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Sample records for rapid epidemiological mapping

  1. Rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis in areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interventions: Individuals positive for at least one nodule were expressed in terms of Nodule Prevalence Rates (NPR) which were used to map the distribution of onchocerciasii. Main outcome measures: Coefficient of variation (CV) of Nodule Prevalence Rates between high risk secondary communities. Results: In Kabarole ...

  2. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  3. Rapid mapping of volumetric errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.; Hale, L.; Yordy, D.

    1995-09-13

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to mapping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) modeling the relationship between the volumetric error and the current state of the machine; (2) acquiring error data based on length measurements throughout the work volume; and (3) optimizing the model to the particular machine.

  4. Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Goong

    2011-01-01

    This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a

  5. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim

    2017-01-01

    of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut...

  6. Rapid Raman mapping of a fulgurite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A; Pasek, Matthew A; Smith, Tim; Kee, Terence P; Hines, Peter; Edwards, Howell G M

    2010-08-01

    A fulgurite is a naturally occurring glass formed when lightning hits sand, rock, or soil. The formation of fulgurites is accompanied by mineralogical and sometimes compositional changes, and may record information about the environment in which they were formed. A previous investigation using Raman point spectroscopy discovered the presence of anatase, a low-temperature polymorph of TiO(2), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons within a fulgurite. These findings indicate that there were regions within the sample that were not subjected to temperatures of 2,000 K or more that the matrix is reported to attain when struck by lightning. This paper seeks to expand the previous research by utilizing the capabilities of a new Raman spectroscopic technological development that enables rapid mapping. The entire surface area of a cross-sectioned fulgurite (approximately 40 mm x 23 mm) sample was mapped allowing several regions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and anatase to be located. Furthermore, shocked quartz was found within the boundary regions of the fulgurite, and is proposed to have resulted from contact with vaporized material during the lightning strike. Shocked quartz is typically indicative of extraterrestrial impact, yet its discovery here suggests that its formation is not exclusive to the impact process.

  7. RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online. April 27, 2016. Image. Roma Book Cover. After a decade of work developing the Outcome Mapping Approach, IDRC has played an important role in the development of ROMA, an adaptation of IDRC's original outcome mapping research. ROMA: A guide to policy ...

  8. [Digital administrative maps - a tool for visualization of epidemiological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Czech, Elibieta; Skrzypek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the methods for visualization of epidemiological data using digital contour maps that take into account administrative division of Poland. The possibility of epidemiological data visualization in a geographical order, limited to the administrative level of the country, voivodeships and poviats (countics), are presented. They are crucial for the process of identifying and undertaking adequate prophylactic activities directed towards decreasing the risk and improving the population's health. This paper presents tools and techniques available in Geographic Information System ArcGIS and statistical software package R. The work includes our own data reflecting: 1) the values of specific mortality rates due to respiratory diseases, Poland, 2010, based on the Central Statistical Office data, using the R statistical software package; 2) the averaged registered incidence rates of sarcoidosis in 2006-2010 for the population aged 19+ in the Silesian voivodeship, using G(eographic Information System ArcGIS; and 3) the number of children with diagnosed respiratory diseases in the city of L.egnica in 2009, taking into account their place of residence, using layered maps in Geographic Information System ArcGIS. The tools presented and described in this paper make it possible to visualize the results of research, to increase attractiveness of courses for students, as well as to enhance the skills and competence of students and participants of courses.

  9. Mapping snakebite epidemiology in Nicaragua--pitfalls and possible solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a public health problem in Nicaragua: it is a tropical developing country, venomous snakes are present and there are reports of snakebites treated both in the formal and informal health care system. We aimed to produce an incidence map using data reported by the health care system that would be used to allocate resources. However, this map may suffer from case detection bias and decisions based on this map will neglect snakebite victims who do not receive healthcare. To avoid this error, we try to identify where underreporting is likely based on available information. METHOD AND FINDINGS: The Nicaraguan municipalities are categorized by precipitation, altitude and geographical location into regions of assumed homogenous snake prevalence. Socio-economic and healthcare variables hypothesized to be related to underreporting of snakebites are aggregated into an index. The environmental region variable, the underreporting index and three demographic variables (rurality, sex and age distribution are entered in a Poisson regression model of municipality-level snakebite incidence. In this model, the underreporting index is non-linearly associated with snakebite incidence, a finding we attribute to underreporting in the most deprived municipalities. The municipalities with the worst scoring on the underreporting index and those with combined low reported incidence and large rural population are identified as likely underreporting. 3,286 snakebite cases were reported in 2005-2009, corresponding to a 5-year incidence of 56 bites per 100,000 inhabitants (municipality range: 0-600 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: Using publicly available data, we identified areas likely to be underreporting snakebites and highlighted these areas instead of leaving them "white" on the incidence map. The effects of the case detection bias on the distribution of resources against snakebites could decrease. Although not yet verified

  10. Rapid and robust traffic accident detection based on orientation map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglei; Ye, Mao; Ding, Jian; Mao, Songan; Zhang, Huixiong John

    2012-11-01

    Video-based rapid traffic accident detection is very important for intelligent transport systems. Traditional methods are either not fast enough or not stable with working environments. A rapid and environment-adaptive method is proposed. The inspiration of the method is originated from the key observation that the traffic accident brings abundant information on motion directions. This method includes three steps. First, the orientation map for each video frame is constructed based on the optical flows. Then, for each orientation map, the connected regions are formed. An entropy-like energy function is used to measure the orientation information of the connected region. The higher the energy value, the more moving directions exist. The highest measure of these connected regions in each orientation map is considered as its energy measure. Finally, based on the energy sequence of orientation maps, a Gaussian model is established to learn the normal energy fluctuation range for some environment. In the detection process, if the energy of one orientation map burst out of the normal range, it means there exists a traffic accident. The advantages of our method include the fast processing speed, a compact parameter set, and the robustness to the different environments and illuminations. Experimental results confirm the above advantages of the proposed approach.

  11. AN INTEGRATED RAPID MAPPING SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hein; Bayer, S.; Berger, R.; Kraft, T; D. Lesmeister

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessm...

  12. AN INTEGRATED RAPID MAPPING SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessment and analysis of medium to large scale disaster situations. This paper presents an integrated rapid mapping system that is particularly designed for real-time applications, where comparatively large areas have to be recorded in short time. The system includes a lightweight camera system suitable for UAV applications and a software tool for generating aerial maps from recorded sensor data within minutes after landing. The paper describes in particular which sensors are applied and how they are operated. Furthermore it outlines the procedure, how the aerial map is generated from image and additional gathered sensor data.

  13. An Integrated Rapid Mapping System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, D.; Bayer, S.; Berger, R.; Kraft, T.; Lesmeister, D.

    2017-05-01

    Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessment and analysis of medium to large scale disaster situations. This paper presents an integrated rapid mapping system that is particularly designed for real-time applications, where comparatively large areas have to be recorded in short time. The system includes a lightweight camera system suitable for UAV applications and a software tool for generating aerial maps from recorded sensor data within minutes after landing. The paper describes in particular which sensors are applied and how they are operated. Furthermore it outlines the procedure, how the aerial map is generated from image and additional gathered sensor data.

  14. Mapping Natech risk due to earthquakes using RAPID-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations are an emerging risk with possibly serious consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires or explosions. For the reduction of Natech risk, one of the highest priority needs is the identification of Natech-prone areas and the systematic assessment of Natech risks. With hardly any Natech risk maps existing within the EU the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed a Natech risk analysis and mapping tool called RAPID-N, that estimates the overall risk of natural-hazard impact to industrial installations and its possible consequences. The results are presented as risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, RAPID-N focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. The RAPID-N methodology is based on the estimation of on-site natural hazard parameters, use of fragility curves to determine damage probabilities of plant units for various damage states, and the calculation of spatial extent, severity, and probability of Natech events potentially triggered by the natural hazard. The methodology was implemented as a web-based risk assessment and mapping software tool which allows easy data entry, rapid local or regional risk assessment and mapping. RAPID-N features an innovative property estimation framework to calculate on-site natural hazard parameters, industrial plant and plant unit characteristics, and hazardous substance properties. Custom damage states and fragility curves can be defined for different types of plant units. Conditional relationships can be specified between damage states and Natech risk states, which describe probable Natech event scenarios. Natech consequences are assessed using a custom implementation of U.S. EPA's Risk Management

  15. Rapid Flood Map Generation from Spaceborne SAR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Jung, J.; Gurrola, E. M.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team has responded to the January 2016 US Midwest Floods along the Mississippi River. Daily teleconferences with FEMA, NOAA, NGA, and USGS, provided information on precipitation and flood crest migration, based on which we coordinated with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) through NASA headquarters for JAXA's ALOS-2 timely tasking over two paths. We produced flood extent maps using ALOS-2 SM3 mode Level 1.5 data that were provided through the International Charter and stored at the US Geological Survey's Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) archive. On January 6, the first four frames (70 km x 240 km) were acquired, which included the City of Memphis. We registered post-event SAR images to pre-event images, applied radiometric calibration, took a logarithm of the ratio of the two images. Two thresholds were applied to represent flooded areas that became open water (colored in blue) and flooded areas with tall vegetation (colored in red). The second path was acquired on January 11 further down along the Mississippi River. Seven frames (70 km x 420 km) were acquired and flood maps were created in the similar fashion. The maps were delivered to the FEMA as well as posted on ARIA's public website. The FEMA stated that SAR provides inspection priority for optical imagery and ground response. The ALOS-2 data and the products have been a very important source of information during this response as the flood crest has moved down stream. The SAR data continue to be an important resource during times when optical observations are often not useful. In close collaboration with FEMA and USGS, we also work on other flood events including June 2016 China Floods using European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentienl-1 data, to produce flood extent maps and identify algorithmic needs and ARIA system's requirements to automate and rapidly produce and deliver flood maps for future events. With the addition of Sentinel-1B

  16. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Rapid Response Team Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Won Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background To ensure patient safety and improvements in the quality of hospital care, rapid response teams (RRTs have been implemented in many countries, including Korea. The goal of an RRT is early identification and response to clinical deterioration in patients. However, there are differences in RRT systems among hospitals and limited data are available. Methods In Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the St. Mary’s Advanced Life Support Team was implemented in June 2013. We retrospectively reviewed the RRT activation records of 287 cases from June 2013 to December 2016. Results The median response time and median modified early warning score were 8.6 minutes (interquartile range, 5.6 to 11.6 minutes and 5.0 points (interquartile range, 4.0 to 7.0 points, respectively. Residents (35.8% and nurses (59.1% were the main activators of the RRT. Interestingly, postoperative patients account for a large percentage of the RRT activation cases (69.3%. The survival rate was 83.6% and survival was mainly associated with malignancy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and the time from admission to RRT activation. RRT activation with screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call in terms of the intensive care unit admission rate and length of hospital stay after RRT activation. Conclusions Malignancy was the most important factor related to survival. In addition, RRT activation with patient screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call. Further studies are needed to determine the effective screening criteria and improve the quality of the RRT system.

  18. A GIS Flood Tool for Rapid Inundation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, K. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Gadain, H.; Mathis, M.; Woodbury, M.; Rusack, E.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Many developing countries lack objectively produced flood inundation mapping around which to build scenarios for mitigation and response planning. Conventional methods, involving costly field surveys and hydraulic modeling, are often beyond the means of sub-national and national units of government. At the same time, organizations with a global perspective on flooding (UN agencies, donor disaster assistance agencies, non-governmental organizations, and insurance companies) lack a globally consistent approach for flood hazard characterization. In order to meet these needs, tools were developed for flood mapping with globally available or locally produced topographic data. The tools were tested in a variety of settings with the assistance of a number of partner organizations. This work was done in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. The resulting GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed to operate on digital elevation model (DEM) data to produce patterns of flood inundation corresponding to a river discharge or stage value specified by the user. The GFT uses the DEM to derive stream networks and stream cross-sections. The Manning equation is then used to construct a stage-discharge relationship for each cross-section. Use of the stage-discharge relationship along with a specially processed Relative DEM allows for rapid mapping of the inundated extent. The resulting inundation patterns can be used in conjunction with additional geographic information describing settlement patterns, transportation networks, land use and land cover to assess vulnerability to flood events and support preparedness planning. Comparison of the GFT results with inundation patterns produced using conventional hydraulic modeling approaches (HEC-RAS) and satellite remote sensing shows good correlation in many settings. Training sessions have been conducted in East Africa, where the tool is in use by national and regional

  19. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  20. Interpreting predictive maps of disease: highlighting the pitfalls of distribution models in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A. Wardrop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of spatial modelling to epidemiology has increased significantly over the past decade, delivering enhanced understanding of the environmental and climatic factors affecting disease distributions and providing spatially continuous representations of disease risk (predictive maps. These outputs provide significant information for disease control programmes, allowing spatial targeting and tailored interventions. However, several factors (e.g. sampling protocols or temporal disease spread can influence predictive mapping outputs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework which defines several scenarios and their potential impact on resulting predictive outputs, using simulated data to provide an exemplar. It is vital that researchers recognise these scenarios and their influence on predictive models and their outputs, as a failure to do so may lead to inaccurate interpretation of predictive maps. As long as these considerations are kept in mind, predictive mapping will continue to contribute significantly to epidemiological research and disease control planning.

  1. Mapping soil heterogeneity using RapidEye satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of BELCAM, a project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), researchers from UCL, ULg, CRA-W and VITO aim to set up a collaborative system to develop and deliver relevant information for agricultural monitoring in Belgium. The main objective is to develop remote sensing methods and processing chains able to ingest crowd sourcing data, provided by farmers or associated partners, and to deliver in return relevant and up-to-date information for crop monitoring at the field and district level based on Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite imagery. One of the developments within BELCAM concerns an automatic procedure to detect soil heterogeneity within a parcel using optical high resolution images. Such heterogeneity maps can be used to adjust farming practices according to the detected heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may for instance be caused by differences in mineral composition of the soil, organic matter content, soil moisture or soil texture. Local differences in plant growth may be indicative for differences in soil characteristics. As such remote sensing derived vegetation indices may be used to reveal soil heterogeneity. VITO started to delineate homogeneous zones within parcels by analyzing a series of RapidEye images acquired in 2015 (as a precursor for Sentinel-2). Both unsupervised classification (ISODATA, K-means) and segmentation techniques were tested. Heterogeneity maps were generated from images acquired at different moments during the season (13 May, 30 June, 17 July, 31 August, 11 September and 1 November 2015). Tests were performed using blue, green, red, red edge and NIR reflectances separately and using derived indices such as NDVI, fAPAR, CIrededge, NDRE2. The results for selected winter wheat, maize and potato fields were evaluated together with experts from the collaborating agricultural research centers. For a few fields UAV images and/or yield measurements were available for comparison.

  2. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  4. Novel automated point collection software facilitates rapid, high-density electroanatomical mapping with multiple catheter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszek, Leon M; Moon, Boyce; Rozen, Guy; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Mansour, Moussa

    2018-01-01

    Manual, point-by-point electroanatomical mapping requires the operator to directly evaluate each point during map construction. Consequently, point collection can be a slow process. An automated 3D mapping system was developed with the goal of improving key mapping metrics, including map completion time and point density. Automated 3D mapping software that includes morphology and cycle length discrimination functions for surface and intracardiac electrograms was developed. In five swine, electroanatomical maps (EAMs) of all four cardiac chambers were generated in sinus rhythm. Four catheters were used: two different four-pole ablation catheters, a 20-pole circular catheter, and a 64-pole basket catheter. Automated and manual 3D mapping were compared for 12 different catheter-chamber combinations (paired sets of 10 maps for most combinations, for a total of 156 maps). Automated 3D mapping produced more than twofold increase in the number of points per map, as compared with manual 3D mapping (P ≤0.007 for all catheter-chamber combinations tested). Automated 3D mapping also reduced map completion time by an average of 29% (P software described in this study is significantly faster than manual, point-by-point 3D mapping. This resulted in shorter mapping time and higher point density. The morphology discrimination functions effectively excluded ectopic beats during mapping in sinus rhythm and allowed for rapid mapping of intermittent ventricular ectopic beats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rapid land cover map updates using change detection and robust random forest classifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM) system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted...

  6. RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... ... of ROMA, an adaptation of IDRC's original outcome mapping research. ROMA: A guide to policy engagement and influence, has been released by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). The publication is the latest result of phase three of IDRC's Outcome Mapping Virtual Learning Community project.

  7. Interfacing US Census map files with statistical graphics software: Application and use in epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzardi, M.; Mohr, M.S.; Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health)

    1993-03-01

    In 1990, the United States Bureau of the Census released detailed geographic map files known as TIGER/Line (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing). The TIGER files, accessible through purchase or Federal repository libraries, contain 24 billion characters of data describing various geographic features including coastlines, hydrography, transportation networks, political boundaries, etc. covering the entire United States. Many of these physical features are of potential interest in epidemiological case studies. Unfortunately, the TIGER database only provides raw alphanumeric data; no utility software, graphical or otherwise, is included. Recently, the S statistical software package has been extended to include a map display function. The map function augments S's high-level approach toward statistical analysis and graphical display of data. Coupling this statistical software with the map database developed for US Census data collection will facilitate epidemiological research. We discuss the technical background necessary to utilize the TIGER database for mapping with S. Two types of S maps, segment-based and polygon-based, are discussed along with methods to construct them from TIGER data. Polygon-based maps are useful for displaying regional statistical data; e.g., disease rates or incidence at the census tract level. Segment-based maps are easier to assemble and appropriate if the data are not regionalized. Census tract data of AIDS incidence in San Francisco (CA) and lung cancer case locations relative to petrochemical refinery sites in Contra Costa County (CA) are used to illustrate the methods and potential uses of interfacing the TIGER database with S.

  8. Interfacing US Census map files with statistical graphics software: Application and use in epidemiology. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzardi, M.; Mohr, M.S.; Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-03-01

    In 1990, the United States Bureau of the Census released detailed geographic map files known as TIGER/Line (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing). The TIGER files, accessible through purchase or Federal repository libraries, contain 24 billion characters of data describing various geographic features including coastlines, hydrography, transportation networks, political boundaries, etc. covering the entire United States. Many of these physical features are of potential interest in epidemiological case studies. Unfortunately, the TIGER database only provides raw alphanumeric data; no utility software, graphical or otherwise, is included. Recently, the S statistical software package has been extended to include a map display function. The map function augments S`s high-level approach toward statistical analysis and graphical display of data. Coupling this statistical software with the map database developed for US Census data collection will facilitate epidemiological research. We discuss the technical background necessary to utilize the TIGER database for mapping with S. Two types of S maps, segment-based and polygon-based, are discussed along with methods to construct them from TIGER data. Polygon-based maps are useful for displaying regional statistical data; e.g., disease rates or incidence at the census tract level. Segment-based maps are easier to assemble and appropriate if the data are not regionalized. Census tract data of AIDS incidence in San Francisco (CA) and lung cancer case locations relative to petrochemical refinery sites in Contra Costa County (CA) are used to illustrate the methods and potential uses of interfacing the TIGER database with S.

  9. Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Nathan A; Etter, Paul D; Atwood, Tressa S; Currey, Mark C; Shiver, Anthony L; Lewis, Zachary A; Selker, Eric U; Cresko, William A; Johnson, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we describe the sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) tags, which identified more than 13,000 SNPs, and mapped three traits in two model organisms, using less than half the capacity of one Illumina sequencing run...

  10. Creating web applications for spatial epidemiological analysis and mapping in R using Rwui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonarine Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating a user friendly web based application which executes an R script allows physicians, epidemiologists, and others unfamiliar with the statistical language to perform powerful statistical analyses easily. The geographic mapping of data is an important tool in spatial epidemiological analysis, and the R project includes many tools for such analyses, but few for visualization. Hence, web applications that run R for epidemiological analysis need to be able to present the results in a geographic format. Results Rwui is a web application for creating web based applications for running R scripts. We describe updates to Rwui that enable it to create web applications for R scripts which return the results of the analysis to the web page as geographic maps. Conclusions Rwui enables statisticians to create web applications for R scripts without the need to learn web programming. Creating a web application provides users access to an R based analysis without the need to learn R. Recent updates to Rwui have increased its applicability in the field of spatial epidemiological analysis.

  11. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  12. Rapid haplotype reconstruction in predigrees with dense marker maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Reconstruction of marker phases is not straightforward when parents are untyped. In these cases information from other relatives has to be used. In dense marker maps, however, the space of possible haplotype configurations tends to be too large for procedures such as Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMC)

  13. Rapid Fast-Mapping Abilities in 2-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Chad; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Learning a new word consists of two primary tasks that have often been conflated into a single process: "referent selection", in which a child must determine the correct referent of a novel label, and "referent retention", which is the ability to store this newly formed label-object mapping in memory for later use. In addition, children must be…

  14. Genomic epidemiology of the Haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S K; Pearson, Ofori; Hicks, Nathan; Agrawal, Sonia; Sanjar, Fatemeh; Galens, Kevin; Daugherty, Sean; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Rene S; Price, Lance B; Upadhyay, Bishnu P; Shakya, Geeta; Fraser, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul S

    2014-11-04

    For centuries, cholera has been one of the most feared diseases. The causative agent Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne Gram-negative enteric pathogen eliciting a severe watery diarrheal disease. In October 2010, the seventh pandemic reached Haiti, a country that had not experienced cholera for more than a century. By using whole-genome sequence typing and mapping strategies of 116 serotype O1 strains from global sources, including 44 Haitian genomes, we present a detailed reconstructed evolutionary history of the seventh pandemic with a focus on the Haitian outbreak. We catalogued subtle genomic alterations at the nucleotide level in the genome core and architectural rearrangements from whole-genome map comparisons. Isolates closely related to the Haitian isolates caused several recent outbreaks in southern Asia. This study provides evidence for a single-source introduction of cholera from Nepal into Haiti followed by rapid, extensive, and continued clonal expansion. The phylogeographic patterns in both southern Asia and Haiti argue for the rapid dissemination of V. cholerae across the landscape necessitating real-time surveillance efforts to complement the whole-genome epidemiological analysis. As eradication efforts move forward, phylogeographic knowledge will be important for identifying persistent sources and monitoring success at regional levels. The results of molecular and epidemiological analyses of this outbreak suggest that an indigenous Haitian source of V. cholerae is unlikely and that an indigenous source has not contributed to the genomic evolution of this clade. In this genomic epidemiology study, we have applied high-resolution whole-genome-based sequence typing methodologies on a comprehensive set of genome sequences that have become available in the aftermath of the Haitian cholera epidemic. These sequence resources enabled us to reassess the degree of genomic heterogeneity within the Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype and to refine boundaries and

  15. Sentinel-2 for rapid operational landslide inventory mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Marc, Odin; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Michea, David

    2017-04-01

    Landslide inventory mapping after major triggering events such as heavy rainfalls or earthquakes is crucial for disaster response, the assessment of hazards, and the quantification of sediment budgets and empirical scaling laws. Numerous studies have already demonstrated the utility of very-high resolution satellite and aerial images for the elaboration of inventories based on semi-automatic methods or visual image interpretation. Nevertheless, such semi-automatic methods are rarely used in an operational context after major triggering events; this is partly due to access limitations on the required input datasets (i.e. VHR satellite images) and to the absence of dedicated services (i.e. processing chain) available for the landslide community. Several on-going initiatives allow to overcome these limitations. First, from a data perspective, the launch of the Sentinel-2 mission offers opportunities for the design of an operational service that can be deployed for landslide inventory mapping at any time and everywhere on the globe. Second, from an implementation perspective, the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP) of the European Space Agency (ESA) allows the integration and diffusion of on-line processing algorithms in a high computing performance environment. Third, from a community perspective, the recently launched Landslide Pilot of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), has targeted the take-off of such service as a main objective for the landslide community. Within this context, this study targets the development of a largely automatic, supervised image processing chain for landslide inventory mapping from bi-temporal (before and after a given event) Sentinel-2 optical images. The processing chain combines change detection methods, image segmentation, higher-level image features (e.g. texture, shape) and topographic variables. Based on a few representative examples provided by a human operator, a machine learning model is trained and

  16. ODI launches RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach online guide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... The UK-based Overseas Development Institute has released its online guide to understanding, engaging with, and influencing policy. ... The RAPID team's focus on learning and evolution remains a central part of the approach, with a chapter devoted to the design of monitoring and evaluation activities that ...

  17. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pEMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital administrative maps – A tool for visualization of epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to present the methods for visualization of epidemiological data using digital contour maps that take into account administrative division of Poland. Materials and Methods: The possibility of epidemiological data visualization in a geographical order, limited to the administrative level of the country, voivodeships and poviats (counties, are presented. They are crucial for the process of identifying and undertaking adequate prophylactic activities directed towards decreasing the risk and improving the population's health. This paper presents tools and techniques available in Geographic Information System ArcGIS and statistical software package R. Results: The work includes our own data reflecting: 1 the values of specific mortality rates due to respiratory diseases, Poland, 2010, based on the Central Statistical Office data, using the R statistical software package; 2 the averaged registered incidence rates of sarcoidosis in 2006-2010 for the population aged 19+ in the Silesian voivodeship, using Geographic Information System ArcGIS; and 3 the number of children with diagnosed respiratory diseases in the city of Legnica in 2009, taking into account their place of residence, using layered maps in Geographic Information System ArcGIS. Conclusions: The tools presented and described in this paper make it possible to visualize the results of research, to increase attractiveness of courses for students, as well as to enhance the skills and competence of students and participants of courses. Med Pr 2013;64(4:533–539

  19. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Rapid mapping of volumetric machine errors using distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to maping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) models the relationship between volumetric error and the current state of the machine, (2) acquiring error data based on distance measurements throughout the work volume; and (3)fitting the error model using the nonlinear equation for the distance. The error model is formulated from the kinematic relationship among the six degrees of freedom of error an each moving axis. Expressing each parametric error as function of position each is combined to predict the error between the functional point and workpiece, also as a function of position. A series of distances between several fixed base locations and various functional points in the work volume is measured using a Laser Ball Bar (LBB). Each measured distance is a non-linear function dependent on the commanded location of the machine, the machine error, and the location of the base locations. Using the error model, the non-linear equation is solved producing a fit for the error model Also note that, given approximate distances between each pair of base locations, the exact base locations in the machine coordinate system determined during the non-linear filling procedure. Furthermore, with the use of 2048 more than three base locations, bias error in the measuring instrument can be removed The volumetric errors of three-axis commercial machining center have been mapped using this procedure. In this study, only errors associated with the nominal position of the machine were considered Other errors such as thermally induced and load induced errors were not considered although the mathematical model has the ability to account for these errors. Due to the proprietary nature of the projects we are

  1. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  2. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  3. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improveme...

  4. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  5. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA III: epidemiology of urban malaria in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vounatsou Penelope

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a significant lack of knowledge concerning urban malaria patterns in general and in Abidjan in particular. The prevalence of malaria, its distribution in the city and the fractions of fevers attributable to malaria in the health facilities have not been previously investigated. Methods A health facility-based survey and health care system evaluation was carried out in a peripheral municipality of Abidjan (Yopougon during the rainy season of 2002, applying a standardized Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA methodology. Results According to national statistics, approximately 240,000 malaria cases (both clinical cases and laboratory confirmed cases were reported by health facilities in the whole of Abidjan in 2001. They accounted for 40% of all consultations. In the health facilities of the Yopougon municipality, the malaria infection rates in fever cases for different age groups were 22.1% (under one year-olds, 42.8% (one to five years-olds, 42.0% (> five to 15 years-olds and 26.8% (over 15 years-olds, while those in the control group were 13.0%. 26.7%, 21.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The fractions of malaria-attributable fever were 0.12, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.13 in the same age groups. Parasitaemia was homogenously detected in different areas of Yopougon. Among all children, 10.1% used a mosquito net (treated or not the night before the survey and this was protective (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.97. Travel to rural areas within the last three months was frequent (31% of all respondents and associated with a malaria infection (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.45. Conclusion Rapid urbanization has changed malaria epidemiology in Abidjan and endemicity was found to be moderate in Yopougon. Routine health statistics are not fully reliable to assess the burden of disease, and the low level of the fractions of malaria-attributable fevers indicated substantial over-treatment of malaria.

