibrated to each other. To evaluate the RE high-resolution Multi-spectral Imager (MSI) sensor capabilities, a cross-comparison between the RE constellation of sensors was performed first using image statistics based on large common areas observed over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) by the sensors and, second, by comparing the on-orbit radiometric calibration temporal trending over a large number of calibration sites. For any spectral band, the individual responses measured by the five satellites of the RE constellation were found to differ B2B) alignment of the image data sets. The position accuracy was assessed by comparing the RE imagery against high-resolution aerial imagery, while the B2B characterization was performed by registering each band against every other band to ensure that the proper band alignment is provided for an image product. The B2B results indicate that the internal alignments of these five RE bands are in agreement, with bands typically registered to within 0.25 pixels of each other or better.

  5. Rapid high-throughput assay to assess scavenging capacity index using DPPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Arribas, Silvia M; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-11-15

    A new microplate-adapted DPPH rapid assay was developed to assess the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and foods. The assay was carried out in buffered medium (methanol: 10mmol/l Tris buffer pH 7.5, 1:1 v/v) and reaction was completed at 10min. The scavenging capacity index (SCI), a theoretical antioxidant parameter directly related to the antioxidant capacity of samples, was calculated. SCI for pure compounds: gallic acid (6.76±0.08), quercetin (7.89±0.24), catechin (6.05±0.23), trolox (2.32±0.03), ascorbic acid (2.52±0.15) and gluthatione (1.08±0.08) and foods (μmol DPPH scavenged/100ml): tropical juice (655.62±12.18), mediterraneo juice (702.87±11.13), apple juice (212.52±17.22), pomegranate juice (319.83±9.45), red grape nectar (1093.05±18.69), Don Simon orange juice (632.94±17.22) and date syrup (15992.34±250.7) were comparable to those in previous reports using the classic DPPH assay. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the SCI on the same and different days was less than 8.12% in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  7. Use of rapid needs assessment as a tool to identify vaccination delays in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ardenne, Katie K; Darrow, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Chavez, Catia; Hernandez, Herminio; Berman, Stephen; Asturias, Edwin J

    2016-03-29

    To explore the use of rapid needs assessment (RNA) surveys to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to delays in vaccination of children in two low middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from two RNA surveys performed as part of program improvement evaluations in Guatemala and Peru were used for this analysis. The primary endpoint was the timeliness of immunization with delay defined as administration of vaccines beyond 28 days from recommended age for DTwP-HepB-Hib (Penta) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as past age-restrictions for rotavirus vaccine. Independent risk factors analyzed included child's gender, birth year, number of children in household, maternal age, maternal education, and food insecurity. Vaccine information was available from 811 children from 838 households surveyed. High rate of immunization delays was observed, with 75.6% of children in Guatemala and 57.8% of children in Peru being delayed for the third dose of Penta primary series. Factors associated with delayed vaccination in Guatemala included advanced maternal age and increased number of children in household. In Peru, significant associations were birth year before 2009, lower maternal education level, and increased number of children in household. RNA is a fast and effective method to identify timely vaccine coverage and derive a hypothesis of factors possibly associated with vaccination delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a nematode offspring counting assay for rapid and simple soil toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-05-01

    Since the introduction of standardized nematode toxicity assays by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), many studies have reported their use. Given that the currently used standardized nematode toxicity assays have certain limitations, in this study, we examined the use of a novel nematode offspring counting assay for evaluating soil ecotoxicity based on a previous soil-agar isolation method used to recover live adult nematodes. In this new assay, adult Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to soil using a standardized toxicity assay procedure, and the resulting offspring in test soils attracted by a microbial food source in agar plates were counted. This method differs from previously used assays in terms of its endpoint, namely, the number of nematode offspring. The applicability of the bioassay was demonstrated using metal-spiked soils, which revealed metal concentration-dependent responses, and with 36 field soil samples characterized by different physicochemical properties and containing various metals. Principal component analysis revealed that texture fraction (clay, sand, and silt) and electrical conductivity values were the main factors influencing the nematode offspring counting assay, and these findings warrant further investigation. The nematode offspring counting assay is a rapid and simple process that can provide multi-directional toxicity assessment when used in conjunction with other standard methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatic, Tatiana; Bendelic, Eugen; Paduca, Ala; Rabiu, Mansour; Corduneanu, Angela; Garaba, Angela; Novac, Victoria; Curca, Cristina; Sorbala, Inga; Chiaburu, Andrei; Verega, Florentina; Andronic, Victoria; Guzun, Irina; Căpăţină, Olga; Zamă-Mardari, Iulea

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy among people aged ≥50 years in the Republic of Moldova using Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness plus Diabetic Retinopathy ('RAAB+DR') techniques. 111 communities of people aged ≥50 years were randomly selected. In addition to standard RAAB procedures in all people with diabetes (previous history of the disease or with a random blood glucose level >11.1 mm/L (200 mg/dL)), a dilated fundus examination was performed to assess the presence and the degree of diabetic retinopathy using the Scottish DR grading system. 3877 (98%) people out of the 3885 eligible people were examined. The prevalence of blindness was 1.4% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%). The major causes of blindness and severe visual impairment were untreated cataract (58.2%), glaucoma (10.9%), and other posterior segment causes (10.9%). The estimated prevalence of diabetes was 11.4%. Among all people with diabetes, 55.9% had some form of retinopathy, and sight threatening diabetic retinopathy affected 14.6%. The RAAB+DR survey in the Republic of Moldova established that untreated cataract is the major cause of avoidable blindness in rural areas. This needs to be tackled by expanding the geographical coverage of cataract surgical services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  12. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  13. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  14. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  15. Quantitative Rapid Assessment of Leukoaraiosis in CT : Comparison to Gold Standard MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Sporns, Peter Bernhard; Schmidt, Rene; Niederstadt, Thomas; Minnerup, Jens; Bier, Georg; Knecht, Stefan; Kemmling, André

    2017-10-20

    The severity of white matter lesions (WML) is a risk factor of hemorrhage and predictor of clinical outcome after ischemic stroke; however, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reliable quantification for this surrogate marker is limited for computed tomography (CT), the leading stroke imaging technique. We aimed to present and evaluate a CT-based automated rater-independent method for quantification of microangiopathic white matter changes. Patients with suspected minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke scale, NIHSS < 4) were screened for the analysis of non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) at admission and compared to follow-up MRI. The MRI-based WML volume and visual Fazekas scores were assessed as the gold standard reference. We employed a recently published probabilistic brain segmentation algorithm for CT images to determine the tissue-specific density of WM space. All voxel-wise densities were quantified in WM space and weighted according to partial probabilistic WM content. The resulting mean weighted density of WM space in NCCT, the surrogate of WML, was correlated with reference to MRI-based WML parameters. The process of CT-based tissue-specific segmentation was reliable in 79 cases with varying severity of microangiopathy. Voxel-wise weighted density within WM spaces showed a noticeable correlation (r = -0.65) with MRI-based WML volume. Particularly in patients with moderate or severe lesion load according to the visual Fazekas score the algorithm provided reliable prediction of MRI-based WML volume. Automated observer-independent quantification of voxel-wise WM density in CT significantly correlates with microangiopathic WM disease in gold standard MRI. This rapid surrogate of white matter lesion load in CT may support objective WML assessment and therapeutic decision-making during acute stroke triage.

  16. SymptoMScreen: A Tool for Rapid Assessment of Symptom Severity in MS Across Multiple Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Kalina, J; Ford, R; Pandey, K; Kister, I

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe SymptoMScreen, an in-house developed tool for rapid assessment of MS symptom severity in routine clinical practice, and to validate SymptoMScreen against Performance Scales (PS). MS patients typically experience symptoms in many neurologic domains. A tool that would enable MS patients to efficiently relay their symptom severity across multiple domains to the healthcare providers could lead to improved symptom management. We developed "SymptoMScreen," a battery of 7-point Likert scales for 12 distinct domains commonly affected by MS: mobility, dexterity, body pain, sensation, bladder function, fatigue, vision, dizziness, cognition, depression, and anxiety. We administered SymptoMScreen and PS scales to consecutive MS patients at a specialty MS Care Center. We assessed the criterion and construct validity of SymptoMScreen by calculating Spearmen rank correlations between the SymptoMScreen composite score and PS composite score, and between SymptoMScreen subscale and the respective PS subscale scores, where applicable. A total of 410 patients with MS (age 46.6 ± 12.9 years; 74% female; mean disease duration 12.2 ± 8.7 years) completed the SymptoMScreen and PSs during their clinic visit. Composite SymptoMScreen score correlated strongly with combined PS score (r = 0.88, p MS. It has excellent criterion and construct validity. SymptoMScreen is patient and clinician friendly, takes approximately one minute to complete, and can help better document, understand, and manage patients' symptoms in routine clinical practice. SymptoMScreen is freely available to clinicians and researchers.

  17. Assessment of Medical Students’ Posture When Using the Existing Best-Selling Laptop Tables Using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba jafarvand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Improper posture while working is one of the most important risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to assess the posture of students studying at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences when using the existing best-selling laptop tables using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA method. Methods: This analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 male and female dormitory students in 2017. The study population was selected through stratified random sampling technique. The participants’ postures in two different work stations (tables number one and two were evaluated by means of RULA method. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using the independent sample t-test and ANOVA test. Results: According to the results, 36% and 46% of the students obtained scores of 3 and 4, respectively in case of table number one. Furthermore, regarding table number two, scores 3 and 4 were recorded for 48% and 44% of the participants, respectively. Therefore, tables number one and two were found to have 82% and 92% of level two corrective measure, respectively. In addition, a significant relationship was obtained between the demographic variables and RULA score (P<0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, table number one was a better case than table number two for fitting with different body structures since it allowed for the adjustment of the height and inclination of the work surface. However, corrective measures were necessary for both tables to provide the users with comfort, convenience, health, and productivity when using these laptop tables.

  18. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-01-01

    The ∼80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching ∼800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to ∼20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km 3 , scoria cone--0.02 km 3 , and lavas--0.03 km 3 . Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of ∼21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of volcanic surfaces, and failure to

  19. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-08-03

    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  20. Tectono-geomorphic indices of the Erin basin, NE Kashmir valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Bashir; Afzal, Ahsan; Bhat, M. I.; Sultan Bhat, M.; Farooq Ahmad, Hakim; Tectonics; Natural Hazards Research Group

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the tectonic activity in the Erin basin (NE Kashmir) on the basis of several relevant geomorphic indices and field observations. We use Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) and Survey of India (SoI) topographic maps in GIS environment to compute the geomorphic indices. The indices i.e., convex hypsometric curve, high hypsometric integral value (Hi > 0.5), low basin elongation ratio (Eb = 0.17), low mountain front sinuosity values (Smf = 1.08 average), low valley floor width ratios (Vf 4) suggest that the area is tectonically active. Moreover, prominent irregularities (knickpoints/knickzones) along longitudinal profile of the Erin River even in homogenous resistant lithology (Panjal trap) and anomalous stream gradient index (SL) values reflect that the Erin basin is dissected by two faults (EF-1 and EF-2) with NNW-SSE and SSW-NNE trends respectively. The results of this preliminary study further substantiate the recent GPS studies, which argue that the maximum strain is accumulating in the NE part of the Kashmir Himalaya.

  1. Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study (MRHDM) - Geomorphic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Mississippi River @ Venice Daily stage 1960–present MVN Grand Pass Measured Q 1960–present MVN West Bay Diversion Measured Q 2004–present MVN...frequency during the study time period. The dredge history for the crossing locations was used to qualitatively inform the interpretation of the...pattern of deposition downstream of Venice , Louisiana, that was similarly identified by Sharp et al (2013) as part of the West Bay Sediment Diversion

  2. The Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool: An Access/Visual Basic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ron; Larson, D.L.; Thomas, K.; Tancreto, N.; Haines, D.; Richey, A.; Dow, T.; Drees, L.

    2009-01-01

    Managers of parks and natural areas are increasingly faced with difficult decisions concerning restoration of disturbed lands. Financial and workforce resources often limit these restoration efforts, and rarely can a manager afford to address all concerns within the region of interest. With limited resources, managers and scientists have to decide which areas will be targeted for restoration and the restoration treatments to use in these areas. A broad range of approaches are used to make such decisions, from well-researched expert opinions (Cipollini et al. 2005) to gut feeling, with variable degrees of input from site visits, data collection, and data analysis used to support the decision. A standardized approach including an analytical assessment of site characteristics based on the best information available, with a written or electronic record of all the steps taken along the way, would make comparisons among a group of sites easier and lend credibility through use of common, documented criteria at all sites. In response to these concerns, we have developed the Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool (RRAT). RRAT is based on field observations of key indicators of site degradation, stressors influencing the site, value of the site with respect to larger management objectives, likelihood of achieving the management goals, and logistical constraints to restoration. The purpose of RRAT is not to make restoration decisions or prescribe methods, but rather to ensure that a basic set of pertinent issues are considered for each site and to facilitate comparisons among sites. Several concepts have been central to the development of RRAT. First, the management goal (also known as desired future condition) of any site under evaluation should be defined before the field evaluation begins. Second, the evaluation should be based upon readily observable indicators so as to avoid cumbersome field methods. Third, the ease with which site stressors can be ameliorated must be

  3. Advances in EPA’s Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry Project (Interagency Alternatives Assessment Webinar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of human and ecological exposures are required as critical input to risk-based prioritization and screening of chemicals. The CSS Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project seeks to develop the data, tools, and evaluation approaches required to generate rapid and scientifical...

  4. Rapid, serial, non-invasive assessment of drug efficacy in mice with autoluminescent Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is the world's third most common mycobacterial infection. There is no vaccine against BU and surgery is needed for patients with large ulcers. Although recent experience indicates combination chemotherapy with streptomycin and rifampin improves cure rates, the utility of this regimen is limited by the 2-month duration of therapy, potential toxicity and required parenteral administration of streptomycin, and drug-drug interactions caused by rifampin. Discovery and development of drugs for BU is greatly hampered by the slow growth rate of M. ulcerans, requiring up to 3 months of incubation on solid media to produce colonies. Surrogate markers for evaluating antimicrobial activity in real-time which can be measured serially and non-invasively in infected footpads of live mice would accelerate pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU. Previously, we developed bioluminescent M. ulcerans strains, demonstrating proof of concept for measuring luminescence as a surrogate marker for viable M. ulcerans in vitro and in vivo. However, the requirement of exogenous substrate limited the utility of such strains, especially for in vivo experiments.For this study, we engineered M. ulcerans strains that express the entire luxCDABE operon and therefore are autoluminescent due to endogenous substrate production. The selected reporter strain displayed a growth rate and virulence similar to the wild-type parent strain and enabled rapid, real-time monitoring of in vitro and in vivo drug activity, including serial, non-invasive assessments in live mice, producing results which correlated closely with colony-forming unit (CFU counts for a panel of drugs with various mechanisms of action.Our results indicate that autoluminescent reporter strains of M. ulcerans are exceptional tools for pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU due to their potential to drastically reduce the time, effort, animals, compound

  5. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  6. A rapid assessment of the availability and use of obstetric care in Nigerian healthcare facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Erim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Nigeria, pregnant women are being encouraged to give birth in healthcare facilities. However, little is known about whether or not available healthcare facilities can cope with an increasing demand for obstetric care. We thus carried out this survey as a rapid and tactical assessment of facility quality. We visited 121 healthcare facilities, and used the opportunity to interview over 700 women seeking care at these facilities. FINDINGS: Most of the primary healthcare facilities we visited were unable to provide all basic Emergency Obstetric Care (bEmOC services. In general, they lack clinical staff needed to dispense maternal and neonatal care services, ambulances and uninterrupted electricity supply whenever there were obstetric emergencies. Secondary healthcare facilities fared better, but, like their primary counterparts, lack neonatal care infrastructure. Among patients, most lived within 30 minutes of the visited facilities and still reported some difficulty getting there. Of those who had had two or more childbirths, the conditional probability of a delivery occurring in a healthcare facility was 0.91 if the previous delivery occurred in a healthcare facility, and 0.24 if it occurred at home. The crude risk of an adverse neonatal outcome did not significantly vary by delivery site or birth attendant, and the occurrence of such an outcome during an in-facility delivery may influence the mother to have her next delivery outside. Such an outcome during a home delivery may not prompt a subsequent in-facility delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria will require attention to both increasing the number of facilities with high-quality EmOC capability and also assuring Nigerian women have access to these facilities regardless of where they live.

  7. Applying polarity rapid assessment method and ultrafiltration to characterize NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Leavey, Shannon; Krasner, Stuart W; Mel Suffet, I H

    2014-06-15

    Certain nitrosamines in water are disinfection byproducts that are probable human carcinogens. Nitrosamines have diverse and complex precursors that include effluent organic matter, some anthropogenic chemicals, and natural (likely non-humic) substances. An easy and selective tool was first developed to characterize nitrosamine precursors in treated wastewaters, including different process effluents. This tool takes advantages of the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and ultrafiltration (UF) (molecular weight distribution) to locate the fractions with the strongest contributions to the nitrosamine precursor pool in the effluent organic matter. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for their high selectivity for nitrosamine precursors. The details of PRAM operation, such as cartridge clean-up, capacity, pH influence, and quality control were included in this paper, as well as the main parameters of UF operation. Preliminary testing of the PRAM/UF method with effluents from one wastewater treatment plant gave very informative results. SCX retained 45-90% of the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (FP)-a measure of the precursors-in secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents. These results are consistent with NDMA precursors likely having a positively charged amine group. C18 adsorbed 30-45% of the NDMAFP, which indicates that a substantial portion of these precursors were non-polar. The small molecular weight (MW) (10 kDa) fractions obtained from UF were the primary contributors to NDMAFP. The combination of PRAM and UF brings important information on the characteristics of nitrosamine precursors in water with easy operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Butorin, A.

    1995-01-01

    PAHs, an important class of environmental chemical contaminants found primarily in petroleum and coal products, frequently are the most numerous and ubiquitous organic pollutants recovered in sediment residues. PAHs are considered hazardous in water and soil because many are acutely toxic and have the potential for genotoxic activity. Selected EPA priority pollutants (2, 3, 4, and 5-ring PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures (crude oil, gasoline, and recycled motor oil) were collected and concentrated from water and sediment with semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs) that contain a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis in hexane or directly by rinsing with acetone DMSO, concentrated in the carrier solvent DMSO, and detected with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign. High SPMD-water concentration factors of PAHs appeared to correspond closely to the occurrence of PAHs in sediments previously reported in the literature; for example, pyrene had the highest SPMD concentration factor and was the most commonly found PAH in sediment residues. Mutatox reg-sign with rat hepatic S9 activation detected all PAHs tested. The PAH's molecular weight and number of rings appeared to directly influence acute toxicity (EC50, microg/mL); for example, two-ring naphthalene had an EC50 value of 0.78 whereas five-ring benzo(a)pyrene had an EC50 value of 15.0, about a twenty-fold difference, Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign, in combination with SPMDs were able to rapidly (< 24h) assess the bioavailability, toxicity, and genotoxicity of these environmental PAHs

  9. Rapid assessment response (RAR study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Franz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to

  10. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun

    2016-03-01

    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  11. Rapid assessment on macro-moth fauna at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve: a low diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sutrisno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment on moth faunas with focus on macro-moths was conducted at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve. The aims of the study were to acquire information of macro-moth diversity and to access the composition of the species at this area by comparing data from Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest. The results showed that the number of species at Nusa Barong, Meru Betiri, Sebangau and Busang were 47, 75, 97 and 297, respectively. The diversity of macro-moth fauna based on William’s α index at Nusa Barong was the lowest as compared to Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest, which were 34.58, 65.01, 50.91 and 102.08, respectively. The results also show that the similarity based on Jaccard’s index of the binary comparison varies from 0.029 to 0.089. The highest value was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Meru Betiri while the lowest was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Sebangau. In addition, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Noctuidae were dominant across all sites. At Nusa Barong, only 10 species that have been known their host plants; three of them caused damage to some crops, namely, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydalima laticostalis and Achaea janata. There might be more species that have not been found during this study as indicated by the species numbers across all sites have not reach a plateau. This study clearly showed us that floral diversity and size of area determined the diversity of macro-moths at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve.

  12. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a rapid assessment protocol for identifying pit lakes worthy of restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Genthe, B; Hill, L; Oberholster, P J

    2018-01-15

    Before the introduction of reclamation legislation in South Africa, final cut lakes in mining areas were left without any restoration while the final excavation was not back filled. Characteristics of these lacustrine water bodies vary considerably, but they are often linear in shape, large (1-30 ha), deep (2-30 m) and have poorly developed littoral zones. With water tables often near the surface; a variety of vascular hydrophytes can colonize these bodies, thus establishing emerging wetland type ecosystems. These, man-made aquatic structures that are (unintentionally) created potentially offers some realistic and inexpensive mitigation options for some of the negative impacts associated with mining, i.e. these water bodies can become useful by yielding potentially valuable services. However, no method currently exists to compare and rank these water bodies according ecological integrity and the expected monetary value to be derived from them in order to select sites for restoration. To answer this need, we applied an index to determine the ability of these water bodies to provide useful services in their current state. The index was then used to derive estimates of the monetary value of potential services in order to allow comparison with the cost of restoring the water body in question or to compare with other pit lakes. We present a South African case study to illustrate the method. As far as could be established, this is the first attempt towards creating a rapid assessment tool as standardised way of comparing pit lakes that allows for the ranking and identification of those pit lakes worthy of restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPARATIVE USABILITY ASSESSMENT OF REBA (RAPID ENTIRE BODY ASSESSMENT ERGONOMIC EVALUATION TOOL ON PAPER AND APP VERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella de Souza Sierra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para auxílio de análise ergonômica são frequentemente utilizadas quando há a necessidade de avaliação de riscos musculoesqueléticos no trabalho. Dessas ferramentas, uma das mais conhecidas é a REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment. Seu amplo uso fez com que suas formas de distribuição e aplicação fossem alteradas por vários autores, de forma a tentar encontrar a melhor maneira de aplicação. Inclusive, com o advento de celulares e tablets, foram feitas diversas versões em aplicativo da ferramenta. Pouco pode ser encontrado sobre a usabilidade desse método, ainda mais em qual versão é mais apropriado, em termos de usabilidade. Objetivou-se neste artigo realizar uma avaliação de usabilidade da ferramenta REBA em duas diferentes versões para verificar a influência que a usabilidade da ferramenta tem nos seus resultados. Acredita-se que qualquer tipo de ferramenta para uma avaliação ergonômica deve, de forma intrínseca, ser usável, pois sua usabilidade tem influência direta em sua confiabilidade e replicabilidade. Sendo assim, fez-se uma análise comparativa de usabilidade com a ferramenta em versão papel e aplicativos para celular com oito sujeitos para a verificação de tal usabilidade. Encontrou-se melhor usabilidade para o aplicativo, mas confiabilidade equiparada para as duas versões. Assim, constata-se que as duas podem ser igualmente usadas para avaliação REBA.

  15. Geomorphic and Vegetative Recovery Processes Along Modified Stream Channels of West Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R

    1992-01-01

    .... After all or parts of a stream are straightened, dredged, or cleared, systematic hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic processes collectively begin to reduce energy conditions towards the premodified state...

  16. Geomorphic Analysis of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Michael J; Kraus, Nicholas C; McDonald, Jodi M

    2005-01-01

    This study of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, NY, covers the historic and geomorphic background, literature, field measurements, numerical modeling of tidal circulation, and analysis...

  17. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  18. Rapidly assessing the activation conditions and porosity of metal-organic frameworks using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Bloch, Eric D; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-25

    A methodology utilizing a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor propane uptake following incremental increases of the temperature is demonstrated as a means of rapidly identifying porous materials and determining the optimum activation conditions of metal-organic frameworks.

  19. Energy to the Edge (E2E) Equipment Assessment U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    84 Contents Energy to the Edge • U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force 1.0 Executive Summary Executive Summary U.S. Army... audiovisual equipment. • Once radiant barrier liner is inserted, the process of subsequent setups • Cables for lighting and outlets are located...behind the internal barrier • The shelter comes with organic audiovisual equipment. b. • • This shelter has a different setup and tear down process

  20. A rapid situation assessment (RSA) study of alcohol and drug use in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Ghandour, Lilian A; Maalouf, Wadih E; Yamout, Karim; Salamoun, Mariana M

    2010-01-01

    Research on substance use and misuse in Lebanon is scarce and, when available, focuses on a specific substance or a limited segment of the population. The objective of this Rapid Situation Assessment (RAS) study was to survey the use of multiple substances in diverse segments of the Lebanese population. A multi-method and multi-sample survey was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data from the academic sector (high school and university students), substance users in treatment or under arrest (prison, detention), and non-institutionalized "street" users. Age of first use of substances started as early as 9 years in the youth sample. Moreover, 12% of the high school students reported smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day and 9% of the university students met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Cannabis represented the most commonly used illicit drug in both high school and university students, and tranquilizers were the most frequently misused medicinal substance. Heroin was responsible for 50% of the treatment admissions, followed by cocaine (20%), and alcohol (20%); heroin was also the most common substance of arrest. Recidivism was almost the rule for heroin users across all treatment settings. Unperceived need for treatment was the most common reason for not seeking treatment in non-institutionalized drug users (47.6%). Injecting drug use was a common behavior noted within substance using populations, in treatment and non-institutionalized (about 50% of them), with a high rate of needle sharing practices. About half of all patients in treatment had a history of police arrests, and about one-third of those in prison ever received prior treatment for substance use. The study points towards a growing trend for substance use problems in early adolescence that warrants close monitoring. Further investigation of these patterns is needed since the Lebanese population might have specific pathways of abuse. There is a need to bring together various

  1. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  2. Geomorphic dam-break flows. Part I: conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, JGAB; Ferreira, RML; Cardoso, AH

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Water Management 163 Issue WM6 This paper presents a one-dimensional conceptual model for simulating geomorphic dam-break flows. The model is based on conservation laws drawn from continuum mixture theory that are integrated over the flow depth,assuming that the f10w is composed of two transport layers. Closure equations were derived from the review and reanalysis of previous studies on granular flow,debris f10w and sheet flow. The sedime...

  3. UAS-SfM for coastal research: Geomorphic feature extraction and land cover classification from high-resolution elevation and optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Emily; Lentz, Erika; Thieler, E. Robert; Farris, Amy; Weber, Kathryn; Remsen, David P.; Miner, Simon; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM) from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a) determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b) map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a) geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b) land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm) have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  4. UAS-SfM for Coastal Research: Geomorphic Feature Extraction and Land Cover Classification from High-Resolution Elevation and Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Sturdivant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  5. Rapid Damage Assessment by Means of Multi-Temporal SAR — A Comprehensive Review and Outlook to Sentinel-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast crisis response after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tropical storms, is necessary to support, for instance, rescue, humanitarian, and reconstruction operations in the crisis area. Therefore, rapid damage mapping after a disaster is crucial, i.e., to detect the affected area, including grade and type of damage. Thereby, satellite remote sensing plays a key role due to its fast response, wide field of view, and low cost. With the increasing availability of remote sensing data, numerous methods have been developed for damage assessment. This article gives a comprehensive review of these techniques focusing on multi-temporal SAR procedures for rapid damage assessment: interferometric coherence and intensity correlation. The review is divided into six parts: First, methods based on coherence; second, the ones using intensity correlation; and third, techniques using both methodologies combined to increase the accuracy of the damage assessment are reviewed. Next, studies using additional data (e.g., GIS and optical imagery to support the damage assessment and increase its accuracy are reported. Moreover, selected studies on post-event SAR damage assessment techniques and examples of other applications of the interferometric coherence are presented. Then, the preconditions for a successful worldwide application of multi-temporal SAR methods for damage assessment and the limitations of current SAR satellite missions are reported. Finally, an outlook to the Sentinel-1 SAR mission shows possible solutions of these limitations, enabling a worldwide applicability of the presented damage assessment methods.

  6. Geomorphic and Geologic Controls of Geohazards induced by Nepal's 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Shugar, D. H.; Haritashya, U.K.; Bevington, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Fujita, K.; Geertsema, M.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Gorkha earthquake (Magnitude 7.8) on 25 April 2015 and later aftershocks struck South Asia, killing approx.9,000 and damaging a large region. Supported by a large campaign of responsive satellite data acquisitions over the earthquake disaster zone, our team undertook a satellite image survey of the earthquakes induced geohazards in Nepal and China and an assessment of the geomorphic, tectonic, and lithologic controls on quake-induced landslides. Timely analysis and communication aided response and recovery and informed decision makers. We mapped 4,312 co-seismic and post-seismic landslides. We also surveyed 491 glacier lakes for earthquake damage, but found only 9 landslide-impacted lakes and no visible satellite evidence of outbursts. Landslide densities correlate with slope, peak ground acceleration, surface downdrop, and specific metamorphic lithologies and large plutonic intrusions.

  7. Fault slip and earthquake recurrence along strike-slip faults — Contributions of high-resolution geomorphic data

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Understanding earthquake (EQ) recurrence relies on information about the timing and size of past EQ ruptures along a given fault. Knowledge of a fault\\'s rupture history provides valuable information on its potential future behavior, enabling seismic hazard estimates and loss mitigation. Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence of faulting is used to constrain the recurrence of surface rupturing EQs. Analysis of the latter data sets culminated during the mid-1980s in the formulation of now classical EQ recurrence models, now routinely used to assess seismic hazard. Within the last decade, Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) surveying technology and other high-resolution data sets became increasingly available to tectono-geomorphic studies, promising to contribute to better-informed models of EQ recurrence and slip-accumulation patterns. After reviewing motivation and background, we outline requirements to successfully reconstruct a fault\\'s offset accumulation pattern from geomorphic evidence. We address sources of uncertainty affecting offset measurement and advocate approaches to minimize them. A number of recent studies focus on single-EQ slip distributions and along-fault slip accumulation patterns. We put them in context with paleoseismic studies along the respective faults by comparing coefficients of variation CV for EQ inter-event time and slip-per-event and find that a) single-event offsets vary over a wide range of length-scales and the sources for offset variability differ with length-scale, b) at fault-segment length-scales, single-event offsets are essentially constant, c) along-fault offset accumulation as resolved in the geomorphic record is dominated by essentially same-size, large offset increments, and d) there is generally no one-to-one correlation between the offset accumulation pattern constrained in the geomorphic record and EQ occurrence as identified in the stratigraphic record, revealing the higher resolution and preservation potential of

  8. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  9. A novel method for perceptual assessment of small room acoustics using rapid sensory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    presented with auralized sound over a loudspeaker array and followed a rapid sensory analysis protocol. The elicited attributes and ratings are analyzed and possible links to the acoustical properties of these spaces are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation...

  10. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Marielle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates

  11. Geomorphic control on the δ15N of mountain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests are subject to high rates of physical erosion which can export particulate nitrogen from ecosystems. However, the impact of geomorphic processes on nitrogen budgets remains poorly constrained. We have used the elemental and isotopic composition of soil and plant organic matter to investigate nitrogen cycling in the mountain forest of Taiwan, from 24 sites with distinct geomorphic (topographic slope and climatic (precipitation, temperature characteristics. The organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of soil organic matter decreased with soil 14C age, providing constraint on average rates of nitrogen loss using a mass balance model. Model predictions suggest that present day estimates of nitrogen deposition exceed contemporary and historic nitrogen losses. We found ∼6‰ variability in the stable isotopic composition (δ15N of soil and plants which was not related to soil 14C age or climatic conditions. Instead, δ15N was significantly, negatively correlated with topographic slope. Using the mass balance model, we demonstrate that the correlation can be explained by an increase in nitrogen loss by non-fractioning pathways on steeper slopes, where physical erosion most effectively removes particulate nitrogen. Published data from forests on steep slopes are consistent with the correlation. Based on our dataset and these observations, we hypothesise that variable physical erosion rates can significantly influence soil δ15N, and suggest particulate nitrogen export is a major, yet underappreciated, loss term in the nitrogen budget of mountain forests.

  12. Detecting geomorphic processes and change with high resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Simon; Hurst, Martin; Grieve, Stuart; Clubb, Fiona; Milodowski, David; Attal, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    The first global topographic dataset was released in 1996, with 1 km grid spacing. It is astonishing that in only 20 years we now have access to tens of thousands of square kilometres of LiDAR data at point densities greater than 5 points per square meter. This data represents a treasure trove of information that our geomorphic predecessors could only dream of. But what are we to do with this data? Here we explore the potential of high resolution topographic data to dig deeper into geomorphic processes across a wider range of landscapes and using much larger spatial coverage than previously possible. We show how this data can be used to constrain sediment flux relationships using relief and hillslope length, and how this data can be used to detect landscape transience. We show how the nonlinear sediment flux law, proposed for upland, soil mantled landscapes by Roering et al. (1999) is consistent with a number of topographic tests. This flux law allows us to predict how landscapes will respond to tectonic forcing, and we show how these predictions can be used to detect erosion rate perturbations across a range of tectonic settings.

  13. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Life losses following disastrous earthquake depends mainly by the building vulnerability, intensity of shaking and timeliness of rescue operations. In recent decades, the increase in population and industrial density has significantly increased the exposure to earthquakes of urban areas. The potential impact of a strong earthquake on a town center can be reduced by timely and correct actions of the emergency management centers. A real time urban seismic network can drastically reduce casualties immediately following a strong earthquake, by timely providing information about the distribution of the ground shaking level. Emergency management centers, with functions in the immediate post-earthquake period, could be use this information to allocate and prioritize resources to minimize loss of human life. However, due to the high charges of the seismological instrumentation, the realization of an urban seismic network, which may allow reducing the rate of fatalities, has not been achieved. Recent technological developments in MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology could allow today the realization of a high-density urban seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment, suitable for the earthquake effects mitigation. In the 1990s, MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are today widely used in laptops, games controllers and mobile phones. Due to their great commercial successes, the research into and development of MEMS accelerometers are actively pursued around the world. Nowadays, the sensitivity and dynamics of these sensors are such to allow accurate recording of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude. Due to their low cost and small size, the MEMS accelerometers may be employed for the realization of high-density seismic networks. The MEMS accelerometers could be installed inside sensitive places (high vulnerability and exposure), such as schools, hospitals, public buildings and places of

  14. Effect of Sediment Availability in Bedload-Dominated Rivers on Fluvial Geomorphic Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Channels are known to compensate for changes in sediment supply via covariate changes in channel properties, yet the timescale for adjustment remains poorly constrained. We propose that reductions in sediment flux inhibit equilibrium re-establishment and thus impact the timescale of system adjustment. Using run-of-river dams as natural experiments, this study quantifies the geomorphic response of channels to sediment supply reduction. Channel traits that facilitate increased sediment trapping behind the dam, such as large reservoir storage capacity relative to annual inflow and low slope, were expected to inhibit a channel's ability to re-establish equilibrium following impoundment, lengthening the equilibrium establishment timescale to tens or hundreds of years. Reaches associated with increased trapping were therefore anticipated to exhibit non-equilibrium forms. Channel equilibrium was evaluated downstream of 8 ROR dams in New England with varying degrees of sediment trapping. Sites cover a range of watershed sizes (3-155 km2), channel slopes (.05-5%), 2-year discharges (1.5-60 m3/s) and storage capacity volumes. Because equilibrium channel form is just sufficient to mobilize grains under bankfull conditions in bedload-dominated rivers, the Shields parameter was used to assess equilibrium form. Unregulated, upstream Shields values and regulated, downstream values were calculated at 14 total cross-sections extending 300-450 m upstream and downstream of each dam. Sediment trapping was estimated using Brune's curve (1953). On the Charles Brown Brook (VT), a marginally significant (p=0.08) increase in Shields values from a mean of 0.14 upstream to 0.41 downstream of a 100+ year old dam was observed. In contrast, reaches downstream of the 100+ year old Pelham dam (MA) exhibit significantly lower Shields values. This suggests that trapping behind the dam inhibits the downstream channel from reaching an equilibrium state, but not always in the same way. Better

  15. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  16. Continuous catchment-scale monitoring of geomorphic processes with a 2-D seismological array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Milodowski, D.; Chen, Y.-G.; Wu, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Chen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The monitoring of geomorphic processes during extreme climatic events is of a primary interest to estimate their impact on the landscape dynamics. However, available techniques to survey the surface activity do not provide a relevant time and/or space resolution. Furthermore, these methods hardly investigate the dynamics of the events since their detection are made a posteriori. To increase our knowledge of the landscape evolution and the influence of extreme climatic events on a catchment dynamics, we need to develop new tools and procedures. In many past works, it has been shown that seismic signals are relevant to detect and locate surface processes (landslides, debris flows). During the 2010 typhoon season, we deployed a network of 12 seismometers dedicated to monitor the surface processes of the Chenyoulan catchment in Taiwan. We test the ability of a two dimensional array and small inter-stations distances (~ 11 km) to map in continuous and at a catchment-scale the geomorphic activity. The spectral analysis of continuous records shows a high-frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic energy that is coherent with the occurrence of hillslope and river processes. Using a basic detection algorithm and a location approach running on the analysis of seismic amplitudes, we manage to locate the catchment activity. We mainly observe short-time events (> 300 occurrences) associated with debris falls and bank collapses during daily convective storms, where 69% of occurrences are coherent with the time distribution of precipitations. We also identify a couple of debris flows during a large tropical storm. In contrast, the FORMOSAT imagery does not detect any activity, which somehow reflects the lack of extreme climatic conditions during the experiment. However, high resolution pictures confirm the existence of links between most of geomorphic events and existing structures (landslide scars, gullies...). We thus conclude to an activity that is dominated by reactivation processes. It

  17. Testing the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method for comparison of EIA and SEA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuitunen, Markku; Jalava, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the results of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be compared using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method. There are many tools and techniques that have been developed for use in impact assessment processes, including scoping, checklists, matrices, qualitative and quantitative models, literature reviews, and decision-support systems. While impact assessment processes have become more technically complicated, it is recognized that approaches including simpler applications of available tools and techniques are also appropriate. The Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) is a tool for organizing, analysing and presenting the results of a holistic EIA. RIAM was originally developed to compare the impact of alternative procedures in a single project. In this study, we used RIAM to compare the environmental and social impact of different projects, plans and programs realized within the same geographical area. RIAM scoring is based on five separate criteria. The RIAM criteria were applied to the impact that was considered to be the most significant in the evaluated cases, and scores were given both on environmental and social impact. Our results revealed that the RIAM method could be used for comparison and ranking of separate and distinct projects, plans, programs and policies, based on their negative or positive impact. Our data included 142 cases from the area of Central Finland that is covered by the Regional Council of Central Finland. This sample consisted of various types of projects, ranging from road construction to education programs that applied for EU funding

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  19. 'What works' in reducing sexual harassment and sexual offences on public transport nationally and internationally: a rapid evidence assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gekoski, Anna; Gray, Jacqueline M.; Horvath, Miranda A. H.; Edwards, Sarah; Emirali, Aliye; Adler, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    In Britain, public transport is generally very safe and serious sexual assaults are rare. However, research has found that around 15% of women and girls have been subjected to unwanted sexual behaviour on the London transport network, the vast majority of which goes unreported (Transport for London [TfL], 2013a). This document reports the findings of a rapid evidence assessment, conducted on behalf go the British Transport Police, to identify the main initiatives that are being used to reduce...