  6. Geologic map of the Priest Rapids 1:100,000 quadrangle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R. [comps.

    1993-09-01

    This map of the Priest Rapids 1:100,000-scale quadrangle, Washington, shows the geology of one of fifteen complete or partial 1:100,000-scale quadrangles that cover the southeast quadrant of Washington. Geologic maps of these quadrangles have been compiled by geologists with the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) and Washington State University and are the principal data sources for a 1:250,000scale geologic map of the southeast quadrant of Washington, which is in preparation. Eleven of those quadrangles are being released as DGER open-file reports (listed below). The map of the Wenatchee quadrangle has been published by the US Geological Survey (Tabor and others, 1982), and the Moses Lake (Gulick, 1990a), Ritzville (Gulick, 1990b), and Rosalia (Waggoner, 1990) quadrangles have already been released. The geology of the Priest Rapids quadrangle has not previously been compiled at 1:100,000 scale. Furthermore, this is the first 1:100,000 or smaller scale geologic map of the area to incorporate both bedrock and surficial geology. This map was compiled in 1992, using published and unpublished geologic maps as sources of data.

  7. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

    2006-01-03

    Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1-3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity.

  8. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0, through risk analysis (levels 1–3 to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4. Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity.

  9. Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci

    2010-12-01

    In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artés, Tomás; Boca, Roberto; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in forest fire monitoring. Forest fire simulators have been improved, including some calibration techniques avoiding data uncertainty and taking into account complex factors as the atmosphere. Such techniques increase dramatically the computational cost in a context where the available time to provide a forecast is a hard constraint. Furthermore, an early mapping of the fire becomes crucial to assess it. In this work, a non-supervised method for forest fire early detection and mapping is proposed. As main sources, the method uses daily thermal anomalies from MODIS and VIIRS combined with land cover map to identify and monitor forest fires with very few resources. This method relies on a clustering technique (DBSCAN algorithm) and on filtering thermal anomalies to detect the forest fires. In addition, a concave hull (alpha shape algorithm) is applied to obtain rapid mapping of the fire area (very coarse accuracy mapping). Therefore, the method leads to a potential use for high-resolution forest fire rapid mapping based on satellite imagery using the extent of each early fire detection. It shows the way to an automatic rapid mapping of the fire at high resolution processing as few data as possible.

  11. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  12. Integrating RapidEye and ancillary data to map alpine habitats in South Tyrol, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronaki, Anastasia; Spindler, Nadine; Schmidt, Alexander; Stoinschek, Barbara; Zebisch, Marc; Renner, Kathrin; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Notarnicola, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage method for mapping habitats using Earth observation (EO) data in three Alpine sites in South Tyrol, Italy. The first stage of the method was the classification of land cover types using multi-temporal RapidEye images and support vector machines (SVMs). The second stage involved reclassification of the land cover types to habitat types following a rule-based spatial kernel. The highest accuracies in land cover classification were 95.1% overall accuracy, 0.94 kappa coefficient and 4.9% overall disagreement. These accuracies were obtained when the combination of images with topographic parameters and homogeneity texture was used. The habitat classification accuracies were rather moderate due to the broadly defined rules and possible inaccuracies in the reference map. Overall, our proposed methodology could be implemented to map cost-effectively alpine habitats over large areas and could be easily adapted to map other types of habitats.

  13. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  14. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  15. THE USE OF UAS FOR RAPID 3D MAPPING IN GEOMATICS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-A. Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor. The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  16. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  17. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh; George, Martin J.; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V.; Kelly, Michael E.; McCrea, Richard P. E.; Lüning, Katharina; Devon, Richard M.; George, Graham N.; Hanson, Akela D.; Harder, Sheri M.; Chapman, L. Dean; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Nichol, Helen

    2009-02-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  18. Social media as an information source for rapid flood inundation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohringer, J.; Dransch, D.; Kreibich, H.; Schröter, K.

    2015-12-01

    During and shortly after a disaster, data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available. Information provided by eyewitnesses via social media is a valuable information source, which should be explored in a~more effective way. This research proposes a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. The novelty of this approach is the utilization of quantitative data that are derived from photos from eyewitnesses extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. The challenge is to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, as well as to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. To support rapid inundation mapping we propose a methodology and develop "PostDistiller", a tool to filter geolocated posts from social media services which include links to photos. This spatial distributed contextualized in situ information is further explored manually. In an application case study during the June 2013 flood in central Europe we evaluate the utilization of this approach to infer spatial flood patterns and inundation depths in the city of Dresden.

  19. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  20. Rapid Offline-Online Post-Disaster Landslide Mapping Tool: A case study from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Derron, Marc-Henri; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2016-04-01

    One of the crucial components of post disaster management is the efficient mapping of impacted areas. Here we present a tool designed to map landslides and affected objects after the earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal as well as for intense rainfall impact. Because internet is not available in many rural areas of Nepal, we developed an offline-online prototype based on Open-Source WebGIS technologies to make data on hazard impacts, including damaged infrastructure, landslides or flooding events available to authorities and the general public. This mobile application was designed as a low-cost, rapid and participatory method for recording impacts from hazard events. It is possible to record such events offline and upload them through a server, where internet connection is available. This application allows user authentication, image capturing, and information collation such as geolocation, event description, interactive mapping and finally storing all the data in the server for further analysis and visualisation. This application can be accessed by a mobile phone (Android) or a tablet as a hybrid version for both offline and online versions. The offline version has an interactive-offline map function which allows users to upload satellites image in order to improve ground truthing interpretation. After geolocation, the user can start mapping and then save recorded data into Geojson-TXT files that can be easily uploaded to the server whenever internet is available. This prototype was tested specifically for a rapid assessment of landslides and relevant land use characteristics such as roads, forest area, rivers in the Phewa Lake watershed near Pokhara, Nepal where a large number landslides were activated or reactivated after the 2015 monsoon season. More than 60 landslides were recorded during two days of field trip. Besides, it is possible to use this application for any other kind of hazard event like flood, avalanche, etc. Keywords: Offline, Online, Open source, Web

  1. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  2. Socio-economic, epidemiological and geographic features based on GIS-integrated mapping to identify malarial hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Abdul; Arya, Rakesh; Kumar, Pawan; Lynn, Andrew M

    2015-05-07

    Malaria is a major health problem in the tropical and subtropical world. In India, 95% of the population resides in malaria endemic regions and it is major public health problem in most parts of the country. The present work has developed malaria maps by integrating socio-economic, epidemiology and geographical dimensions of three eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The area has been studied in each dimension separately, and later integrated to find a list of vulnerable pockets/villages, called as malarial hotspots. The study has been done at village level. Seasonal variation of malaria, comparison of epidemiology indices and progress of the medical facility were studied. Ten independent geographical information system (GIS) maps of socio-economic aspects (population, child population, literacy, and work force participation), epidemiology (annual parasitic index (API) and slides collected and examined) and geographical features (settlement, forest cover, water bodies, rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature) were drawn and studied. These maps were overlaid based on computed weight matrix to find malarial hotspot. It was found that the studied dimensions were inter-weaving factors for malaria epidemic and closely affected malaria situations as evidenced from the obtained correlation matrix. The regions with water logging, high rainfall and proximity to forest, along with poor socio-economic conditions, are primarily hotspot regions. The work is presented through a series of GIS maps, tables, figures and graphs. A total of 2,054 out of 8,973 villages studied were found to be malarial hotspots and consequently suggestions were made to the concerned government malaria offices. With developing technology, information tools such as GIS, have captured almost every field of scientific research especially of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Malarial mapping enables easy update of information and effortless accessibility of geo-referenced data to policy

  3. Seroepizootiological-epidemiological investigation and mapping of West Nile infection in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Bosiljka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by the West Nile virus (WNV has been known since 1937 when it was described for the first time in Uganda. After spreading to Europe and the Middle East, the disease has changed its primary location. Today WN infection is a significant health problem in the world. As a result of the current epizootiological and epidemiological situation in Europe studies on the occurrence of WND were introduced in Serbia, also. The investigation on the presence of WNV antibodies was intensified in the period from 2008 to 2012. In this period a total of 3618 serum samples were tested from 18 localities (2736 animal sera from 8 different species and 882 human sera samples. The method applied was gel immunodiffusion and the representative samples were confirmed by the plaque reduction test (PRNT-90. Out of the total number of samples WNV antibodies were present in 3.97% horses, 0.93% dogs, 0.31% poultry and 1.36% man. In one horse serum sample there was a positive reaction with a positive control serum, thus indicating the presence of WNV antigen. The results have confirmed that WNV antibodies are present in 9 out of 18 tested locations in the Republic of Serbia. The percentage of seropositive samples varies from 0.42% in Pozarevac (horses and humans up to 6.45% in Novi Pazar (dogs. Out of the investigated species the highest seropositivity was recorded in horses (3.97%, and lowest in poultry (0.31%. WNV is present and widespread in the Republic of Serbia, thus enabling distribution mapping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 21047 i br. TR 37015

  4. Global maps of non-traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: towards a living data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Cripps, R A; Bonne Lee, B

    2014-02-01

    Literature review. Globally map non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) incidence, prevalence, survival, level of injury and aetiology. Propose a research framework for NTSCI prevention and launch a repository of NTSCI data. Initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society Prevention Committee. Literature search of Medline and Embase (1959-June 2011). Relevant articles in any language regarding adults with NTSCI were included. Stratification of information about incidence and prevalence into green/yellow/orange/red data quality 'zones' and comparisons between World Health Organisation (WHO) regions and countries. Three hundred and seventy-seven abstracts reviewed--45 of these from 24 countries in 12 of the 21 WHO global regions had relevant information. Only one publication had survival data. Prevalence data for NTSCI existed for only two countries, India (prevalence of 2,310/million population, Kashmir region) and Canada (prevalence of 1,120/million population). The incidence rates for WHO regions were: Asia Pacific, high income 20/million population/year; Australasia (26/million population/year); Western Europe median of 6/million population/year; North America, high income median 76/million population/year (based on poor-quality studies); and Oceania 9/million population/year. Developed countries tended to have a higher proportion of cases with degenerative conditions and tumours. Developing countries, in comparison, tended to have a higher proportion of infections, particularly tuberculosis and HIV, although a number also reported tumours as a major cause. Insufficient survival, prevalence and incidence data are a predominant finding of this review. The piecemeal approach to epidemiological reporting of NTSCI, particularly failing to include sound regional population denominators, has exhausted its utility. Minimum data collection standards are required.

  5. Hippocampal size predicts rapid learning of a cognitive map in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Victor R; Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F; Epstein, Russell A

    2013-06-01

    The idea that humans use flexible map-like representations of their environment to guide spatial navigation has a long and controversial history. One reason for this enduring controversy might be that individuals vary considerably in their ability to form and utilize cognitive maps. Here we investigate the behavioral and neuroanatomical signatures of these individual differences. Participants learned an unfamiliar campus environment over a period of three weeks. In their first visit, they learned the position of different buildings along two routes in separate areas of the campus. During the following weeks, they learned these routes for a second and third time, along with two paths that connected both areas of the campus. Behavioral assessments after each learning session indicated that subjects formed a coherent representation of the spatial structure of the entire campus after learning a single connecting path. Volumetric analyses of structural MRI data and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) indicated that the size of the right posterior hippocampus predicted the ability to use this spatial knowledge to make inferences about the relative positions of different buildings on the campus. An inverse relationship between gray matter volume and performance was observed in the caudate. These results suggest that (i) humans can rapidly acquire cognitive maps of large-scale environments and (ii) individual differences in hippocampal anatomy may provide the neuroanatomical substrate for individual differences in the ability to learn and flexibly use these cognitive maps. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rapid Traversability Assessment in 2.5D Grid-based Map on Rough Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid traversability assessment approach based on an extended 2.5D grid-based representaion of the rough terrain. Stereo vision system is used to perceive the environment surrounding robot. Conventional 2D, 3D and other 2.5D grid maps determine the traversability indices of the grids directly from the sensor feedback, while our approach attempts to address the indices of terrain from multiple grids instead. By analyzing the properties of multiple grids that the robot is to traverse, passable grids are distinguished, which also takes the robot's size into account. Fuzzy logic framework is applied to extract traversabiltiy indices from the terrain characteristics. A soccer robot equipped with a stereo vision system is adopted for experiments. The results show that our map is capable of speeding the process of traversability assessment and providing an autonomous mobile robot with a appropriate representation of 3D uneven terrain profile.

  7. Mapping Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Using RapidEye Satellite Data: The Example of Lake Kummerow (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fritz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and plays an important role as a long-term indictor for the trophic state of freshwater lakes. Variations in water level height, nutrient condition, light availability and water temperature affect the growth and species composition of SAV. Detailed information about seasonal variations in littoral bottom coverage are still unknown, although these effects are expected to mask climate change-related long-term changes, as derived by snapshots of standard monitoring methods included in the European Water Framework Directive. Remote sensing offers concepts to map SAV quickly, within large areas, and at short intervals. This study analyses the potential of a semi-empirical method to map littoral bottom coverage by a multi-seasonal approach. Depth-invariant indices were calculated for four Atmospheric & Topographic Correction (ATCOR2 atmospheric corrected RapidEye data sets acquired at Lake Kummerow, Germany, between June and August 2015. RapidEye data evaluation was supported by in situ measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water column and bottom reflectance. The processing chain was able to differentiate between SAV and sandy sediment. The successive increase of SAV coverage from June to August was correctly monitored. Comparisons with in situ and Google Earth imagery revealed medium accuracies (kappa coefficient = 0.61, overall accuracy = 72.2%. The analysed time series further revealed how water constituents and temporary surface phenomena such as sun glint or algal blooms influence the identification success of lake bottom substrates. An abundant algal bloom biased the interpretability of shallow water substrate such that a differentiation of sediments and SAV patches failed completely. Despite the documented limitations, mapping of SAV using RapidEye seems possible, even in eutrophic lakes.

  8. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will continue a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC by Weed Warrior...

  9. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project continues a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC (NNWRC) by Weed...

  10. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyalo Richard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step. An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer’s accuracy and UA: user’s accuracy for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10–20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  11. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Kyalo; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Nyasani, Johnson O.; Thiel, Michael; Jozani, Hosein; Borgemeister, Christian; Landmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF) classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC) and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step). An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer’s accuracy and UA: user’s accuracy) for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10–20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models. PMID:29099780

  12. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Kyalo; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Nyasani, Johnson O; Thiel, Michael; Jozani, Hosein; Borgemeister, Christian; Landmann, Tobias

    2017-11-03

    Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF) classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC) and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step). An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer's accuracy and UA: user's accuracy) for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10-20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  13. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  14. ShakeMap implementation for Pyrenees in France-Spain border: regional adaptation and earthquake rapid response process.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil, Didier; Roviró, Jordi; Antonio Jara, Jose; Susagna, Teresa; Nus, Eduard; Goula, Xavier; Colas, Bastien; Dumont, Guillaume; Cabañas, Luis; Anton, Resurección; Calvet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The USGS-ShakeMap package is used with a regional adaptation to provide automatic shake maps in rapid response for Pyrenean earthquakes. The Near Real Time system relies on servers designed for data exchange between transborder organizations involved in the Sispyr project. First maps will be provide as soon as possible after the shock, and updated with observed macroseismic intensities on the following hours. Regional Predictive Equations Tapia (2006) and Goula et al. ...

  15. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could be applied to quantify

  16. Studi Bahaya Erosi Tanah Dengan Metode Pemetaan Cepat (Rapid Mapping di Sub DAS Cimanuk Hulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Razali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Erosi tanah merupakan salah satu isu ekosistem lingkungan yang banyak menjadi perhatian, dimana manusia berperan merubah lingkungan yang ada di pegunungan seperti kondisi saat ini Sub DAS Cimanuk Hulu cukup memprihatinkan apabila tidak dilakukan penanganan dan pengendalian pemanfaatan ruangnya. Kaitannya dalam memperoleh informasi pendugaan erosi, metode kualitatif dimana dalam analisisanya dibantu menggunakan Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG lebih fleksibel dibandingkan model erosi lainnya dan penerapannya dapat disesuaikan dengan karakteristik daerah kajian dan ketersediaan data. Penelitian ini menggunakan Metode Pemetaan Cepat (Rapid Mapping untuk mengidentifikasi persebaran bahaya erosi berdasarkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi erosi seperti penutupan lahan, prosentase tanah terbuka dan kemiringan lereng diturunkan dari analisis Citra dan DEM. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa dengan memanfaatkan analisis Citra dan DEM cukup efektif untuk mengetahui persebaran bahaya erosi dan dapat digunakan untuk menentukan arahan teknik konservasi tanah.   ABSTRACT Soil erosion is one of the issues that many ecosystems of concern, where people act to change the environment in the mountains as the current conditions sub watershed Cimanuk Hulu quite alarming if not the handling and control of the use of space. Relation to erosion prediction information, qualitative methods which aided in analyze using Geographic Information System (GIS is more flexible than other erosion models and their application can be tailored to the characteristics of the study area and data availability. This study used the Fast Mapping (Rapid Mapping to identify the distribution of erosion based on factors that affect erosion as land cover, percentage of bareland and slope derived from the analysis of the image and DEM.Results show that by using image analysis and DEM effectively enough to know of erosion hazard and the distribution can be used to determine the soil conservation

  17. Lingual palpation for porcine cysticercosis: a rapid epidemiological tool for estimating prevalence and community risk in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, Helen L; Fèvre, Eric M

    2016-10-01

    To assess the association between the prevalence of tongue cyst-positive and antigen-positive pigs across different settings in Africa, to evaluate whether examining pigs for cysts could be used as a rapid surveillance tool for identifying geographical areas with a higher probability of high transmission of cysticercosis. Published data were collated from 26 study sites across Africa that reported the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by both lingual and serological examinations. The study sites were located in 10 countries across Africa. Seroprevalence rates ranged from 4% to 41%. Despite the varied study sites, the relationship between the two variables was highly consistent and suggests identification of tongue cysts may be useful for cysticercosis surveillance. We found that all areas with more than 10% of pigs having cysts in their tongues had at least 30% seroprevalence (PPV of 100%), although this cut-off is less reliable at predicting that an area is of low transmission (NPV of 84%). Assessing the prevalence of tongue cyst-positive pigs is a potential rapid epidemiological tool for identifying areas at high risk of cysticercosis, although further refinement and validation is required using standardised data sets. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rapid acquisition strategy for functional T1ρ mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Heo, Hye-Young; Thedens, Daniel R; Wemmie, John A; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2014-11-01

    Functional T1ρ mapping has been proposed as a method to assess pH and metabolism dynamics in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to describe and evaluate a variant of the spin-locked echo-planar imaging sequence for functional T1ρ mapping at 3T. The proposed sequence rapidly acquires a time series of T1ρ maps with 4.0second temporal resolution and 10 slices of volumetric coverage. Simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments are used to evaluate many aspects of the sequence and its implementation including fidelity of measured T1ρ dynamics, potential confounds to the T1ρ response, imaging parameter tradeoffs, time series analysis approaches, and differences compared to blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. It is shown that the high temporal resolution and volumetric coverage of the sequence are obtained with some expense including underestimation of the T1ρ response, sensitivity to T1 dynamics, and reduced signal-to-noise ratio. In vivo studies using a flashing checkerboard functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm suggest differences between T1ρ and blood oxygen level dependent activation patterns. Possible sources of the functional T1ρ response and potential sequence improvements are discussed. The capability of T1ρ to map whole-brain pH and metabolism dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution is potentially unique and warrants further investigation and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  20. Rapid multiphase flow dynamics mapped by single-shot MRI velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Andrea; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2010-08-23

    A new, fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method is described and applied to map flow fields in systems with internal velocities rapidly varying along the streamlines. While conventional MRI techniques encode the velocity information in a preparatory period prior to the imaging acquisition module, our technique repeatedly refreshes the velocity encoding during a single-shot imaging sequence. In this way, the maximum acceleration responsible for velocity variation of the molecules is increased by up to two orders of magnitude compared to standard procedures. Besides being compatible with high acceleration, this pulse sequence is suited to acquiring in a single scan the multiple velocity images required to construct a full velocity vector map. The power of this new methodology is demonstrated by following the internal dynamics of toluene droplets levitating in a counterflow of water during mass transfer of acetone from the water phase into the drop in the presence of surface-active impurities. The dramatic reduction in measurement time allows visualization for the first time of the important impact of even small concentrations of acetone on accumulation of surfactants at the drop's surface.

  1. Inheritance Analysis and QTL Mapping of Rice Starch Viscosity (Rapid Visco Analyzer Profile Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-feng ZHANG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rice starch viscosity characteristics, which can be indicated by Rapid Visco Analyzer profile (RVA profile, have been proved useful for the evaluation of cooking and eating quality in rice breeding program. To study the inheritance of the RVA profile, an F2 population of Wuyujing 3/Aichi 106 was used. The results indicated that the peak viscosity (PKV was a typical quantitative character, and the hot paste viscosity (HPV, cool paste viscosity (CPV, setback viscosity (SBV, breakdown viscosity (BDV, and consistence viscosity (CSV might be controlled by one major gene and several minor genes. To elucidate the genetic basis of the paste viscosity characteristics, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from Nikken 2/Milyang 23 and its genetic linkage map were used to map the QTLs controlling RVA profiles in 2005 and 2006. A total of 34 QTLs distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were detected, including 19 and 15 QTLs in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Eight QTLs were both detected in the two years, qHPV6, qCPV6, qCSV6, qSBV6, and qBDV6 were located on chromosome 6, while qHPV2, qCSV2, and qCPV2 were on chromosome 2.

  2. Rapid Mapping and Deformation Analysis over Cultural Heritage and Rural Sites Based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an easy-to-use procedure of “PSI-based rapid mapping and deformation analysis,” to effectively exploit Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI for multispatial/temporal hazard assessment of cultural heritage and rural sites, update the condition report at the scale of entire site and single building, and address the conservation strategies. Advantages and drawbacks of the methodology are critically discussed based on feasibility tests performed over Pitigliano and Bivigliano, respectively, located in Southern and Northern Tuscany, Italy, and representative of hilltop historic towns and countryside settlements chronically affected by natural hazards. We radar-interpreted ERS-1/2 (1992–2000 and ENVISAT (2003–2010 datasets, already processed, respectively with the Permanent Scatterers (PSs and Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSPs techniques, and assigned the levels of conservation criticality for both the sites. The PSI analysis allowed the zoning of the most unstable sectors of Pitigliano and showed a good agreement with the most updated hazard assessment of the cliff. The reconstruction of past/recent deformation patterns over Bivigliano confirmed the criticality for the Church of San Romolo, supporting the hypothesis of a correlation with local landslide phenomena, as also perceived from the annual motions observed over the entire site, where several landslide bodies are mapped.

  3. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  4. Rapid mapping of ultrafine fault zone topography with structure from motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendra; Nissen, Edwin; Saripalli, Srikanth; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; McGarey, Patrick; Scharer, Katherine M.; Williams, Patrick; Blisniuk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) generates high-resolution topography and coregistered texture (color) from an unstructured set of overlapping photographs taken from varying viewpoints, overcoming many of the cost, time, and logistical limitations of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and other topographic surveying methods. This paper provides the first investigation of SfM as a tool for mapping fault zone topography in areas of sparse or low-lying vegetation. First, we present a simple, affordable SfM workflow, based on an unmanned helium balloon or motorized glider, an inexpensive camera, and semiautomated software. Second, we illustrate the system at two sites on southern California faults covered by existing airborne or terrestrial LiDAR, enabling a comparative assessment of SfM topography resolution and precision. At the first site, an ∼0.1 km2 alluvial fan on the San Andreas fault, a colored point cloud of density mostly >700 points/m2 and a 3 cm digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from 233 photos collected ∼50 m above ground level. When a few global positioning system ground control points are incorporated, closest point vertical distances to the much sparser (∼4 points/m2) airborne LiDAR point cloud are mostly 530 points/m2 and a 2 cm DEM and orthophoto were produced from 450 photos taken from ∼60 m above ground level. Closest point vertical distances to existing terrestrial LiDAR data of comparable density are mostly <6 cm. Each SfM survey took ∼2 h to complete and several hours to generate the scene topography and texture. SfM greatly facilitates the imaging of subtle geomorphic offsets related to past earthquakes as well as rapid response mapping or long-term monitoring of faulted landscapes.

  5. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  6. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  7. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J Russell

    2015-01-01

    Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, Pmaps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are recommended.

  9. Environmental science applications with Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A.; Prusevich, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS) has been developed at the University of New Hampshire as an online instrument for multidisciplinary data visualization, analysis and manipulation with a focus on hydrological applications. Recently it was enriched with data and tools to allow more sophisticated analysis of interdisciplinary data. Three different examples of specific scientific applications with RIMS are demonstrated and discussed. Analysis of historical changes in major components of the Eurasian pan-Arctic water budget is based on historical discharge data, gridded observational meteorological fields, and remote sensing data for sea ice area. Express analysis of the extremely hot and dry summer of 2010 across European Russia is performed using a combination of near-real time and historical data to evaluate the intensity and spatial distribution of this event and its socioeconomic impacts. Integrative analysis of hydrological, water management, and population data for Central Asia over the last 30 years provides an assessment of regional water security due to changes in climate, water use and demography. The presented case studies demonstrate the capabilities of RIMS as a powerful instrument for hydrological and coupled human-natural systems research.

  10. Rapid high-resolution mapping of balanced chromosomal rearrangements on tiling CGH arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisman, Harvey A; Hoffman, Noah G; Yi, Hye Son

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis and classification of many cancers depends in part on the identification of large-scale genomic aberrations such as chromosomal deletions, duplications, and balanced translocations. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) can detect chromosomal imbalances on a genome-wide scale but cannot reliably identify balanced chromosomal rearrangements. We describe a simple modification of array CGH that enables simultaneous identification of recurrent balanced rearrangements and genomic imbalances on the same microarray. Using custom tiling oligonucleotide arrays and gene-specific linear amplification primers, translocation CGH (tCGH) maps balanced rearrangements to ∼100-base resolution and facilitates the rapid cloning and sequencing of novel rearrangement breakpoints. As proof of principle, we used tCGH to characterize nine of the most common gene fusions in mature B-cell neoplasms and myeloid leukemias. Because tCGH can be performed in any CGH-capable laboratory and can screen for multiple recurrent translocations and genome-wide imbalances, it should be of broad utility in the diagnosis and classification of various types of lymphomas, leukemias, and solid tumors. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Melting Temperature Mapping Method: A Novel Method for Rapid Identification of Unknown Pathogenic Microorganisms within Three Hours of Sample Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hideki; Ueno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Shirou; Abe, Akihito; Tsurue, Takahiro; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Goto, Michihiko; Akiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao

    2015-07-28

    Acquiring the earliest possible identification of pathogenic microorganisms is critical for selecting the appropriate antimicrobial therapy in infected patients. We herein report the novel "melting temperature (Tm) mapping method" for rapidly identifying the dominant bacteria in a clinical sample from sterile sites. Employing only seven primer sets, more than 100 bacterial species can be identified. In particular, using the Difference Value, it is possible to identify samples suitable for Tm mapping identification. Moreover, this method can be used to rapidly diagnose the absence of bacteria in clinical samples. We tested the Tm mapping method using 200 whole blood samples obtained from patients with suspected sepsis, 85% (171/200) of which matched the culture results based on the detection level. A total of 130 samples were negative according to the Tm mapping method, 98% (128/130) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Meanwhile, 70 samples were positive according to the Tm mapping method, and of the 59 suitable for identification, 100% (59/59) exhibited a "match" or "broad match" with the culture or sequencing results. These findings were obtained within three hours of whole blood collection. The Tm mapping method is therefore useful for identifying infectious diseases requiring prompt treatment.