  20. Use of geomorphic, hydrologic, and nitrogen mass balance data to model ecosystem nitrate retention in tidal freshwater wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    E. D. Seldomridge; K. L. Prestegaard

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphic characteristics have been used as scaling parameters to predict water and other fluxes in many systems. In this study, we combined geomorphic analysis with in-situ mass balance studies of nitrate retention (NR) to evaluate which geomorphic scaling parameters best predicted NR in a tidal freshwater wetland ecosystem. Geomorphic characteristics were measured for 267 individual marshes that constitute the freshwater tidal wetland ecosystem of the Patuxent River...

  1. SGA Phase 2 Assessed Reaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment (SGA) is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The Phase 2 SGA...

  2. SGA Phase 1 Assessed Reaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment (SGA) is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The Phase 1 SGA...

  3. The Benefits and Limitations of Crowdsourced Information for Rapid Damage Assessment of Global Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Landès, M.; Roussel, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Internet has fastened the collection of felt reports and macroseismic data after global earthquakes. At the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), where the traditional online questionnaires have been replace by thumbnail-based questionnaires, an average of half of the reports are collected within 10 minutes of an earthquake's occurrence. In regions where EMSC is well identified this goes down to 5 min. The user simply specifies the thumbnail corresponding to observed effects erasing languages barriers and improving collection via small smartphone screens. A previous study has shown that EMSC data is well correlated with "Did You Feel It" (DYFI) data and 3 independent, manually collected datasets. The efficiency and rapidity of felt report collection through thumbnail-based questionnaires does not necessarily mean that they offer a complete picture of the situation for all intensities values, especially the higher ones. There are several potential limitations. Demographics probably play a role but so might eyewitnesses' behaviors: it is probably not their priority to report when their own safety and that of their loved ones is at stake. We propose to test this hypothesis on EMSC felt reports and to extend the study to LastQuake smartphone application uses. LastQuake is a free smartphone app providing very rapid information on felt earthquakes. There are currently 210 000 active users around the world covering almost every country except for a few ones in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along with felt reports we also analyze the characteristics of LastQuake app launches. For both composite datasets created from 108 earthquakes, we analyze the rapidity of eyewitnesses' reaction and how it changes with intensity values and surmise how they reflect different types of behaviors. We will show the intrinsic limitations of crowdsourced information for rapid situation awareness. More importantly, we will show in which cases the lack of crowdsourced information could

  4. Development and Verification of a Mobile Shelter Assessment System "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition Featuring Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM)" for Major Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Abe, Michiaki; Takayama, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamadera, Jun; Amito, Koichiro; Morino, Kazuma

    2016-10-01

    Introduction There were 5,385 deceased and 710 missing in the Ishinomaki medical zone following the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team (IZJRT) was formed to unify the relief teams of all organizations joining in support of the Ishinomaki area. The IZJRT expanded relief activity as they continued to manually collect and analyze assessments of essential information for maintaining health in all 328 shelters using a paper-type survey. However, the IZJRT spent an enormous amount of time and effort entering and analyzing these data because the work was vastly complex. Therefore, an assessment system must be developed that can tabulate shelter assessment data correctly and efficiently. The objective of this report was to describe the development and verification of a system to rapidly assess evacuation centers in preparation for the next major disaster. Report Based on experiences with the complex work during the disaster, software called the "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition featuring Gonryo and Miyagi" (RASECC-GM) was developed to enter, tabulate, and manage the shelter assessment data. Further, a verification test was conducted during a large-scale Self-Defense Force (SDF) training exercise to confirm its feasibility, usability, and accuracy. The RASECC-GM comprises three screens: (1) the "Data Entry screen," allowing for quick entry on tablet devices of 19 assessment items, including shelter administrator, living and sanitary conditions, and a tally of the injured and sick; (2) the "Relief Team/Shelter Management screen," for registering information on relief teams and shelters; and (3) the "Data Tabulation screen," which allows tabulation of the data entered for each shelter, as well as viewing and sorting from a disaster headquarters' computer. During the verification test, data of mock shelters entered online were tabulated quickly and accurately on a mock disaster

  5. Predicting geomorphically-induced flood risk for the Nepalese Terai communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Elizabeth; Creed, Maggie; Attal, Mikael; Sinclair, Hugh; Mudd, Simon; Borthwick, Alistair; Dugar, Sumit; Brown, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Rivers sourced from the Himalaya irrigate the Indo-Gangetic Plain via major river networks that support 10% of the global population. However, many of these rivers are also the source of devastating floods. During the 2014 Karnali River floods in west Nepal, the Karnali rose to around 16 m at Chisapani (where it enters the Indo-Gangetic Plain), 1 m higher than the previous record in 1983; the return interval for this event was estimated to be 1000 years. Flood risk may currently be underestimated in this region, primarily because changes to the channel bed are not included when identifying areas at risk of flooding from events of varying recurrence intervals. Our observations in the field, corroborated by satellite imagery, show that river beds are highly mobile and constantly evolve through each monsoon. Increased bed levels due to sediment aggradation decreases the capacity of the river, increasing significantly the risk of devastating flood events; we refer to these as 'geomorphically-induced floods'. Major, short-lived episodes of sediment accumulation in channels are caused by stochastic variability in sediment flux generated by storms, earthquakes and glacial outburst floods from upstream parts of the catchment. Here, we generate a field-calibrated, geomorphic flood risk model for varying upstream scenarios, and predict changing flood risk for the Karnali River. A numerical model is used to carry out a sensitivity analysis of changes in channel geometry (particularly aggradation or degradation) based on realistic flood scenarios. In these scenarios, water and sediment discharge are varied within a range of plausible values, up to extreme sediment and water fluxes caused by widespread landsliding and/or intense monsoon precipitation based on existing records. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be used to inform flood hazard maps of the Karnali River floodplain and assess the vulnerability of the populations in the region.

  6. Monitoring Basic Skills Acquisition through Rapid Learning Assessments: A Case Study from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzi, Helen; Crouch, Luis; Echegaray, Marcela; Pasco, Consuelo; Sampe, Jessyca

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a reading assessment pilot test that took place in the context of a process of analysis and dialogue aimed at contributing to the analysis of school quality in Peru, as part of a World Bank sector assessment. Peruvian first and second graders at the bottom half of the income distribution were asked to read a brief passage…

  7. Geomorphic Response to Spatial and Temporal Tectonic uplift on the Kenya Rift of East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic uplifts of the shoulders of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) have significant impact on the geological record by reorganizing drainage systems, increasing sediment supply, and changing climate and biogeography. Recent studies in geochronology, geomorphology and geophysics have provided some understanding of the timing of tectonic uplift and its distribution pattern of the (EARS). We do not know how the vertical motion is localized along the rift axis and the relative roles of upwelling of magma and rift extensional processes play in tectonic uplift history. This work presents detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift and climate shifting of the Kenya Rift shoulders in order to reconstruct their incision history, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. This work compiles the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Sentinel-2A data, summarized previous 39Ar-40Ar and thermochronology data, and calculates long-term incision rate and geomorphic proxies (normalized steepness and chi-integral) along the Kenya Rift. It also models the age of tectonic/climatic events by using knickpoint celerity model and R/SR integrative approach. It found that the maximum long-term incision rates of 300 mm/kyr to be at the central Kenya Rift, possibly related to the mantle-driven process and rapid tectonic uplift. The geomorphic proxies indicate southward decreasing pattern of the short-term incision rate, possibly related to the migration of the mantle plume.

  8. Assessment of disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets by a visiometric liquid jet-mediated disintegration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2013-02-14

    The aim of this study was to develop a responsive disintegration test apparatus that is particularly suitable for rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs). The designed RDT disintegration apparatus consisted of disintegration compartment, stereomicroscope and high speed video camera. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate 3 different designs of the compartment and to predict velocity and pressure patterns inside the compartment. The CFD preprocessor established the compartment models and the CFD solver determined the numerical solutions of the governing equations that described disintegration medium flow. Simulation was validated by good agreement between CFD and experimental results. Based on the results, the most suitable disintegration compartment was selected. Six types of commercial RDTs were used and disintegration times of these tablets were determined using the designed RDT disintegration apparatus and the USP disintegration apparatus. The results obtained using the designed apparatus correlated well to those obtained by the USP apparatus. Thus, the applied CFD approach had the potential to predict the fluid hydrodynamics for the design of optimal disintegration apparatus. The designed visiometric liquid jet-mediated disintegration apparatus for RDT provided efficient and precise determination of very short disintegration times of rapidly disintegrating dosage forms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using rapid field assessment and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard

    2012-04-30

    Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with rapid field surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing rapid collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geomorphic Transport Laws and the Statistics of Topography and Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, R.; Taloni, A.; Furbish, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic transport laws take the form of partial differential equations in which sediment motion is a deterministic function of slope. The addition of a noise term, representing unmeasurable, or subgrid scale autogenic forcing, reproduces scaling properties similar to those observed in topography, landforms, and stratigraphy. Here we describe a transport law that generalizes previous equations by permitting transport that is local or non-local in addition to different types of noise. More importantly, we use this transport law to link the character of sediment transport to the statistics of topography and stratigraphy. In particular, we link the origin of the Sadler effect to the evolution of the earth surface via a transport law.

  11. Assessment of Arteriovenous Shunt Pathway Function and Hypervolemia for Hemodialysis Patients by Using Integrated Rapid Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hemodialysis patients received body weight measurement by themselves, vital sign checking by nursing staffs before dialysis. Whenever, the arteriovenous routes with problems doubted, the patients needed to be referred to surgeon for vascular echography checking and then to be corrected. How to integrate these three tasks in one time is a very important issue. The project proposes to combine our previous study of audio-phono angiographic technology in detecting vascular stenosis with rapid screening system to evaluate dialysis patients’ arteriovenous routes function and their status of excess body fluids: inspecting and integrating the blood pressure, body weight, and fistula function work into a rapid screening system, and using the quantization of fistula phono angiography pitch to achieve assessing arteriovenous routes. Future hoping is developed a complete integrated intelligence system by combining the arteriovenous fistula signal processing with feature extraction with wireless sensor network technology.

  12. NCCOS St. Croix, USVI Rapid Habitat Assessment (RHA) and Monitoring Data (2001 - Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record refers to habitat assessment data collected as part of a larger effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  13. Geomorphic versus land use controls on suspended sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Vaughan, A. A.; Fisher, A. C. N.

    2017-12-01

    The relation between river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) concentration reflects the degree to which sediment sources are accessed or depleted across the range of flow conditions. Increased availability of high resolution topography and land use data greatly enhance our ability to evaluate linkages between characteristics of these sediment rating curves (SRCs) and the geomorphic features that influence them. We evaluated Q-SS relations at 45 gages throughout Minnesota, USA representing a wide variety of landscape settings in terms of topography, land use, and geologic history. We characterized the SRCs according to the overall shape, steepness (exponent), vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow (90% exceedance) conditions. Rivers exhibited three distinct SRC shapes, simple power functions, threshold power functions and peaked power functions. We used random forest models to analyze relations between SRC parameters and attributes of the watershed as well as the near-channel environment. The model correctly classified 78% of SRC shapes and explained 60% of variance in the SRC exponent, 43% of the SRC coefficient for rising limb samples, and 45% of variance under low flow conditions. Notably, the random forest models predict that near-channel morphology predominately controls both the shape and steepness of the sediment rating curves. Land use predominately controls the vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow conditions. These findings suggest that land use and watershed restoration practices may have little capacity to alter the shape and steepness of these curves as these characteristics may be dictated by the geologic and geomorphic setting. Rather, human influences in the watershed may exhibit the greatest influence on suspended sediment concentrations at moderate to low flows. Criteria to evaluate improvements in water quality as a result of changes in land management might be most meaningful if they

  14. Variability in fluvial geomorphic response to anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Dusar, Bert; De Brue, Hanne

    2017-10-01

    Humans have greatly impacted the processes and intensities of erosion, sediment transport and storage since the introduction of agriculture. In many regions around the world, accelerated floodplain sedimentation can be related to increases in human pressure on the environment. However, the relation between the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance and the magnitude of change in fluvial sediment dynamics is not straightforward and often non-linear. Here, we review a number of case studies from contrasting environmental settings in the European loess belt, the Eastern Mediterranean mountain ranges and the eastern USA. Detailed field-based sediment archive studies and sediment budgets covering time periods ranging from 200 to over 5000 year, as well as the use of pollen and sediment provenance techniques, show that no overarching concept of changes in floodplain sedimentation following anthropogenic disturbance can be established. Slope-channel (dis)connectivity controls the existence of thresholds or tipping points that need to be crossed before significant changes in downstream sediment dynamics are recorded following human impact. This coupling can be related to characteristics of human pressure such as its duration, intensity and spatial patterns, but also to the geomorphic and tectonic setting. Furthermore, internal feedback mechanisms, such as those between erosion and soil thickness, further complicate the story. All these factors controlling the propagation of sediment from eroding hillslopes to river channels vary between regions. Hence, only unique patterns of fluvial geomorphic response can be identified. As a result, unravelling the human impact from current-day sediment archives and predicting the impact of future human disturbances on fluvial sediment dynamics remain a major challenge. This has important implications for interpreting contemporary sediment yields as well as downstream sediment records in large floodplains, deltas and the marine

  15. Quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes using satellite image data at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    When aerial and satellite photographs and images are used in the quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, either through direct observation of active processes or by analysis of landforms resulting from inferred active or dormant processes, a number of limitations in the use of such data must be considered. Active geomorphic processes work at different scales and rates. Therefore, the capability of imaging an active or dormant process depends primarily on the scale of the process and the spatial-resolution characteristic of the imaging system. Scale is an important factor in recording continuous and discontinuous active geomorphic processes, because what is not recorded will not be considered or even suspected in the analysis of orbital images. If the geomorphic process of landform change caused by the process is less than 200 m in x to y dimension, then it will not be recorded. Although the scale factor is critical, in the recording of discontinuous active geomorphic processes, the repeat interval of orbital-image acquisition of a planetary surface also is a consideration in order to capture a recurring short-lived geomorphic process or to record changes caused by either a continuous or a discontinuous geomorphic process.

  16. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  17. Rapid biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles: an assessment of antibacterial and antimycotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawaria, Sajjan Kumar; Sankhla, Aryan; Jatav, Pradeep Kumar; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Verma, Kumar Sambhav; Velraj, Parthiban; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, Shanker Lal

    2018-04-01

    Bioassisted synthesis provides a facile, convenient, and promising approach to produce many inorganic nanostructures. Herein, we report a rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Thuja occidentalis (L.) leaf extract with an emphasis on their antibacterial and antimycotic activity. Interestingly, the synthesis of AgNPs was completed in a short duration of 35-40 min. The electron micrographs showed AgNPs with particles Bacillus subtilis. An AgNP solution with 30 µg/ml concentration arrested the growth of bacterial strains making a zone of inhibition > 15 mm. The antimycotic activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Alternaria alternata species increased monotonically with nanoparticle concentration in the growth media. A 10 ppm solution of AgNP was detrimental to fungal growth. Thus, the technique provides an avenue to synthesize antibiotic AgNPs without use of other external agents.

  18. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact

  19. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  20. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  1. Framework for rapid assessment and adoption of new vector control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Moore, Sarah; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Ranson, Hilary; Lindsay, Steve; Lengeler, Christian; Hamon, Nicholas; McLean, Tom; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-04-01

    Evidence-informed health policy making is reliant on systematic access to, and appraisal of, the best available research evidence. This review suggests a strategy to improve the speed at which evidence is gathered on new vector control tools (VCTs) using a framework based on measurements of the vectorial capacity of an insect population to transmit disease. We explore links between indicators of VCT efficacy measurable in small-scale experiments that are relevant to entomological and epidemiological parameters measurable only in large-scale proof-of-concept randomised control trials (RCTs). We hypothesise that once RCTs establish links between entomological and epidemiological indicators then rapid evaluation of new products within the same product category may be conducted through smaller scale experiments without repetition of lengthy and expensive RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Qu

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters.

  3. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  4. Insights and Opportunities Offered by a Rapid Ecosystem Service Assessment in Promoting a Conservation Agenda in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O'Farrell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional and global scale ecosystem service assessments have demonstrated the socioeconomic value of protecting biodiversity and have been integrated into associated policy. Local government decision makers are still unsure of the applicability, return on investment, and usefulness of these assessments in aiding their decision making. Cape Town, a developing city in a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot, has numerous competing land uses. City managers, with a tightly constrained budget, requested an exploratory study on the links between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation within this municipal area. We set out to develop and test a simple and rapid ecosystem service assessment method aimed at determining the contribution natural vegetation remnants make to ecosystem service provision. We took selected services, identified in conjunction with city managers, and assessed these in two ways. First we used an area weighted approach to attribute services to vegetation types and assessed how these had changed through time and into the future given development needs. Second, we did a regulatory and cultural service remnant distance analysis to better understand proximity effects and linkages. Provisioning services were found to have been most severely affected through vegetation transformation. Regulatory services have been similarly affected, and these losses are more significant because regulatory services can only function in situ and cannot be outsourced in the way provisioning services can. The most significant losses were in coastal zone protection and flood mitigation services, both of which will be placed under even greater pressure given the predicted changes in climatic regimes. The role of remnant vegetation in regulating and cultural services was shown to be a significant additional consideration in making the case for conservation in the city. Our rapid assessment approach does not allow for nuanced and individual

  5. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES): A Plan to Improve Global Disaster Response by Privatizing the Assessment Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2017-09-01

    Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. GIS Framework for Large River Geomorphic Classification to Aid in the Evaluation of Flow-Ecology Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Christopher R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McManamay, R. A.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.

    2013-02-01

    Assessing the environmental benefits of proposed flow modification to large rivers provides invaluable insight into future hydropower project operations and relicensing activities. Providing a means to quantitatively define flow-ecology relationships is integral in establishing flow regimes that are mutually beneficial to power production and ecological needs. To compliment this effort an opportunity to create versatile tools that can be applied to broad geographic areas has been presented. In particular, integration with efforts standardized within the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA) is highly advantageous (Poff et al. 2010). This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS) framework for large river classification that houses a base geomorphic classification that is both flexible and accurate, allowing for full integration with other hydrologic models focused on addressing ELOHA efforts. A case study is also provided that integrates publically available National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 2 (NHDPlusV2) data, Modular Aquatic Simulation System two-dimensional (MASS2) hydraulic data, and field collected data into the framework to produce a suite of flow-ecology related outputs. The case study objective was to establish areas of optimal juvenile salmonid rearing habitat under varying flow regimes throughout an impounded portion of the lower Snake River, USA (Figure 1) as an indicator to determine sites where the potential exists to create additional shallow water habitat. Additionally, an alternative hydrologic classification useable throughout the contiguous United States which can be coupled with the geomorphic aspect of this framework is also presented. This framework provides the user with the ability to integrate hydrologic and ecologic data into the base geomorphic aspect of this framework within a geographic information system (GIS) to output spatiotemporally variable flow-ecology relationship scenarios.

  7. Unraveling the controls on biogeomorphic succession: the influence of groundwater, soil and geomorphic setting on bio-geomorphic channel evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätz, Nico; Verrecchia, Eric P.; Lane, Stuart N.

    2017-04-01

    Braided rivers are characterized by high rates of morphological change. However, despite the potential for frequent disturbance, vegetated patches may develop within this system and influence long-term channel dynamics and channel patterns through the "engineering effects" of biogeomorphic succession. The stabilizing effect of developing vegetation on morphological change has been widely shown by flume experiments and (historic) aerial pictures analysis. Thus, there is a balance between disturbance and stabilization, mediated through biogeomorphic succession, that may determine the long-term geomorphic and biogeomorphic evolution of the river. Research has addressed how changes in disturbance frequency affect river channel pattern, but much less has been done to understand what influences the rate of biogeomorphic succession and how it affects river morphodynamics. This study explores the complex pattern of ambient conditions in braided river systems driving the rate of biogeomorphic succession. In particular, we focus on the interplay between groundwater access, soil formation, disturbance frequency and geomorphic setting, in defining what drives vegetation succession rates and its long-term implications on channel pattern evolution. We studied these feedbacks in a transitional gravel-bed river system (braided, wandering, meandering) close to Geneva (Switzerland) - the Allondon River. Results show that, at the beginning of the succession, humification plays a negative role on local ambient conditions necessary for sprouting. Successful vegetation establishment is then related positively to humification, but also to higher disturbance rates. The third biogeomorphic phase, with the highest feedbacks on river morphology, appears to be mainly driven by groundwater access, which in turn defines the rates of humification in this gravelly environment. This in turn defines the decadal morphological response of the channel after a reduction in disturbance frequency over

  8. A rapid, low cost approach to coastal vulnerability assessment at a national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Royo, M.; Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Jimenez, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability is defined as the system's potential to be damaged by a certain climate change (CC) hazard, and ideally, it has to be assessed by accounting for the different factors controlling the coastal response both in negative (susceptibility) and positive (resilience) terms to changing climatic

  9. Relationships between Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Clinical Assessments, Biomarkers, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: More longitudinal studies should be conducted to evaluate the predictive value of biomarkers of RBD. Moreover, because the glucose and dopamine metabolisms are not specific for assessing cognitive cognition, the molecular metabolism directly related to cognition should be investigated. There is a need for more treatment trials to determine the effectiveness of interventions of RBD on preventing the conversion to neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Rapid Assessment of Tablet Film Coating Quality by Multispectral UV Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    and coated with a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer using a pan coater. It was demonstrated that the coating intactness can be assessed accurately and fast by UV imaging. The different types of coating defects could be differentiated and localized based on multivariate image analysis...

  11. Rapid Dynamic Assessment of Expertise to Improve the Efficiency of Adaptive Elearning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2005-01-01

    In this article we suggest a method of evaluating learner expertise based on assessment of the content of working memory and the extent to which cognitive load has been reduced by knowledge retrieved from long-term memory. The method was tested in an experiment with an elementary algebra tutor using a yoked control design. In the learner-adapted…

  12. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  13. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  14. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  15. Contribution of radioisotope examination of kidneys to rapid informative assessment of causes of polyuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanec, J.; Kliment, J.; Belakova, S.; Antonyova, M. (Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    The results are evaluated of examinations carried out in 47 children in the ages between 2 months and 15 years. The children were divided into two groups according to the cause of the disease. The first group included those with isolated tubulopathy or with disorders of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, the second group were children suffering. from polyuria caused by structural changes of the kidney parenchyma. The patients of the first group were characterized by high and steep functional curves with shortened times of semiquantitative evaluation. In phase scintigraphy the kidneys of these patients show a quick retention and excretion of the radiopharmaceutical, the bladder is large and fills intensively. In patients of the second group with damaged kidney parenchyma the functional curves are low and flat, phase scintigraphy shows the kidneys as a low-intensity shadow with blurred edges, the bladder fills slowly and varies in size. The examination may be used as a rapid test to distinguish the basic groups of patients, namely infants and patients at the onset of the disease.

  16. Contribution of radioisotope examination of kidneys to rapid informative assessment of causes of polyuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanec, J.; Kliment, J.; Belakova, S.; Antonyova, M.

    1984-01-01

    The results are evaluated of examinations carried out in 47 children in the ages between 2 months and 15 years. The children were divided into two groups according to the cause of the disease. The first group included those with isolated tubulopathy or with disorders of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, the second group were children sufferino. from polyuria caused by structural changes of the kidney parenchyma. The patients of the first group were characterized by high and steep functional curves with shortened times of semiquantitative evaluation. In phase scintigraphy the kidneys of these patients show a quick retention and excretion of the radiopharmaceutical, the bladder is large and fills intensively. In patients of the second group with damaged kidney parenchyma the functional curves are low and flat, phase scintigraphy shows the kidneys as a low-intensity shadow with blurred edges, the bladder fills slowly and varies in size. The examination may be used as a rapid test to distinguish the basic groups of patients, namely infants and patients at the onset of the disease

  17. Rapid earthquake hazard and loss assessment for Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, Mustafa; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine; Hancilar, Ufuk; Zulfikar, Can; Cakti, Eser; Kamer, Yaver; Yenidogan, Cem; Tuzun, Cuneyt; Cagnan, Zehra; Harmandar, Ebru

    2010-10-01

    The almost-real time estimation of ground shaking and losses after a major earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region was performed in the framework of the Joint Research Activity 3 (JRA-3) component of the EU FP6 Project entitled "Network of Research Infra-structures for European Seismology, NERIES". This project consists of finding the most likely location of the earthquake source by estimating the fault rupture parameters on the basis of rapid inversion of data from on-line regional broadband stations. It also includes an estimation of the spatial distribution of selected site-specific ground motion parameters at engineering bedrock through region-specific ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) or physical simulation of ground motion. By using the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER) software, the multi-level methodology developed for real time estimation of losses is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from GMPEs, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships.

  18. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  19. Rapid assessment of mycotoxins in wine by on-line SPE-UHPLC-FLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Alina-Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest statistics, grapes are one of the largest fruit crops worldwide. In this regard, it is important to consider all factors influencing quality of grapes and wine. In the last years, scientist focused on the study of mycotoxins that can influence the quality of wine. It is considered that toxins produced by moulds, causing significant economic losses, affect approximately one quarter of the world grape production. If the selective sorting of infected grapes is not done adequately, wine will present a major risk to consumers, mycotoxins being considered by the “International Agency for Cancer Research” a carcinogenic compound. The main mycotoxins monitored in this study come from Aspergillus sp., and are represented by aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A. This study purpose is to develop a faster method for the analysis of mycotoxins, in order to increase rapidity and efficiency for the evaluation of the degree of infestation in wine. The purposed method is using an on-line large volume injection coupled to pre-concentration of sample (SPE which is directly transfer to the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC column for separation and the detection by means of the fluorescence detector (FLD. As the maximum tolerated level for mycotoxins in wines is 2 ppm, this method is able to detect under this limits of quantification with RSD below 2%.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Rapid Attack Identification, Detection, and Reporting System - Block 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-03

    Navassa Island, and Kingman Reef . 3 Through an agreement with the Republic of the Marshall Islands Government, US actions at USAKA are subject to...tripod (similar to the RE used at the Hosted Sites) 15 RAIDRS Block 10 Final Environmental Assessment Banana R ive r A t l an t i c...operations, wastewater treatment plants , fuel storage tanks, aircraft and ground vehicle refueling and maintenance operations, soil

  1. Web technologies for rapid assessment of pollution of the atmosphere of the industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparev, N.; Tokarev, A.; Yakubailik, O.; Soldatov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The functionality, architectural features, the user interface of the geoinformation web-system of environmental monitoring of Krasnoyarsk is discussed. This system is created in service-oriented architecture. Data collection from the automated stations to monitor the state of atmospheric air has been implemented. An original device to measure the level of contamination of the atmosphere by fine dust PM2.5 has developed. Assessment of the level of air pollution is based on the quality index AQI atmosphere.

  2. Rapid clinical assessment to facilitate the triage of adults with falciparum malaria, a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Hanson

    Full Text Available Most adults dying from falciparum malaria will die within 48 hours of their hospitalisation. An essential component of early supportive care is the rapid identification of patients at greatest risk. In resource-poor settings, where most patients with falciparum malaria are managed, decisions regarding patient care must frequently be made using clinical evaluation alone.We retrospectively analysed 4 studies of 1801 adults with severe falciparum malaria to determine whether the presence of simple clinical findings might assist patient triage.If present on admission, shock, oligo-anuria, hypo- or hyperglycaemia, an increased respiratory rate, a decreased Glasgow Coma Score and an absence of fever were independently predictive of death. The variables were used to construct a simple clinical algorithm. When applied to the 1801 patients, this algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 99.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 97.8-99.9 and for survival to discharge 96.9% (95% CI 94.3-98.5. In the 712 patients receiving artesunate, the algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 100% (95% CI 97.3-100 and to discharge was 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8.Simple clinical findings are closely linked to the pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria in adults. A basic algorithm employing these indices can facilitate the triage of patients in settings where intensive care services are limited. Patients classified as low-risk by this algorithm can be safely managed initially on a general ward whilst awaiting senior clinical review and laboratory data.

  3. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2015-01-01

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum

  4. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  5. Rapid assessment of non-indigenous species in the era of the eDNA barcoding: A Mediterranean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge

    2017-03-01

    With only a narrow opening through the Gibraltar and Suez Canals, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed seas. The marine flora and fauna are some of the richest in the world, relative to its size, particularly in the coastal habitats, which are also characterized by numerous endemic species although the introduction of non-indigenous species threatens its rich and unique biodiversity. Following the opening of the Suez Canal, and in combination with shipping and aquaculture activities, non-indigenous species (NIS) introduction has had measurable impacts on the Mediterranean. Lagoon ecosystems along the French coastline, with approx. 100 NIS identified, are considered hot-spot areas for these species. Rapid assessment sampling for sessile benthic species together with DNA barcoding is a rapid, easy and cheap method to detect non-indigenous species. Two nearby and different ecosystems were sampled for invertebrate species: Saint-Nazaire lagoon, a Special Protection Area within the Natura 2000 Network and Canet port, a marina in a small village. The DNA barcoding tool for species identification was used for confirming the taxonomy. This showed that, despite the Saint-Nazaire Lagoon classification within the Natura 2000 network, it is already contaminated with a single NIS that was found in high densities and is clearly beginning to dominate the system. It is proposed that a rapid assessment of the sampled environment and the DNA barcode approach are efficient and can provide sufficient information on the new target species to be used in conservation planning and ongoing management efforts.

  6. A geomorphic and tectonic model for the formation of the flight of Holocene marine terraces at Mahia Peninsula, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Kelvin; Clark, Kate; Cochran, Ursula; Beu, Alan; Irwin, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    At Table Cape, Mahia Peninsula, North Island, New Zealand, four marine terraces have been uplifted coseismically during the past 3500 years. Detailed facies assessment of the terrace coverbed sequence coupled with identification of modern analogues on the active shore platform were used to infer the process of marine terrace formation and to estimate the timing and amount of past uplift events (earthquakes). The modern platform can be subdivided into seven depositional zones: subtidal, outer platform, intertidal sand pockets, inner platform, high-tide, mid-storm, and storm beach. Terrace coverbeds were characterised from two trenches excavated across the full width of the uplifted terrace sequence. Off-lapping packages of high tidal, mid-storm, and storm beach sediments were most common. Outer platform sediments occurred only rarely near the base of some uplifted shore platforms. Overlying the marine sediments were near-horizontal terrestrial deposits of airfall tephra (on the two highest terraces), subsoil, topsoil, rare wedges of colluvial sediment (slopewash) shed from terrace risers, and an anomalous deposit possibly emplaced by a tsunami. Fifty-one radiocarbon ages, obtained from molluscs in the marine coverbeds, showed a general pattern of seaward-younging across the coastal plain and across each terrace and a less pronounced pattern of decreasing age upward in each coverbed sequence. The distinctive stepped geomorphology of the terraces, the facies and age structure of the terrace deposits and historical earthquake causation of similar terraces elsewhere in New Zealand provided the data to invoke an earthquake-driven model for terrace formation. Marine terrace development following an uplift event involved rapid cutting of a new intertidal shore platform and generally regressive deposition of high-tide to storm beach deposits. Following further uplift, the platform became a geomorphic terrace (above marine influence) and was then mantled by terrestrial

  7. Assessing renal function with a rapid, handy, point-of-care whole blood creatinine meter before using contrast materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Satoru; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Masukawa, Ai; Ueno, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of a rapid, handy, point-of-care whole blood creatinine meter (PCM) in patients who were scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among patients scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced CT or MRI examinations, 113 patients who did not have creatinine data from the prescribed intervals before the examination day (in principle, 90 days for scheduled outpatients and 7 days for inpatients and urgent patients) were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the creatinine values measured with the PCM and those from central laboratory measurements (LAB). The two eGFR values were compared statistically with the paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the Bland-Altman analysis. The mean eGFR measured with the PCM was slightly higher than the LAB value (81.2±24.6 vs. 70.2±19.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , P 2 ; limits of agreement were -22.4 to +44.4 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) showed a moderate agreement with some degree of dispersion. The PCM can rapidly assess renal function using a small amount of blood almost equally to that of determined in the laboratory, which may help reduce the risk of contrast material-induced complications. (author)

  8. The application of the rapid assessment and response methodology for cannabis prevention research among youth in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Hans B; Kaplan, Charles D; Braam, Richard V; Verbraeck, Hans T; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-08-01

    Drug prevention methods tailored to specific target groups have become increasingly important. There is a growing need to find ways to rapidly assess and situate target groups in their particular contexts. This need is associated with the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for these specific target groups. This article describes the application of Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) as a necessary first step in designing and implementing a prevention intervention plan for problematic cannabis use among "loitering" youth in the South of the Netherlands. Seven RAR studies were conducted using an innovative stepwise model in which the prevention field worker is central. The normative structure for the use of cannabis was found to vary across the neighborhoods of the RAR studies and emerged as the focal point in designing a suitable response. The RAR studies also identified the need in the prevention toolbox for a tailored, low-threshold, effective, individual brief intervention for youth problematic cannabis use. The RAR was found to provide a powerful methodology for detecting target groups and generating contextual and normative data that enable the prevention field worker to select and adapt from the spectrum of existing Evidence based Interventions (EBIs) or develop the most promising model for implementation with the specific target group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  10. Microbial Biomass and Activity in Geomorphic Features in Forested and Urban Restored and Degraded Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geomorphic spatial heterogeneity affects sediment denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that results in the loss of nitrogen (N), and other anaerobic microbial processes such as methanogenesis in urban streams. We measured sediment denitrification potential (DEA), metha...