  12. Rapid genotyping by low-coverage resequencing to construct genetic linkage maps of fungi: a case study in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chun Hang; Cheung, Man Kit; Wong, Man Chun; Chu, Astley Kin Kan; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2013-08-02

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. Traditional molecular markers used for genotyping are limited in throughput and efficiency. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated progeny genotyping and genetic linkage map construction in the major grains. However, the applicability of the approach remains untested in the fungal system. Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, is a basidiomycetous fungus that represents one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms. Here, we developed a rapid genotyping method based on low-coverage (~0.5 to 1.5-fold) whole-genome resequencing. We used the approach to genotype 20 single-spore isolates derived from L. edodes strain L54 and constructed the first high-density sequence-based genetic linkage map of L. edodes. The accuracy of the proposed genotyping method was verified experimentally with results from mating compatibility tests and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism on a few known genes. The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. Two hundred sequence-based markers were placed on the map, with an average marker spacing of 3.4 cM. The accuracy of the map was confirmed by comparing with previous maps the locations of known genes such as matA and matB. We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly.

  13. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys...

  15. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Weier, Jingly F.; Baumgartner, Aldof; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne, Santiago; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-02-25

    Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13) as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3 - embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  16. The Use of Surveillance Cameras for the Rapid Mapping of Lava Flows: An Application to Mount Etna Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the observation capability in one of the most active volcanic areas in the world, Mt. Etna, we developed a processing method to use the surveillance cameras for a quasi real-time mapping of syn-eruptive processes. Following an evaluation of the current performance of the Etna permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and Visible Sensors (Etna_NETVIS, its possible implementation and optimization was investigated to determine the locations of additional observation sites to be rapidly set up during emergencies. A tool was then devised to process time series of ground-acquired images and extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of georeferenced map. The processed datasets can be used to extract 2D features such as evolution maps of active lava flows. The tool was validated on ad-hoc test fields and then adopted to map the evolution of two recent lava flows. The achievable accuracy (about three times the original pixel size and the short processing time makes the tool suitable for rapidly assessing lava flow evolutions, especially in the case of recurrent eruptions, such as those of the 2011–2015 Etna activity. The tool can be used both in standard monitoring activities and during emergency phases (eventually improving the present network with additional mobile stations when it is mandatory to carry out a quasi-real-time mapping to support civil protection actions. The developed tool could be integrated in the control room of the Osservatorio Etneo, thus enabling the Etna_NETVIS for mapping purposes and not only for video surveillance.

  17. Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Dan; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2001-01-01

    'Cognitive' map is a term that refers to a person's environmental knowledge. Anyone experiencing a new environment will, over time, develop a cognitive representation of that environment, including information derived from that environment (e.g., about places, routes and spatial relationships) and information about personal experiences (e.g. memories about events at locations and attitudes towards places). There is now a great deal of research into the cognitive maps of sighted people (see Go...

  18. Rapid high resolution single nucleotide polymorphism-comparative genome hybridization mapping in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flibotte, Stephane; Edgley, Mark L; Maydan, Jason; Taylor, Jon; Zapf, Rick; Waterston, Robert; Moerman, Donald G

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a significantly improved and simplified method for high-resolution mapping of phenotypic traits in Caenorhabditis elegans using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and oligo array comparative genome hybridization (array CGH). We designed a custom oligonucleotide array using a subset of confirmed SNPs between the canonical wild-type Bristol strain N2 and the Hawaiian isolate CB4856, populated with densely overlapping 50-mer probes corresponding to both N2 and CB4856 SNP sequences. Using this method a mutation can be mapped to a resolution of approximately 200 kb in a single genetic cross. Six mutations representing each of the C. elegans chromosomes were detected unambiguously and at high resolution using genomic DNA from populations derived from as few as 100 homozygous mutant segregants of mutant N2/CB4856 heterozygotes. Our method completely dispenses with the PCR, restriction digest, and gel analysis of standard SNP mapping and should be easy to extend to any organism with interbreeding strains. This method will be particularly powerful when applied to difficult or hard-to-map low-penetrance phenotypes. It should also be possible to map polygenic traits using this method.

  19. An ultra-high density bin-map for rapid QTL mapping for tassel and ear architecture in a large F₂ maize population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongliang; Wang, Baobao; Dong, Xiaomei; Liu, Han; Ren, Longhui; Chen, Jian; Hauck, Andrew; Song, Weibin; Lai, Jinsheng

    2014-06-04

    Understanding genetic control of tassel and ear architecture in maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) is important due to their relationship with grain yield. High resolution QTL mapping is critical for understanding the underlying molecular basis of phenotypic variation. Advanced populations, such as recombinant inbred lines, have been broadly adopted for QTL mapping; however, construction of large advanced generation crop populations is time-consuming and costly. The rapidly declining cost of genotyping due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies has generated new possibilities for QTL mapping using large early generation populations. A set of 708 F2 progeny derived from inbreds Chang7-2 and 787 were generated and genotyped by whole genome low-coverage genotyping-by-sequencing method (average 0.04×). A genetic map containing 6,533 bin-markers was constructed based on the parental SNPs and a sliding-window method, spanning a total genetic distance of 1,396 cM. The high quality and accuracy of this map was validated by the identification of two well-studied genes, r1, a qualitative trait locus for color of silk (chromosome 10) and ba1 for tassel branch number (chromosome 3). Three traits of tassel and ear architecture were evaluated in this population, a total of 10 QTL were detected using a permutation-based-significance threshold, seven of which overlapped with reported QTL. Three genes (GRMZM2G316366, GRMZM2G492156 and GRMZM5G805008) encoding MADS-box domain proteins and a BTB/POZ domain protein were located in the small intervals of qTBN5 and qTBN7 (~800 Kb and 1.6 Mb in length, respectively) and may be involved in patterning of tassel architecture. The small physical intervals of most QTL indicate high-resolution mapping is obtainable with this method. We constructed an ultra-high-dentisy linkage map for the large early generation population in maize. Our study provides an efficient approach for fast detection of quantitative loci responsible

  20. A global map for traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: towards a living data repository for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, R A; Lee, B B; Wing, P; Weerts, E; Mackay, J; Brown, D

    2011-04-01

    Literature review. To map traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) globally and provide a framework for an ongoing repository of data for prevention. An initiative of the ISCoS Prevention Committee. The results obtained from the search of Medline/Embase using search phrases: TSCI incidence, aetiology, prevalence and survival were analysed. Stratification of data into green/yellow/red quality 'zones' allowed comparison between data. Reported global prevalence of TSCI is insufficient (236-1009 per million). Incidence data was comparable only for regions in North America (39 per million), Western Europe (15 per million) and Australia (16 per million). The major cause of TSCI in these regions involves four-wheeled motor vehicles, in contrast to South-east Asia where two-wheeled (and non-standard) road transport predominates. Southern Asia and Oceania have falls from rooftops and trees as the primary cause. High-fall rates are also seen in developed regions with aged populations (Japan/Western Europe). Violence/self-harm (mainly firearm-related) was higher in North America (15%) than either Western Europe (6%) or Australia (2%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported violence-related TSCI in the world (38%). Rates are also high in north Africa/Middle East (24%) and Latin America (22%). Developed countries have significantly improved TSCI survival compared with developing countries, particularly for tetraplegia. Developing countries have the highest 1-year mortality rates and in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa the occurrence of a spinal injury is likely to be a fatal condition within a year. Missing prevalence and insufficient incidence data is a recurrent feature of this review. The piecemeal approach to epidemiological reporting of TSCI, particularly failing to include sound regional denominators has exhausted its utility. Minimum data collection standards are required.

  1. Rapid quantitative T2 mapping of the prostate using three-dimensional dual echo steady state MRI at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregely, Isabel; Margolis, Daniel A J; Sung, Kyunghyun; Zhou, Ziwu; Rangwala, Novena; Raman, Steven S; Wu, Holden H

    2016-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a rapid three-dimensional (3D) quantitative T2 mapping method for prostate cancer imaging using dual echo steady state (DESS) MRI at 3T. In simulations, DESS-T2 mapping in the presence of T1 and B1+ variations was evaluated. In a phantom and in healthy volunteers (n = 4), 3D DESS-T2 mapping was compared with a two-dimensional turbo spin echo (TSE) approach. In volunteers and a pilot patient study (n = 29), quantitative T2 in normal prostate anatomical zones and in suspected cancerous lesions was evaluated. The simulated bias for DESS-T2 was T1 ( B1+) variations. In phantoms and in vivo, high correlation of DESS-T2 and TSE-T2 (r(2)  = 0.98 and 0.88, P mapping in the entire prostate can be performed in 1 min using DESS MRI. Magn Reson Med 76:1720-1729, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Rapid mapping of compound eye visual sampling parameters with FACETS, a highly automated wide-field goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wehling, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    A highly automated goniometer instrument (called FACETS) has been developed to facilitate rapid mapping of compound eye parameters for investigating regional visual field specializations. The instrument demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing the complete field of view of an insect eye in a fraction of the time required if using non-motorized, non-computerized methods. Faster eye mapping makes it practical for the first time to employ sample sizes appropriate for testing hypotheses about the visual significance of interspecific differences in regional specializations. Example maps of facet sizes are presented from four dipteran insects representing the Asilidae, Calliphoridae, and Stratiomyidae. These maps provide the first quantitative documentation of the frontal enlarged-facet zones (EFZs) that typify asilid eyes, which, together with the EFZs in male Calliphoridae, are likely to be correlated with high-spatial-resolution acute zones. The presence of EFZs contrasts sharply with the almost homogeneous distribution of facet sizes in the stratiomyid. Moreover, the shapes of EFZs differ among species, suggesting functional specializations that may reflect differences in visual ecology. Surveys of this nature can help identify species that should be targeted for additional studies, which will elucidate fundamental principles and constraints that govern visual field specializations and their evolution.

  3. An online system for rapid and simultaneous flood mapping scenario simulations - the Zambezi FloodDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexander; Kiesel, Jens; Kling, Harald; Preishuber, Martin; Petersen, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The Zambezi is the fourth largest river basin in Africa. Catchment hydrology is very complex due to significant spatio-temporal variations in precipitation and retention in surface water bodies including Lake Malawi, various large natural floodplains and swamps as well as the two large artificial reservoirs Lake Kariba and Lake Cahora Bassa. The Zambezi DSS, a free web-based system, can be used to simulate catchment hydrology under various climate scenarios and user defined reservoir operation rules. Since the Mozambican part of the river is prone to flooding, causing loss of life and considerable damages, the DSS can provide discharges along the river as an input to hydraulic scenario simulations and flood mapping. However, a dynamic link to a server-based hydraulic model would compromise the DSS as a fast and open online system: Using this coupled system, hydraulic simulations and flood mapping would have to be carried out for each simulated scenario, which is a time consuming, computationally intense process and difficult to implement in an online system which is used by multiple users, each creating multiple flood maps simultaneously. We thus developed a different approach to dynamically derive flood maps along the main channel of the Zambezi within Mozambique for any scenario produced by the Zambezi DSS: The HEC-RAS model has been used to simulate physically possible range of discharges for more than 200 flow events at more than 1900 cross sections. Each event is converted to an inundation map, which is cut into inundation polygons at every cross section and saved with the according discharge and water level value in a database. The database is extended by polygons showing reservoir surface area extents of existing and future dams depending on reservoir water level. This database is dynamically linked to the Zambezi DSS and flood inundation maps are produced for any possible DSS-scenario using hydraulic plausibility constraints. Internal flood map generation

  4. Decision fusion and non-parametric classifiers for land use mapping using multi-temporal RapidEye data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher; Michel, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    This study addressed the classification of multi-temporal satellite data from RapidEye by considering different classifier algorithms and decision fusion. Four non-parametric classifier algorithms, decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and multilayer perceptron (MLP), were applied to map crop types in various irrigated landscapes in Central Asia. A novel decision fusion strategy to combine the outputs of the classifiers was proposed. This approach is based on randomly selecting subsets of the input dataset and aggregating the probabilistic outputs of the base classifiers with another meta-classifier. During the decision fusion, the reliability of each base classifier algorithm was considered to exclude less reliable inputs at the class-basis. The spatial and temporal transferability of the classifiers was evaluated using data sets from four different agricultural landscapes with different spatial extents and from different years. A detailed accuracy assessment showed that none of the stand-alone classifiers was the single best performing. Despite the very good performance of the base classifiers, there was still up to 50% disagreement in the maps produced by the two single best classifiers, RF and SVM. The proposed fusion strategy, however, increased overall accuracies up to 6%. In addition, it was less sensitive to reduced training set sizes and produced more realistic land use maps with less speckle. The proposed fusion approach was better transferable to data sets from other years, i.e. resulted in higher accuracies for the investigated classes. The fusion approach is computationally efficient and appears well suited for mapping diverse crop categories based on sensors with a similar high repetition rate and spatial resolution like RapidEye, for instance the upcoming Sentinel-2 mission.

  5. Characterization of the Metabochip in diverse populations from the International HapMap Project in the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Wilson, Sarah; Roberson, Jamie; Gillani, Niloufar B; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Dilks, Holli H; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genomic regions associated with common human disease and quantitative traits. A major research avenue for mature genotype-phenotype associations is the identification of the true risk or functional variant for downstream molecular studies or personalized medicine applications. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we as Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) are fine-mapping GWAS-identified genomic regions for common diseases and quantitative traits. We are currently genotyping the Metabochip, a custom content BeadChip designed for fine-mapping metabolic diseases and traits, in∼15,000 DNA samples from patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry linked to de-identified electronic medical records from the Vanderbilt University biorepository (BioVU). As an initial study of quality control, we report here the genotyping data for 360 samples of European, African, Asian, and Mexican descent from the International HapMap Project. In addition to quality control metrics, we report the overall allele frequency distribution, overall population differentiation (as measured by FST), and linkage disequilibrium patterns for a select GWAS-identified region associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to illustrate the utility of the Metabochip for fine-mapping studies in the diverse populations expected in EAGLE, the PAGE study, and other efforts underway designed to characterize the complex genetic architecture underlying common human disease and quantitative traits.

  6. A Map/Reduce Parallelized Framework for Rapidly Classifying Astrophysical Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, D. L.; Bloom, J. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Butler, N. R.; Klein, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Berkeley Transients Classification Pipeline (TCP) is a source identification, classification, and broadcast pipeline which federates data streams from multiple surveys. The TCP identifies variable science by making probabilistic statements about the scientific classification of newly discovered sources observed by the Palomar Transient Factory’s all sky survey. The primary purpose of PTF is to consistently map the available sky with the intent to discover a variety of galactic and extragalactic transient sources and events. The TCP identifies and alerts follow-up telescopes such as PAIRITEL (Bloom et al. 2005) and end users to these newly discovered transient sources. Here we discuss software used within the TCP to generate science classifiers when little or no data has been acquired by the survey of interest. This case proves more challenging than when generating classifiers for a well populated survey. We present some of the difficulties encountered and a parallelized Hadoop/MapReduce based technique we use to resolve them.

  7. Rapid dissemination of colistin and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Central Greece: mechanisms of resistance, molecular identification and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, O; Sarrou, S; Papagiannitsis, C C; Georgiadou, S; Mantzarlis, K; Zakynthinos, E; Dalekos, G N; Petinaki, E

    2015-12-09

    Colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant challenge for antibiotic treatment and infection control policies. Since 2012, in Central Greece an increase of colistin/pan- resistant A. baumannii has occurred, indicating the need for further analysis. A total of 86 colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant out of 1228 A. baumannii clinical isolates, consecutively collected between 2012 and 2014 in a tertiary Greek hospital of Central Greece, as well as one environmental isolate from surveillance cultures were studied. Molecular typing and mechanisms of resistance to colistin and to carbapenems were assessed, whereas, epidemiological and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. During the study period, the rate of colistin resistance gradually increased and reached 21.1 % in 2014. All colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii belonged to 3LST ST101 clone that corresponds to the international clonal lineage II. Carbapenem resistance was associated with the presence of bla oxa-23-like, while resistance to colistin probably correlated with G54E and R109H amino acid substitutions in PmrA and PmrC, respectively. Epidemiological data of the patients indicated that the first detection of colistin-resistant/carbapenem-resistant ST101 clone in the University Hospital of Larissa (UHL) was associated with a patient who previously had received colistin, while, the movement of the infected patients into the hospital probably resulted to its spread.

  8. Rapid fine conformational epitope mapping using comprehensive mutagenesis and deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Caitlin A; Faber, Matthew S; Nath, Aritro; Dann, Hailey E; Kelly, Vince W; Liu, Li; Shanker, Purva; Wagner, Ellen K; Maynard, Jennifer A; Chan, Christina; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2015-10-30

    Knowledge of the fine location of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes on human pathogens affords a better understanding of the structural basis of antibody efficacy, which will expedite rational design of vaccines, prophylactics, and therapeutics. However, full utilization of the wealth of information from single cell techniques and antibody repertoire sequencing awaits the development of a high throughput, inexpensive method to map the conformational epitopes for antibody-antigen interactions. Here we show such an approach that combines comprehensive mutagenesis, cell surface display, and DNA deep sequencing. We develop analytical equations to identify epitope positions and show the method effectiveness by mapping the fine epitope for different antibodies targeting TNF, pertussis toxin, and the cancer target TROP2. In all three cases, the experimentally determined conformational epitope was consistent with previous experimental datasets, confirming the reliability of the experimental pipeline. Once the comprehensive library is generated, fine conformational epitope maps can be prepared at a rate of four per day. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  10. Rapid, decimeter-resolution fault zone topography mapped with Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nissen, E.; Saripalli, S.; Arrowsmith, R.; McGarey, P.; Scharer, K. M.; Williams, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the generation of high-resolution topography have revolutionized our ability to detect subtle geomorphic features related to ground-rupturing earthquakes. Currently, the most popular topographic mapping methods are airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Though powerful, these laser scanning methods have some inherent drawbacks: airborne LiDAR is expensive and can be logistically complicated, while TLS is time consuming even for small field sites and suffers from patchy coverage due to its restricted field-of-view. An alternative mapping technique, called Structure from Motion (SfM), builds upon traditional photogrammetry to reproduce the topography and texture of a scene from photographs taken at varying viewpoints. The improved availability of cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as camera platforms further expedites data collection by covering large areas efficiently with optimal camera angles. Here, we introduce a simple and affordable UAV- or balloon-based SfM mapping system which can produce dense point clouds and sub-decimeter resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) registered to geospatial coordinates using either the photograph's GPS tags or a few ground control points across the scene. The system is ideally suited for studying ruptures of prehistoric, historic, and modern earthquakes in areas of sparse or low-lying vegetation. We use two sites from southern California faults to illustrate. The first is the ~0.1 km2 Washington Street site, located on the Banning strand of the San Andreas fault near Thousand Palms. A high-resolution DEM with ~700 point/m2 was produced from 230 photos collected on a balloon platform flying at 50 m above the ground. The second site is the Galway Lake Road site, which spans a ~1 km strip of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake on the Emerson Fault. The 100 point/m2 DEM was produced from 267 photos taken with a balloon platform at a height of 60 m above the ground

  11. Active machine learning for rapid landslide inventory mapping with VHR satellite images (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Lachiche, N.; Malet, J.; Kerle, N.; Puissant, A.

    2013-12-01

    VHR satellite images have become a primary source for landslide inventory mapping after major triggering events such as earthquakes and heavy rainfalls. Visual image interpretation is still the prevailing standard method for operational purposes but is time-consuming and not well suited to fully exploit the increasingly better supply of remote sensing data. Recent studies have addressed the development of more automated image analysis workflows for landslide inventory mapping. In particular object-oriented approaches that account for spatial and textural image information have been demonstrated to be more adequate than pixel-based classification but manually elaborated rule-based classifiers are difficult to adapt under changing scene characteristics. Machine learning algorithm allow learning classification rules for complex image patterns from labelled examples and can be adapted straightforwardly with available training data. In order to reduce the amount of costly training data active learning (AL) has evolved as a key concept to guide the sampling for many applications. The underlying idea of AL is to initialize a machine learning model with a small training set, and to subsequently exploit the model state and data structure to iteratively select the most valuable samples that should be labelled by the user. With relatively few queries and labelled samples, an AL strategy yields higher accuracies than an equivalent classifier trained with many randomly selected samples. This study addressed the development of an AL method for landslide mapping from VHR remote sensing images with special consideration of the spatial distribution of the samples. Our approach [1] is based on the Random Forest algorithm and considers the classifier uncertainty as well as the variance of potential sampling regions to guide the user towards the most valuable sampling areas. The algorithm explicitly searches for compact regions and thereby avoids a spatially disperse sampling pattern

  12. Rapid detection of structural variation in a human genome using nanochannel-based genome mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Hastie, Alex R.; Cao, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than poi...... mapping technology as a comprehensive and cost-effective method for detecting structural variation and studying complex regions in the human genome, as well as deciphering viral integration into the host genome.......BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are less common than single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels in the population, but collectively account for a significant fraction of genetic polymorphism and diseases. Base pair differences arising from SVs are on a much higher order (>100 fold) than point...... mutations; however, none of the current detection methods are comprehensive, and currently available methodologies are incapable of providing sufficient resolution and unambiguous information across complex regions in the human genome. To address these challenges, we applied a high-throughput, cost...

  13. Rapid mapping of digital integrated circuit logic gates via multi-spectral backside imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Adato, Ronen; Zangeneh, Mahmoud; Zhou, Boyou; Joshi, Ajay; Goldberg, Bennett; Unlu, M Selim

    2016-01-01

    Modern semiconductor integrated circuits are increasingly fabricated at untrusted third party foundries. There now exist myriad security threats of malicious tampering at the hardware level and hence a clear and pressing need for new tools that enable rapid, robust and low-cost validation of circuit layouts. Optical backside imaging offers an attractive platform, but its limited resolution and throughput cannot cope with the nanoscale sizes of modern circuitry and the need to image over a large area. We propose and demonstrate a multi-spectral imaging approach to overcome these obstacles by identifying key circuit elements on the basis of their spectral response. This obviates the need to directly image the nanoscale components that define them, thereby relaxing resolution and spatial sampling requirements by 1 and 2 - 4 orders of magnitude respectively. Our results directly address critical security needs in the integrated circuit supply chain and highlight the potential of spectroscopic techniques to addres...

  14. Rapid identification of causal mutations in tomato EMS populations via mapping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Virginie; Bres, Cécile; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Tai, Fabienne Wong Jun; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Brunel, Dominique; Aoki, Koh; Alseekh, Saleh; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fraser, Paul D; Rothan, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The tomato is the model species of choice for fleshy fruit development and for the Solanaceae family. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutants of tomato have already proven their utility for analysis of gene function in plants, leading to improved breeding stocks and superior tomato varieties. However, until recently, the identification of causal mutations that underlie particular phenotypes has been a very lengthy task that many laboratories could not afford because of spatial and technical limitations. Here, we describe a simple protocol for identifying causal mutations in tomato using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy. Plants displaying phenotypes of interest are first isolated by screening an EMS mutant collection generated in the miniature cultivar Micro-Tom. A recombinant F2 population is then produced by crossing the mutant with a wild-type (WT; non-mutagenized) genotype, and F2 segregants displaying the same phenotype are subsequently pooled. Finally, whole-genome sequencing and analysis of allele distributions in the pools allow for the identification of the causal mutation. The whole process, from the isolation of the tomato mutant to the identification of the causal mutation, takes 6-12 months. This strategy overcomes many previous limitations, is simple to use and can be applied in most laboratories with limited facilities for plant culture and genotyping.

  15. A high-resolution optical measurement system for rapid acquisition of radiation flux density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Martin; Raeder, Christian; Willsch, Christian; Dibowski, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    To identify the power and flux density of concentrated solar radiation the Institute of Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e. V.) has used the camera-based measurement system FATMES (Flux and Temperature Measurement System) since 1995. The disadvantages of low resolution, difficult handling and poor computing power required a revision of the existing measurement system. The measurement system FMAS (Flux Mapping Acquisition system) is equipped with state-of-the-art-hardware, is compatible with computers off-the-shelf and is programmed in LabView. The expenditure of time for an image evaluation is reduced by the factor 60 compared to FATMES. The new measurement system is no longer associated with the facilities Solar Furnace and High Flux Solar Simulator at the DLR in Cologne but is also applicable as a mobile system. The data and the algorithms are transparent throughout the complete process. The measurement accuracy of FMAS is determined to at most ±3 % until now. The error of measurement of FATMES is at least 2 % higher according to the conducted comparison tests.

  16. Rapid, semi-automatic fracture and contact mapping for point clouds, images and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Grose, Lachlan; Samsu, Anindita; Micklethwaite, Steven; Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of large digital datasets from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite platforms now challenges our ability to extract information across multiple scales in a timely manner, often meaning that the full value of the data is not realised. Here we adapt a least-cost-path solver and specially tailored cost functions to rapidly interpolate structural features between manually defined control points in point cloud and raster datasets. We implement the method in the geographic information system QGIS and the point cloud and mesh processing software CloudCompare. Using these implementations, the method can be applied to a variety of three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) datasets, including high-resolution aerial imagery, digital outcrop models, digital elevation models (DEMs) and geophysical grids. We demonstrate the algorithm with four diverse applications in which we extract (1) joint and contact patterns in high-resolution orthophotographs, (2) fracture patterns in a dense 3-D point cloud, (3) earthquake surface ruptures of the Greendale Fault associated with the Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (New Zealand) from high-resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) data, and (4) oceanic fracture zones from bathymetric data of the North Atlantic. The approach improves the consistency of the interpretation process while retaining expert guidance and achieves significant improvements (35-65 %) in digitisation time compared to traditional methods. Furthermore, it opens up new possibilities for data synthesis and can quantify the agreement between datasets and an interpretation.

  17. Wavelength optimization for rapid chromophore mapping using spatial frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Amaan; Dell, Steven; Cuccia, David J.; Gioux, Sylvain; Durkin, Anthony J.; Frangioni, John V.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2010-11-01

    Spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) utilizes multiple-frequency structured illumination and model-based computation to generate two-dimensional maps of tissue absorption and scattering properties. SFDI absorption data are measured at multiple wavelengths and used to fit for the tissue concentration of intrinsic chromophores in each pixel. This is done with a priori knowledge of the basis spectra of common tissue chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin (ctO2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (ctHHb), water (ctH2O), and bulk lipid. The quality of in vivo SFDI fits for the hemoglobin parameters ctO2Hb and ctHHb is dependent on wavelength selection, fitting parameters, and acquisition rate. The latter is critical because SFDI acquisition time is up to six times longer than planar two-wavelength multispectral imaging due to projection of multiple-frequency spatial patterns. Thus, motion artifact during in vivo measurements compromises the quality of the reconstruction. Optimal wavelength selection is examined through matrix decomposition of basis spectra, simulation of data, and dynamic in vivo measurements of a human forearm during cuff occlusion. Fitting parameters that minimize cross-talk from additional tissue chromophores, such as water and lipid, are determined. On the basis of this work, a wavelength pair of 670 nm/850 nm is determined to be the optimal two-wavelength combination for in vivo hemodynamic tissue measurements provided that assumptions for water and lipid fractions are made in the fitting process. In our SFDI case study, wavelength optimization reduces acquisition time over 30-fold to 1.5s compared to 50s for a full 34-wavelength acquisition. The wavelength optimization enables dynamic imaging of arterial occlusions with improved spatial resolution due to reduction of motion artifacts.