  11. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m (100 samples) and in the sides of the same (200 samples) as well as an area of 500 ha (1 sample each six hectare). Geomorphic surfaces (GS) in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The GS I is considered the oldest surface of the study area, with depositional character, and a slope ranging from 0 to 4%. GS II and III are considered to be eroded, and the surface II plan a gentle slope that extends from the edge of the surface until the beginning of I and III. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field. Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment

  12. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  13. Seismogeodetic monitoring techniques for tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid assessment of structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Saunders, J. K.; Goldberg, D.; Restrepo, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    As part of an effort to promote the use of NASA-sponsored Earth science information for disaster risk reduction, real-time high-rate seismogeodetic data are being incorporated into early warning and structural monitoring systems. Seismogeodesy combines seismic acceleration and GPS displacement measurements using a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic acceleration, velocity and displacement. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. Real-time seismogeodetic observations at subduction zones allow for more robust and rapid magnitude and slip estimation that increase warning time in the near-source region. A NASA-funded effort to utilize GPS and seismogeodesy in NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii integrates new modules for picking, locating, and estimating magnitudes and moment tensors for earthquakes into the USGS earthworm environment at the TWCs. In a related project, NASA supports the transition of this research to seismogeodetic tools for disaster preparedness, specifically by implementing GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers for structural monitoring in partnership with earthquake engineers. Real-time high-rate seismogeodetic structural monitoring has been implemented on two structures. The first is a parking garage at the Autonomous University of Baja California Faculty of Medicine in Mexicali, not far from the rupture of the 2011 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake enabled through a UCMexus collaboration. The second is the 8-story Geisel Library at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The system has also been installed for several proof-of-concept experiments at the UCSD Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We present MEMS-based seismogeodetic observations from the 10 June

  14. Rapid toxicity assessment using an in vivo enzyme test for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, B D; Snell, T W

    1995-02-01

    A 1-hr in vivo enzyme inhibition assay based on esterase activity has good potential for marine toxicity assessment. A test was developed for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis based on the nonfluorescent substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA), which is metabolized by esterases to a fluorescent product. Enzyme inhibition, as determined by reduced fluorescence, can be scored visually or quantified using a fluorometer. Quantification of fluorescence permits the calculation of NOEC, LOEC, chronic value, and IC20. The 1-hr esterase inhibition test has sensitivity comparable to that of 24-hr rotifer acute tests for several compounds. The toxicity of six compounds was examined using the quantified assay. The resulting IC20s were within a factor of 3 of the 24-hour LC50s. IC20 values ranged from 0.017 mg/l for tributyltin to 3.1 mg/l for zinc, with an average coefficient of variation of 17.8%. Electrophoretic analysis of rotifer homogenates suggested that a single C esterase (acetylesterase) was responsible for FDA metabolism in B. plicatilis. Several other aquatic species are capable of metabolizing FDA, including Brachionus calyciflorus, Mysidopsis bahia, Menidia beryllina, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Artemia salina, and Ophryotrocha sp. The esterase inhibition test is an attractive tool for assessing aquatic toxicity because of its speed, simplicity, sensitivity, and applicability to a broad range of aquatic species.

  15. Earthquake Recurrence and the Resolution Potential of Tectono‐Geomorphic Records

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2018-04-17

    A long‐standing debate in active tectonics addresses how slip is accumulated through space and time along a given fault or fault section. This debate is in part still ongoing because of the lack of sufficiently long instrumental data that may constrain the recurrence characteristics of surface‐rupturing earthquakes along individual faults. Geomorphic and stratigraphic records are used instead to constrain this behavior. Although geomorphic data frequently indicate slip accumulation via quasicharacteristic same‐size offset increments, stratigraphic data indicate that earthquake timing observes a quasirandom distribution. Assuming that both observations are valid within their respective frameworks, I want to address here which recurrence model is able to reproduce this seemingly contradictory behavior. I further want to address how aleatory offset variability and epistemic measurement uncertainty affect our ability to resolve single‐earthquake surface slip and along‐fault slip‐accumulation patterns. I use a statistical model that samples probability density functions (PDFs) for geomorphic marker formation (storm events), marker displacement (surface‐rupturing earthquakes), and offset measurement, generating tectono‐geomorphic catalogs to investigate which PDF combination consistently reproduces the above‐mentioned field observations. Doing so, I find that neither a purely characteristic earthquake (CE) nor a Gutenberg–Richter (GR) earthquake recurrence model is able to consistently reproduce those field observations. A combination of both however, with moderate‐size earthquakes following the GR model and large earthquakes following the CE model, is able to reproduce quasirandom earthquake recurrence times while simultaneously generating quasicharacteristic geomorphic offset increments. Along‐fault slip accumulation is dominated by, but not exclusively linked to, the occurrence of similar‐size large earthquakes. Further, the resolution

  16. Outlining precision boundaries among areas with different variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Sammy S. R.; Marques Júnior,José; Siqueira,Diego S.; Pereira,Gener T.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for detailed maps that represent in a simplified way the knowledge of the variability of a particular area or region maps. The objective was to outline precision boundaries among areas with different accuracy variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces. The study was conducted in an area of 110 ha, which identified three compartment landscapes based on the geomorphic surfaces model. To determinate pH, organic matter, phosphorus, po...

  17. Autogenic geomorphic processes determine the resolution and fidelity of terrestrial paleoclimate records

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, Brady Z.; Straub, Kyle M.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial paleoclimate records rely on proxies hosted in alluvial strata whose beds are deposited by unsteady and nonlinear geomorphic processes. It is broadly assumed that this renders the resultant time series of terrestrial paleoclimatic variability noisy and incomplete. We evaluate this assumption using a model of oscillating climate and the precise topographic evolution of an experimental alluvial system. We find that geomorphic stochasticity can create aliasing in the time series and ...

  18. Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating

  19. Smartphone-based distributed data collection enables rapid assessment of shorebird habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Zeigler, Sara; Winslow, Luke; Hines, Megan K.; Read, Jordan S.; Walker, Jordan I.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing dynamic coastal landscapes for beach-dependent species requires biological and geological data across the range of relevant environments and habitats. It is difficult to acquire such information; data often have limited focus due to resource constraints, are collected by non-specialists, or lack observational uniformity. We developed an open-source smartphone application called iPlover that addresses these difficulties in collecting biogeomorphic information at piping plover (Charadrius melodus) nest sites on coastal beaches. This paper describes iPlover development and evaluates data quality and utility following two years of collection (n = 1799 data points over 1500 km of coast between Maine and North Carolina, USA). We found strong agreement between field user and expert assessments and high model skill when data were used for habitat suitability prediction. Methods used here to develop and deploy a distributed data collection system have broad applicability to interdisciplinary environmental monitoring and modeling.

  20. Nanodisc-Tm: Rapid functional assessment of nanodisc reconstituted membrane proteins by CPM assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Yashwanth; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are generally unstable in detergents. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical studies of membrane proteins in lipidic environments provides a near native-like environment suitable for membrane proteins. However, manipulation of proteins embedded in lipid bilayer has remained difficult. Methods such as nanodiscs and lipid cubic phase have been developed for easy manipulation of membrane proteins and have yielded significant insights into membrane proteins. Traditionally functional reconstitution of receptors in nanodiscs has been studied with radioligands. We present a simple and faster method for studying the functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins for routine characterization of protein batches after initial optimization of suitable conditions using radioligands. The benefits of the method are •Faster and generic method to assess functional reconstitution of membrane proteins.•Adaptable in high throughput format (≥96 well format).•Stability measurement in near-native lipid environment and lipid dependent melting temperatures.

  1. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow water...

  2. Overview of Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides an overview of three key lines of ongoing work at EPA/ORD/NCEA-CIN: Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard collaboration.

  3. A conceptual connectivity framework for understanding geomorphic change in human-impacted fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Keesstra, Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced landscape change is difficult to predict due to the complexity inherent in both geomorphic and social systems as well as due to emerging coupling relationships between them. To better understand system complexity and system response to change, connectivity has become an important research paradigm within various disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology and ecology. With the proposed conceptual connectivity framework on geomorphic change in human-impacted fluvial systems a cautionary note is flagged regarding the need (i) to include and to systematically conceptualise the role of different types of human agency in altering connectivity relationships in geomorphic systems and (ii) to integrate notions of human-environment interactions to connectivity concepts in geomorphology to better explain causes and trajectories of landscape change. Underpinned by case study examples, the presented conceptual framework is able to explain how geomorphic response of fluvial systems to human disturbance is determined by system-specific boundary conditions (incl. system history, related legacy effects and lag times), vegetation dynamics and human-induced functional relationships (i.e. feedback mechanisms) between the different spatial dimensions of connectivity. It is further demonstrated how changes in social systems can trigger a process-response feedback loop between social and geomorphic systems that further governs the trajectory of landscape change in coupled human-geomorphic systems.

  4. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter, but recognises the infectious potential of the VBNC state, and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies, and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment....

  5. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness and Diabetic Retinopathy in Gilan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katibeh, Marzieh; Behboudi, Hassan; Moradian, Siamak; Alizadeh, Yousef; Beiranvand, Ramin; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2017-12-01

    To conduct an assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Gilan, 2014. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on a representative sample of urban and rural individuals aged ≥50 years of the province. Blindness was defined as presenting visual acuity (PVA) blindness, SVI, MVI, and DM in 2587 participants (response rate: 86.9%) were 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1-2.0), 1.5% (95% CI: 0.9-2.0), 11.3% (95% CI: 9.9-12.7) and 21.4% (95% CI: 19.2-23.7), respectively. The leading causes of blindness were cataract (47.1%), age-related macular degeneration (14.7%) and DR (8.8%). Cataract surgery (CS) coverage was 69.3%. The main challenges for CS were cost and unawareness. The outcome of CS was good in 66.9% of operated eyes. Any DR and/or maculopathy were observed in 25.3% (95% CI: 21.0-29.5) of subjects including 12.6% (95% CI: 9.7-15.6) sight-threatening DR. In previously known DM cases, 215 (41.7%) had never undergone an eye examination for DR. The proportion of avoidable blindness and DR is considerable in Gilan Province.

  6. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  7. A method for rapid vulnerability assessment of structures loaded by outside blasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, Leon; Leskovar, Matjaz; Cepin, Marko; Mavko, Borut

    2007-01-01

    The blast have in most cases not been assumed as design basis loads of nuclear power plant buildings and structures. Recent developments however stimulated a number of analyses quantifying the potential effect of such loads. An effort was therefore made by the authors to revisit simple and robust structural analysis methods and to propose their use in the vulnerability assessment of blast-loaded structures. The leading idea is to break the structure into a set of typical structural elements, for which the response is estimated by the use of slightly modified handbook formulas. The proposed method includes provisions to predict the inelastic response and failure. Simplicity and versatility of the method facilitate its use in structural reliability calculations. The most important aspects of the proposed method are presented along with illustrative sample applications demonstrating: - results comparable to full scale dynamic simulations using explicit finite element codes and - the performance of the method in screening the existing structures and providing the structural reliability information for the vulnerability analysis. (author)

  8. A Community-Engaged Assessment of Barriers and Facilitators to Rapid Stroke Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Lynne S.; Jenkins, Carolyn; Jauch, Edward C.; Conway, Sharon; Pearlman, Adam; Spruill, Ida J.; Brown, Lynette J.; Linnen, Joyce; Linnen, Florene; Andrews, Jeannette O.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke must be initiated within hours of stroke symptom onset, and the sooner it is administered, the better. In South Carolina, 76% of the population can access expert stroke care, and rural hospitals may provide specialized treatment using telemedicine, but many stroke sufferers seek care too late to achieve full benefit. Using a community-engaged approach in a southern rural community, we explored barriers and facilitators to early stroke care and implications for improvement. The Community-Engaged Assessment to facilitate Stroke Elimination (CEASE) study was guided by a community advisory group to ensure community centeredness and local relevance. In a qualitative descriptive study, eight focus groups were conducted including 52 individuals: recent stroke survivors, family members, emergency medical personnel, hospital emergency department staff, primary care providers, and community leaders. From analysis of focus group transcripts came six themes: lack of trust in healthcare system and providers; weak relationships fueled by poor communication; low health literacy; financial limitations related to health care; community-based education; and faith as a message of hope. A hierarchy model for improving early community-based stroke care was developed through consensus dialogue by community representatives and the research team. This model can be used to inform a community-partnered, stake-holder-informed intervention to improve stroke care in a rural southern community with the goal of improving stroke education, care, and outcome. PMID:27545591

  9. The National Library of Kosovo "PJETER Bogdani" Rapid Condition Assessment and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Ramku, B.; Binakaj, N.

    2017-08-01

    The National Library of Kosovo "Pjetër Bogdani" is a symbol of Prishtina, Kosovo and the quest for knowledge. It is simultaneously an icon of modernity and symbol of the past. Unfortunately, it suffered through the Kosovo war and neglect in times of economic difficulty. It was also unfortunately featured in the British newspaper The Telegraph in their travel section: "One of the world's 30 ugliest buildings?" In late 2015 the Kosovo Architectural Foundation, a non-profit dedicated to spirit of creating and preserving unique architecture, became concerned with the reputation and condition of the Library and contacted the Kosovo Ministry of Culture, visited the site and initiated a project to raise awareness and document this modern masterpiece. The Getty Foundation and their Keeping it Modern grant program awarded funding for initial condition assessment, documentation, capacity building and investigations. This paper discusses the project to document and improve the image and awareness of this important structure and set priorities for its future.

  10. A method for rapid vulnerability assessment of structures loaded by outside blasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, Leon; Leskovar, Matjaz; Cepin, Marko; Mavko, Borut

    2009-01-01

    The blast loads have in most cases not been assumed as design basis loads of nuclear power plant buildings and structures. Recent developments however stimulated a number of analyses quantifying the potential effects of such loads. An effort was therefore made by the authors to revisit simple and robust structural analysis methods and to propose their use in the vulnerability assessment of blast-loaded structures. The leading idea is to break the structure into a set of typical structural elements, for which the response is estimated by the use of slightly modified handbook formulas. The proposed method includes provisions to predict the inelastic response and failure. Simplicity and versatility of the method facilitate its use in structural reliability calculations. The most important aspects of the proposed method are presented along with illustrative sample applications demonstrating: ·results comparable to full scale dynamic simulations using explicit finite element codes and ·the performance of the method in screening the existing structures and providing the structural reliability information for the vulnerability analysis.

  11. Multi-color autofluorescence and scattering spectroscopy provides rapid assessment of kidney function following ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Chris D.; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2018-02-01

    A major source of kidneys for transplant comes from deceased donors whose tissues have suffered an unknown amount of warm ischemia prior to retrieval, with no quantitative means to assess function before transplant. Toward addressing this need, non-contact monitoring of optical signatures in rat kidneys was performed in vivo during ischemia and reperfusion. Kidney autofluorescence images were captured under ultraviolet illumination (355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm) in order to provide information on related metabolic and non-metabolic response. In addition, light scattering images under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm, 500 nm illumination were monitored to report on changes in kidney optical properties giving rise to the observed autofluorescence signals during these processes. During reperfusion, various signal ratios were generated from the recorded signals and then parametrized. Time-dependent parameters derived from the ratio of autofluorescence under 355 nm excitation to that under 266 nm excitation, as well as from 500 nm scattered signal, were found capable of discriminating dysfunctional kidneys from those that were functional (p Kidney dysfunction was confirmed by subsequent survival study and histology following autopsy up to a week later. Physiologic changes potentially giving rise to the observed signals, including those in cellular metabolism, vascular response, tissue microstructure, and microenvironment chemistry, are discussed.

  12. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  13. Climatic and geomorphic controls on low flow hydrograph recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Daley, M.; Kasaee Roodsari, B.; Shaw, S. B.; McNamara, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale operational hydrologic models should be capable of predicting seasonally low flow and stream intermittency as well as peak flow and inundation. We contrast examples of controls on low flow exerted by geomorphic and climatic setting at small catchment study sites in the Northeast and Northwest of the USA to indicate differences in hydrologic processes. Both regions accumulate winter snowpack and have an extended spring freshet, but the Reynolds Creek CZO and Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (both in Idaho mountains) experience a protracted summer drought, with occasional storms whereas precipitation free periods greater than five days are uncommon in the hilly Sleepers River (Vermont), and Yellow Barn State Forest (New York) and at Ley Creek, on a glacial plain (New York). At both Dry Creek and Reynolds Creek, headwater stream flow direction was transverse to groundwater, and below field capacity discharge was well related to either the ground water surface or corresponded to inversion of the hydraulic gradient over the depth of the soil. At all sites except Ley Creek, the headwaters became intermittent as the main tributary discharge declined, often disconnecting the surface source springs and seeps from the valley bottom stream. At the Idaho sites recession analysis for main stem was further complicated by consumptive use for irrigation and domestic wells. Modeling the recession characteristics of these various settings and across stream orders results in a variety of exponent values for power law scaling approaches that indicate the importance of site context for modeling low flow.

  14. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  15. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  16. A rapid assessment of service deliveries at Anganwadi Centres in Ranchi district of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proper functioning of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs are important for better service delivery which will lead to healthy mother and child , and ultimately better development of human resources in order to build a healthy and productive nation. Objectives: To assess the functioning of AWCs. 2 To measure the quantitative gap in coverage of beneficiaries. 3 To find out bottlenecks in proper service delivery of AWCs. Methods: Randomly selected 50 AWCs in Ranchi district were surveyed during July 2012 to September 2012. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from Anganwadi workers (AWWs. Existing records at AWCs were also accessed to collect data.  Statistical analysis: Frequency distribution and chi - square test were done. Results: 3941(>73% out of 5387 eligible children aged 6-71 months were enrolled at AWCs and 3870(97.45% enrolled children were availing food under Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP. Growth charts were available and properly maintained at all AWCs however; regular health check-up of all children was done in only 5(10% AWCs. Pre-School Education (PSE materials, mainly in form of charts and posters were available at 47(94% AWCs. More than 90% pregnant & lactating women were enrolled at AWCs and almost all centres were providing maternal health services like Ante natal care (ANC and Tetanus Toxoid (TT to them. Only 955 (33% out of 2859 eligible adolescent girls were enrolled in AWCs. Iron-Folic Acid (IFA supplementations to pregnant women were available at 25 (50% AWCs. Conclusions:  Though coverage and supplementary nutrition of children is good; poor coverage, lack of health education and supplementary nutrition of adolescent girls is a matter of concern. Low honorarium, excess workload and poor infrastructure of AWCs are main impediment in proper service delivery.

  17. A rapid assessment of service deliveries at Anganwadi Centres in Ranchi district of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proper functioning of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs are important for better service delivery which will lead to healthy mother and child , and ultimately better development of human resources in order to build a healthy and productive nation. Objectives: To assess the functioning of AWCs. 2 To measure the quantitative gap in coverage of beneficiaries. 3 To find out bottlenecks in proper service delivery of AWCs. Methods: Randomly selected 50 AWCs in Ranchi district were surveyed during July 2012 to September 2012. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from Anganwadi workers (AWWs. Existing records at AWCs were also accessed to collect data.  Statistical analysis: Frequency distribution and chi - square test were done. Results: 3941(>73% out of 5387 eligible children aged 6-71 months were enrolled at AWCs and 3870(97.45% enrolled children were availing food under Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP. Growth charts were available and properly maintained at all AWCs however; regular health check-up of all children was done in only 5(10% AWCs. Pre-School Education (PSE materials, mainly in form of charts and posters were available at 47(94% AWCs. More than 90% pregnant & lactating women were enrolled at AWCs and almost all centres were providing maternal health services like Ante natal care (ANC and Tetanus Toxoid (TT to them. Only 955 (33% out of 2859 eligible adolescent girls were enrolled in AWCs. Iron-Folic Acid (IFA supplementations to pregnant women were available at 25 (50% AWCs. Conclusions:  Though coverage and supplementary nutrition of children is good; poor coverage, lack of health education and supplementary nutrition of adolescent girls is a matter of concern. Low honorarium, excess workload and poor infrastructure of AWCs are main impediment in proper service delivery.