  18. Rapid sociometric mapping of community health workers to identify opinion leaders using an SMS platform: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeny, Thomas A; Petersen, Maya; Muga, Charles T; Lewis-Kulzer, Jayne; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Geng, Elvin H

    2017-06-26

    Using opinion leaders to accelerate the dissemination of evidence-based public health practices is a promising strategy for closing the gap between evidence and practice. Network interventions (using social network data to accelerate behavior change or improve organizational performance) are a promising but under-explored strategy. We aimed to use mobile phone technology to rapidly and inexpensively map a social network and identify opinion leaders among community health workers in a large HIV program in western Kenya. We administered a five-item socio-metric survey to community health workers using a mobile phone short message service (SMS)-based questionnaire. We used the survey results to construct and characterize a social network of opinion leaders among respondents. We calculated the extent to which a particular respondent was a popular point of reference ("degree centrality") and the influence of a respondent within the network ("eigenvector centrality"). Surveys were returned by 38/39 (97%) of peer health workers contacted; 52% were female. The median survey response time was 13.75 min (inter-quartile range, 8.8-38.7). The total cost of relaying survey questions through a secure cloud-based SMS aggregator was $8.46. The most connected individuals (high degree centrality) were also the most influential (high eigenvector centrality). The distribution of influence (eigenvector centrality) was highly skewed in favor of a single influential individual at each site. Leveraging increasing access to SMS technology, we mapped the network of influence among community health workers associated with a HIV treatment program in Kenya. Survey uptake was high, response rates were rapid, and the survey identified clear opinion leaders. In sum, we offer proof of concept that a "mobile health" (mHealth) approach can be used in resource-limited settings to efficiently map opinion leadership among health care workers and thus open the door to reproducible, feasible, and

  19. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources.

  20. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-12-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  1. The rapid moving Capriglio earth flow (Parma Province, North Italy): multi-temporal mapping and GB-InSAR monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Raspini, Federico; Frodella, William; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Morelli, Stefano; Corsini, Alessandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    This research presents the main findings of the multi-temporal mapping and of the long-term, real-time monitoring of the Capriglio landslide in the Emilian Apennines (Northern Italy). The landslide, triggered by prolonged rainfall and rapid snowmelt, activated of April 6th 2013. It is constituted by two main adjacent enlarging bodies with a roto-translational kinematics. They activated in sequence and subsequently joined into a large fast moving earth flow, channelizing downstream the Bardea Creek, for a total length of about 3600 meters. The landslide completely destroyed a 450 m sector of the provincial roadway S.P. 101, and its retrogression tendency put at high risk the Capriglio and Pianestolla villages, located in the upper watershed area of the Bardea River. Furthermore, the advancing toe seriously threatened the Antria bridge, representing the "Massese" provincial roadway S.P. 665R transect over the Bardea Creek, the only strategic roadway left able to connect the above-mentioned villages. With the final aim of supporting local authorities in the hazard assessment and risk management during the emergency phase, on May 5th 2013 aerial optical surveys were conducted to accurately map the landslide extension and evolution. Moreover, a GB-InSAR monitoring campaign was started in order to assess displacements of the whole landslide area. The versatility and flexibility of the GB-InSAR sensors allowed acquiring data with two different configurations, designed and set up to continuously retrieve information on the landslide movements rates (both in its upper slow-moving sectors and in its fast-moving toe). The first acquisition mode revealed that the Capriglio and Pianestolla villages were affected by minor displacements (order of magnitude of few millimetres per month). The second acquisition mode allowed to acquire data every 28'', reaching very high temporal resolution values by applying GB-InSAR technique (Monserrat et al., 2014; Caduff et al., 2015).

  2. Strategies for rapidly mapping proviral integration sites and assessing cardiogenic potential of nascent human induced pluripotent stem cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, Cheryl; Buermans, Henk P J; Varga, Eszter; Kosmidis, Georgios; Langenberg, Karin; Casini, Simona; Elliott, David A; Dinnyes, Andras; Atsma, Douwe E; Mummery, Christine L; Braam, Stefan R; Davis, Richard P

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological advances have improved the ease and efficiency of generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), but this now typically results in a greater number of hiPSC clones being derived than can be wholly characterized. It is therefore imperative that methods are developed which facilitate rapid selection of hiPSC clones most suited for the downstream research aims. Here we describe a combination of procedures enabling the simultaneous screening of multiple clones to determine their genomic integrity as well as their cardiac differentiation potential within two weeks of the putative reprogrammed colonies initially appearing. By coupling splinkerette-PCR with Ion Torrent sequencing, we could ascertain the number and map the proviral integration sites in lentiviral-reprogrammed hiPSCs. In parallel, we developed an effective cardiac differentiation protocol that generated functional cardiomyocytes within 10 days without requiring line-specific optimization for any of the six independent human pluripotent stem cell lines tested. Finally, to demonstrate the scalable potential of these procedures, we picked 20 nascent iPSC clones and performed these independent assays concurrently. Before the clones required passaging, we were able to identify clones with a single integrated copy of the reprogramming vector and robust cardiac differentiation potential for further analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global epidemiology of sickle haemoglobin in neonates: a contemporary geostatistical model-based map and population estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Patil, Anand P; Howes, Rosalind E; Nyangiri, Oscar A; Gething, Peter W; Dewi, Mewahyu; Temperley, William H; Williams, Thomas N; Weatherall, David J; Hay, Simon I

    2013-01-12

    Reliable estimates of populations affected by diseases are necessary to guide efficient allocation of public health resources. Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) is the most common and clinically significant haemoglobin structural variant, but no contemporary estimates exist of the global populations affected. Moreover, the precision of available national estimates of heterozygous (AS) and homozygous (SS) neonates is unknown. We aimed to provide evidence-based estimates at various scales, with uncertainty measures. Using a database of sickle haemoglobin surveys, we created a contemporary global map of HbS allele frequency distribution within a Bayesian geostatistical model. The pairing of this map with demographic data enabled calculation of global, regional, and national estimates of the annual number of AS and SS neonates. Subnational estimates were also calculated in data-rich areas. Our map shows subnational spatial heterogeneities and high allele frequencies across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and India, as well as gene flow following migrations to western Europe and the eastern coast of the Americas. Accounting for local heterogeneities and demographic factors, we estimated that the global number of neonates affected by HbS in 2010 included 5,476,000 (IQR 5,291,000-5,679,000) AS neonates and 312,000 (294,000-330,000) SS neonates. These global estimates are higher than previous conservative estimates. Important differences predicted at the national level are discussed. HbS will have an increasing effect on public health systems. Our estimates can help countries and the international community gauge the need for appropriate diagnoses and genetic counselling to reduce the number of neonates affected. Similar mapping and modelling methods could be used for other inherited disorders. The Wellcome Trust. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetation cover mapping at multiple scales using MODIS, Landsat, RapidEye, and Aircraft imageries in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Gowda, P. H.; Maas, S. J.; Basu, S.; Nair, S. S.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation cover is an important input variable in many earth and environmental studies. In many of these studies, vegetation cover information is needed at different spatial scales. Hence, remote sensing is a popular tool to estimate vegetation cover. Numerous spectral-based models are available in the literature for mapping vegetation cover. However, very limited information is available on their ability to perform well at spatial scales different from the scale at which the model was developed. In this study, we used a procedure based on the Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) to estimate vegetation cover. Using this procedure, vegetation cover is estimated from the ratio of the PVI of an image pixel to the PVI of full vegetation canopy (100% ground cover). The major advantages of this procedure compared to several other methods are that this method does not rely on empirical relationships, and can use raw remote sensing data without converting it into surface reflectance or normalization to account scene-to scene difference in vegetation. Previous studies conducted during the summer growing seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008 in the Texas High Plains (THP) show that the method could estimate vegetation cover from Landsat imagery with an average error of less than 6%, and from high-resolution aerial images (obtained using TTAMRSS, the Texas Tech Airborne Multispectral Remote Sensing System) with an average error of less than 3%. In this study, we used this procedure to estimate vegetation cover of 10 large agricultural fields in the THP with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 250 m resolution) and with the RapidEye (5 m resolution) imageries. The results were compared with ground-based observations and vegetation cover derived from Landsat and high resolution aircraft imageries.

  5. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping of lymphatic filariasis endemic areas of Gampaha District, Sri Lanka based on epidemiological and entomological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijegunawardana, N D A D; Gunawardene, Y I N Silva; Manamperi, Aresha; Senarathne, H; Abeyewickreme, W

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a site directed geographic information system (GIS) map of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka as a guide for targeted control activities. Epidemiological and entomological screening of LF was carried out in nine pre-identified endemic areas in Gampaha District, using night blood screening and pool-screening PCR-ELISA. In total, 1,073 subjects (286 children, 787 adults) from 9 sites were examined. Positive cases were detected at 2 sites, with prevalence rates of 0.5% (Hekiththa) and 3.4% (Peliyagoda); the prevalence of microfilaria (mf) among adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes surveyed was 30%. The overall prevalence of mosquitoes with L1-L2 larvae of W. bancrofti ranged from 0% to 8.31% using dissection and point estimates of infection prevalence, and ranged from 0 to 32.4% using PCR-ELISA. The largest number of human cases was found at altitudes of 2.5-3.5 min highly populated areas, where transmission appears to have taken place. Questionnaires indicated that limited community awareness of LF may be a reason for the fairly static infection prevalent among the local population. The GIS mapping of LF cases shows a considerable prevalence of LF and marked variability by geographic site in Gampaha.

  6. Rapid high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of T1 and age-dependent variations in the non-human primate brain using magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie V.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative T1 mapping in neuroscience and neurology has raised strong interest in the development of T1-mapping techniques that can measure T1 in the whole brain, with high accuracy and precision and within short imaging and computation times. Here, we present a new inversion-recovery (IR) based T1-mapping method using a standard 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence. By varying only the inversion time (TI), but keeping other parameters constant, MPRAGE image signals become linear to exp(−TI/T1), allowing for accurate T1 estimation without flip angle correction. We also show that acquiring data at just 3 TIs, with the three different TI values optimized, gives maximum T1 precision per unit time, allowing for new efficient approaches to measure and compute T1. We demonstrate the use of our method at 7 Tesla to obtain 3D T1 maps of the whole brain in common marmosets at 0.60 mm resolution and within 11 minutes. T1 maps from the same individuals were highly reproducible across different days. Across subjects, the peak of cerebral gray matter T1 distribution was 1735±52 ms, and the lower edge of cerebral white matter T1 distribution was 1270±43 ms. We found a significant decrease of T1 in both gray and white matter of the marmoset brain with age over a span of 14 years, in agreement with previous human studies. This application illustrates that MPRAGE-based 3D T1 mapping is rapid, accurate and precise, and can facilitate high-resolution anatomical studies in neuroscience and neurological diseases. PMID:21376814

  7. Rapid SNP discovery and a RAD-based high-density linkage map in jujube (Ziziphus Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Jian, Jianbo; Liu, Guannan; Wang, Jiurui; Lin, Minjuan; Ming, Yao; Liu, Zhiguo; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Xiuyun; Liu, Mengjun

    2014-01-01

    Ziziphus Mill. (jujube), the most valued genus of Rhamnaceae, comprises of a number of economically and ecologically important species such as Z. jujuba Mill., Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu and Z. mauritiana Lam. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and a high-density genetic map are of great benefit to the improvement of the crop, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and analyzing genome structure. However, such a high-density map is still absent in the genus Ziziphus and even the family Rhamnaceae. The recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) marker has been proven to be most powerful in genetic map construction. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density linkage map using the RAD tags generated by next generation sequencing. An interspecific F1 population and their parents (Z. jujuba Mill. 'JMS2' × Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu 'Xing 16') were genotyped using a mapping-by-sequencing approach, to generate RAD-based SNP markers. A total of 42,784 putative high quality SNPs were identified between the parents and 2,872 high-quality RAD markers were grouped in genetic maps. Of the 2,872 RAD markers, 1,307 were linked to the female genetic map, 1,336 to the male map, and 2,748 to the integrated map spanning 913.87 centi-morgans (cM) with an average marker interval of 0.34 cM. The integrated map contained 12 linkage groups (LGs), consistent with the haploid chromosome number of the two parents. We first generated a high-density genetic linkage map with 2,748 RAD markers for jujube and a large number of SNPs were also developed. It provides a useful tool for both marker-assisted breeding and a variety of genome investigations in jujube, such as sequence assembly, gene localization, QTL detection and genome structure comparison.

  8. Rapid SNP discovery and a RAD-based high-density linkage map in jujube (Ziziphus Mill..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ziziphus Mill. (jujube, the most valued genus of Rhamnaceae, comprises of a number of economically and ecologically important species such as Z. jujuba Mill., Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu and Z. mauritiana Lam. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and a high-density genetic map are of great benefit to the improvement of the crop, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL and analyzing genome structure. However, such a high-density map is still absent in the genus Ziziphus and even the family Rhamnaceae. The recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD marker has been proven to be most powerful in genetic map construction. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density linkage map using the RAD tags generated by next generation sequencing. RESULTS: An interspecific F1 population and their parents (Z. jujuba Mill. 'JMS2' × Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu 'Xing 16' were genotyped using a mapping-by-sequencing approach, to generate RAD-based SNP markers. A total of 42,784 putative high quality SNPs were identified between the parents and 2,872 high-quality RAD markers were grouped in genetic maps. Of the 2,872 RAD markers, 1,307 were linked to the female genetic map, 1,336 to the male map, and 2,748 to the integrated map spanning 913.87 centi-morgans (cM with an average marker interval of 0.34 cM. The integrated map contained 12 linkage groups (LGs, consistent with the haploid chromosome number of the two parents. CONCLUSION: We first generated a high-density genetic linkage map with 2,748 RAD markers for jujube and a large number of SNPs were also developed. It provides a useful tool for both marker-assisted breeding and a variety of genome investigations in jujube, such as sequence assembly, gene localization, QTL detection and genome structure comparison.

  9. Grid-based mapping: A method for rapidly determining the spatial distributions of small features over very large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan A.; Hauber, Ernst; Orgel, Csilla; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James A.; Costard, Francois; Johnsson, Andreas; Losiak, Anna; Reiss, Dennis; Swirad, Zuzanna M.; Kereszturi, Akos; Smith, Isaac B.; Platz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The increased volume, spatial resolution, and areal coverage of high-resolution images of Mars over the past 15 years have led to an increased quantity and variety of small-scale landform identifications. Though many such landforms are too small to represent individually on regional-scale maps, determining their presence or absence across large areas helps form the observational basis for developing hypotheses on the geological nature and environmental history of a study area. The combination of improved spatial resolution and near-continuous coverage significantly increases the time required to analyse the data. This becomes problematic when attempting regional or global-scale studies of metre and decametre-scale landforms. Here, we describe an approach for mapping small features (from decimetre to kilometre scale) across large areas, formulated for a project to study the northern plains of Mars, and provide context on how this method was developed and how it can be implemented. Rather than ;mapping; with points and polygons, grid-based mapping uses a ;tick box; approach to efficiently record the locations of specific landforms (we use an example suite of glacial landforms; including viscous flow features, the latitude dependant mantle and polygonised ground). A grid of squares (e.g. 20 km by 20 km) is created over the mapping area. Then the basemap data are systematically examined, grid-square by grid-square at full resolution, in order to identify the landforms while recording the presence or absence of selected landforms in each grid-square to determine spatial distributions. The result is a series of grids recording the distribution of all the mapped landforms across the study area. In some ways, these are equivalent to raster images, as they show a continuous distribution-field of the various landforms across a defined (rectangular, in most cases) area. When overlain on context maps, these form a coarse, digital landform map. We find that grid-based mapping

  10. Epidemiological Mapping of Human Onchocerciasis in Transmission Suspected Districts of Bale, Borena, and West Arsi Zones of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindew Mekasha Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy. In this study a total of 2560 study participants were surveyed of which 1332 were female (52% and 122 were male (48%. The age group of 21–30 years was highest (34.4% and that of age > 51 years was the lowest (3.1% study participants. The survey result revealed that none of the study participants regardless of age, sex, and location demonstrated skin snip Onchocerca microfilariae. The prevalence of microfilariae and community microfilarial load (CMFL were 0% and 0 mf/s, respectively. The finding implied that there is no onchocerciasis in the area and, therefore, there is no need for interventions. Black fly distribution, cytotaxonomic study, and intraborder cross transmission monitoring are recommended.

  11. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasives with Refuge Weed Warriors 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project plan was to initiate a program for early detection and response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Grays Harbor NWR and continued current...

  12. Optical Whole-Genome Restriction Mapping as a Tool for Rapidly Distinguishing and Identifying Bacterial Contaminants in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    mapping is a technology in which a genome is linearized on a surface and digested with specific restriction enzymes , giving an arrangement of the genome... enzyme . Finally, we demonstrated that optical restriction maps were successfully obtained and the correct organism identified within a clinical matrix...is a technology in which a genome is linearized on a surface and digested with specific restriction enzymes , giving an arrangement of the genome

  13. Genomic epidemiology of the haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this genomic epidemiology study, we have applied high-resolution whole-genome-based sequence typing methodologies on a comprehensive set of genome sequences that have become available in the aftermath of the Haitian cholera epidemic. These sequence resources enabled us to reassess the degree...... of genomic heterogeneity within the Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype and to refine boundaries and evolutionary relationships. The established phylogenomic framework showed how outbreak isolates fit into the global phylogeographic patterns compared to a comprehensive globally and temporally diverse strain...... collection and provides strong molecular evidence that points to a nonindigenous source of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak and refines epidemiological standards used in outbreak investigations for outbreak inclusion/exclusion following the concept of genomic epidemiology. The generated phylogenomic data...

  14. SU-E-T-80: Comparison of Fluence-Based RapidArc QAs Using EPID and MapCHECK 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H; Jesseph, F; Ahmad, S [Oklahoma Univ. Health Science Ctr., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the Varian aS-1000 EPID imager to the isocentrically mounted MapCHECK 2 diode array for RapidArc QAs as a function of photon beam energy. Methods: A Varian TrueBeam STx with an aS-1000 digital imaging panel was used to acquire RapidArc QA images for 13 patient plans; each plan QA was performed at 6, 8, 10 and 15MV energies. The Portal Dose Image Prediction algorithm in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to create the comparison image for the EPID acquisition. A Sun Nuclear MapCHECK 2 diode array on an isocentric mounting fixture with 5 cm water-equivalent buildup was also used for the RapidArc QAs. A composite dose plane was taken from the Eclipse TPS for comparison to the MapCHECK 2 measurements. A gamma test was implemented in the Sun Nuclear Patient software with 10% threshold and absolute comparison for both QA methods. The two-tailed paired t-test was employed to analyze the statistical significance between two methods at the 95% confidence level. Results: The average gamma passing rates were greater than 95% at 3%/3mm using both methods for all four energies. The average passing rates were within 2.5% and 1.1% of each other when analyzed at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm conditions, respectively. The EPID passing rates were somewhat better than the MapCHECK 2 when analyzed at 1%/1mm condition; this difference decreased with increasing energy (9.1% at 6MV to 2.7% at 15MV). The differences were not statistically significant for all criteria and energies (p-value ã 0.05). Conclusion: EPID-based RapidArc QA results are comparable to MapCHECK 2 when using 3%/3mm criteria at all four energies. EPID-based QA shows potential for being the superior device under strict gamma criteria.

  15. Use of ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring Mode to complement optical data in the mapping of rapid broad-scale flooding in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O'Grady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode (GM data are used to produce maps of the extent of the flooding in Pakistan which are made available to the rapid response effort within 24 h of acquisition. The high temporal frequency and independence of the data from cloud-free skies makes GM data a viable tool for mapping flood waters during those periods where optical satellite data are unavailable, which may be crucial to rapid response disaster planning, where thousands of lives are affected. Image differencing techniques are used, with pre-flood baseline image backscatter values being deducted from target values to eliminate regions with a permanent flood-like radar response due to volume scattering and attenuation, and to highlight the low response caused by specular reflection by open flood water. The effect of local incidence angle on the received signal is mitigated by ensuring that the deducted image is acquired from the same orbit track as the target image. Poor separability of the water class with land in areas beyond the river channels is tackled using a region-growing algorithm which seeks threshold-conformance from seed pixels at the center of the river channels. The resultant mapped extents are tested against MODIS SWIR data where available, with encouraging results.

  16. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  17. National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM)--cutting edge software for rapid insect and disease risk model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Krist

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET) of the U.S. Forest Service is leading an effort to produce the next version of the National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM) for targeted release in 2011. The goal of this effort is to update spatial depictions of risk of tree mortality based on: (1) newly derived 240-m geospatial information depicting the...

  18. Rapid volumetric T1 mapping of the abdomen using three-dimensional through-time spiral GRAPPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Lee, Gregory R; Aandal, Gunhild; Badve, Chaitra; Wright, Katherine L; Griswold, Mark A; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop an ultrafast T1 mapping method for high-resolution, volumetric T1 measurements in the abdomen. The Look-Locker method was combined with a stack-of-spirals acquisition accelerated using three-dimensional (3D) through-time spiral GRAPPA reconstruction for fast data acquisition. A segmented k-space acquisition scheme was proposed and the time delay between segments for the recovery of longitudinal magnetization was optimized using Bloch equation simulations. The accuracy of this method was validated in a phantom experiment and in vivo T1 measurements were performed with 35 asymptomatic subjects on both 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3T MRI systems. Phantom experiments yielded close agreement between the proposed method and gold standard measurements for a large range of T1 values (200 to 1600 ms). The in vivo results further demonstrate that high-resolution T1 maps (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) for 32 slices can be achieved in a single clinically feasible breath-hold of approximately 20 s. The T1 values for multiple organs and tissues in the abdomen are in agreement with the published literature. A high-resolution 3D abdominal T1 mapping technique was developed, which allows fast and accurate T1 mapping of multiple abdominal organs and tissues in a single breath-hold. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Feasibility study of using the RoboEarth cloud engine for rapid mapping and tracking with small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a small unmanned aerial mapping system (sUAMS) that in the future will track its trajectory and perform 3D mapping in near-real time. As both mapping and tracking algorithms require powerful computational capabilities and large data storage facilities, we propose to use the RoboEarth Cloud Engine (RCE) to offload heavy computation and store data to secure computing environments in the cloud. While the RCE's capabilities have been demonstrated with terrestrial robots in indoor environments, this paper explores the feasibility of using the RCE in mapping and tracking applications in outdoor environments by small UAMS. The experiments presented in this work assess the data processing strategies and evaluate the attainable tracking and mapping accuracies using the data obtained by the sUAMS. Testing was performed with an Aeryon Scout quadcopter. It flew over York University, up to approximately 40 metres above the ground. The quadcopter was equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver providing positioning to about 3 meter accuracies, an AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) estimating the attitude to about 3 degrees, and an FPV (First Person Viewing) camera. Video images captured from the onboard camera were processed using VisualSFM and SURE, which are being reformed as an Application-as-a-Service via the RCE. The 3D virtual building model of York University was used as a known environment to georeference the point cloud generated from the sUAMS' sensor data. The estimated position and orientation parameters of the video camera show increases in accuracy when compared to the sUAMS' autopilot solution, derived from the onboard GPS and AHRS. The paper presents the proposed approach and the results, along with their accuracies.

  20. Rapid Response to a Typhoon-Induced Flood with an SAR-Derived Map of Inundated Areas: Case Study and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wei Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful case of a rapid response to a flash flood in I-Lan County of Taiwan with a map of inundated areas derived from COSMO-SkyMed 1 radar satellite imagery within 24 hours. The flood was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Based on the ensemble forecasts of trajectory, an urgent request of spaceborne SAR imagery was made 24 hours before Typhoon Soulik made landfall. Two COSMO-SkyMed images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The standard level-1b product (radiometric-corrected, geometric-calibrated and orthorectified image was generated by using the off-the-shelf SARscape software. Following the same approach used with the Expert Landslide and Shadow Area Delineating System, the regional threshold of each tile image was determined to delineate still water surface and quasi-inundated areas in a fully-automatic manner. The results were overlaid on a digital elevation model, and the same tile was visually compared to an optical image taken by Formosat-2 before this event. With this ancillary information, the inundated areas were accurately and quickly identified. The SAR-derived map of inundated areas was published on a web-based platform powered by Google Earth within 24 hours, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of disaster prevention and mitigation. A detailed validation was made afterwards by comparing the map with in situ data of the water levels at 17 stations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas. A standard operating procedure was derived from this work and followed by the Water Hazard Mitigation Center of the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan, in subsequent typhoon seasons, such as Typhoon Trami (August, 2013 and Typhoon Soudelor (August, 2015.

  1. Non-invasive Transdermal Two-dimensional Mapping of Cutaneous Oxygenation with Rapid-drying Liquid Bandage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    we describe a sensitive, colorimetric, oxygen-sensing paint -on bandage for two-dimensional mapping of tissue oxygenation in skin, burns, and skin...bandage that can be painted onto the skin surface and dries into a thin film that adheres tightly to the skin or wound topology. When captured by a...Chu, Y. L. Lo, and T. W. Sung, “Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in

  2. Rapid Mapping for Built Heritage at Risk Using Low-Cost and Cots Sensors. a Test in the Duomo Vecchio of San Severino Marche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calantropio, A.; Colucci, E.; Teppati Losè, L.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the researchers in the field of Geomatics have focused their attention in the experimentation and validation of new methodologies and techniques, stressing especially the potential of low-cost and COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) solutions and sensors. In particular, these tools have been used with purposes of rapid mapping in different contexts (ranging from the construction industry, environmental monitoring, mining activities, etc.). The Built Heritage, due to its intrinsic nature of endangered artefact, can largely benefit from the technological and methodological innovations in this research field. The contribute presented in this paper will highlight these main topics: the rapid mapping of the Built Heritage (in particular the one subjected to different types of risk) using low-cost and COTS solutions. Different sensors and techniques were chosen to be evaluated on a specific test site: the Duomo Vecchio of San Severino Marche (MC - Italy), that was partially affected by the earthquake swarm that hit the area of Central Italy starting from the 24th of August 2016. One of the main aims of this work is to demonstrate how low-cost and COTS sensors can contribute to the documentation of the Built Heritage for its safeguard, for damage assessment in case of disastrous events and operations of restoration and preservation.

  3. An accurate and rapid continuous wavelet dynamic time warping algorithm for unbalanced global mapping in nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-12-24

    Long-reads, point-of-care, and PCR-free are the promises brought by nanopore sequencing. Among various steps in nanopore data analysis, the global mapping between the raw electrical current signal sequence and the expected signal sequence from the pore model serves as the key building block to base calling, reads mapping, variant identification, and methylation detection. However, the ultra-long reads of nanopore sequencing and an order of magnitude difference in the sampling speeds of the two sequences make the classical dynamic time warping (DTW) and its variants infeasible to solve the problem. Here, we propose a novel multi-level DTW algorithm, cwDTW, based on continuous wavelet transforms with different scales of the two signal sequences. Our algorithm starts from low-resolution wavelet transforms of the two sequences, such that the transformed sequences are short and have similar sampling rates. Then the peaks and nadirs of the transformed sequences are extracted to form feature sequences with similar lengths, which can be easily mapped by the original DTW. Our algorithm then recursively projects the warping path from a lower-resolution level to a higher-resolution one by building a context-dependent boundary and enabling a constrained search for the warping path in the latter. Comprehensive experiments on two real nanopore datasets on human and on Pandoraea pnomenusa, as well as two benchmark datasets from previous studies, demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In particular, cwDTW can almost always generate warping paths that are very close to the original DTW, which are remarkably more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods including FastDTW and PrunedDTW. Meanwhile, on the real nanopore datasets, cwDTW is about 440 times faster than FastDTW and 3000 times faster than the original DTW. Our program is available at https://github.com/realbigws/cwDTW.

  4. Detection and mapping of Cannabinoids in single hair samples through rapid derivatization- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Emma; Francese, Simona; Bassindale, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The sample preparation method reported in this work has permitted for the first time the application of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Profiling and Imaging (MALDI-MSP and MALDI-MSI) for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair sample. MALDI-MSI analysis of hair samples has recently been suggested as an alternative technique to traditional methods of GC-MS and LC-MS due to simpler sample preparation, the ability to detect a narrower time frame ...

  5. Synergistic Use of Optical and Radar Data for Rapid Mapping of Forest Fires in the European Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, E.-M.; Stein, E.; Twele, A.; Gähler, M.

    2011-09-01

    In a classical approach, optical data are being used for forest fire detection in a rush mode. Difficulties arise due to persistent cloud coverage, haze layers and smoke plumes. In contrast, radar measurements offer high acquisition rates because of their ability to penetrate clouds and their independence of sun illumination. However, a visual interpretation of radar data is generally less intuitive than optical imagery for an untrained image analyst. Thus the main focus of our work was to combine the advantages of both data types and to develop a robust and fast but at the same time precise and transferable algorithm for burned area detection in the European Mediterranean region. Object-based change detection approaches and a synergistic use of optical and radar data can improve detection capabilities. The optical part of the algorithm covers very high resolution satellite images (like SPOT 5) including index calculation such as MSAVI, BAI and NDSWIR in single-temporal approaches and their temporal differences in multi- temporal approaches. Within the scope of both methodologies the burned area can be detected with an accuracy higher than 90%. In line with other authors (Libonati et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 1999) our work confirms the middle infrared band as crucial for burned area detection. The radar algorithm was based on TerraSAR-X StripMap data acquired before and after the forest fires. Different polarisations (VV and HH) have been used to improve the forest fire mapping capability. In addition, a comparison of burned and unburned areas was performed using different backscatter coefficients. These change detection techniques were based on image differences, image ratios and index calculation. The image segmentation was performed by using the new calculated layers. The burned area was then classified via a threshold given by the pre- and post- disaster differences. The classification result achieved an accuracy of 78%. This result shows the limitations of

  6. Wideband arrhythmia-Insensitive-rapid (AIR) pulse sequence for cardiac T1 mapping without image artifacts induced by an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Wall, T Scott; Drakos, Stavros G; Kim, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To develop and evaluate a wideband arrhythmia-insensitive-rapid (AIR) pulse sequence for cardiac T1 mapping without image artifacts induced by implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We developed a wideband AIR pulse sequence by incorporating a saturation pulse with wide frequency bandwidth (8.9 kHz) to achieve uniform T1 weighting in the heart with ICD. We tested the performance of original and "wideband" AIR cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequences in phantom and human experiments at 1.5 Tesla. In five phantoms representing native myocardium and blood and postcontrast blood/tissue T1 values, compared with the control T1 values measured with an inversion-recovery pulse sequence without ICD, T1 values measured with original AIR with ICD were considerably lower (absolute percent error > 29%), whereas T1 values measured with wideband AIR with ICD were similar (absolute percent error T1 values measured with original AIR without ICD, T1 measured with original AIR with ICD was significantly lower (absolute percent error > 10.1%), whereas T1 measured with wideband AIR with ICD was similar (absolute percent error T1 mapping without significant image artifacts induced by ICD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Guidelines for the selection of appropriate remote sensing technologies for landslide detection, monitoring and rapid mapping: the experience of the SafeLand European Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Malet, J.-P.; Kerle, N.; Tofani, V.; Segoni, S.; Casagli, N.; Michoud, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Fornaro, G.; Peduto, D.; Cascini, L.; Baron, I.; Supper, R.; Oppikofer, T.; L'Heureux, J.-S.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Hervás, J.; Moya, J.; Raucoules, D.; Carman, M.

    2012-04-01

    New earth observation satellites, innovative airborne platforms and sensors, high precision laser scanners, and enhanced ground-based geophysical investigation tools are a few examples of the increasing diversity of remote sensing technologies used in landslide analysis. The use of advanced sensors and analysis methods can help to significantly increase our understanding of potentially hazardous areas and helps to reduce associated risk. However, the choice of the optimal technology, analysis method and observation strategy requires careful considerations of the landslide process in the local and regional context, and the advantages and limitations of each technique. Guidelines for the selection of the most suitable remote sensing technologies according to different landslide types, displacement velocities, observational scales and risk management strategies have been proposed. The guidelines are meant to aid operational decision making, and include information such as spatial resolution and coverage, data and processing costs, and maturity of the method. The guidelines target scientists and end-users in charge of risk management, from the detection to the monitoring and the rapid mapping of landslides. They are illustrated by recent innovative methodologies developed for the creation and updating of landslide inventory maps, for the construction of landslide deformation maps and for the quantification of hazard. The guidelines were compiled with contributions from experts on landslide remote sensing from 13 European institutions coming from 8 different countries. This work is presented within the framework of the SafeLand project funded by the European Commission's FP7 Programme.

  8. An Introduction to a Novel and Rapid nZEB Skill-Mapping and Qualification Framework Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cromwijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful design and construction processes aiming towards nearly zero energy building (nZEB standards are a challenge for the whole construction industry in Europe. Realizing nZEB buildings requires innovative design processes, and technologies based on an integrated design approach facilitated by multidisciplinary work teams. The collaboration between architects, engineers, technical experts and building managers, is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the specific involvement of each profession in order to develop mutual understanding of each others’ disciplines. Additionally, it is vital to provide professionals with the skills needed to achieve optimal nZEB construction and retrofitting in terms of quality, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness. However, this approach is not yet common, as the building sector is still very fragmented. The EU-funded H2020 project PROF/TRAC aims to tackle this issue by developing an Open Training Platform and a methodology for fast and valid co-creation of interdisciplinary qualification schemes for task-based Continuous Professional Development (CPD for all professions involved. A common methodology for the mapping of skills and qualifications in the form of an Excel tool was developed as a basis, together with a guidance document. This paper presents the skill-mapping methodology, the use of its results to develop national roadmaps, and the BUILD UP Skills advisor app.

  9. Rapid Simultaneous Mapping of Total and Myelin Water Content, T1 and T2* in Multiple Sclerosis

    CERN Document Server

    Arhelger, Volker; Gliedstein, Detlef; Lafontaine, Marie-Sofie; Tonkova, Vyara; Holz, Dietrich; Böer, Andreas; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; (,; Koblenz, University of Applied Sciences; Koblenz, Radiologisches Institut Hohenzollernstrasse; Engineering, Institute for Medical; Koblenz, Information Processing; Boeer, Neurologie Dr; Koblenz,

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging might provide a more specific insight into disease process, progression and therapeutic response of multiple sclerosis. We present an extension of a previously published approach for the simultaneous mapping of brain T1, T2* and total water content. In addition to those three parameters, the method presented in the current work allows for the measurement of myelin bound water content, a surrogate marker of tissue myelination. Myelin water was measured based on its distinct relaxation with reduced T2*, resulting in a multiexponential decay signal. However, only 10 points could be acquired on the relaxation curve within a maximum echo time of <40ms as the quantitative protocol has been adapted previously for fast acquisitions with whole brain coverage. The sparse sampling required an adaption of the optimisation approach with additional constraints necessary in order to obtain reliable results. Therefore, the corresponding pool fractions were determined using linear op...

  10. Improved approach for electric vehicle rapid charging station placement and sizing using Google maps and binary lightning search algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mainul Islam

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle (EV is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA, is proposed to solve the optimization problem. BLSA is also applied to a conventional RCS planning method. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to assess the performance of the two RCS planning methods by using the IEEE 34-bus test system as the power grid. The comparative studies show that the proposed BLSA is better than other optimization techniques. The daily total cost in RCS planning of the proposed method, including harmonic power loss, decreases by 10% compared with that of the conventional method.

  11. Improved approach for electric vehicle rapid charging station placement and sizing using Google maps and binary lightning search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mainul; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS) planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA), is proposed to solve the optimization problem. BLSA is also applied to a conventional RCS planning method. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to assess the performance of the two RCS planning methods by using the IEEE 34-bus test system as the power grid. The comparative studies show that the proposed BLSA is better than other optimization techniques. The daily total cost in RCS planning of the proposed method, including harmonic power loss, decreases by 10% compared with that of the conventional method.

  12. Improved approach for electric vehicle rapid charging station placement and sizing using Google maps and binary lightning search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS) planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA), is proposed to solve the optimization problem. BLSA is also applied to a conventional RCS planning method. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to assess the performance of the two RCS planning methods by using the IEEE 34-bus test system as the power grid. The comparative studies show that the proposed BLSA is better than other optimization techniques. The daily total cost in RCS planning of the proposed method, including harmonic power loss, decreases by 10% compared with that of the conventional method. PMID:29220396

  13. Forest loss maps from regional satellite monitoring systematically underestimate deforestation in two rapidly changing parts of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milodowski, D. T.; Mitchard, E. T. A.; Williams, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate, consistent reporting of changing forest area, stratified by forest type, is required for all countries under their commitments to the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC 2015 Adoption of the Paris Agreement (Paris: UNFCCC)). Such change reporting may directly impact on payments through comparisons to national Reference (Emissions) Levels under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework. The emergence of global, satellite-based forest monitoring systems, including Global Forest Watch (GFW) and FORMA, have great potential in aiding this endeavour. However, the accuracy of these systems has been questioned and their uncertainties are poorly constrained, both in terms of the spatial extent of forest loss and timing of change. Here, using annual time series of 5 m optical imagery at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon, we demonstrate that GFW more accurately detects forest loss than the coarser-resolution FORMA or Brazil’s national-level PRODES product, though all underestimate the rate of loss. We conclude GFW provides robust indicators of forest loss, at least for larger-scale forest change, but under-predicts losses driven by small-scale disturbances (< 2 ha), even though these are much larger than its minimum mapping unit (0.09 ha).

  14. Improving the extraction of crisis information in the context of flood, fire, and landslide rapid mapping using SAR and optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Sandro; Clandillon, Stephen; Twele, André; Huber, Claire; Plank, Simon; Maxant, Jérôme; Cao, Wenxi; Caspard, Mathilde; May, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Optical and radar satellite remote sensing have proven to provide essential crisis information in case of natural disasters, humanitarian relief activities and civil security issues in a growing number of cases through mechanisms such as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) of the European Commission or the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters'. The aforementioned programs and initiatives make use of satellite-based rapid mapping services aimed at delivering reliable and accurate crisis information after natural hazards. Although these services are increasingly operational, they need to be continuously updated and improved through research and development (R&D) activities. The principal objective of ASAPTERRA (Advancing SAR and Optical Methods for Rapid Mapping), the ESA-funded R&D project being described here, is to improve, automate and, hence, speed-up geo-information extraction procedures in the context of natural hazards response. This is performed through the development, implementation, testing and validation of novel image processing methods using optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The methods are mainly developed based on data of the German radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, the French satellite missions Pléiades-1A/1B as well as the ESA missions Sentinel-1/2 with the aim to better characterize the potential and limitations of these sensors and their synergy. The resulting algorithms and techniques are evaluated in real case applications during rapid mapping activities. The project is focussed on three types of natural hazards: floods, landslides and fires. Within this presentation an overview of the main methodological developments in each topic is given and demonstrated in selected test areas. The following developments are presented in the context of flood mapping: a fully automated Sentinel-1 based processing chain for detecting open flood surfaces, a method for the improved detection of flooded vegetation

  15. Application of GNSS-RTK derived topographical maps for rapid environmental monitoring: a case study of Jack Finnery Lake (Perth, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloderer, Glen; Bingham, Matthew; Awange, Joseph L; Fleming, Kevin M

    2011-09-01

    In environmental monitoring, environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, topographical maps play an essential role in providing a means by which the locations of sampling sites may be selected, in assisting with the interpretation of physical features, and in indicating the impact or potential impact on an area due to changes in the system being monitored (e.g., spatially changing features such as wetlands). Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are hereby presented as a rapid method for monitoring spatial changes to support environmental monitoring decisions and policies. To validate the GNSS-based method, a comparison is made of results from a small-scale topographic survey using radio-based real-time kinematic GNSS (GNSS-RTK) and total station survey methods at Jack Finnery Lake, Perth, Australia. The accuracies achieved by the total station in this study were 2 cm horizontally and 6 cm vertically, while the GNSS-RTK also achieved an accuracy of 2 cm horizontally, but only 28 cm vertically. While the GNSS-RTK measurements were less accurate in the height component compared to those from the total station method, it is still capable of achieving accuracies sufficient for a topographic map at a scale of 1:1,750 that could support environmental monitoring tasks such as identifying spatial changes in small water bodies or wetlands. The time taken to perform the survey using GNSS-RTK, however, was much shorter compared to the total station method, thereby making it quite suitable for monitoring spatial changes within an environmental context, e.g., dynamic mining activities that require rapid surveys and the updating of the monitored data at regular intervals.

  16. [Maternal morbidity in the Bolivian highlands. Body mapping, case analyses, and case-control study: tools of local epidemiology in primary health provision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solle De Hilari, C

    1994-01-01

    The investigated region was Carabuco, Bolivia, with 31 communities and 9000 inhabitants. Since 1985 a project of basic health care has been in place there to ameliorate the existing situation where 40% of deliveries were performed by relatives, 30% by husbands, 15% by traditional midwives, and 10% by other health personnel. Maternal mortality had been 920/100,000 in the previous 6 years, twice as high as the national rate. This raised questions about harmful traditional practices, the typical case of maternal mortality, and whether significant risk factors existed relative to complications that prevented health care interventions. Semi-structured interviews and body mapping with sketches were employed as used in rapid rural appraisal. The discussions between the nurse and the midwife were taped. Traditional birth practices consisted of massage and the use of ergot tea concoctions. Verbal autopsy (post-mortem interview) explored the exact causes of death. Every 6 months these verbal autopsies were reexamined in Carabuco to detect any obstacles to timely prevention of death. These had to do with family and dependents, neighbors, traditional healers, village health workers, the doctor on duty, and the referral hospital. The causes of such obstacles were: lack of knowledge about any cure, lack of means of arresting the disease, feeling of shame, rejection of modern medicine, lack of trust, and lack of money or transportation. Six typical examples were detailed. A case control study was also presented involving 17 women whose deaths occurred between January 1985 and December 1992. Controls were 79 women who had survived a potentially deadly obstetrical diagnosis. The role of puerperal infections was significant in deaths; bleeding and the retention of placenta in comparison with other diagnoses produced a higher chance of survival; eclampsia's role was minor; and poverty was associated with a higher mortality risk.

  17. Mapping the Gap of Water and Erosion Control Measures in the Rapidly Urbanizing Mbezi River Catchment of Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhina Given Justin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In rapidly urbanizing catchments, increase in stormwater runoff may cause serious erosion and frequent floods if stormwater management systems are improper and dysfunctional. Through GIS-based modelling, field investigations, resident’s questionnaire survey, and interviews with officials, the study set out to assesses the coverage and efficiency of drainage infrastructure in Mbezi River catchment basin in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Between 2003 and 2016, the catchment imperviousness increased by 41%, causing flood incidents, massive erosion, and numerous pollution sources. Residents strive to address stormwater hazards using terraces, hedges, and physical barriers; however, the problems persist, indicating lack of coordination and poor causality understanding between land-use changes and catchment impacts. Small-scale stormwater harvesting was exercised by 75% of the households, pointing to water supply challenges. Municipal stormwater management efforts was limited to roadside drains covering 17% of road lengths in the catchment, and 65% of those did not meet their design standards. Interviews with officials revealed a need for improved co-understanding and collaborative initiatives to bolster integrated water management. The study suggests a need to adopt a new urban stormwater management paradigm, appropriate for both residents and authorities. Without this new discourse, the urbanization led stormwater increase might jeopardize the liveability of the entire catchment.

  18. Rapid changes in phospho-MAP/tau epitopes during neuronal stress: cofilin-actin rods primarily recruit microtubule binding domain epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineka T Whiteman

    Full Text Available Abnormal mitochondrial function is a widely reported contributor to neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease (AD, however, a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the initiation of neuropathology remains elusive. In AD, one of the earliest hallmark pathologies is neuropil threads comprising accumulated hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein (MAP tau in neurites. Rod-like aggregates of actin and its associated protein cofilin (AC rods also occur in AD. Using a series of antibodies--AT270, AT8, AT100, S214, AT180, 12E8, S396, S404 and S422--raised against different phosphoepitopes on tau, we characterize the pattern of expression and re-distribution in neurites of these phosphoepitope labels during mitochondrial inhibition. Employing chick primary neuron cultures, we demonstrate that epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E8, are the only species rapidly recruited into AC rods. These results were recapitulated with the actin depolymerizing drug Latrunculin B, which induces AC rods and a concomitant increase in the 12E8 signal measured on Western blot. This suggests that AC rods may be one way in which MAP redistribution and phosphorylation is influenced in neurons during mitochondrial stress and potentially in the early pathogenesis of AD.

  19. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  20. Cadmium-hazard mapping using a general linear regression model (Irr-Cad) for rapid risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert W; Noble, Andrew D; Pongsakul, P; Sukreeyapongse, O; Chinabut, N

    2009-02-01

    Research undertaken over the last 40 years has identified the irrefutable relationship between the long-term consumption of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice and human Cd disease. In order to protect public health and livelihood security, the ability to accurately and rapidly determine spatial Cd contamination is of high priority. During 2001-2004, a General Linear Regression Model Irr-Cad was developed to predict the spatial distribution of soil Cd in a Cd/Zn co-contaminated cascading irrigated rice-based system in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand (Longitude E 98 degrees 59'-E 98 degrees 63' and Latitude N 16 degrees 67'-16 degrees 66'). The results indicate that Irr-Cad accounted for 98% of the variance in mean Field Order total soil Cd. Preliminary validation indicated that Irr-Cad 'predicted' mean Field Order total soil Cd, was significantly (p channels and subsequent inter-field irrigation flows. This in turn determines Field Order in Irrigation Sequence (Field Order(IS)). Mean Field Order total soil Cd represents the mean total soil Cd (aqua regia-digested) for a given Field Order(IS). In 2004-2005, Irr-Cad was utilized to evaluate the spatial distribution of total soil Cd in a 'high-risk' area of Mae Sot District. Secondary validation on six randomly selected field groups verified that Irr-Cad predicted mean Field Order total soil Cd and was significantly (p strategic sampling of all primary fields and laboratory based determination of total soil Cd (T-Cd(P)) and the use of a weighed coefficient for Cd (Coeff(W)). The use of primary fields as the basis for Irr-Cad is also an important practical consideration due to their inherent ease of identification and vital role in the classification of fields in terms of Field Order(IS). The inclusion of mean field order soil pH (1:5(water)) to the Irr-Cad model accounted for over 79% of the variation in mean Field Order bio-available (DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable) soil Cd. Rice is the

  1. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis and mapping lymphatic filariasis: two perfect illustrations of "to be in English or not to be".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Interest in filariasis has found a new impetus now that neglected tropical diseases have their own journal. However, some of the advances published in renowned international journals have completely ignored previous publications on the subject, particularly those in languages other than English. The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis and the mapping of lymphatic filariasis provide two perfect illustrations of this. This problem may seem a bit outdated, given that all "good authors" now publish exclusively in English. It certainly is outdated for most areas of medicine. But, surely, this should not be the case for neglected tropical diseases, for which certain long-standing findings are every bit as important as what may be presented as new discoveries. One possibility would be for certain journals, such as PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, to include a specific heading permitting the publication in English of older studies that initially appeared in a language other than English. The texts would be English versions respecting the entirety of the original text. Submission should be accompanied by a presentation of the problem, with details and explanatory comments, with submission at the initiative of the authors of the former article in question or their students or sympathizers.

  2. Transfusion-transmitted malaria in endemic zone: epidemiological profile of blood donors at the Fundação HEMOAM and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria screening in Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Luz Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. METHODS: Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n = 265 originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n = 142 originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. RESULTS: All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. CONCLUSION: New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply.

  3. Transfusion-transmitted malaria in endemic zone: epidemiological profile of blood donors at the Fundação HEMOAM and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria screening in Manaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Luz; Dos Santos Moresco, Mônica Nascimento; Sales, Luciane Rodrigues; da Silva Abranches, Josilene; Araújo Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Malheiro, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n=265) originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n=142) originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe, A risk map for epidemic potential in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de A.; Hartemink, N.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of vector-borne infections is the strong influence of weather and climate on the transmission. In response to the major epidemic of bluetongue in north western Europe between summer and autumn 2006, an interest in BTV control issues developed. In this context, a map

  5. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): Evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kehua; Christiano, A.M.; Chu, Mon Li; Uitto, J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States) Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J. (NCI-Federick Cancer Research and Development Center, Federick, MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils, critical attachment structures at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. Genetic linkage analyses with recently cloned human type VII collagen cDNAs have indicated that the corresponding gene, COL7A1, is the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa. To gain insight into the evolutionary conservation of COL7A1, in this study the authors have isolated mouse type VII collagen cDNAs by screening a mouse epidermal keratinocyte cDNA library with a human COL7A1 cDNA. Two overlapping mouse cDNAs were isolated, and Northern hybridization of mouse epidermal keratinocyte RNA with one of them revealed the presence of a mRNA transcript of [approximately]9.5 kb, the approximate size of the human COL7A1 mRNA. Nucleotide sequencing of the mouse cDNAs revealed a 2760-bp open reading frame that encodes the 5[prime] half of the collagenous domain and a segment of the NC-1, the noncollagenous amino-terminal domain of type VII collagen. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the corresponding human sequences deduced from cDNAs revealed 82.5% identity. The evolutionary divergence of the gene was relatively rapid in comparison to other collagen genes. Despite the high degree of sequence variation, several sequences, including the size and the position of noncollagenous imperfections and interruptions within the Gly-X-Y repeat sequence, were precisely conserved. Finally, the mouse Col7a1 gene was located by interspecific backcross mapping to mouse Chromosome 9, a region that corresponds to human chromosome 3p21, the position of human COL7Al. This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  7. Cognitive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  8. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  9. DotMapper: an open source tool for creating interactive disease point maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine M; Hayward, Andrew C

    2016-04-12

    Molecular strain typing of tuberculosis isolates has led to increased understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of the disease and improvements in its control, diagnosis and treatment. However, molecular cluster investigations, which aim to detect previously unidentified cases, remain challenging. Interactive dot mapping is a simple approach which could aid investigations by highlighting cases likely to share epidemiological links. Current tools generally require technical expertise or lack interactivity. We designed a flexible application for producing disease dot maps using Shiny, a web application framework for the statistical software, R. The application displays locations of cases on an interactive map colour coded according to levels of categorical variables such as demographics and risk factors. Cases can be filtered by selecting combinations of these characteristics and by notification date. It can be used to rapidly identify geographic patterns amongst cases in molecular clusters of tuberculosis in space and time; generate hypotheses about disease transmission; identify outliers, and guide targeted control measures. DotMapper is a user-friendly application which enables rapid production of maps displaying locations of cases and their epidemiological characteristics without the need for specialist training in geographic information systems. Enhanced understanding of tuberculosis transmission using this application could facilitate improved detection of cases with epidemiological links and therefore lessen the public health impacts of the disease. It is a flexible system and also has broad international potential application to other investigations using geo-coded health information.

  10. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  11. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ying LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease in the aged populations, which is characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and abnormal gait, accompanied by a variety of non-motor symptoms (NMS. The prevalence and incidence of PD rise sharply with the increase of age. In the advent of global aging, the rapid growing of elderly populations results in a rising number of PD patients, especially in China. A correct understanding of the epidemiology of PD helps to respond to this challenge actively. This article aims to provide an overview of the prevalence, incidence and mortality of PD and their differences among regions. Special efforts are made to illustrate the current status and future trends of the epidemiology and economic burden of PD in China. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.02.007

  12. Molecular epidemiology of methicillan-resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus constitute significant epidemiologic problems. Defining an outbreak requires the use of rapid and highly discriminatory epidemiologic methods to determine the epidemic strains involved in such outbreak. Study design: A ...

  13. Transethnic insight into the genetics of glycaemic traits: fine-mapping results from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Stephanie A; Pankow, James S; Haessler, Jeffrey; Lu, Yinchang N; Pankratz, Nathan; Rohde, Rebecca R; Tamuno, Alfred; Carlson, Christopher S; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Bůžková, Petra; Daviglus, Martha L; Lim, Unhee; Fornage, Myriam; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Buyske, Steven; Gross, Myron D; Graff, Mariaelisa; Isasi, Carmen R; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, JoAnn E; Matise, Tara C; Prentice, Ross L; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yoneyama, Sachiko; Loos, Ruth J F; Hindorff, Lucia A; Le Marchand, Loic; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Peters, Ulrike; Kooperberg, Charles

    2017-12-01

    Elevated levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin in non-diabetic individuals are markers of dysregulation of glucose metabolism and are strong risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have discovered over 50 SNPs associated with these traits. Most of these loci were discovered in European populations and have not been tested in a well-powered multi-ethnic study. We hypothesised that a large, ancestrally diverse, fine-mapping genetic study of glycaemic traits would identify novel and population-specific associations that were previously undetectable by European-centric studies. A multiethnic study of up to 26,760 unrelated individuals without diabetes, of predominantly Hispanic/Latino and African ancestries, were genotyped using the Metabochip. Transethnic meta-analysis of racial/ethnic-specific linear regression analyses were performed for fasting glucose and fasting insulin. We attempted to replicate 39 fasting glucose and 17 fasting insulin loci. Genetic fine-mapping was performed through sequential conditional analyses in 15 regions that included both the initially reported SNP association(s) and denser coverage of SNP markers. In addition, Metabochip-wide analyses were performed to discover novel fasting glucose and fasting insulin loci. The most significant SNP associations were further examined using bioinformatic functional annotation. Previously reported SNP associations were significantly replicated (p ≤ 0.05) in 31/39 fasting glucose loci and 14/17 fasting insulin loci. Eleven glycaemic trait loci were refined to a smaller list of potentially causal variants through transethnic meta-analysis. Stepwise conditional analysis identified two loci with independent secondary signals (G6PC2-rs477224 and GCK-rs2908290), which had not previously been reported. Population-specific conditional analyses identified an independent signal in G6PC2 tagged by the rare variant rs77719485 in African ancestry. Further Metabochip

  14. USING KRIGING FOR STATISTICAL DISEASE MAPPING OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOHAMMAD ZADE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The map of diseases is usually constructed using the information from diseases incidnce in some regions. Some factors, such as measurment error and rapid variation of diseases rates in different regions make maps so wiggly that their interpretation becomes difficult. Therefore these maps must be smoothed using statisical methods. Methods: Since disease rates of different regions reflect an spatial correlation structure, in this paper the spatial correlation structure of data is specified by fitting a variogram model, then kriging as a best linear unbiased prediction method is used to make a smooth map of diseases. Results: The tuberculosis incidence rates of 262 counties of Iran are used to demonstrate the application and accuracy of the diseases mapping method presented in this paper. The smoothing map of tuberculosis disease, obtained by kriging method shows the geographical trend of the disease in Iran. In this map, central and western regions of Iran have minimum incidence rates, and it gradually increases toward the eastern boundaries. Discussion: The object of this article is introducing kriging method for disease mapping and tuberculosis disease is used to demonstrate the application of this method. There is on dubt that the numerical results of prediction and mapping can be affected by undercount in the smir positive (S + tuberculosis data, which are gathered by the office for campaigning against diseases. However this method has a wide application in different areas of medical sciences. such as geographical epidemiology of diseases, environmental health and environmental engineering.