  18. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Briggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (inactivity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality: 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  20. Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): A System for Rapidly Determining the Impact of Earthquakes Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Allen, Trevor I.; Hearne, Michael G.; Marano, Kristin D.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Fee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Within minutes of a significant earthquake anywhere on the globe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system assesses its potential societal impact. PAGER automatically estimates the number of people exposed to severe ground shaking and the shaking intensity at affected cities. Accompanying maps of the epicentral region show the population distribution and estimated ground-shaking intensity. A regionally specific comment describes the inferred vulnerability of the regional building inventory and, when available, lists recent nearby earthquakes and their effects. PAGER's results are posted on the USGS Earthquake Program Web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/), consolidated in a concise one-page report, and sent in near real-time to emergency responders, government agencies, and the media. Both rapid and accurate results are obtained through manual and automatic updates of PAGER's content in the hours following significant earthquakes. These updates incorporate the most recent estimates of earthquake location, magnitude, faulting geometry, and first-hand accounts of shaking. PAGER relies on a rich set of earthquake analysis and assessment tools operated by the USGS and contributing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks. A focused research effort is underway to extend PAGER's near real-time capabilities beyond population exposure to quantitative estimates of fatalities, injuries, and displaced population.

  1. Rapid assessment of accidental exposures (RACE) with MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, M.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Gomes-Ros, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The system is based on a new generation of ultra-sensitive thermoluminescent dosemeters and is able to monitor environmental radiation doses at a large number of locations within few days and to perform rapid (24 - 48 hours) in situ dose assessment in the event of any nuclear or radiation accident. Technical specifications of the instrumentation and procedures of the system are given. The linearity of the detector response for doses within the range of 1 μGy to 1 Gy is better than 2%. All the detectors investigated demonstrated a good stability in long-term exposure. The detectors are fully comparable with active detectors in short-term and daily routine dose rate measurements. (M.D.)

  2. Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of biological invasions can be roughly divided into three parts: detection, monitoring, mitigation. Here, our objectives were to describe the marine fauna of the area of the port of São Sebastião (on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, in the São Sebastião Channel, SSC to detect introduced species. Descriptions of the faunal community of the SSC with respect to native and allochthonous (invasive or potentially so diversity are lacking for all invertebrate groups. Sampling was carried out by specialists within each taxonomic group, in December 2009, following the protocol of the Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS in three areas with artificial structures as substrates. A total of 142 species were identified (61 native, 15 introduced, 62 cryptogenic, 4 not classified, of which 17 were Polychaeta (12, 1, 1, 3, 24 Ascidiacea (3, 6, 15, 0, 36 Bryozoa (17, 0, 18, 1, 27 Cmdana (2, 1, 24, 0, 20 Crustacea (11, 4, 5, 0, 2 Entoprocta (native, 16 Mollusca (13, 3, 0, 0. Twelve species are new occurrences for the SSC. Among the introduced taxa, two are new for coastal Brazil. Estimates of introduced taxa are conservative as the results of molecular studies suggest that some species previously considered cryptogenic are indeed introduced. We emphasize that the large number of cryptogenic species illustrates the need for a long-term monitoring program, especially in areas most susceptible to bioinvasion. We conclude that rapid assessment studies, even in relatively well-known regions, can be very useful for the detection of introduced species and we recommend that they be carried out on a larger scale in all ports with heavy ship traffic.

  3. A rapid assessment scorecard to identify informal settlements at higher maternal and child health risk in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah

    2011-10-01

    The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative

  4. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebe Abay

    Full Text Available Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study.A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes.The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study.This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent better and consequently to

  5. EFFECT OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL MESH SIZE ON GEOMORPHIC INDICES: A CASE STUDY OF THE IVAÍ RIVER WATERSHED - STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative description of land surface morphology by the mean of geomorphic indices extracted from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. The analysis of these indices is the first and most common procedure performed in several geoscience-related subjects. This study aims to assess the impact of mesh size degradation on different local and regional geomorphic indices extracted for GDEM and TOPODATA DEMs. Thus, these DEMs, having a mesh size of 30 m, were subsampled to 60, 120 and 240 m and then geomorphic indices were calculated using the full resolution DEM and the subsampled ones. Depending on their behavior, these indices are then classified into stable and unstable. The results show that the most affected indices are slope and hydrographic indices such as Strahler order, stream sinuosity and fractal dimension and watershed perimeter, whereas elevation remains stable. It also shows that the effect depends on the presence of the canopy and geological structures in the studied area.

  6. Geomorphic Map of Worcester County, Maryland, Interpreted from a LIDAR-Based, Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Clark, Inga

    2008-01-01

    level and warmer, more humid climate in the mid-Atlantic region throughout the Holocene. Thus, the geomorphic details provided by the new LIDAR DEM actually record the response of the landscape to abrupt climate change. Holocene trends and land-use patterns from Colonial to modern times can also be interpreted from the local macro- scale details of the landscape. Beyond the obvious utility of these data for land-use planning and assessments of resources and hazards, the new map presents new details on the impact of climate changes on a mid-latitude, outer Coastal plain landscape.

  7. Development of rapid multistep carbon-11 radiosynthesis of the myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 to assess brain exposure by PET microdosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnström, Peter; Bergman, Linda; Varnäs, Katarina; Malmquist, Jonas; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 has been selected as a candidate drug currently being developed to delay progression in patients with neurodegenerative brain disorders. Part of the decision tree for translation of AZD3241 into clinical studies included the need for assessment of brain exposure in non-human primates by PET microdosing. For that purpose a rapid multistep method for 11 C-labeling of AZD3241 was developed. Methods: AZD3241 was labeled in the thio-carbonyl position starting from [ 11 C]potassium cyanide in a 4-step procedure using microwave assisted heating. In the first step [ 11 C]potassium cyanide was converted to [ 11 C]potassium thiocyanate followed by reaction with benzoyl chloride to yield benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate. The benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate was subsequently reacted with the precursor ethyl 3-(2-isopropoxyethylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and the formed intermediate underwent a base catalyzed cyclization to obtain [ 11 C]AZD3241 in the final step. To assess [ 11 C]AZD3241 brain exposure PET measurements were performed in three cynomolgus monkeys. Results: [ 11 C]AZD3241 was produced in good and reproducible radiochemical yield 710 ± 294 MBq (mean ± SD, n = 7). Total time of synthesis was 60 min from end of bombardment. The specific radioactivity was 9 ± 4 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was > 98%. Following iv administration of [ 11 C]AZD3241 there was a rapid presence of radioactivity in brain in each of the three monkeys. The distribution of [ 11 C]AZD3241 to brain was fast and a C max of 1.9 to 2.6% of the injected radioactivity was observed within 1.5 min. [ 11 C]AZD3241 was homogeneously distributed in brain. Conclusion: The MPO inhibitor AZD3241 was successfully labeled with carbon-11 in a challenging 4-step procedure in good radiochemical yield allowing PET microdosing studies in cynomolgus monkey. [ 11 C]AZD3241 rapidly entered brain and confirmed adequate brain exposure to support translation

  8. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this report the rate, duration, and magnitude of changes from geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and the Gulf Coast over the next million years are projected. The projections were made by reviewing the pertinent literature; evaluating the geomorphic history of each region, especially that during the Quaternary Period; identifying the geomorphic processes and events likely to be significant in the two regions of interest; and estimating the average and worst-case conditions expected over the next million years

  9. Addressing healthcare needs of people living below the poverty line: a rapid assessment of the Andhra Pradesh Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M; Ramachandra, S S; Bandyopadhyay, S; Chandran, A; Shidhaye, R; Tamisettynarayana, S; Thippaiah, A; Sitamma, M; Sunil George, M; Singh, V; Sivasankaran, S; Bangdiwala, S I

    2011-01-01

    Families living below the poverty line in countries which do not have universal healthcare coverage are drawn into indebtedness and bankruptcy. The state of Andhra Pradesh in India established the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) in 2007 with the aim of breaking this cycle by improving the access of below the poverty line (BPL) families to secondary and tertiary healthcare. It covered a wide range of surgical and medical treatments for serious illnesses requiring specialist healthcare resources not always available at district-level government hospitals. The impact of this scheme was evaluated by a rapid assessment, commissioned by the government of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the assessment was to explore the contribution of the scheme to the reduction of catastrophic health expenditure among the poor and to recommend ways by which delivery of the scheme could be improved. We report the findings of this assessment. Two types of data were used for the assessment. Patient data pertaining to 89 699 treatment requests approved by the scheme during its first 18 months were examined. Second, surveys of scheme beneficiaries and providers were undertaken in 6 randomly selected districts of Andhra Pradesh. This novel scheme was beginning to reach the BPL households in the state and providing access to free secondary and tertiary healthcare to seriously ill poor people. An integrated model encompassing primary, secondary and tertiary care would be of greater benefit to families below the poverty line and more cost-effective for the government. There is considerable potential for the government to build on this successful start and to strengthen equity of access and the quality of care provided by the scheme. Copyright 2011, NMJI.

  10. Modeling post-fire hydro-geomorphic recovery in the Waldo Canyon Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Alicia; Nourbakhshbeidokhti, Samira; Chin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire can have significant impacts on watershed hydrology and geomorphology by changing soil properties and removing vegetation, often increasing runoff and soil erosion and deposition, debris flows, and flooding. Watershed systems may take several years or longer to recover. During this time, post-fire channel changes have the potential to alter hydraulics that influence characteristics such as time of concentration and increase time to peak flow, flow capacity, and velocity. Using the case of the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado (USA), this research will leverage field-based surveys and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to parameterize KINEROS2 (KINematic runoff and EROSion), an event oriented, physically-based watershed runoff and erosion model. We will use the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, which is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool that uses commonly available GIS data layers to parameterize, execute, and spatially visualize runoff and sediment yield for watersheds impacted by the Waldo Canyon Fire. Specifically, two models are developed, an unburned (Bear Creek) and burned (Williams) watershed. The models will simulate burn severity and treatment conditions. Field data will be used to validate the burned watersheds for pre- and post-fire changes in infiltration, runoff, peak flow, sediment yield, and sediment discharge. Spatial modeling will provide insight into post-fire patterns for varying treatment, burn severity, and climate scenarios. Results will also provide post-fire managers with improved hydro-geomorphic modeling and prediction tools for water resources management and mitigation efforts.

  11. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  12. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    ongoing management of commercial energy efficiency. No other company offers all of these proven services on a seamless, integrated Software -as-a- Service ...FirstFuel has added a suite of additional Software -as-a- Service analytics capabilities to support the entire energy efficiency lifecycle, including...the client side. In this document, we refer to the service side software as “BUILDER” and the client software as “BuilderRED,” following the Army

  13. Employing high resolution satellite imagery to document a rapid glacier surge in the Karakoram - risks and opportunities for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Jiduc, S. G.; Immerzeel, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier surges occur regularly in the Karakoram but their driving mechanisms, recurrence and its relation to climatic change remain unclear. Since many glacier tongues in the region reach to very low elevations, local populations are often exposed to glacial hazards. While the scientific interpretation of hazard is one challenge, adequately communicating results to possibly affected stakeholders poses a different set of hurdles. Using DEMs as well as Landsat imagery in combination with high-resolution Planet imagery we quantify surface elevation changes and flow velocities to document a glacier surge of the Khurdopin glacier, located in a remote valley in Pakistan, in the first half of 2017. Results reveal that an accumulation of ice mass leads to a rapid surge in peaking with velocities above 5000 m a-1 or 0.5 m h-1 during a few days. Velocities increase steadily during a four-year build-up phase prior to the actual surge, while the remaining 15 years of the recurring cycle the glacier is quiescent. It is hypothesized that the surge is mainly initiated as a result of increased pressure melting caused by ice accumulation. However, surface observations show increased crevassing and disappearance of supra glacial ponds, which could have led to increased lubrication of the glacier bed. As a consequence of the surging tongue blocking the main valley a lake has formed and grown continuously in size over two months at a rate of up to 3000 m2 per day. Using satellite imagery with a frequent overpass rate we are able to (a) characterize the nature of glacier surges in the region with greater detail and (b) monitor the surge as well as the formation of the lake as it develops. Having developed a connection to local stakeholders we were able to provide rapid hazard assessments to affected communities, which can be employed to define possible actions. We show the potential of satellite imagery - freely available Landsat in combination with commercial Planet imagery -, which

  14. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  15. Application of structure from motion to digitized historical airphotos to document geomorphic change over the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Gioachino; Ward, Brent; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco; Friele, Pierre; Clague, John

    2017-04-01

    Topographic modeling is becoming more accessible due to the development of structure from motion (SFM), and multi-view stereo (MVS) image matching algorithms in digital photogrammetry. Many studies are utilizing SFM-MVS with either UAV or hand-held consumer-grade digital cameras. However, little work has been done in using SFM-MVS with digitized historical air photos. Large databases of historical airphotos are available in university, public, and government libraries, commonly as paper copies. In many instances, the photos are in poor condition (i.e. deformed by humidity, scratched, or annotated). In addition, the negatives, as well as metadata on the camera and the flight mission, may be missing. Processing such photos using classic stereo-photogrammetry is difficult and in many instances impossible. Yet these photos can provide a valuable archive of geomorphic changes. In this study, we digitized over 1000 vertical air photos of the Mount Meager massif (British Columbia, Canada), acquired during flights between 1947 and 2006. We processed the scans using the commercial SFM-MVS software package PhotoScan. PhotoScan provided high-quality orthophotos (0.42-1.13 m/pixel) and DTMs (1-5 m/pixel). We used the orthophotos to document glacier retreat and deep-seated gravitational deformation over the 60-year photo period. Notably, we reconstructed geomorphic changes that led to the very large (˜50 x 106 m 3) 2010 failure of the south flank of Meager Peak and also documented other unstable areas that might fail catastrophically in the future. This technique can be applied to other photosets to provide rapid high-quality cartographic products that allow researchers to track landscape changes over large areas over the past century.

  16. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  17. The role of water chemistry and geomorphic control in the presence of Didymosphenia geminata in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, C.; Gabor, R. S.; Cullis, J. D.; Ran, L.; Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Didymosphenia geminata (didymo), an invasive diatom, was first officially observed and identified in the Matapedia River in Eastern Quebec in July 2006. This Atlantic salmon fishing river has several characteristics shown to favor didymo's ability to form thick, extensive benthic mats, including stable flow and oligotrophic nutrient conditions. Since the incursion, rapid colonization and inter-catchment transfer processes were observed, notably in surrounding watersheds on the Gaspé Peninsula as well as in northern New-Brunswick. All affected watersheds share favorable characteristics for didymo growth, including high light, low nutrient waters, and stable substrate. The nearby North Shore of the St. Lawrence, which also contains rivers with conditions that would favor didymo growth, has not yet shown didymo presence. This system provides a comparison to identify necessary parameters for didymo growth, with differences primarily due to geology-driven water chemistry. Pre-incursion water chemistry was compared between the two regions. Rivers in the region where didymo is present displayed a high alkalinity and corresponding higher pH, due to increases concentrations of magnesium and calcium, than rivers in regions where didymo has not appeared. Also, rivers with didymo show a lower amount of color-causing compounds, such as organic carbon, and clearer water, which supports the theory that high light levels encourage didymo growth. In addition to water chemistry, channel morphology, bed stability and flow patterns are also believed to be key elements in determining the presence of this benthic diatom. In 2007, channel morphology, bed texture, bankfull depth and width, local bed slope and didymo presence were surveyed on a 65 km stretch of the Matapedia River. Relative frequency of didymo presence showed that didymo blooms are most likely to appear in cobble-riffles than in any other morphologies. In fact, cobble riffles promote didymo establishment due to shallow

  18. High Resolution Monitoring of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms and Geomorphically Effective Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ann Kelly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing bluff erosion. During our study period (2014–2017, the most erosion was associated with two large flood events with 13- and 25-year return periods. However, based on the frequency of floods and magnitude of bluff face erosion associated with floods over the last 78 years, the 1.2-year return interval flood has likely accomplished the most cumulative erosion, and is thus more geomorphically effective than larger magnitude floods. Flows in the GBER basin are nonstationary, increasing across the full range of return intervals. We find that management implications differ considerably depending on whether the bluff erosion-runoff power law exponent, γ, is greater than, equal to, or less than 1. Previous research has recommended installation of water retention sites in tributaries to the Minnesota River in order to reduce flows and sediment loading from river bluffs. Our findings support the notion that water retention would be an effective practice to reduce sediment loading and highlight the importance of managing for both runoff frequency and magnitude.