  15. Rapid Parametric Mapping of the Longitudinal Relaxation Time T1 Using Two-Dimensional Variable Flip Angle Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A.; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. Methods T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Results Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of

  16. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias A Dieringer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1 weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+ uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. METHODS: T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. RESULTS: Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2 mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance

  17. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  18. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Hastie

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum. Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  19. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Alex R; Dong, Lingli; Smith, Alexis; Finklestein, Jeff; Lam, Ernest T; Huo, Naxin; Cao, Han; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Deal, Karin R; Dvorak, Jan; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong; Xiao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  20. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  1. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of genetic loci for body mass index in the diverse ancestral populations of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study reveals evidence for multiple signals at established loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Gong, Jian; Haessler, Jeffrey; Franceschini, Nora; Graff, Mariaelisa; Nishimura, Katherine K; Wang, Yujie; Highland, Heather M; Yoneyama, Sachiko; Bush, William S; Goodloe, Robert; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Buzkova, Petra; Tao, Ran; Isasi, Carmen; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Daviglus, Martha; Mackey, Rachel H; Houston, Denise; Gu, C Charles; Ehret, Georg; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H; Lewis, Cora E; Leppert, Mark; Irvin, Marguerite R; Lim, Unhee; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Lu, Yingchang; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J L; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Guo, Xiuqing; Lee, Wen-Jane; Hai, Yang; Hung, Yi-Jen; Absher, Devin; Wu, I-Chien; Taylor, Kent D; Lee, I-Te; Liu, Yeheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Quertermous, Thomas; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Rotter, Jerome I; Assimes, Themistocles; Hsiung, Chao A; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Prentice, Ross; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, JoAnn E; Kooperberg, Charles; Smokowski, Paul; Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Li, Rongling; Hindorff, Lucia; Buyske, Steven; Matise, Tara C; Peters, Ulrike; North, Kari E

    2017-06-01

    Most body mass index (BMI) genetic loci have been identified in studies of primarily European ancestries. The effect of these loci in other racial/ethnic groups is less clear. Thus, we aimed to characterize the generalizability of 170 established BMI variants, or their proxies, to diverse US populations and trans-ethnically fine-map 36 BMI loci using a sample of >102,000 adults of African, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, European and American Indian/Alaskan Native descent from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study. We performed linear regression of the natural log of BMI (18.5-70 kg/m2) on the additive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at BMI loci on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.), adjusting for age, sex, population stratification, study site, or relatedness. We then performed fixed-effect meta-analyses and a Bayesian trans-ethnic meta-analysis to empirically cluster by allele frequency differences. Finally, we approximated conditional and joint associations to test for the presence of secondary signals. We noted directional consistency with the previously reported risk alleles beyond what would have been expected by chance (binomial p < 0.05). Nearly, a quarter of the previously described BMI index SNPs and 29 of 36 densely-genotyped BMI loci on the MetaboChip replicated/generalized in trans-ethnic analyses. We observed multiple signals at nine loci, including the description of seven loci with novel multiple signals. This study supports the generalization of most common genetic loci to diverse ancestral populations and emphasizes the importance of dense multiethnic genomic data in refining the functional variation at genetic loci of interest and describing several loci with multiple underlying genetic variants.

  2. Towards High-throughput Immunomics for Infectious Diseases: Use of Next-generation Peptide Microarrays for Rapid Discovery and Mapping of Antigenic Determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Carmona, Santiago; Nielsen, Morten; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    , we developed a highly-multiplexed platform based on next-generation high-density peptide microarrays to map these specificities in Chagas Disease, an exemplar of a human infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. We designed a high-density peptide microarray containing more than...... 175,000 overlapping 15mer peptides derived from T. cruzi proteins. Peptides were synthesized in situ on microarray slides, spanning the complete length of 457 parasite proteins with fully overlapped 15mers (1 residue shift). Screening of these slides with antibodies purified from infected patients...

  3. Epidemiological Mapping Of Lymphatic Filariasis In Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hydrocele and elephantiasis was highly sensitive in identifying this community as endemic for filariasis. The degree of association between finding by health workers and information obtained form the community key informants was high for the two major clinical manifestation of the disease used.

  4. Occupational epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L

    2000-02-01

    The epidemiological literature for assessing risk in many, if not most, modern occupations has now become sufficiently obsolete that it can no longer be depended upon to guide either prevention or adjudication of compensation. This obsolescence must be dealt with by developing new sources of information pertinent to occupational hazards and the risks associated with most occupations. Ideally, a comprehensive surveillance mechanism that would be automatically updated for the changing risk in a changing economy would be ideal and may be attainable with further developments in health information technology. The characteristics of such a system are described. However, there are many obstacles to such a system which appear insurmountable in the short term. A more eclectic plan for cooperation and data-sharing would help in the short term and would establish a pattern of collaboration that could both place adjudication on a more solid foundation and avoid allegations of collusion in business. The general outline for a practical programme of collaboration along these lines is presented.

  5. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  6. Rapid assessment and mapping of tree cover in southern African savanna woodlands using a new iPhone App and Landsat 8 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    Tree cover is a key parameter in climate modeling. It strongly influences CO2 exchanges between the land surface and atmosphere and surface energy balance. We measured percent woody canopy cover (PWCC) in the savanna woodlands of eastern Zambia over a 10-day period in May 2016 using a new iPhone App (CanopyApp) and related these field measurements to Landsat 8 (L8) Band 4 (red) imagery acquired approximately the same time. We then used parameters from the band 4 digital numbers (DNs)-PWCC linear regression to derive a new map of PWCC for the entire L8 scene. Consistent with theory and previous empirical studies, we found that the relationship between L8 band 4 DNs- PWCC was negative and linear (r2 = 0.61, p sufficient to estimate PWCC when spectral contrast exists between the grass, soil and tree layers during the austral fall period in southern African savannas.

  7. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  8. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  9. Quilt plots: a simple tool for the visualisation of large epidemiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    Full Text Available Graphical representation of data is one of the most easily comprehended forms of explanation. The current study describes a simple visualization tool which may allow greater understanding of medical and epidemiological data.We propose a simple use of an existing tool for visualization of data, known as a ''quilt plot'' (also defined as "heat maps", that provides an alternative to presenting large volumes of data as frequency tables [corrected]. Data from the Australian Needle and Syringe Program survey are used to illustrate "quilt plots".Visualization of large volumes of data using "quilt plots" enhances interpretation of medical and epidemiological data. Such intuitive presentations are particularly useful for the rapid assessment of problems in the data which cannot be readily identified by manual review. We recommend that, where possible, "quilt plots" be used along with traditional quantitative assessments of the data as an explanatory data analysis tool.

  10. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  11. Challenges to mapping the health risk of hepatitis A virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma Steven T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World maps are among the most effective ways to convey public health messages such as recommended vaccinations, but creating a useful and valid map requires careful deliberation. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV in many world regions heightens the need for up-to-date risk maps. HAV infection is usually asymptomatic in children, so low-income areas with high incidence rates usually have a low burden of disease. In higher-income areas, many adults remain susceptible to the virus and, if infected, often experience severe disease. Results Several challenges associated with presenting hepatitis A risk using maps were identified, including the need to decide whether prior infection or continued susceptibility more aptly indicates risk, whether to display incidence or prevalence, how to distinguish between different levels of risk, how to display changes in risk over time, how to present complex information to target audiences, and how to handle missing or obsolete data. Conclusion For future maps to be comparable across place and time, we propose the use of the age at midpoint of population susceptibility as a standard indicator for the level of hepatitis A endemicity within a world region. We also call for the creation of an accessible active database for population-based age-specific HAV seroprevalence and incidence studies. Health risk maps for other conditions with rapidly changing epidemiology would benefit from similar strategies.

  12. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  13. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  14. Human mobility networks and persistence of rapidly mutating pathogens

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly mutating pathogens may be able to persist in the population and reach an endemic equilibrium by escaping hosts' acquired immunity. For such diseases, multiple biological, environmental and population-level mechanisms determine the dynamics of the outbreak, including pathogen's epidemiological traits (e.g. transmissibility, infectious period and duration of immunity), seasonality, interaction with other circulating strains and hosts' mixing and spatial fragmentation. Here, we study a susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible model on a metapopulation where individuals are distributed in subpopulations connected via a network of mobility flows. Through extensive numerical simulations, we explore the phase space of pathogen's persistence and map the dynamical regimes of the pathogen following emergence. Our results show that spatial fragmentation and mobility play a key role in the persistence of the disease whose maximum is reached at intermediate mobility values. We describe the occurrence of differen...

  15. Trends of Dengue Disease Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucunawangsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue disease is an emerging mosquito-borne viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes spp. that are distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical region along with chikungunya and zika diseases. The distribution of dengue disease is influenced by local variation, such as geography, rainfall, temperature, and rapid urbanization or migration. The epidemy of mosquito-borne infection significantly led to increased number of cases and hyperendemicity which induce a more severe form of dengue accompanied by cocirculation of chikungunya and zika. The rapid global spreading of dengue disease created public health burdens that are presently unfulfilled by the absence of specific therapy, simple diagnosis tool for the early phase, and effective and efficient vector control system. This review highlights the current situation of dengue distribution, epidemiology, and new strategies for early dengue diagnosis and risk prediction of severity that can be used to improve oversight and alleviate the heavy burden of the disease.

  16. Of maps and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, J.E.; Mooneyhan, D.W. [Univ. Space Research Assoc, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-05-01

    For many areas of both the developed and developing world, the spatially accurate data required to effectively support environmental planning, resources management, and public policy decision making do not exist. There are a variety of reasons for this lack of map data. Mapping is neither easy nor cheap. Issues of both national security and national sovereignty are involved. There is a need to reinvigorate and expand our mapping programs to make them national in focus but global in scope. It is also essential that a civil agency be given a load role in global mapping. There is a need to work to break down the barriers that inhibit the open flow of map information that does exist, garner the resources required to fill in where there are gaps, and support efforts to increase funding for research in mapping and spatial analysis. All this must be done if we are to improve our understanding of our rapidly changing world. 20 refs.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Katani, Robab; Schilling, Megan; Kapur, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of severe chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants, termed Johne's disease, and can infect many other animal species, including humans. MAP has a long incubation period prior to manifestation of clinical signs including diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of production. MAP has a high prevalence in dairy herds and results in considerable adverse impacts on animal health and productivity throughout the world. Recent investigations have leveraged the characterization of the MAP genome for the development of powerful new molecular techniques for MAP strain differentiation. These approaches are providing key insights into the epidemiology and transmission of MAP on and between dairy herds. We summarize the state of the art for MAP diagnostics and strain differentiation and our current knowledge of mechanisms of within- and between-herd transmission of MAP, along with future needs for the development of rational MAP infection control programs.

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVED H{alpha} MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 STRONGLY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z {approx} 1 using maps of H{alpha} and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent widths >100 A in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the H{alpha} emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median H{alpha} effective radius r{sub e} (H{alpha}) is 4.2 {+-} 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 15 kpc. Comparing H{alpha} sizes to continuum sizes, we find =1.3 {+-} 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by H{alpha}, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured H{alpha} sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, {Sigma}{sub SFR}. We find that {Sigma}{sub SFR} ranges from {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the largest galaxies to {approx}5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z {approx} 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z {approx} 1.

  19. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  20. Welcome to epidemiology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Youl

    2009-10-29

    The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology.

  1. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cognitive maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive map is a representative expression of an individual's cognitive map knowledge, where cognitive map knowledge is an individual's knowledge about the spatial and environmental relations of geographic space. For example, a sketch map drawn to show the route between two locations is a cognitive map — a representative expression of the drawer's knowledge of the route between the two locations. This map can be analyzed using classification schemes or quantitatively using spatial statist...

  3. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  5. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  6. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites......: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...

  7. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  8. Overdiagnosis: epidemiologic concepts and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer was propounded regarding the rapidly increasing incidence in South Korea. Overdiagnosis is defined as ‘the detection of cancers that would never have been found were it not for the screening test’, and may be an extreme form of lead bias due to indolent cancers, as is inevitable when conducting a cancer screening programme. Because it is solely an epidemiological concept, it can be estimated indirectly by phenomena such as a lack of compensatory drop in post-screening periods, or discrepancies between incidence and mortality. The erstwhile trials for quantifying the overdiagnosis in screening mammography were reviewed in order to secure the data needed to establish its prevalence in South Korea. PMID:25824531

  9. Environmental epidemiology: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Arbabi; Masoud Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is increasingly coping with problems correlated with exposures which may have small relative risks. In fact, many chronic diseases, as the most recent common diseases all over the world, may have unknown etiology but also potentially related to environmental exposures. Environmental epidemiology considers the effect of environmental factors on health. More exposure with increasing number of potential environmental hazards has changed the initial application of environmental epide...

  10. Biostatistics and epidemiology a primer for health and biomedical professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Biostatistics and Epidemiology has attracted loyal readers from across specialty areas in the biomedical community. Not only does this textbook teach foundations of epidemiological design and statistical methods, but it also includes topics applicable to new areas of research. Areas covered in the fourth edition include a new chapter on risk prediction, risk reclassification and evaluation of biomarkers, new material on propensity analyses, and a vastly expanded chapter on genetic epidemiology, which  is particularly relevant to those who wish to understand the epidemiological and statistical aspects of scientific articles in this rapidly advancing field. Biostatistics and Epidemiology was written to be accessible for readers without backgrounds in mathematics. It provides clear explanations of underlying principles, as well as practical guidelines of "how to do it" and "how to interpret it."a philosophical explanation of the logic of science, subsections that ...

  11. The Reinvention of Epidemiology in Light of New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Gómez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History has witnessed the evolution of epidemiology as a scientific discipline and its main protagonists have written that story with innovation and new thinking. Epidemiology has contributed substantial contributions to the understanding of many diseases and has been one of the branches of knowledge has constantly revalued its own paradigms and theoretical models. Currently, epidemiology faces increasingly complex challenges, but a key element is how the light of the new dynamics of the world and new technologies, the dimensions of epidemiology and public health have evolved. The technological revolution around the information technology society is changing at a rapid pace and today, research and information management in the medical field in general are absolutely linked in a great synergy with medical informatics and new technology. Thus, and hand with the Internet and Web 2.0, epidemiology reinvents and expands its borders for the benefit of science and medical art.

  12. Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  13. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  14. Human mobility networks and persistence of rapidly mutating pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Hisi, Andreia N S; Meloni, Sandro; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Rapidly mutating pathogens may be able to persist in the population and reach an endemic equilibrium by escaping hosts' acquired immunity. For such diseases, multiple biological, environmental and population-level mechanisms determine the dynamics of the outbreak, including pathogen's epidemiological traits (e.g. transmissibility, infectious period and duration of immunity), seasonality, interaction with other circulating strains and hosts' mixing and spatial fragmentation. Here, we study a susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible model on a metapopulation where individuals are distributed in sub-populations connected via a network of mobility flows. Through extensive numerical simulations, we explore the phase space of pathogen's persistence and map the dynamical regimes of the pathogen following emergence. Our results show that spatial fragmentation and mobility play a key role in the persistence of the disease whose maximum is reached at intermediate mobility values. We describe the occurrence of different phenomena including local extinction and emergence of epidemic waves, and assess the conditions for large-scale spreading. Findings are highlighted in reference to previous studies and to real scenarios. Our work uncovers the crucial role of hosts' mobility on the ecological dynamics of rapidly mutating pathogens, opening the path for further studies on disease ecology in the presence of a complex and heterogeneous environment.

  15. Epidemiology of violence and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetanović, B

    2000-06-01

    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support.

  16. Epidemiological Methods: About Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chmura Kraemer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1 cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2 statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3, how risk factors "work together" to impact public health significance. The issue of time should be central to all thinking in epidemiology research, affecting sampling, measurement, design, analysis and, perhaps most important, the interpretation of results that might influence clinical and public-health decision-making and subsequent clinical research.

  17. CEPH maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, H M

    1992-06-01

    There are CEPH genetic maps on each homologous human chromosome pair. Genotypes for these maps have been generated in 88 laboratories that receive DNA from a reference panel of large nuclear pedigrees/families supplied by the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain. These maps serve as useful tools for the localization of both disease genes and other genes of interest.

  18. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akogbeto Martin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

  19. Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George

    2016-12-01

    Triangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how triangulation might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in triangulation in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a triangulation framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  1. Ethics and epidemiological research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FROM THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE. Ethics and epidemiological research. TCullinan. Introduction ... delines dealt mainly with the ethical issues sur- rounding clinical trials and other types of research involving .... ified school, a community might easily come to believe that all school boys were so infected. The principle of ...

  2. Epidemiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Laursen, René J

    2017-01-01

    In this national population-based study of glioma, we present epidemiologic data on incidence, demographics, survival, clinical characteristics and symptoms, and evaluate the association of specific indicators with the grade of glioma. We included 1930 patients registered in the Danish Neuro...

  3. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged Ebbehøj, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and catecholamine secreting paraganglioma (PPGL) are exceedingly rare endocrine tumours, but remain a frequent diagnostic dilemma due to their potential life-threatening nature. Reliable data on the epidemiology of PPGL is lacking and no time trends in incidence rates (IR) have...

  4. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  5. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  7. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OFNOROVIRUS INFECTION OUTBREAK IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletskaya, O V; Tibilov, A G; Prislegina, D A; Gazieva, G K; Otaraeva, N I; Volynkina, A S; Saveliev, V N; Lyamkin, G I; Zaitsev, A A; Kulichenko, A N

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of epidemiologic features of a norovirus outbreak in Alagir city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and effectiveness of measures of its liquidation. Data from maps-schemes of water supply system of Alagir city and statistical documentation of Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania were used in the study. Indication of norovirus in clinical material and water samples was carried out bypolymerase chain reaction method. Etiological agent of outbreak disease was established--genotype II norovirus. Realization of fecal-oral mechanisms of water transmission pathway of the causative agent of norovirus infection was detected. Conditions facilitating emergence and development of the indicated outbreak were determined--non-satisfactory sanitary-technical condition of water. supply system of the city. The studied water outbreak of norovirus infection was caused by GII.17 genotype virus, that currently gradually displaces GII.IV genotype, and was characterized by an intensive start, involvement of all population age groups into the epidemic process (with primary infection of adults), low family focality, predominance of average severity disease forms in the clinical presentation. The counter-epidemic measures carried out ensured rapid localization and liquidation of the norovirus infection outbreak.

  8. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  9. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR in the Teaching of Molecular Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Elina B.; Bettera, Susana G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe a basic practical laboratory designed for fifth-year undergraduate students of Microbiology as part of the Epidemiology course. This practice provides the students with the tools for molecular epidemiological analysis of pathogenic microorganisms using a rapid and simple PCR technique. The aim of this work was to assay…

  10. The Proteogenomic Mapping Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandass Yoginder S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput mass spectrometry (MS proteomics data is increasingly being used to complement traditional structural genome annotation methods. To keep pace with the high speed of experimental data generation and to aid in structural genome annotation, experimentally observed peptides need to be mapped back to their source genome location quickly and exactly. Previously, the tools to do this have been limited to custom scripts designed by individual research groups to analyze their own data, are generally not widely available, and do not scale well with large eukaryotic genomes. Results The Proteogenomic Mapping Tool includes a Java implementation of the Aho-Corasick string searching algorithm which takes as input standardized file types and rapidly searches experimentally observed peptides against a given genome translated in all 6 reading frames for exact matches. The Java implementation allows the application to scale well with larger eukaryotic genomes while providing cross-platform functionality. Conclusions The Proteogenomic Mapping Tool provides a standalone application for mapping peptides back to their source genome on a number of operating system platforms with standard desktop computer hardware and executes very rapidly for a variety of datasets. Allowing the selection of different genetic codes for different organisms allows researchers to easily customize the tool to their own research interests and is recommended for anyone working to structurally annotate genomes using MS derived proteomics data.

  11. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-12-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research.

  12. Epidemiology of Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  13. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  14. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  15. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Westrin, C. G.; Nilstun, T.; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  16. Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine; Saffery, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for man...

  17. Epidemiology of dentin hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Splieth, Christian H.; Tachou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Objective In contrast to the well-established caries epidemiology, data on dentin hypersensitivity seem to be scarce and contradictory. This review evaluates the available literature on dentin hypersensitivity and assesses its prevalence, distribution, and potential changes. Materials and methods The systematic search was performed to identify and select relevant publications with several key words in electronic databases. In addition, the articles? bibliographies were consulted. Results Prev...

  18. Epidemiology of psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Salvarani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies on psoriatic arthritis have long been hampered by the absence of widely accepted classification criteria. The development of the CASPAR (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic ARthritis criteria has recently provided the framework for conducting epidemiological studies in psoriatic arthritis using uniform recruitment criteria. However, so far, only a minority of studies have adopted such criteria. In addition to the lack of shared classification criteria, differences in study settings, designs, and ascertainment methods have contributed to yield substantial disparities in the estimates of the incidence (from 3,02 to 23,1 cases per 100,000 people and prevalence (from 49,1 to 420 cases per 100,000 people of psoriatic arthritis around the globe. Overall, the available data suggests that the prevalence of psoriasis in the general population is approximately 2-3%, with about a third of patients with psoriasis having arthritis. Therefore, psoriatic arthritis may affect 0,3- 1,0% of the population, a frequency not dissimilar from that of rheumatoid arthritis. Future epidemiological studies should be carried out in larger numbers of patients diagnosed using consistent criteria.

  19. Mapping changes – from changing perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    . Mapping the huge amount of changes over the past 350 years, the DigDag project (Digital atlas of the Danish historical-administrative geography) has established a uniform research infrastructure: a digital cartographical skeleton for thematic mapping and analysis. Thus, for instance epidemiological data...... initiation phase, the first spin-off result is now available on the web: a dictionary of Danish place-names containing historical name variants, analysis and interpretations of more than 150,000 toponyms....

  20. Question Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  1. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  2. Epidemiology and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C

    1985-08-01

    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  3. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  4. Epidemiology of OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships. PMID:23312408

  5. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark......, Guatemala and the Philippines. Genomic DNA was extracted from each worm and a 450 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit 1 (COI) was PCR amplified. The products were sequenced from both strands and sequences were manually edited. Fifty different Ascaris CO1 haplotypes were...

  6. Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathan; Trevick, Stephen; Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) includes a consideration of genetic and environmental factors. Comparative studies of different populations have revealed prevalence and incidence rates that vary with geography and ethnicity. With a prevalence ranging from 2 per 100,000 in Japan to greater than 100 per 100,000 in Northern Europe and North America, the burden of MS is similarly unevenly influenced by longevity and comorbid disorders. Well-powered genome-wide association studies have investigated the genetic substrate of MS, providing insight into autoimmune mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of MS and elucidating possible avenues of biological treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Craig; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Svendsen, Erik R; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved-with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement-epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behind and have received little attention. Case studies and recent epidemiological studies revealed that tear gas agents can cause lung, cutaneous, and ocular injuries, with individuals affected by chronic morbidities at high risk for complications. Mechanistic studies identified the ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 as targets of capsaicin in pepper spray, and of the tear gas agents chloroacetophenone, CS, and CR. TRPV1 and TRPA1 localize to pain-sensing peripheral sensory neurons and have been linked to acute and chronic pain, cough, asthma, lung injury, dermatitis, itch, and neurodegeneration. In animal models, transient receptor potential inhibitors show promising effects as potential countermeasures against tear gas injuries. On the basis of the available data, a reassessment of the health risks of tear gas exposures in the civilian population is advised, and development of new countermeasures is proposed. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Epidemiology of breastfeeding: advances and multidisciplinary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Guerrero, M Lourdes

    2004-01-01

    Advancing understanding of the importance of breastfeeding (BF) has required advances in application of epidemiologic methods to BF research. This chapter considers, in the context of BF epidemiology, how different research designs complement each other to establish firmer causal inferences, the need for multidisciplinary collaborations, and the application of powerful analytical methods to strengthen epidemiologic studies. A recent global meta-analysis of 47 studies documenting the inverse association between lifetime BF duration and breast cancer risk illustrates the value of longitudinal (cohort) studies to establish the temporal sequence of events and to rule out differential recall biases that can threaten the internal validity of case-control studies. The discovery of the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via human milk has led epidemiologists to provide important hypotheses to be tested at the molecular and cellular level and in turn test hypotheses generated in laboratory studies. Application of powerful statistical methods to BF epidemiology has helped strengthen causal inferences. A retrospective analysis of the 1976--1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey found interactive multivariate statistical models to better understand how different socioeconomic and cultural contexts modify the influence of BF on child health. Further, a study conducted in Cebu City, Philippines, demonstrated how structural equation models can be used to test the pathways through which proximate (e.g., BF) and distal (e.g., socioeconomic status) determinants affect child health after adjusting for reverse causality (i.e., child health influencing maternal BF choice). For ethical reasons, BF randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have seldom been conducted. Recent RCTs examining the link between BF peer counseling and BF outcomes in diverse settings provides a unique opportunity to firmly establish the causal inferences regarding BF and the prevention of diarrheal diseases

  9. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism......, it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This article looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the data-journalism platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example...

  10. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/

  11. DistMap: A Toolkit for Distributed Short Read Mapping on a Hadoop Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/ PMID:24009693

  12. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics...

  13. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MAPPING OF LYMPna'riciiiiLARrAsrs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is the standard RAGFIL method developed by WHO). Only males who have been at least. 10 years resident in the community were included in the examination and only obvious lymphoedema and hydrocele greater than a tennis ball were recorded as positive. The examination used the principles of “if in doubt, leave it out”.

  15. Haz-Map: information on hazardous chemicals and occupational diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2004-01-01

    Haz-Map is a newWeb-based information resource, available on the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET system. It contains information on the epidemiology of occupational or job task related diseases. Haz-Map also provides links to information about industrial hygiene related to occupational exposure to a specific list of toxic chemicals. Background information, search hints, and a content description of Haz-Map are provided.

  16. World Map of Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2017-06-26

    A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.

  17. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  18. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  19. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  20. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  1. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Gene Mapping with Recombinant Inbreds in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, B; Burr, F A; Thompson, K. H.; Albertson, M. C.; Stuber, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines of maize have been developed for the rapid mapping of molecular probes to chromosomal location. Two recombinant inbred families have been constructed from F(2) populations of T232 X CM37 and CO159 X Tx303. A genetic map based largely on isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms has been produced that covers virtually the entire maize genome. In order to map a new gene, an investigator has only to determine its allelic distribution among the recombinant in...