  19. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  20. Ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies: Using rapid scientific assessment to inform ocean zoning and fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E.; Estep, Andrew J.; Johnson, Ayana Elizabeth; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Richter, Lee J.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Grenda, David; Cannon, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    To inform a community-based ocean zoning initiative, we conducted an intensive ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies. We conducted 116 fish and 108 benthic surveys around the island, and measured the abundance and size structure of lobsters and conch at 52 and 35 sites, respectively. We found that both coral cover and fish biomass were similar to or lower than levels observed across the greater Caribbean; live coral cover and abundance of fishery target species, such as large snappers and groupers, was generally low. However, Barbuda lacks many of the high-relief forereef areas where similar work has been conducted in other Caribbean locations. The distribution of lobsters was patchy, making it difficult to quantify density at the island scale. However, the maximum size of lobsters was generally larger than in other locations in the Caribbean and similar to the maximum size reported 40 years ago. While the lobster population has clearly been heavily exploited, our data suggest that it is not as overexploited as in much of the rest of the Caribbean. Surveys of Barbuda’s Codrington Lagoon revealed many juvenile lobsters, but none of legal size (95 mm carapace length), suggesting that the lagoon functions primarily as nursery habitat. Conch abundance and size on Barbuda were similar to that of other Caribbean islands. Our data suggest that many of the regional threats observed on other Caribbean islands are present on Barbuda, but some resources—particularly lobster and conch—may be less overexploited than on other Caribbean islands. Local management has the potential to provide sustainability for at least some of the island’s marine resources. We show that a rapid, thorough ecological assessment can reveal clear conservation opportunities and facilitate rapid conservation action by providing the foundation for a community-driven policymaking process at the island scale. PMID:29309413

  1. Evaluation of short-term geomorphic changes along the Tagliamento river using LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanner surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rainato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years a change in the predominant morphology of several river environments has taken place, consisting in a reduction of the braided pattern in favor to wandering or straight configurations. This evolution seems to be due, according to the scientific community, to anthropic causes and, in particular, to the alteration of flow regimes as well as the reduction of sediment transport. Braided rivers are characterized by two or more active channels, separated by bars and fluvial islands and normally feature a high morphological dynamism. This dynamism is the result of the interaction among different elements as sediment supply, flow regime and in-channel and perifluvial vegetation. These factors have a fundamental role in the erosion and deposition processes which are the basis of the morphological changes. The aims of this study are the assessment of the short period geomorphic and volumetric changes occurred along a reach of the Tagliamento River and the comparison between the results obtained from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner data. The Tagliamento river is a natural gravel-bed river located in the NE of Italy, characterized by a relatively low degree of human disturbances. The analyses were carried out considering two different scales (a reach of about 430 ha and a sub-reach of about 25 ha and were based on two subsequent datasets in order to investigate the shortterm geomorphic changes due to eight significant floods. The surveys were performed using two different datasets derived from LiDAR and TLS technologies and used to analyze the reach and sub-reach respectively. The short-term estimates of geomorphic and volumetric changes were performed using DEMs of Difference (DoD based on a Fuzzy Inference System. The results have confirmed the high dynamism of the Tagliamento river, estimating a prevalent deposition at reach and a predominant erosion at sub-reach levels. Finally, a comparative

  2. Development of a rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis and assessment of cure of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Vanila; Bumb, Ram Avtar; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2017-03-23

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination. The assay was used to detect Leishmania infection in biological samples obtained from patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was positive for L. donovani, L. tropica and L. major parasites, with the highest sensitivity towards L. donovani (1 fg DNA). The high sensitivity of the assay for detection of L. donovani was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA within 30 min of amplification time with a threshold detection limit of ≥25 copies per reaction. The assay detected parasite in 64 of 66 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.9%; 95% CI: 89.6-99.2%), 15 of 15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI:79.6-100%), 65 of 67 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 97%; 95% CI:89.7-99.2%). The assay was evaluated in a few cases of CL wherein it was found positive in 8 of 10 tissue biopsies (sensitivity, 80%; 95% CI: 49-94.3%). The assay was negative in all control blood (n = 76) and tissue biopsy (n = 24) samples (specificity, 100%; 95% CI: 96.3-100%). Further, the assay was evaluated for its utility in assessment of cure in treated VL and PKDL patients. The assay detected parasite DNA in 2 of 20VL blood samples and 2 of 21 PKDL tissue samples. Out of 4 cases that were positive for parasite DNA at post treatment stage, 2 patients (1VL and 1 PKDL) returned with relapse. The study demonstrated a Leishmania genus specific closed tube LAMP assay for reliable and rapid

  3. In vitro antioxidant assessment and a rapid HPTLC bioautographic method for the detection of anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of Geophila repens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh Chandra Dash; Atish Kumar Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst.(Rubiaceae),a small,creeping,perennial herb,is claimed to have memory-enhancing property.The goal of this study was to assess its antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and conduct a rapid bioautographic enzyme assay for screening acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition of G.repens extracts.METHODS:Antioxidant activity of G.repens extracts was assessed by performing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),nitric oxide (NO),superoxide (SOD),hydroxyl (OH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays.Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the AChE and BChE inhibitory activities of chloroform (CGR),ethyl acetate (EGR) and methanol (MGR) extract fractions from G.repens leaves.A rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic method for the detection of AChE and BChE inhibition was performed.RESULTS:Among all extract fractions,EGR exhibited the highest half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in DPPH,SOD,NO,OH and TAC assays,with IC50 of (38.33 ± 3.21),(45.14 ± 1.78),(59.81 ± 1.32),(39.45 ± 0.79) and (43.76 ± 0.81) μg/mL respectively.EGR displayed competitive,reversible inhibition of AChE and BChE activities with IC50 of (68.63 ± 0.45) and (59.45 ± 0.45) μg/mL,respectively.Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of EGR were found to be 360.42 mg gallic acid equivalents and 257.31 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of extract.Phytoconstituents of the EGR extract that were inhibitors of cholinesterase produced white spots on the yellow background of HPTLC plates in the bioautographic test.CONCLUSION:The results of this study revealed that phenols and flavonoids could be responsible for the antioxidant,anticholinesterase activities of G.repens.

  4. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  5. Substrate and species data from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  6. Geomorphic Surface Maps of Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale (1:6000) surficial geology maps of northern Frenchman Flat were developed in 1995 as part of comprehensive site characterization required to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in that area. Seven surficial geology maps provide fundamental data on natural processes and are the platform needed to reconstruct the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat. Reconstruction of the Quaternary history provides an understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. Seven geomorphic surfaces (Units 1 through 7) are recognized, spanning from the early Quaternary to present time

  7. Geomorphic effects, flood power, and channel competence of a catastrophic flood in confined and unconfined reaches of the upper Lockyer valley, southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2013-09-01

    Flooding is a persistent natural hazard, and even modest changes in future climate are believed to lead to large increases in flood magnitude. Previous studies of extreme floods have reported a range of geomorphic responses from negligible change to catastrophic channel change. This paper provides an assessment of the geomorphic effects of a rare, high magnitude event that occurred in the Lockyer valley, southeast Queensland in January 2011. The average return interval of the resulting flood was ~ 2000 years in the upper catchment and decreased to ~ 30 years downstream. A multitemporal LiDAR-derived DEM of Difference (DoD) is used to quantify morphological change in two study reaches with contrasting valley settings (confined and unconfined). Differences in geomorphic response between reaches are examined in the context of changes in flood power, channel competence and degree of valley confinement using a combination of one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) hydraulic modelling. Flood power peaked at 9800 W m- 2 along the confined reach and was 2-3 times lower along the unconfined reach. Results from the DoD confirm that the confined reach was net erosional, exporting ~ 287,000 m3 of sediment whilst the unconfined reach was net depositional gaining ~ 209,000 m3 of sediment, 70% of the amount exported from the upstream, confined reach. The major sources of eroded sediment in the confined reach were within channel benches and macrochannel banks resulting in a significant increase of channel width. In the unconfined reach, the benches and floodplains were the major loci for deposition, whilst the inner channel exhibited minor width increases. The presence of high stream power values, and resultant high erosion rates, within the confined reach is a function of the higher energy gradient of the steeper channel that is associated with knickpoint development. Dramatic differences in geomorphic responses were observed between the two adjacent reaches of

  8. Reconstructing geomorphic patterns and forcing factors from Alpine Lake Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Giguet-Covex, Charline; Wilhelm, Bruno; Révillon, Sidonie; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Revel, Marie; Enters, Dirk; Bajard, Manon; Fouinat, Laurent; Doyen, Elise; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Pignol, Cécile; Chapron, Emmanuel; Vannière, Boris; Sabatier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we review the scientific efforts that were led over the last decades to reconstruct geomorphic patterns from continuous alpine lake sediment records. Whereas our results point a growing importance of humans as erosion forcing factors, we will focus here on climate-related processes. Our main dataset is made of a regional approach which was led without any a priori regarding erosion forcing factors. We hence integrated a set of sediment sequences from various environment along an altitudinal gradient from 200 up to 2400m asl in Northern French Alps. Altogether our data point climate change as one of the main factor of erosion variability. In particular, the last two cold spells that occurred during the early middle age (Dark Age) and between the 14th and the 20th century AD (Little Ice Age) appear to be outstanding compared to any other periods of enhanced erosion along the Holocene. The climatic forcing of those erosion phases is supported by an increase in the contribution of glacier-eroded material at a regional scale. At local scales, our data also point the growing importance, since at least the mid Bronze Age (ca. 3500 cal. BP) of human activities as a major erosion factor. This influence peaked during the late Iron Age and Antiquity periods (200 BC - 400 AD) when we record a regional generalised period of enhanced erosion in response to the development of pasturing activities. Thanks to provenance and weathering markers, we evidenced a strong relationship between the changes in ecosystems, soil development and erosion patterns. We hence showed the vegetal colonisation of bared soil led to a period of intense weathering while new soils were under formation between 11,000 and 8,000 cal. BP. Soils then knew an optimum until the onset of the Neoglacial at ca. 4,500 cal. BP prior to decline under both climate and human pressures. Altogether our data point the complexity of processes that affected the Earth critical zone along the Holocene. However

  9. Geomorphic controls on Pleistocene knickpoint migration in Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matt; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Brosda, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Recent insights into sub-glacial bedrock stress conditions suggest that the erosional efficiency of glaciers may reduce markedly following a major erosional cycle [Leith et al., 2013]. This implies that the formation of large glacial valleys within the Alps is likely to have occurred shortly after the onset of 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles (at the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR)). The majority of landscape change since this time may have therefore been driven by sub-aerial processes. This hypothesis is supported by observations of hillslope and channel morphology within Canton Valais (Switzerland), where major tributary valleys display a common morphology along their length, hinting at a shared geomorphic history. Glaciers currently occupy the headwaters of many catchments, while the upper reaches of rivers flow across extensive alluvial planes before abruptly transitioning to steep channels consisting of mixed bedrock and talus fan deposits. The rivers then converge to flow out over the alluvial plane of the Rhone Valley. Characteristically rough topographies within the region are suggested to mark the progressive transition from a glacial to fluvially-dominated landscape, and correlate well with steepened river channel sections determined from a 2.5 m resolution LiDAR DEM. We envisage a landscape in which ongoing tectonic uplift drives the emergence of Alpine bedrock through massive sedimentary valley infills (currently concentrated in the Rhone Valley), whose elevation is fixed by the consistent fluvial baselevel at Lake Geneva. As fluvial incision ceases at the onset of glaciation, continued uplift causes the formation of knickpoints at the former transition from bedrock to sedimentary infill. These knickpoints will then propagate upstream during subsequent interglacial periods. By investigating channel morphologies using an approach based on the steady-state form of the stream power equation, we can correlate steepened channel reaches (degraded

  10. Assessment of the risk of African swine fever introduction into Finland using NORA-a rapid tool for semiquantitative assessment of the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyyrö, J; Sahlström, L; Lyytikäinen, T

    2017-12-01

    The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements. The weight of different pathways is defined according to the properties of the assessed disease. The model was built as an Excel spreadsheet and is intended for use by animal health control administrators. As an outcome, the model gives the possible pathways of disease entry into the country, an overall approximation for the probability of entry and the subsequent exposure, an overall estimate for the consequences and a combined overall risk estimate (probability multiplied by magnitude of consequences). Model validity was assessed by expert panels. Outside Africa, African swine fever is currently established in Russia and Sardinia. In addition, there have been cases in both wild boar and domestic pigs in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Estonia. Finland has frequent contacts with Russia and Estonia, especially through passengers. The risk of African swine fever (ASF) introduction into Finland was tested with NORA for the situation in December 2015, when ASF was endemic in many parts of Russia, Africa and Sardinia and was present in Baltic countries and in Poland. African swine fever was assessed to have a high probability of entry into Finland, with high consequences and therefore a high overall risk. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Learning from a Rapid Health Impact Assessment of a proposed maternity service reconfiguration in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Greg; Haroon, Sophie

    2008-04-25

    Within many parts of the country, the NHS is undertaking reconfiguration of services. Such proposals can prove a tipping point and provoke public protest, often with significant involvement of local and national politicians. We undertook a rapid Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of a proposed reconfiguration of maternity services in Huddersfield and Halifax in England. The aim of the HIA was to help the PCT Boards to assess the reconfiguration's possible consequences on access to maternity services, and maternal and infant health outcomes across different socio-economic groups in Kirklees. We report on the findings of the HIA and the usefulness of the process to decision making. This HIA used routine maternity data for 2004-2005 in Huddersfield, in addition to published evidence. Standard HIA techniques were used. We re-highlighted the socio economic differences in smoking status at booking and quitting during pregnancy. We focused on the key concerns of the public, that of adverse obstetric events on a Midwife Led Unit (MLU) with distant obstetric cover. We estimate that twenty percent of women giving birth in a MLU may require urgent transfer to obstetric care during labour. There were no significant socio economic differences. Much of the risk can be mitigated though robust risk management policies. Additional travelling distances and costs could affect lower socio-economic groups the greatest because of lower car ownership and geographical location in relation to the units. There is potential that with improved community antenatal and post natal care, population outcomes could improve significantly, the available evidence supports this view. Available evidence suggests that maternity reconfiguration towards enhanced community care could have many potential benefits but carries risk. Investment is needed to realise the former and mitigate the latter. The usefulness of this Health Impact Assessment may have been impeded by its timing, and the politically charged

  12. Learning from a Rapid Health Impact Assessment of a proposed maternity service reconfiguration in the English NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sophie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within many parts of the country, the NHS is undertaking reconfiguration of services. Such proposals can prove a tipping point and provoke public protest, often with significant involvement of local and national politicians. We undertook a rapid Health Impact Assessment (HIA of a proposed reconfiguration of maternity services in Huddersfield and Halifax in England. The aim of the HIA was to help the PCT Boards to assess the reconfiguration's possible consequences on access to maternity services, and maternal and infant health outcomes across different socio-economic groups in Kirklees. We report on the findings of the HIA and the usefulness of the process to decision making. Methods This HIA used routine maternity data for 2004–2005 in Huddersfield, in addition to published evidence. Standard HIA techniques were used. Results We re-highlighted the socio economic differences in smoking status at booking and quitting during pregnancy. We focused on the key concerns of the public, that of adverse obstetric events on a Midwife Led Unit (MLU with distant obstetric cover. We estimate that twenty percent of women giving birth in a MLU may require urgent transfer to obstetric care during labour. There were no significant socio economic differences. Much of the risk can be mitigated though robust risk management policies. Additional travelling distances and costs could affect lower socio-economic groups the greatest because of lower car ownership and geographical location in relation to the units. There is potential that with improved community antenatal and post natal care, population outcomes could improve significantly, the available evidence supports this view. Conclusion Available evidence suggests that maternity reconfiguration towards enhanced community care could have many potential benefits but carries risk. Investment is needed to realise the former and mitigate the latter. The usefulness of this Health Impact Assessment

  13. Magnitude and Determinants of the Ratio between Prevalence of Low Vision and Blindness in Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Dinesh; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the magnitude and determinants of the ratio between prevalence of low vision and prevalence of blindness in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) surveys globally. Standard RAAB reports were downloaded from the repository or requested from principal investigators. Potential predictor variables included prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE) as well as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, health expenditure per capita of the country across World Bank regions. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to investigate the correlation between potential predictor variables and the ratio. The results of 94 surveys from 43 countries showed that the ratio ranged from 1.35 in Mozambique to 11.03 in India with a median value of 3.90 (Interquartile range 3.06;5.38). Univariate regression analysis showed that prevalence of URE (p = 0.04), logarithm of GDP per capita (p = 0.01) and logarithm of health expenditure per capita (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the higher ratio. However, only prevalence of URE was found to be significant in multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.03). There is a wide variation in the ratio of the prevalence of low vision to the prevalence of blindness. Eye care service utilization indicators such as the prevalence of URE may explain some of the variation across the regions.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  15. Rapid analytical assessment of the mechanical perturbations induced by non-isothermal injection into a subsurface formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús; María Gómez Castro, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Fluid injection into geological formations is required for several engineering operations, e.g. geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon production and storage, CO2 storage, wastewater disposal, etc. Non-isothermal fluid injection causes alterations of the pressure and temperature fields, which affect the mechanical stability of the reservoir. This coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior has become a matter of special interest because of public concern about induced seismicity. The response is complex and its evaluation often requires numerical modeling. Nevertheless, analytical solutions are useful in improving our understanding of interactions, identifying the controlling parameters, testing codes and in providing a rapid assessment of the system response to an alteration. We present an easy-to-use solution to the transient advection-conduction heat transfer problem for parallel and radial flow. The solution is then applied to derive analytical expressions for hydraulic and thermal driven displacements and stresses. The validity is verified by comparison with numerical simulations and yields fairly accurate results. The solution is then used to illustrate some features of the poroelastic and thermoelastic response and, in particular, the sensitivity to the external mechanical constraints and to the reservoir dimension.

  16. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Marsh, H

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystem-scale networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools, but their effectiveness is difficult to quantify in a time frame appropriate to species conservation because of uncertainties in the data available. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a mobile marine species that occurs in shallow inshore waters of an ecosystem-scale network of MPAs (the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area [GBRWHA]). We developed a rapid approach to assess risk to dugongs in the region and evaluate options to ameliorate that risk. We used expert opinion and a Delphi technique to identify and rank 5 human factors with the potential to adversely affect dugongs and their sea grass habitats: netting, indigenous hunting, trawling, vessel traffic, and poor-quality terrestrial runoff. We then quantified and compared the distribution of these factors with a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution. We estimated that approximately 96% of habitat of high conservation value for dugongs in the GBRWHA is at low risk from human activities. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that to decrease risk, commercial netting or indigenous hunting had to be reduced in remote areas and the effects of vessel traffic, terrestrial runoff, and commercial netting had to be reduced in urban areas. This approach enabled us to compare and rank risks so as to identify the most severe risks and locate specific sites that require further management attention.

  17. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR): A community-wide effort to quantify tropospheric ozone in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Paoletti, E.; Galbally, I. E.; Naja, M. K.; Tarasick, D. W.; Evans, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emissions controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone's impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? To answer these questions the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) initiated the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR). With over 220 member scientists and air quality specialists from 36 nations, TOAR's mission is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause. TOAR has also built the world's largest database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure and dose metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world, freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity. Plots of these metrics show the regions of the world with the greatest ozone exposure for humans and crops/ecosystems, at least in areas where observations are available. The results also highlight regions where air quality is improving and where it has degraded. TOAR has also conducted the first intercomparison of tropospheric column ozone from ozonesondes and multiple satellite instruments, which provide similar estimates of the present-day tropospheric ozone burden.

  20. CFD modeling of two-stage ignition in a rapid compression machine: Assessment of zero-dimensional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Gaurav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Raju, Mandhapati P. [General Motor R and D Tech Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In modeling rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments, zero-dimensional approach is commonly used along with an associated heat loss model. The adequacy of such approach has not been validated for hydrocarbon fuels. The existence of multi-dimensional effects inside an RCM due to the boundary layer, roll-up vortex, non-uniform heat release, and piston crevice could result in deviation from the zero-dimensional assumption, particularly for hydrocarbons exhibiting two-stage ignition and strong thermokinetic interactions. The objective of this investigation is to assess the adequacy of zero-dimensional approach in modeling RCM experiments under conditions of two-stage ignition and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) response. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are conducted for n-heptane ignition in an RCM and the validity of zero-dimensional approach is assessed through comparisons over the entire NTC region. Results show that the zero-dimensional model based on the approach of 'adiabatic volume expansion' performs very well in adequately predicting the first-stage ignition delays, although quantitative discrepancy for the prediction of the total ignition delays and pressure rise in the first-stage ignition is noted even when the roll-up vortex is suppressed and a well-defined homogeneous core is retained within an RCM. Furthermore, the discrepancy is pressure dependent and decreases as compressed pressure is increased. Also, as ignition response becomes single-stage at higher compressed temperatures, discrepancy from the zero-dimensional simulations reduces. Despite of some quantitative discrepancy, the zero-dimensional modeling approach is deemed satisfactory from the viewpoint of the ignition delay simulation. (author)

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  2. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  3. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyom Lue

    Full Text Available There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS, and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm, and both high spectral resolution (2 nm and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue. Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error. Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a

  4. Rapid assessment of the effect of ciprofloxacin on chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli using an in situ DNA fragmentation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalvez Jaime

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular procedures, but these are not effective at the single-cell level. We assessed ciprofloxacin (CIP-induced chromosomal DNA breakage in single-cell Escherichia coli by direct visualization of the DNA fragments that diffused from the nucleoid obtained after bacterial lysis in an agarose microgel on a slide. Results Exposing the E. coli strain TG1 to CIP starting at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0.012 μg/ml and at increasing doses for 40 min increased the DNA fragmentation progressively. DNA damage started to be detectable at the MIC dose. At a dose of 1 μg/ml of CIP, DNA damage was visualized clearly immediately after processing, and the DNA fragmentation increased progressively with the antibiotic incubation time. The level of DNA damage was much higher when the bacteria were taken from liquid LB broth than from solid LB agar. CIP treatment produced a progressively slower rate of DNA damage in bacteria in the stationary phase than in the exponentially growing phase. Removing the antibiotic after the 40 min incubation resulted in progressive DSB repair activity with time. The magnitude of DNA repair was inversely related to CIP dose and was noticeable after incubation with CIP at 0.1 μg/ml but scarce after 10 μg/ml. The repair activity was not strictly related to viability. Four E. coli strains with identified mechanisms of reduced sensitivity to CIP were assessed using this procedure and produced DNA fragmentation levels that were inversely related to MIC dose, except those with very high MIC dose. Conclusion This procedure for determining DNA fragmentation is a simple and rapid test for studying and evaluating the effect of quinolones.

  5. Numerical modeling of the late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon has been influenced by three primary tectonic and drainage adjustment events. First, incision into the Paleozoic strata of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau began at 16 Ma in response to relief production along the Grand Wash Fault. Second, the ancestral Upper Colorado River reversed drainage and became integrated with the Lower Colorado River basin through Grand Canyon between 5.5 and 6 Ma. Third, the Colorado River was influenced by Plio- Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane and Toroweap Faults. Despite the relatively firm constraints available on the timing of these events, the geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon is still not well constrained and many questions remain. For example, was there a deeply-incised gorge in western Grand Canyon before Colorado River integration? How and where was the Colorado River integrated? How have incision rates varied in space and time? In this paper, I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to address these questions. The model integrates the stream power model for bedrock channel erosion with cliff retreat and the flexural-isostatic response to erosion. The model honors the structural geology of the Grand Canyon region, including the variable erodibility of rocks in the Colorado Plateau and the occurrence of Plio-Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane-Toroweap Fault system. We present the results of two models designed to bracket the possible drainage architectures of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau in Miocene time. In the first model, we assume a 13,000 km2 drainage basin primarily sourced from the Hualapai and Coconino Plateaux. The results of this model indicate that relief production along the Grand Wash fault initiated the formation of a large (700 m) knickpoint that migrated headward at a rate of 15 km/Myr prior to drainage integration at 6 Ma to form a deep gorge in western Grand Canyon. This model

  6. Evaluating the accuracy of low cost UAV generated topography and its effectiveness for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen

    2015-04-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion (SfM) software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than 850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 4 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after the 2014 typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. The accuracy of the SfM point clouds depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface being considered, with vegetation and small scale texture causing inaccuracies. However, we

  7. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  8. Applications of quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; Wit, M.W. de; Stieve, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift. Longitudinal profiles of fluvial terrace surfaces that are laterally continuous across the projected surface trace of the Pen Branch fault show no obvious evidence of warping or faulting within a resolution of ∼3 m. This combined with the estimated age of the terrace surfaces (350 ka to 1 Ma) indicates that if the Pen Branch fault is active, the Pleistocene rate of slip is very low (0.002 to 0.009 mm/yr)

  9. A rapid evidence assessment of immersive virtual reality as an adjunct therapy in acute pain management in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernie; Taverner, Tarnia; Masinde, Wendy; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris; Negraeff, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) therapy has been explored as an adjunct therapy for the management of acute pain among children and adults for several conditions. Therapeutic approaches have traditionally involved medication and physiotherapy but such approaches are limited over time by their cost and side effects. This review seeks to critically evaluate the evidence for and against IVR as an adjunctive therapy for acute clinical pain applications. A rapid evidence assessment (REA) strategy was used. CINAHL, Medline, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened in from December 2012 to March 2013 to identify studies exploring IVR therapies as an intervention to assist in the management of pain. Main outcome measures were for acute pain and functional impairment. Seventeen research studies were included in total including 5 RCTs, 6 randomized crossover studies, 2 case series studies, and 4 single-patient case studies. This included a total of 337 patients. Of these studies only 4 had a low risk of bias. There was strong overall evidence for immediate and short-term pain reduction, whereas moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on physical function. Little evidence exists for longer-term benefits. IVR was not associated with any serious adverse events. This review found moderate evidence for the reduction of pain and functional impairment after IVR in patients with acute pain. Further high-quality studies are required for the conclusive judgment of its effectiveness in acute pain, to establish potential benefits for chronic pain, and for safety.

  10. Experimental assessment of oral hygiene achieved by children wearing rapid palatal expanders, comparing manual and electric toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Bonaldo, G; Pontarolo, E; Zuccon, A; De Francesco, M; Stellini, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to compare the efficacy of the electric versus the manual toothbrush in terms of the oral hygiene achieved by patients wearing rapid palatal expanders (RPEs). Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups; one equipped with a manual toothbrush (Group A), the other with an electric toothbrush (Group B). Each child's plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were calculated at banded molar level at times T0 (before banding), T1 (a month later), T2 (3 months later) and T3 (when the expander was removed). At each appointment, the PI and GI were recorded and the patient was remotivated. The level of oral hygiene achieved by the group using an electric toothbrush produced a greater improvement in the two indexes than in the group using the manual toothbrush that showed no statistically significant improvement (PI T0-T3: P = 0.309; GI T0-T3: P = 0.141). Both indexes dropped considerably in both groups from T0 to T2, but more so in the group B. From T2 to T3, although the electric toothbrush continued to be substantially more effective, Group B showed a statistically significant deterioration in the oral hygiene (PI +20%; GI +33%). Other assessments conducted on particular areas of the tooth showed improvements in the PI (-33%) for the vestibular region, and for the GI (-57%) in the palatal region among the patients in Group B, while there were no significant changes in these indexes in Group A. Our findings show that the electric toothbrush is statistically more efficient in performing an adequate level of oral hygiene in children wearing RPE. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers to Assess Substantia Nigra Damage in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Gaurav, Rahul; Arnaldi, Dario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Valabregue, Romain; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered to be a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). At PD onset, 40 to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are already lost. Thus, milder SN damage is expected in participants with iRBD. We aimed to quantify SN damage in participants with iRBD using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine biomarker efficacy in preclinical Parkinsonism. Nineteen participants with iRBD and 18 controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, neuromelanin (NM)-sensitive imaging, and T2* mapping. Regions of interest in the SN area were drawn in NM-sensitive and T2-weighted images. The volume and normalized signal intensity in NM-sensitive images, R2*, and diffusion tensor measures were quantified in the SN. Additionally, two raters performed visual analysis of the SN using the NM-sensitive images. Participants with iRBD showed a reduction in the NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity and a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) versus controls, but showed no differences in axial, radial, or mean diffusivity or in R2*. For NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity, the receiver operating characteristic analysis discriminated between participants with iRBD and controls with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively, whereas the accuracy was 0.77 for FA. The three biomarkers had a combined accuracy of 0.92. The fraction of participants correctly characterized by visual assessment was 0.81. NM-sensitive imaging and FA allowed for the detection of SN damage in participants with iRBD with good diagnostic accuracy. These measures may represent valuable biomarkers for prodromal Parkinsonism. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Multiscale and multidisciplinary Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment data collection methods for process studies: the case of the Taranto Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ivan; Maicu, Francesco; Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Causio, Salvatore; Caporale, Claudio; Demarte, Maurizio; Falconieri, Alfredo; Lecci, Rita; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Matteo; Sepp-Neves, Augusto; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfe', Giorgia; Trotta, Francesco; Zaggia, Luca; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The present work aims to investigate the thermohaline properties and the circulation of the Gulf of Taranto, which is a deep, semi-enclosed ocean area in the northern Ionian sea, encircled by two Italian peninsulas of southern Apulia and Calabria. Since few observations in the past have been reported in the Gulf of Taranto, it emerged the need of planning and implementing oceanographic cruises in this area, based on an innovative concept of MREA (Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment). The methodology was based on an optimal experimental strategy to collect definitive evidences on ocean mesoscales with a spatial-and-time synoptic coverage. The MREA surveys have been performed thanks to the synergies between Italian oceanographic research centers and the Italian Navy Hydrographic Institute. Starting from the experience and results of MREA14 (Pinardi et al., 2016), which have shown in the Gulf an anticyclonic circulation in Autumn (October 2014) and the presence of submesoscale structure, a new experiment (MREA16) was repeated in a different season (Summer, June-July 2016), evaluating possible changes in current circulation. Furthermore, the new sampling methodology was refined and strengthened integrating the classical CTD data collection with additional simultaneous measurements of currents by means of vessel-mounted ADCP. The geostrophic circulation pattern derived from the CTD objective-analysis mapping techniques has been verified with the ADCP measurements. Moreover, the analysis on circulation fields confirms the presence of possible submesoscale structures, which can be well solved by a high-resolution sampling scheme. The MREA investigation in Gulf of Taranto shows a large-scale gyre anticyclonically-oriented in Autumn (MREA14) and cyclonically-oriented in Summer (MREA16). This opposite circulation pattern is probably connected to (i) the impact of Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), (ii) the effect of the Northern Ionian Sea outflow-inflow system in

  13. System for Capturing/Storage/Retrieval/Sharing of Toxicological Information Required for Rapid Assessment of Risks Posed By Release of CBRN Materials in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Ritondo, M.; Earp Singer, L.; Rogers, J. V.; Price, J. A.; Fleming, E. J.; Chappie, D.; McGonigle, D.; Nichols, T. L.; Sonich-Mullin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing methodology for performing rapid risk assessments needed for incident management, cleanup, and mitigation of hazards in the aftermath of a terrorist event. TCAD, working with the Department of Defense's Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC, operated by Battelle) has developed SERRA - Support for Environmental Rapid Risk Assessment. This paper describes the methodology utilized to formulate SERRA, presents current contents of the SERRA database (information derived from assessments of over 3,000 publications selected from 10,000 citations), and describes SERRA implementation. The paper also discusses how an Internet-accessible version of the SERRA database could be utilized by a country or countries to prepare for and respond to the intentional release of chemical, biological or radiological materials.(author)

  14. Reliability, Construct Validity and Interpretability of the Brazilian version of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Daniela Pereira; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira; Comper, Maria Luiza Caíres; Silva, Anderson Martins da; Boas, Cristiana Villas; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    There are very few observational methods for analysis of biomechanical exposure available in Brazilian-Portuguese. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and test the measurement properties of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI). The cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties test were established according to Beaton et al. and COSMIN guidelines, respectively. Several tasks that required static posture and/or repetitive motion of upper limbs were evaluated (n>100). The intra-raters' reliability for the RULA ranged from poor to almost perfect (k: 0.00-0.93), and SI from poor to excellent (ICC 2.1 : 0.05-0.99). The inter-raters' reliability was very poor for RULA (k: -0.12 to 0.13) and ranged from very poor to moderate for SI (ICC 2.1 : 0.00-0.53). The agreement was good for RULA (75-100% intra-raters, and 42.24-100% inter-raters) and to SI (EPM: -1.03% to 1.97%; intra-raters, and -0.17% to 1.51% inter-raters). The internal consistency was appropriate for RULA (α=0.88), and low for SI (α=0.65). Moderate construct validity were observed between RULA and SI, in wrist/hand-wrist posture (rho: 0.61) and strength/intensity of exertion (rho: 0.39). The adapted versions of the RULA and SI presented semantic and cultural equivalence for the Brazilian Portuguese. The RULA and SI had reliability estimates ranged from very poor to almost perfect. The internal consistency for RULA was better than the SI. The correlation between methods was moderate only of muscle request/movement repetition. Previous training is mandatory to use of observations methods for biomechanical exposure assessment, although it does not guarantee good reproducibility of these measures. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of ectoparasite infestation by chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in Chiapas, Mexico illustrating a rapid visual assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas V. Dietsch

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a protocol developed to rapidly assess ectoparasite prevalence and intensity. Using this protocol during a mist-netting project in two different coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico, data were collected on ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) found on resident and migratory birds. Surprisingly high infestation rates were...

  16. A tool for rapid assessment of erosion risk to support decision-making and policy development at the Ngenge watershed in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.; Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tests a rapid, user-friendly method for assessing changes in erosion risk, which yields information to aid policy development and decision-making for sustainable natural resources management. There is currently a lack of timely, up-to-date and current information to support policy

  17. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  19. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  20. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  1. Interdependence of geomorphic and ecologic resilience properties in a geographic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Stallins, J.; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-03-01

    Ecology and geomorphology recognize the dynamic aspects of resistance and resilience. However, formal resilience theory in ecology has tended to deemphasize the geomorphic habitat template. Conversely, landscape sensitivity and state-and-transition models in geomorphology downweight mechanisms of biotic adaptation operative in fluctuating, spatially explicit environments. Adding to the interdisciplinary challenge of understanding complex biogeomorphic systems is that environmental heterogeneity and overlapping gradients of disturbance complicate inference of the geographic patterns of resistance and resilience. We develop a conceptual model for comparing the resilience properties among barrier dunes. The model illustrates how adaptive cycles and panarchies, the formal building blocks of resilience recognized in ecology, can be expressed as a set of hierarchically nested geomorphic and ecological metrics. The variance structure of these data is proposed as a means to delineate different kinds and levels of resilience. Specifically, it is the dimensionality of these data and how geomorphic and ecological variables load on the first and succeeding axes that facilitates the delineation of resistance and resilience. The construction of dune topographic state space from observations among different barrier islands is proposed as a way to measure the interdependence of geomorphic and ecological resilience properties.

  2. An assessment of the usefulness of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test, "Determine™ malaria pf" in evaluation of intervention measures in forest villages of central India

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    Shukla Manmohan

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria, is a major health problem in forested tribal belt of central India. Rapid and accurate methods are needed for the diagnosis of P. falciparum. We performed a blinded evaluation of the recently introduced Determine™ malaria pf test (Abbott, Laboratories, Japan compared with microscopy and splenomegaly in children in epidemic prone areas of district Mandla to assess the impact of intervention measures. Methods Children aged 2–10 yrs with and without fever were examined for spleen enlargement by medical specialist by establishing a mobile field clinic. From these children thick blood smears were prepared from finger prick and read by a technician. Simultaneously, rapid tests were performed by a field lab attendant. The figures for specificity, sensitivity and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results In all 349 children were examined. The sensitivity and specificity for Determine rapid diagnostic test were 91 and 80% respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV, negative predictive values (NPV and accuracy of the test were respectively 79, 91 and 85%. On the contrary, the sensitivity and specificity of spleen in detecting malaria infection were 57 and 74 % respectively with PPV of 73%, NPV 59 % and an accuracy of 65%. Conclusions Determine™ malaria rapid diagnostic test is easier and quicker to perform and has other advantages over microscopy in not requiring prior training of personnel or quality control. Thus, highlighting the usefulness of a rapid antigen test in assessing prevailing malaria situation in remote areas.

  3. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

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    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  4. Near-census Delineation of Laterally Organized Geomorphic Zones and Associated Sub-width Fluvial Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Hopkins, C.

    2017-12-01

    A river channel and its associated riparian corridor exhibit a pattern of nested, geomorphically imprinted, lateral inundation zones (IZs). Each zone plays a key role in fluvial geomorphic processes and ecological functions. Within each zone, distinct landforms (aka geomorphic or morphological units, MUs) reside at the 0.1-10 channel width scale. These features are basic units linking river corridor morphology with local ecosystem services. Objective, automated delineation of nested inundation zones and morphological units remains a significant scientific challenge. This study describes and demonstrates new, objective methods for solving this problem, using the 35-km alluvial lower Yuba River as a testbed. A detrended, high-resolution digital elevation model constructed from near-census topographic and bathymetric data was produced and used in a hypsograph analysis, a commonly used method in oceanographic studies capable of identifying slope breaks at IZ transitions. Geomorphic interpretation mindful of the river's setting was required to properly describe each IZ identified by the hypsograph analysis. Then, a 2D hydrodynamic model was used to determine what flow yields the wetted area that most closely matches each IZ domain. The model also provided meter-scale rasters of depth and velocity useful for MU mapping. Even though MUs are discharge-independent landforms, they can be revealed by analyzing their overlying hydraulics at low flows. Baseflow depth and velocity rasters are used along with a hydraulic landform classification system to quantitatively delineate in-channel bed MU types. In-channel bar and off-channel flood and valley MUs are delineated using a combination of hydraulic and geomorphic indicators, such as depth and velocity rasters for different discharges, topographic contours, NAIP imagery, and a raster of vegetation. The ability to objectively delineate inundation zones and morphological units in tandem allows for better informed river management