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  4. Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking. Methods A scoping review was carried out focused on the question of what constitutes participatory approaches to epidemiology for the purpose of demonstrating their potential for advancing epidemiologic research. Relevant databases were searched, including both the published and non-published (grey literature. The 102 identified sources were analyzed in terms of comparing common epidemiologic approaches to participatory counterparts regarding central aspects of the research process. Exemplary studies applying participatory approaches were examined more closely. Results A highly diverse, interdisciplinary body of literature was synthesized, resulting in a framework comprised of seven aspects of the research process: research goal, research question, population, context, data synthesis, research management, and dissemination of findings. The framework specifies how participatory approaches not only differ from, but also how they can enhance common approaches in epidemiology. Finally, recommendations for the further development of participatory approaches are given. These include: enhancing data collection, data analysis, and data validation; advancing capacity building for research at the local level; and developing data synthesis. Conclusion The proposed framework provides a basis for systematically developing the emergent science of participatory epidemiology.

  5. Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Mario; Jordan, Susanne; Hartung, Susanne; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Wright, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking. A scoping review was carried out focused on the question of what constitutes participatory approaches to epidemiology for the purpose of demonstrating their potential for advancing epidemiologic research. Relevant databases were searched, including both the published and non-published (grey) literature. The 102 identified sources were analyzed in terms of comparing common epidemiologic approaches to participatory counterparts regarding central aspects of the research process. Exemplary studies applying participatory approaches were examined more closely. A highly diverse, interdisciplinary body of literature was synthesized, resulting in a framework comprised of seven aspects of the research process: research goal, research question, population, context, data synthesis, research management, and dissemination of findings. The framework specifies how participatory approaches not only differ from, but also how they can enhance common approaches in epidemiology. Finally, recommendations for the further development of participatory approaches are given. These include: enhancing data collection, data analysis, and data validation; advancing capacity building for research at the local level; and developing data synthesis. The proposed framework provides a basis for systematically developing the emergent science of participatory epidemiology.

  6. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... of the enterprise is compared with a Reference Enterprise Model (REM). The REM is a CALS idealised enterprise providing full product support throughout the extended enterprise and containing different manufacturing aspects, e.g. component industry, process industry, and one-piece production. This CALS idealised...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  7. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  8. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...... looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia...

  9. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  10. [Epidemiology of urban malaria in Quibdo, Choco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Johanna; Osorio, Lyda

    2006-06-01

    Although urban malaria is a public health problem in Colombia, little is known about its epidemiological characteristics, needed for the implementation of rational control strategies. To determine the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in the urban area of the municipality of Quibd6, in northwest Colombia. Malaria cases diagnosed in the city of Quibd6 between March and July, 2001 were classified as autochthonous or imported based on travel histories to endemic areas and place of residency. Autochthonous cases were mapped and risk areas identified using sex and age standardized morbidity ratios. During the study period 839 malaria cases were included: 77% due to Plasmodium falciparum; 19% due to P. vivax and 4% infections due to both species. 24.4% of P. falciparum cases and 39.1% of P. vivax cases were classified as autochthonous. Those neighborhoods located in the southeast of the town showed the highest risk for malaria. As in other urban areas, malaria transmission in the city of Quibdo is focal and the areas with the highest risk are located near vegetation zones. These results are useful to prioritize areas for intervention and the allocation of resources.

  11. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being......, the innovation map can act as a medium in which policymakers, interest organization and companies can develop and coordinate future innovation activities....

  12. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  13. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  14. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  15. Ethics, big data and computing in epidemiology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lee, Lisa M; Hlaing, WayWay M; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2017-05-01

    This article reflects on the activities of the Ethics Committee of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE). Members of the Ethics Committee identified an opportunity to elaborate on knowledge gained since the inception of the original Ethics Guidelines published by the ACE Ethics and Standards of Practice Committee in 2000. The ACE Ethics Committee presented a symposium session at the 2016 Epidemiology Congress of the Americas in Miami on the evolving complexities of ethics and epidemiology as it pertains to "big data." This article presents a summary and further discussion of that symposium session. Three topic areas were presented: the policy implications of big data and computing, the fallacy of "secondary" data sources, and the duty of citizens to contribute to big data. A balanced perspective is needed that provides safeguards for individuals but also furthers research to improve population health. Our in-depth review offers next steps for teaching of ethics and epidemiology, as well as for epidemiological research, public health practice, and health policy. To address contemporary topics in the area of ethics and epidemiology, the Ethics Committee hosted a symposium session on the timely topic of big data. Technological advancements in clinical medicine and genetic epidemiology research coupled with rapid advancements in data networks, storage, and computation at a lower cost are resulting in the growth of huge data repositories. Big data increases concerns about data integrity; informed consent; protection of individual privacy, confidentiality, and harm; data reidentification; and the reporting of faulty inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and its Role in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Lee Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary definition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research findings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientific results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.

  17. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  18. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  19. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  2. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  3. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective.

  4. Pemphigus: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Karıncaoğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus, a group of bullous diseases affecting the oral mucosa and the skin, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmogleins (Dsg, desmosomal transmembrane glycoproteins, leading to acantholysis. Pemphigus has a worldwide distribution but the incidence in patients of Jewish origin is higher. The disease has a peak incidence of occurrence between the 4th and 6th decades. While various environmental factors have been implicated as triggering agents, HLA association is probably the most important predisposing factor. Pemphigus, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmosomal cadherins, Dsg1, and Dsg3. Recent molecular studies have shown that acantholysis can occur also in the presence of antibodies against 9a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pemphigus is currently divided into three distinct varieties, i.e., pemphigus vulgaris (PV, pemphigus foliaceus (PF and other variants of pemphigus, depending on clinical features, the level of separation in the epidermis, and immunologic characteristics of auto-antigens. Blistering pathogenesis differ for each of the types of pemphigus. PV is characterized by IgG autoantibodies against Dsg 3, whereas the target of PF is Dsg1, although about 50% of PV patients also have Dsg1 autoantibodies. Lesion distribution is related to the location of the antigen (Dgs 3 and/or Dgs 1 in the epithelium and specific autoantibody production. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathogenesis of pemphigus.

  5. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  6. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  7. [Epidemiology of myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, S; Pfeiffer, N

    2017-01-01

    Myopia is the most common cause for impaired vision in children and young adults with increasing tendency. Although myopia is hereditary, genetic findings do not explain the full extent of its recent increase. Epidemiologic studies are required to investigate the prevalence and incidence of this disease. The prevalence, incidence and progression of myopia with its economic impact are emphasized to review the distribution and consequences of the development and progression of myopia. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE. The global prevalence of myopia is currently 28.3 % and is dramatically increasing. In 2050, half of the world population will be affected. Myopia starts earlier and exhibits a peak prevalence in young Asian adults. High myopia indicates a similar development. Interventions to slow the development and progression of myopia are strongly required due to the medical and socio-economic drawbacks for the individuals and for society. Myopia is already a ubiquitous phenomenon in some parts of the world. One out of ten persons will be at a relevant risk of becoming blind as a result of myopia in the future. Preventive measures have not shown sweeping success.

  8. The changing epidemiology and demography of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Stanojevic, Sanja; Sykes, Jenna; Burgel, Pierre-Regis

    2017-06-01

    Once considered a pediatric disease with a poor prognosis, individuals born with cystic fibrosis (CF) today can expect to live well into adulthood. The implementation of multidisciplinary care, novel treatments and newborn screening has resulted in the rapid evolution in the demographics of the CF population. The purpose of this review is to highlight the evolving epidemiology and demographics of the CF population internationally. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Neosporosis in dairy cattle: an update from an epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, John M

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis is advancing rapidly with considerable research activity being facilitated by improving methods. The dynamics of the infection in the known definitive hosts, the dog and the coyote, are being described. Improved procedures for production of oocysts enables the horizontal transmission to intermediate hosts and the subsequent more natural infection process to be studied. Details of the sylvatic cycles, potentially involving other animals in the dairy environment, are also emerging.

  10. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  11. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...

  12. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  13. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  14. Epidemiology in mixed host populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garrett, K A; Mundt, C C

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although plant disease epidemiology has focused on populations in which all host plants have the same genotype, mixtures of host genotypes are more typical of natural populations and offer...

  15. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever More Epidemiology and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in 2007. In 2008, the Q fever case definition was changed to allow for the reporting of ...

  16. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  17. Mozambique field epidemiology and laboratory training program: a pathway for strengthening human resources in applied epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Cynthia Semá; Taibo, Cátia; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gujral, Lorna; Salomão, Cristolde; Doyle, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Mozambique has been undergoing demographic, epidemiological, economic and social transitions, which have all had a notable impact on the National Health System. New challenges have emerged, causing a need to expand the preparation and response to emerging disease threats and public health emergencies. We describe the structure and function of the Mozambique Field Epidemiology Training Program (MZ-FELTP) and the main outputs achieved during the first 6 years of program implementation (consisting of 3 cohorts). We also outline the contribution of the program to the National Health System and assess the retention of the graduates. The MZ-FELTP is a post-graduate in-service training program, based on the acquisition of skills, within two tracks: applied epidemiology and laboratory management. The program was established in 2010, with the objective of strengthening capacity in applied epidemiology and laboratory management, so that events of public health importance can be detected and investigated in a timely and effective manner. The program is in its seventh year, having successfully trained 36 health professionals in the advanced course. During the first six years of the program, more than 40 outbreaks were investigated, 37 surveillance system evaluations were conducted and 39 descriptive data analyses were performed. Surveillance activities were implemented for mass events and emergency situations. In addition, more than 100 oral and poster presentations were given by trainees at national and international conferences. The MZ-FELTP has helped provide the Ministry of Health with the human and technical resources and operational capacity, to rapidly and effectively respond to major public health challenges in the country. The continuous involvement of key stakeholders is necessary for the continuation, expansion and ongoing sustainability of the program.

  18. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  19. The role of applied epidemiology methods in the disaster management cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malilay, Josephine; Heumann, Michael; Perrotta, Dennis; Wolkin, Amy F; Schnall, Amy H; Podgornik, Michelle N; Cruz, Miguel A; Horney, Jennifer A; Zane, David; Roisman, Rachel; Greenspan, Joel R; Thoroughman, Doug; Anderson, Henry A; Wells, Eden V; Simms, Erin F

    2014-11-01

    Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders. We present a framework consisting of rapid needs assessments, health surveillance, tracking and registries, and epidemiological investigations, including risk factor and health outcome studies and evaluation of interventions, which can be practiced throughout the cycle. Applying each method can result in actionable information for planners and decision-makers responsible for preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster epidemiology, once integrated into the disaster management cycle, can provide the evidence base to inform and enhance response capability within the public health infrastructure.

  20. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  1. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  2. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  3. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven H. Ackers; Raymond J. Davis; Keith A. Olsen; Katie M. Dugger

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last fewdecades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often...

  4. KAJIAN EPIDEMIOLOGI KEJADIAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KOTA SEMARANG DAN KABUPATEN DEMAK TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yuniarto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of rodent borne neglected diseases, but health problem in day. Transmision of Leptospirosis occurs by contact with water or humid soil contaminated with urine from rodent infected with Leptospira. The aim of this research was to know epidemiology Leptospirosis in Semarang City and Demak District, in April-November 2008. The design of this research was cross sectional. The activity included Leptospirosis diagnosis with Rapid Diagostic Test (Leptotek Dri Dot and rat trappings. Data were analysed descriptively by using tables, graphics and maps. The result showed that in 2008, Leptospirosis incidence in the both areas was higher compared to the previous year. The Leptospirosis cases tended to increase in the rainy season. In Semarang City, Leptospirosis cases were mostly found in the age group of 0-19 years (44,1% and 51% of the total cases were female. In Demak District, the cases were mostly found in the age group of 40-49 years (25,7% and 75,7% from the total cases were male. The spesies rats found in this research were Rattus tanezumi, R.norvegicus, B.indica, Mus musculus, R.exculan and Suncus murinus. Kidney test of the rats caught in Semarang City showed Rattus tanezumi, R.norwegicus, B.indica, and R.exculan were infected with Leptospira sp.

  5. Reasoning Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Renato Pinto de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação apresenta uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão, baseada na Metodologia Multicritérios de Apoio à Decisão - MCDA, através do desenvolvimento de um software denominado Reasoning Maps. O software permite, de maneira integrada, a construção de mapas cognitivos, suas diversas análises topológicas e o cadastramento e análise de alternativas. Abor...

  6. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...... the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...

  7. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  8. The National Map: from geography to mapping and back again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmelis, John A.; DeMulder, Mark L.; Ogrosky, Charles E.; Van Driel, J. Nicholas; Ryan, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    When the means of production for national base mapping were capital intensive, required large production facilities, and had ill-defined markets, Federal Government mapping agencies were the primary providers of the spatial data needed for economic development, environmental management, and national defense. With desktop geographic information systems now ubiquitous, source data available as a commodity from private industry, and the realization that many complex problems faced by society need far more and different kinds of spatial data for their solutions, national mapping organizations must realign their business strategies to meet growing demand and anticipate the needs of a rapidly changing geographic information environment. The National Map of the United States builds on a sound historic foundation of describing and monitoring the land surface and adds a focused effort to produce improved understanding, modeling, and prediction of land-surface change. These added dimensions bring to bear a broader spectrum of geographic science to address extant and emerging issues. Within the overarching construct of The National Map, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is making a transition from data collector to guarantor of national data completeness; from producing paper maps to supporting an online, seamless, integrated database; and from simply describing the Nation’s landscape to linking these descriptions with increased scientific understanding. Implementing the full spectrum of geographic science addresses a myriad of public policy issues, including land and natural resource management, recreation, urban growth, human health, and emergency planning, response, and recovery. Neither these issues nor the science and technologies needed to deal with them are static. A robust research agenda is needed to understand these changes and realize The National Map vision. Initial successes have been achieved. These accomplishments demonstrate the utility of

  9. [The epidemiology of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; López-R, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In excess of 50% of adult population and nearly one third of children in Mexico have overweight and obesity. This accounts for slightly >32,671,000 million persons, excluding children; thus, total numbers are even more significant. These figures are alarming for those responsible for the economic future and well-being of Mexico. Overweight and obesity lead to higher risk of mortality as well as development of multiple diseases, mainly coronary heart disease, diabetes type 2, cancer, and stroke, which are at present the principal causes of mortality in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there are throughout the world more than one billion adults with overweight, of whom 300 million have obesity. In addition to the obesity epidemic in Mexico, there is high prevalence of diabetes type 2. Coexistence of both epidemics has been denominated the twin epidemic. As many as 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes are linked with overweight or obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. The disease was once thought to be limited to adults, but obese children are now developing the illness. In Mexico, we are able to refer to at least three epidemics, because not only are obesity and type 2 diabetes advancing rapidly in the country, but also cardiovascular disease, linked with high prevalence of both hypertension and metabolic syndrome as reported by scientists based on Mexican National Health Survey 2000 data.

  10. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  11. Psychiatric epidemiology in Turkey: main advances in recent studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbay, Tolga; Direk, Neşe; Aker, Tamer; Akvardar, Yıldız; Alptekin, Köksal; Cimilli, Can; Cam, Birmay; Deveci, Artuner; Kadri Gültekin, Bülent; Sar, Vedat; Taycan, Okan; Ulaş, Halis

    2014-01-01

    To overview and evaluate the main findings, methodological shortcomings, and time trends of the recent psychiatric epidemiology studies in Turkey, as well as to provide areas prone for development in forthcoming research. PubMed and Turkish Psychiatry Index were screened to identify relevant studies. Any epidemiological study from 2000 to 2012 with a general population or unique sub-population sample was included. Papers and results were classified as depression, anxiety, psychotic, dissociative, conversion, personality, alcohol and substance abuse, and trauma-related disorders, and common geriatric disorders. There are various epidemiological studies on various psychiatric disorders in Turkey. However, there are main shortcomings and trends in research that subsequently stagnate current psychiatric epidemiological research. First, epidemiological studies were mainly conducted for academic purposes, not for addressing epidemiological issues or issues of health policy. Second, studies mainly focused on particular fields and institutions, which led to non-systematic accumulation of epidemiological results. Third, although Turkey is a natural laboratory of social conflicts and disasters, there were few studies with a focus on probable outcomes. Fourth, high-quality epidemiological studies with disseminating results tended to decrease, even in common mental disorders such as depression. Fifth, there were very few epidemiological studies using contemporary designs such as follow-up, genetic, or biomarker data in the general-population. Although psychiatric epidemiological studies of the last decade provide a suitable ground for future challenges, current trends in this research area has tended to stagnate, despite the potential for unique contributions. Forthcoming studies and researchers may notice novel methodological developments in epidemiology, with a growing attention on rapid urbanization, natural disasters, social conflicts, and migration.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martcheva, M.

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

  14. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    50 PowerPoint slides, in thum bnail...numerically inferior to the rest of the population of the state, in a non-dominant position , whose members being citizens of a state, possess ethnic beliefs...acceptable of these definitions is that minority people, who are in a subordinate position due to their numbers, have to be different by "ethnic or

  15. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant on large amounts of purified nuclei as starting material. This complicates analysis of trace clinical tissue samples that are often stored frozen. We have developed an alternative nuclease based procedure to bypass nuclear preparation to interrogate nuclease accessible regions in frozen tissue samples. Results Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh). The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent conditions such as high levels of detergent and DTT. As a proof of principle we applied TACh to frozen mouse liver tissue. Combined with massive parallel sequencing TACh identifies accessible regions that are associated with euchromatic features and accessibility at transcriptional start sites correlates positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions, whereas identification of less accessible regions tends to be more divergence between nucleases. Interestingly, we show that some of the differences between DNase I and Benzonase relate to their intrinsic sequence biases and accordingly accessibility of CpG islands is probed more efficiently using TACh. Conclusion The TACh methodology identifies accessible chromatin derived from frozen tissue samples. We propose that this simple, robust approach can be applied across a broad range of clinically relevant samples to allow demarcation of regulatory elements of considerable prognostic significance. PMID:22734930

  16. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grøntved Lars

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant on large amounts of purified nuclei as starting material. This complicates analysis of trace clinical tissue samples that are often stored frozen. We have developed an alternative nuclease based procedure to bypass nuclear preparation to interrogate nuclease accessible regions in frozen tissue samples. Results Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh. The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent conditions such as high levels of detergent and DTT. As a proof of principle we applied TACh to frozen mouse liver tissue. Combined with massive parallel sequencing TACh identifies accessible regions that are associated with euchromatic features and accessibility at transcriptional start sites correlates positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions, whereas identification of less accessible regions tends to be more divergence between nucleases. Interestingly, we show that some of the differences between DNase I and Benzonase relate to their intrinsic sequence biases and accordingly accessibility of CpG islands is probed more efficiently using TACh. Conclusion The TACh methodology identifies accessible chromatin derived from frozen tissue samples. We propose that this simple, robust approach can be applied across a broad range of clinically relevant samples to allow demarcation of regulatory elements of considerable prognostic significance.

  17. ODI launches RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach online guide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 juin 2014 ... Régionalisation du recrutement du personnel de santé au Burkina Faso. Les ressources humaines en santé sont essentielles dans l'atteinte des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement par les systèmes nationaux de santé. Voir davantageRégionalisation du recrutement du personnel de santé au ...

  18. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Bandle, Russell; John, Sam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant....... RESULTS: Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh). The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent...... positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions...

  19. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  20. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzini, Daiana; Battaglia, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level. In 2012 there were 20 national registries that could help to describe the epidemiology of the disease and, in addition, there is an European Register for Multiple Sclerosis that collect data from already existing national or regional MS registries and databases. Another valid alternative to obtain epidemiological data, also at national level, in a routinely and cost-saving way is through administrative data that are of increasing interest in the last years.

  2. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  3. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  4. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  5. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  6. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    that maps results to an intended population. In contrast, recent analytical epidemiology has shifted the focus away from survey-type representativity to internal validity in the sample. Against this background, it is a good time for statisticians to take stock of our role and position regarding surveys...

  7. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  8. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets

  9. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  10. CEPH consortium map of chromosome 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, J.; Povey, S. (University College, London (United Kingdom)); Chiano, M.; Goudie, D.; Yates, J. (Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)); Collins, A.; Shields, D. (Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)); Donis-Keller, H. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)); Dracopoli, N. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Fountain, J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)) (and others)

    1994-01-15

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of chromosome 9. A total of 124 markers were typed in the CEPH family DNAs by 14 contributing laboratories; of these, 42 loci are ordered on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The uniquely placed markers include 31 that can be typed by PCR. A further 28 markers that can be typed by PCR are approximately positioned on the map. Multilocus linkage analysis with CRI-MAP has produced male, female, and sex-averaged maps extending for 176, 237, and 209 cM, respectively, while sex-averaged maps produced with MAPMAKER and the multiple two-point program MAP extended for 170 and 129 cM, respectively. The male map contains only two intervals greater than 10 cM, and the mean genetic distance between the 42 uniquely placed loci is 4.3 cM. However, no markers were available to anchor the map at either telomere or the centromere. The results confirm the high level of interference suggested by chiasma maps of chromosome 9. Detailed meiotic breakpoints for three of the families are shown. These can be used to provide rapid placement of any new marker without the need for statistical analysis. 36 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. CEPH consortium Map of chromosome 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, J; Chiano, M; Collins, A; Donis-Keller, H; Dracopoli, N; Fountain, J; Falk, C; Goudie, D; Gusella, J; Haines, J

    1994-01-15

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of chromosome 9. A total of 124 markers were typed in the CEPH family DNAs by 14 contributing laboratories; of these, 42 loci are ordered on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The uniquely placed markers include 31 that can be typed by PCR. A further 28 markers that can be typed by PCR are approximately positioned on the map. Multilocus linkage analysis with CRI-MAP has produced male, female, and sex-averaged maps extending for 176, 237, and 209 cM, respectively, while sex-averaged maps produced with MAPMAKER and the multiple two-point program MAP extended for 170 and 129 cM, respectively. The male map contains only two intervals greater than 10 cM, and the mean genetic distance between the 42 uniquely placed loci is 4.3 cM. However, no markers were available to anchor the map at either telomere or the centromere. The results confirm the high level of interference suggested by chiasma maps of chromosome 9. Detailed meiotic breakpoints for three of the families are shown. These can be used to provide rapid placement of any new marker without the need for statistical analysis.

  12. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  13. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  14. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  15. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  16. Malaria in three epidemiological strata in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ba, Ousmane; Ba, Hampaté; Ould Khairy, Mohamed Lemine; Faye, Ousmane; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Basco, Leonardo K

    2016-04-12

    Malaria epidemiology in Mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: Sahelian zone, Sahelo-Saharan transition zone, and Saharan zone. The association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys. Surveys were conducted during the 'cool' dry season in 2011, 'hot' dry season in 2012, and rainy season in 2013 in a total of 12 sentinel sites. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were collected from children aged 2-9 years old in randomly selected households for microscopic examination and rapid diagnostic test for malaria. Adult mosquitoes were sampled by pyrethrum spray catch and CDC light traps and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Of 3445 children included, 143 (4.15 %) were infected with malaria parasites including Plasmodium falciparum (n = 71, 2.06 %), Plasmodium vivax (57, 1.65 %), P. falciparum-P. vivax (2, 0.06 %), Plasmodium ovale (12, 0.35 %), and Plasmodium malariae (1, 0.03 %). A large majority of P. falciparum infections were observed in the Sahelo-Saharan zone. Malaria prevalence (P strata during the 'cool' dry season in 2011 but was absent in all study sites, except for Teyarett district in Nouakchott, during the 'hot' dry season in 2012. During the rainy season in 2013, An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles pharoensis, and Anopheles rufipes were abundant in different zones. The results of the present study support the stratification of malaria in Mauritania. However, the Sahelian zone had the lowest malaria prevalence, while the Sahelo-Saharan zone had the highest malaria burden. Local changes due to anthropogenic factors (i.e., human migration, urbanization, malaria interventions) should be considered in order to optimize the control strategy.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of cancer in immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigini, P; Carobbi, S; Sansone, R; Lombardo, C; Santi, L

    1991-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology may help fill the gap between epidemiological and biological models for cancerogenesis, allowing useful comparisons between series of cases carrying different biological characteristics. The defective regulation of immune responses is probably the common basis of cancer origin in genetically determined immune deficiency (GDID). Lymphomas are the most common neoplasms, showing an extremely high incidence in early age, frequent unusual location (extra-nodal) and histology, and rapid progression and spread with little response to therapy. A high incidence of lymphoma is also found in acquired (AIDS) or iatrogenic (transplant recipients) immune defective patients. The emergence of a malignant clone may be linked to unregulated polyclonal B- or T-cell proliferation and to disturbances in chromosomal rearrangements and in clonal selection, which are unique features of the immune cells regulation. It is useful to compare patterns of malignancies observed in GDIDs and in chromosomal breakage syndromes (CBS). In ataxia-teleangectasia (AT), selective errors at sites of special recombination involved in immune cell rearrangements may account for both immune deficiency and frequent types of malignant transformation. Different cytogenetic alterations and different types of malignancies are more common in Bloom syndrome, and in other GDIDs unrelated to chromosomal fragility, possibly due to different regulatory impairments. Viral infection (EBV, HPV, CMV) is likely to be a factor in any of the above steps. Therefore, individual exposure to viral (or other environmental) agents may be related to frequent location (skin, ano-genital areas, digestive tracts) of nonlymphatic cancers both in some GDIDs and in acquired or iatrogenic immune deficiencies. Cells that are homozygous for GDID are not malignant themselves, but are more likely to undergo new mutations to malignancy, due both to disregulation of the immune system and to environmental agents.

  18. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence--a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools--a rare occurrence--was more prevalent. Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy

  19. Cardiac Mapping: Utility or Futility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anoop Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac mapping is a broad term that covers several modes of mapping such as body surface,1 endocardial,2 and epicardial3 mapping. The recording and analysis of extracellular electrograms, reported as early as 1915, forms the basis for cardiac mapping.4 More commonly, cardiac mapping is performed with catheters that are introduced percutaneously into the heart chambers and sequentially record the endocardial electrograms with the purpose of correlating local electrogram to cardiac anatomy. These electrophysiological catheters are navigated and localized with the use of fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, the use of fluoroscopy for these purposes may be problematic for a number of reasons, including: 1 the inability to accurately associate intracardiac electrograms with their precise location within the heart; 2 the endocardial surface is invisible using fluoroscopy and the target sites can only be approximated by their relationship with nearby structures such as ribs, blood vessels, and the position of other catheters; 3 due to the limitations of two-dimensional fluoroscopy, navigation is not exact, time consuming, and requires multiple views to estimate the three-dimensional location of the catheter; 4 inability to accurately return the catheter precisely to a previously mapped site; and 5 exposure of the patient and medical team to radiation. Newer mapping systems have revolutionized the clinical electrophysiology laboratory in recent years and have offered new insights into arrhythmia mechanisms. They are aimed at improving the resolution, three-dimensional spatial localization, and/or rapidity of acquisition of cardiac activation maps. These systems use novel approaches to accurately determine the three-dimensional location of the mapping catheter and local electrograms are acquired using conventional, well-established methods. Recorded data of the catheter location and intracardiac electrogram at that location are used to reconstruct in real-time a

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  2. Why does epidemiology need better questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, S.; Ring, I.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research.......The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research....

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  5. Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Benue State, Nigeria | Targema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological mapping was undertaken from December, 2004 to February, 2005 with the aim of determining the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in 18 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 1,830 persons aged 20 years and above were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) ...

  6. Mapping the Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-19

    Computer Mapping in Geoecology , The Harvard Library of Computer Graphics, 1979 Mapping Collection, Vol. 5, pp 11-27. 5. Robinson, A.H. (1974) A New Map...Use of Synagraphic Computer Mapping in Geoecology , The Harvard Library of Computer Graphics, 1979 Mapping Collection, Vol. 5, pp 11-27. 5. Robinson, A

  7. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  9. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  10. Map of land use / land cover changes in Małopolska voivodeship in 1986-2010 created by object based image analysis of. (Polish Title: Mapa zmian pokrycia terenu małwpolski 1986-2011 wykonana w oparciu o klasyfikację obiektową obrazów satelitarnych Landsat oraz RapidEye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wężyk, P.; Wójtowicz-Nowakowska, A.; Pierzchalski, M.; Mlost, J.; Szafrańska, Beata

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use / land cover are the result of interaction between natural processes and human activity. Using GIS analysis to estimate the dynamic of these changes we can detect former trends and their simulation in the future. Diagnosed directions of changes can be used e.g. to create local plans of spatial management or region growth policy. Main goal of this study was to diagnose main trends of changes in land use / land cover in Malopolska voivodeship in last 25 years (1986-2010). Results were shown as statistics and map compositions. Project was created based on RapidEye and LANDSAT 5 TM satellite data and aerial imagery from 2009-2010. The best way to process huge amount and various data was to use Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA). As the results of classification we received 10 classes of land use for both terms of analyses (1986-1987 and 2009-2010). Identified classes were: bare soil, grass-covered areas, urban areas, rivers and watercourses, coniferous forest, leaf forest, peatbog, and other areas. Results show, that especially 2 classes arisen much: forest (4.39%) and urban areas (2.40%), mostly at the expanse of agricultural (-3.60%) and grass-covered areas (-1.18%). Based on results we can say, that changes detected in past 25 years in Małopolska region, which we can also notice today, agree with general trends of landscape changes, that we can observe in Poland for the last 3 decades. These general changes are: renewed succession of forest on areas where agricultural production discontinued; also intense development of road infrastructure. Object Based Image Analysis allowed to realize these study for area of more than 15 000 km2for only a few weeks.

  11. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  12. Medical Mapping: The Revolution in Teaching--and Using--Maps for the Analysis of Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tom; Denike, Ken

    2004-01-01

    As a result of advances in GIS, students from a range of disciplines (epidemiology, public health, medical sociology, and anthropology) are seeking to learn how to apply a mapped, spatial perspective to issues of disease and health. This paper describes a pilot program whose intent has been to develop an interdisciplinary, skill-based course in…

  13. Análisis de costos de los métodos rápidos para diagnóstico de Tuberculosis multidrogorresistente en diferentes grupos epidemiológicos del Perú Cost analysis of rapid methods for diagnosis of multidrug resistant Tuberculosis in different epidemiologic groups in Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely Solari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar los costos de tres métodos diagnósticos para susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas y comparar el costo por caso de tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (TB MDR diagnosticado con estos (MODS; GRIESS y Genotype MTBDR plus ® en cuatro grupos epidemiológicos en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. En base a cifras programáticas, se dividió a la población en cuatro grupos: pacientes nuevos de Lima/Callao; nuevos de otras provincias; los antes tratados de Lima/Callao y de otras provincias. Se calcularon los costos de cada prueba en base a la metodología estándar utilizada por el Ministerio de Salud, desde la perspectiva de los servicios de salud. Basado en ello, se calculó el costo por paciente TB MDR diagnosticado para cada grupo epidemiológico. Resultados. Los costos estimados por prueba para MODS, GRIESS, y Genotype MTBDR plus ® fueron de 14,83; 15,51 y 176,41 nuevos soles, respectivamente. El costo por paciente TB MDR diagnosticado con GRIESS y MODS fue menor a los 200 nuevos soles en tres de los cuatro grupos. El costo por TB MDR diagnosticado fue de más de 2000 nuevos soles con el Genotype MTBDR plus ® en los dos grupos de pacientes nuevos y, menores a 1000 nuevos soles en los grupos de pacientes antes tratados. Conclusiones. En grupos de alta prevalencia, como son los pacientes antes tratados, los costos por caso diagnosticado de TB MDR con las tres pruebas evaluadas fueron bajos, sin embargo, con la prueba molecular en los grupos de baja prevalencia, fueron elevados. El uso de las pruebas moleculares debe optimizarse en grupos de altas prevalencias.Objectives.To evaluate the costs of three methods for the diagnosis of drug susceptibility in tuberculosis, and to compare the cost per case of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB diagnosed with these (MODS, GRIESS and Genotype MTBDR plus ® in 4 epidemiologic groups in Peru. Materials and methods.In the basis of programmatic figures, we divided the population in

  14. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  15. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  16. ShakeMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ShakeMap is a product of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program in conjunction with the regional seismic networks. ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground...

  17. Epidemiological networks and drug resistance of HIV type 1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumyantseva, Olga A.; Olkhovskiy, Igor A.; Malysheva, Marina A.; Ruzaeva, Ludmila A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Kazennova, Elena V.; Bobkova, Marina R.; Lukashov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, where HIV-1 has spread rapidly since 2000, we obtained pol sequences from individuals living in this region (n = 67) as well as in the geographically closely related Altay region (n = 13). In both regions, subtype A viruses

  18. The significance of rhinovirus detection in hospitalized children : clinical, epidemiological and virological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.; Hak, E.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Niesters, H. G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular diagnostic tools have led to the easy and rapid detection of a large number of rhinovirus (HRV) strains. However, the lack of clinical and epidemiological data hampers the interpretation of these diagnostic findings. From October 2009 to January 2011, we conducted a

  19. The history and epidemiology of Cape St Paul wilt disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the spread of the Cape St. Paul Wilt (lethal yellowing) disease of coconut in Ghana is presented. Epidemiological studies showed that the disease starts slowly, then progresses (accelerate) rapidly before levelling off. In a farm, the disease first appears randomly on single trees, foci then develop around these ...

  20. Lozi-like maps

    OpenAIRE

    Misiurewicz, Michal; Štimac, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    We define a broad class of piecewise smooth plane homeomorphisms which have properties similar to the properties of Lozi maps, including the existence of a hyperbolic attractor. We call those maps Lozi-like. For those maps one can apply our previous results on kneading theory for Lozi maps. We show a strong numerical evidence that there exist Lozi-like maps that have kneading sequences different than those of Lozi maps.

  1. Mapping Mutations on Phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a short review of recent methodologies developed for mapping mutations on phylogenies. Mapping of mutations, or character changes in general, using the maximum parsimony principle has been one of the most powerful tools in phylogenetics, and it has been used in a variety...... uncertainty in the mapping. Recently developed probabilistic methods can incorporate statistical uncertainty in the character mappings. In these methods, focus is on a probability distribution of mutational mappings instead of a single estimate of the mutational mapping....

  2. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  3. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  4. World Epidemiology Review, Number 97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-21

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease (THE SUNDAY MAIL, 4 Jun 78) .. 104 SWAZILAND Briefs Chick Disease 105 VIETNAM Briefs Tay Ninh Anti -Epidemic Activities ...Institute of Epidemiology which operates in this city. " Trypanosoma cruzi ," he added, "normally does not live in the vinchuca [a tick-like insect] or...support of the local population. The team had to interrupt its work for lack of the anti -rabies vaccine, but resumed activity again on the 17th of last

  5. Assembly 6: occupation and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Janson

    2016-01-01

    Assembly 6 is an interdisciplinary assembly that gathers together pneumologists, epidemiologists, clinicians, statisticians, occupational doctors, air pollution scientists and health educators. The assembly now has almost 500 members and has seen a steady growth in membership. Assembly 6 comprises four different groups that complement each other and often work together in joint activities. The groups are: 6.1) epidemiology; 6.2) occupational and environmental health; 6.3) tobacco, smoking con...

  6. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  7. Epidemiological transition of some diseases in Oman: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S S; Al-Lawati, A; Al-Shafaee, M A; Duttagupta, K K

    2009-01-01

    During the past 35 years Oman has undergone a rapid socioeconomic and epidemiological transition leading to a steep reduction in child and adult mortality and morbidity due to the decline of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Good governance and planning, together with leadership and commitment by the government, has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with increasing prosperity, lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country, with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the lead among other chronic conditions. Appropriate prevention strategies for reducing the burden of noncommunicable diseases are discussed.

  8. [Epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeyre, Dominique; Freynet, Olivia; Dion, Geneviève; Bouvry, Diane; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Hilario

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD) cover more than 200 conditions classified in 4 groups: secondary DILD; sarcoidosis; particular DILDs and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Overall, these diseases have a prevalence of 60-80/100,000 and an incidence around 30/100,000. Sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are the 2 most frequent diseases, accounting together for more than 50% of all cases, followed by DILD related to connective tissue disease and to immunologic lung diseases. The incidence of different causes of DILD depends on epidemiologic factors: age, sex, race, smoking habits, and history. Mortality is very elevated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, linked in more than 80% of cases to the fibrosis itself, with a median survival between 24 and 36 months. The epidemiologic studies on DILD have substantial limitations, and new studies must be conducted, in particular in France where we lack epidemiologic data beyond one old study of sarcoidosis and one more recent study focused on farmer's lung in the Doubs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Mind mapping: a new tool for enhancing student learning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Mei-Ying; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2008-04-01

    With the rapid pace of development and reform in education learners face many challenges. Learning how to acquire skills and how to think are very important issues. The application of mind mapping can help students to enhance the creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of the whole brain. In other words, mind-mapping is a visual or pictorial thinking method. This paper introduces the basic concept of mind-mapping, radiant thinking, the methods of mind-mapping, its rules of application, and examples of such application, to improve understanding and knowledge about mind-mapping.

  10. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of C. pneumoniae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Shurdhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae is one of the most common respiratory pathogen, with an incidence of infection varying from 6% to 20%. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of C. pneumoniae infections in patients with acute respiratory diseases using a RealTime PCR (RT-PCR method. Methods. In the period January 2007-December 2008 279 biological samples coming from patients (190 males and 89 females with acute respiratory infections was collected and tested. Samples have been extracted using NucliSens easyMag Biomerieu according to manufacturer’s instructions and amplified by LightCycler Real-Time PCR Roche for the detection of C. pneumoniae DNA. Results. Data analysis revealed a higher prevalence of C. pneumoniae infections in male patients (7.9% than in females (5.6%. In addition, it is interesting to note that the incidence of C. pneumoniae infection was higher 28.6% in the period February - April. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study confirm the utility of molecular techniques in laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of respiratory infection caused by C. pneumoniae. RT-PCR have proved to be a rapid and a reliable technique to monitor and treat opportunely C. pneumoniae infections to avoid short and medium/long term complications.

  12. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  13. Association mapping of plant resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, K.J.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping is rapidly becoming an important method to explore the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants and offers unique opportunities for studying resistance to insect herbivores. Recent studies indicate that there is a trade-off between resistance against generalist and

  14. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  15. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  16. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  17. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vinay Pandey

    Full Text Available With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/

  18. Diet and cancer: risk factors and epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena Ruiz, Raúl; Salinas Hernández, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Diet represents 30-35% of risk factors that contribute to the onset of cancer. Some foods and dietary patterns have been linked to the risk of various cancers. However epidemiological available data are not consistent for many foods and the associations with cancer risk remain unclear. The concerns about this issue are considered like a "Hot topic" for oncologists and general population. The aim of this report is to present a review of the published epidemiologic research to date reflecting the most current scientific evidence related to diet and cancer risk. EMBASE and PubMed-NCBI were searched for relevant articles up to October 2013 that identified potentials interactions between foods or dietary patterns with cancer risk. There is no conclusive evidence as an independent risk factor for isolated nutrients versus adoption of dietary patterns for cancer risk. Moderate physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis contributes to 40% reduction of recurrence/disease-specific mortality. Cancer colon risk derived from meat intake is influenced by both total intake and its frequency. The interaction of phenolic compounds on metabolic and signaling pathways like P450, MAP kinase, PI3 kinase, IGF-1, NF-kB and ROS seems to exert an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and tumor metastasis and induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cells, including colon, lung, prostate, hepatocellular or breast cancer. There is a direct relationship between unhealthy diet and lifestyle with the increase of tumor development and cancer risk. For this reason, a good nutritional status based on a balanced diet constitutes one of the main preventive factors from tumors. However the mixed results from epidemiologic studies hinder to get unequivocal and consistent evidence about the interaction between diet and cancer risk. More epidemiological studies will be needed in the future to clarify this issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn severity mapping using simulation modeling and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Robert E. Keane

    2010-01-01

    Although burn severity maps derived from satellite imagery provide a landscape view of fire impacts, fire effects simulation models can provide spatial fire severity estimates and add a biotic context in which to interpret severity. In this project, we evaluated two methods of mapping burn severity in the context of rapid post-fire assessment for four wildfires in...

  20. Translating Big Data into Smart Data for Veterinary Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly; Morrison, Robert B; Neuhauser, Claudia; Vilalta, Carles; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    The increasing availability and complexity of data has led to new opportunities and challenges in veterinary epidemiology around how to translate abundant, diverse, and rapidly growing "big" data into meaningful insights for animal health. Big data analytics are used to understand health risks and minimize the impact of adverse animal health issues through identifying high-risk populations, combining data or processes acting at multiple scales through epidemiological modeling approaches, and harnessing high velocity data to monitor animal health trends and detect emerging health threats. The advent of big data requires the incorporation of new skills into veterinary epidemiology training, including, for example, machine learning and coding, to prepare a new generation of scientists and practitioners to engage with big data. Establishing pipelines to analyze big data in near real-time is the next step for progressing from simply having "big data" to create "smart data," with the objective of improving understanding of health risks, effectiveness of management and policy decisions, and ultimately preventing or at least minimizing the impact of adverse animal health issues.

  1. The Singapore field epidemiology service: insights into outbreak management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Peng-Lim; Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-09-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment.

  2. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  3. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  4. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  5. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  6. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  7. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given.

  8. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  9. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  10. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  11. Google Maps: You Are Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  12. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function...... with the presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  14. An introduction to mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Martcheva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.

  15. A malaria risk map of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giovanfrancesco; Ntuku, Henry M; Schmidlin, Sandro; Diboulo, Eric; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Lengeler, Christian

    2016-01-13

    In Kinshasa, malaria remains a major public health problem but its spatial epidemiology has not been assessed for decades now. The city's growth and transformation, as well as recent control measures, call for an update. To identify highly exposed communities and areas where control measures are less critically needed, detailed risk maps are required to target control and optimize resource allocation. In 2009 (end of the dry season) and 2011 (end of the rainy season), two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Kinshasa to determine malaria prevalence, anaemia, history of fever, bed net ownership and use among children 6-59 months. Geo-referenced data for key parameters were mapped at the level of the health area (HA) by means of a geographic information system (GIS). Among 7517 children aged 6-59 months from 33 health zones (HZs), 6661 (3319 in 2009 and 3342 in 2011) were tested for both malaria (by Rapid Diagnostic Tests) and anaemia, and 856 (845 in 2009 and 11 in 2011) were tested for anaemia only. Fifteen HZs were sampled in 2009, 25 in 2011, with seven HZs sampled in both surveys. Mean prevalence for malaria and anaemia was 6.4% (5.6-7.4) and 65.1% (63.7-66.6) in 2009, and 17.0% (15.7-18.3) and 64.2% (62.6-65.9) in 2011. In two HZs sampled in both surveys, malaria prevalence was 14.1 % and 26.8% in Selembao (peri-urban), in the 2009 dry season and 2011 rainy season respectively, and it was 1.0 % and 0.8% in Ngiri Ngiri (urban). History of fever during the preceding two weeks was 13.2% (12.5-14.3) and 22.3% (20.8-23.4) in 2009 and 2011. Household ownership of at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN) was 78.7% (77.4-80.0) and 65.0% (63.7-66.3) at both time points, while use was 57.7% (56.0-59.9) and 45.0% (43.6-46.8), respectively. This study presents the first malaria risk map of Kinshasa, a mega city of roughly 10 million inhabitants and located in a highly endemic malaria zone. Prevalence of malaria, anaemia and reported fever was lower in urban areas

  16. Epidemiology and care of epilepsy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is often considered the most common serious chronic neurological disorder estimated to affect 50 million people globally. Although the majority of these live in developing countries, data on the epidemiology of epilepsy from such countries are scarce. This is true also for Vietnam. The overall objective of this project, Epidemiology and Care of Epilepsy in Ba Vi (EPIBAVI), was therefore to provide essential epidemiological data on epilepsy in Vietnam as a basis for ...

  17. Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszynski Diego F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Taking advantage of genetic markers provided by molecular biological research, complex computerized algorithms, and large databases, the field of genetic epidemiology has undergone significant development over the past 10 years. Using concrete examples from recent scientific literature, this article describes the objectives and methodology of genetic epidemiology.

  18. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  19. The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Diseases (ESETCID). First epidemiological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, G; Pankuweit, S; Richter, A; Schönian, U; Maisch, B

    2000-05-01

    By including immunohistochemical parameters the WHF Task Force for the Definition of Acute and Chronic Myocarditis expanded the light microscopical Dallas criteria of myocarditis. The rapid development of new molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-situ hybridization has improved our understanding of the underlying etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory heart disease. Treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with inflammation is still controversial, however. The American Myocarditis Treatment Trial could not demonstrate a significant difference in the improvement of ejection fraction between patients with active myocarditis in the cyclosporine/prednisolone treated group when compared to placebo. In the European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Inflammatory Heart Disease (ESETCID) patients with acute or chronic myocarditis are treated specifically according to the etiology of the disease. Patients are screened not only for infiltrating cells, but also for the presence of persisting viral genome (enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and adenovirus). By investigating endomyocardial biopsies of 3,055 patients ongoing inflammatory processes in the heart could be found in 17.2%. Only 182 showed a reduced ejection fraction below 45% fulfilling the entrance criteria for the ESETCID trial. These data imply that in symptomatic patients inflammatory heart muscle disease has to be considered regardless of left ventricular function and that endomyocardial biopsy can be an important tool for diagnosis. Virus could be detected in 11.8% (enterovirus 2.2%, cytomegalovirus 5.4%, adenovirus 4.2%). These first epidemiological results of this prospective randomized study demonstrate that viral persistence may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart muscle disease, and that in chronic myocarditis viral persistence occurs in a smaller percentage of patients compared to previously published studies which were performed on

  20. Fertility and pregnancy: an epidemiologic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    .... Weaving together history, biology, obstetrics, pediatrics, demography, infectious diseases, molecular genetics, and evolutionary biology, Allen Wilcox brings a fresh coherence to the epidemiologic...

  1. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  2. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  3. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science.

  4. Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

  5. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  6. en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Diez Roux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología sociocultural se caracteriza por la integración de procesos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos con procesos biológicos en el estudio de los determinantes de la salud. Por definición, esto implica la consideración de determinantes especificados a múltiples niveles, desde los genes hasta las características de la sociedad en su totalidad. En este artículo se analizan diversos problemas metodológicos que surgen en epidemiología (y en las ciencias sociales en general por la presencia de múltiples niveles de organización que pueden ser relevantes para entender las causas de la salud y la enfermedad. Se subraya la necesidad de investigar conjuntamente (o de integrar determinantes de la salud definidos a distintos niveles. El artículo concluye con un examen de las implicaciones de la presencia de múltiples niveles para el estudio de los determinantes sociales o culturales de la salud.

  7. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer (1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P; Hsieh, C C; Maisonneuve, P; La Vecchia, C; Macfarlane, G J; Walker, A M; Trichopoulos, D

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas, both descriptive and analytical, at all times cognizant of the problems of misdiagnosis, particularly underdiagnosis, of this lethal disease that continue to hinder epidemiological studies. Pancreas cancer is consistently reported to occur more frequently in men than in women, in blacks than in whites, and in urban rather than rural population groups. In some countries, the mortality rates continue to rise, whereas in others, declining levels of disease can be seen among members of younger birth cohorts. Although some of these patterns can be explained by variation in pancreas cancer risk factors, many cannot. Analytical studies consistently demonstrate that cigarette smoking increases the risk of cancer of the pancreas, and this appears, at the present time, to be the only clearly demonstrated risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Although the association with disease risk and coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, occupational exposures, diabetes, pancreatitis, and other factors requires clarification, it appears likely that the most fruitful research area in the coming years may involve exploration of pancreatic cancer risk and nutritional practices.

  8. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  9. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  10. Geographic epidemiology of gonorrhoea and chlamydia on a large military installation: application of a GIS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, J; Glass, G; Shields, T; Jenkins, P; Gaydos, J; McKee, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The geographic epidemiology of infectious diseases can help in identifying point source outbreaks, elucidating dispersion patterns, and giving direction to control strategies. We sought to establish a geographic information system (GIS) infectious disease surveillance system at a large US military post (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) using STDs as the initial outcome for the model. Methods: Addresses of incident cases were plotted onto digitised base maps of Fort Bragg (for on-post addresses) and surrounding Cumberland County, NC (for off-post addresses) using MAPINFO Version 5. We defined 26 geographic sectors on the installation. Active duty soldiers attending the post preventive medicine clinic were enrolled between July 1998 and June 1999. Results: Gonorrhoea (GC) was diagnosed in 210/2854 (7.4%) and chlamydia (CT) in 445/2860 (15.6%). African-American male soldiers were at higher risk for GC (OR = 4.6 (95% CL 3.0 to 7.2)) and chlamydia (OR = 2.0 (1.4 to 2.7)). For women, there were no ethnic differences in gonorrhoea prevalence, but chlamydia was higher in African-Americans (OR = 2.0 (1.4–2.7)). Rank and housing type were associated with gonorrhoea and chlamydia in men, but were not significant factors in women. For gonorrhoea, two geographic sectors had prevalences between 14.0%–16.5%, three between 10.3%–13.9%, three between 7.1%–10.2%, and five between 3.0%–7.1%.. The geographic distribution demonstrated a core-like pattern where the highest sectors were contiguous and were sectors containing barracks housing lower enlisted grade personnel. In contrast, chlamydia prevalence was narrowly distributed. Conclusion: GIS based disease surveillance was easily and rapidly implemented in this setting and should be useful in developing preventive interventions. PMID:11872858

  11. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  12. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  13. Landscape Epidemiology Modeling Using an Agent-Based Model and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Niaz Arifin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A landscape epidemiology modeling framework is presented which integrates the simulation outputs from an established spatial agent-based model (ABM of malaria with a geographic information system (GIS. For a study area in Kenya, five landscape scenarios are constructed with varying coverage levels of two mosquito-control interventions. For each scenario, maps are presented to show the average distributions of three output indices obtained from the results of 750 simulation runs. Hot spot analysis is performed to detect statistically significant hot spots and cold spots. Additional spatial analysis is conducted using ordinary kriging with circular semivariograms for all scenarios. The integration of epidemiological simulation-based results with spatial analyses techniques within a single modeling framework can be a valuable tool for conducting a variety of disease control activities such as exploring new biological insights, monitoring epidemiological landscape changes, and guiding resource allocation for further investigation.

  14. Generating an optimal DTM from airborne laser scanning data for landslide mapping in a tropical forest environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razak, K.A.; Santangelo, M.; Westen, C. J. van; Straatsma, M.W.; Jong, S.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Landslide inventory maps are fundamental for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk. In tropical mountainous environments, mapping landslides is difficult as rapid and dense vegetation growth obscures landslides soon after their occurrence. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have

  15. Generating an optimal DTM from airborne laser scanning data for landslide mapping in a tropical forest environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razak, K.A.; Santangelo, Michele; van Westen, C.J.; Straatsma, M.; de Jong, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Landslide inventory maps are fundamental for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk. In tropical mountainous environments, mapping landslides is difficult as rapid and dense vegetation growth obscures landslides soon after their occurrence. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been

  16. LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Todd A.

    2002-06-01

    Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.

  17. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  18. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of rowing performance using mobile mapping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpimis, A.; Gikas, V.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, the term mobile mapping refers to a means of collecting geospatial data using mapping sensors that are mounted on a mobile platform. Historically, this process was mainly driven by the need for highway infrastructure mapping and transportation corridor inventories. However, the recent advances in mapping sensor and telecommunication technologies create the opportunity that, completely new, emergent application areas of mobile mapping to evolve rapidly. This article examines the potential of mobile mapping technology (MMT) in sports science and in particular in competitive rowing. Notably, in this study the concept definition of mobile mapping somehow differs from the traditional one in a way that, the end result is not relevant to the geospatial information acquired as the moving platform travels in space. In contrast, the interest is placed on the moving platform (rowing boat) itself and on the various subsystems which are also in continuous motion.

  20. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  1. CLPX-Model: Rapid Update Cycle 40km (RUC-40) Model Output Reduced Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle, version 2 at 40km (RUC-2, known to the Cold Land Processes community as RUC40) model is a Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)...

  2. CLPX-Model: Rapid Update Cycle 40km (RUC-40) Model Output Reduced Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle, version 2 at 40km (RUC-2, known to the Cold Land Processes community as RUC40) model is a Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)...

  3. Methodology for Computer-aided, Interactive Rapid Assessment of Local or Regional Stress Fields on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S. L.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Franklin, N. M.

    2003-03-01

    We present a method for rapid assessment of stress fields on Mars: (i) mapping geologic structures, (ii) calculating stress fields, and (iii) determining resolved stresses on faults. Preliminary results are presented for northern Utopia Planitia.

  4. [Epidemiological data on the plague in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsitorahina, M; Chanteau, S; Rosso, M L; Randriambelosoa, J; Ratsifasoamanana, L; Rabarijaona, L P; Mauclère, P; Migliani, R

    2002-01-01

    The first case of plague was introduced in Madagascar in 1898 in the east coast by way of boat from India. In 1921, plague reach the highlands and a large epidemic over the next twenty years. Until the beginning of the 80's, only of few case were identified, notified mostly in rural setting. However gradually it has re-emerged as a public health problem. Urban plague is located in the city of Antananarivo (resurgence in 1978 after 28 years of apparent silence) and in Mahajanga port (resurgence in 1991 after 63 years of silence). The reactivation of the Plague National Control Program from 1994 will allow better surveillance. The aim of this analysis is to update the epidemiological data on human plague in Madagascar based on reported cases obtained from the Central Lab of the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 1980 to 2001 (16,928 suspected cases of which 3,500 are likely positives or confirmed positives). The Plague season runs from October to March on the central highlands and July to November on the north-western coast. Sex-ratio male/female is 1.3/1, and the age-group of 5 to 25 years is more affected. The case fatality rate was 40% in the beginning of the 1980's, and decreased to 20% by the end of the 1990's. The percentage of case with pulmonary plague decrease from 15% to less than 5%. However, geographical extension is demonstrated: 4 districts in 1980, 30 districts in 1999 and 21 districts in 2001. In 2002, the diffusion of a new rapid test (reagent strip) in the primary health centres (CSB) in 42 endemic districts may help to decrease the morbidity and the letality due to plague and improve its control at the national level.

  5. Epidemiology of stone disease across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Rodgers, Allen; Talati, Jamsheer; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with rates ranging from 7 to 13% in North America, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in Asia. Due to high rates of new and recurrent stones, management of stones is expensive and the disease has a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the epidemiology of stone disease in order to improve patient care. A review of the literature was conducted through a search on Pubmed ® , Medline ® , and Google Scholar ® . This review was presented and peer-reviewed at the 3rd International Consultation on Stone Disease during the 2014 Société Internationale d'Urologie Congress in Glasgow. It represents an update of the 2008 consensus document based on expert opinion of the most relevant studies. There has been a rising incidence in stone disease throughout the world with a narrowing of the gender gap. Increased stone prevalence has been attributed to population growth and increases in obesity and diabetes. General dietary recommendations of increased fluid, decreased salt, and moderate intake of protein have not changed. However, specific recommended values have either changed or are more frequently reported. Geography and environment influenced the likelihood of stone disease and more information is needed regarding stone disease in a large portion of the world including Asia and Africa. Randomized controlled studies are lacking but are necessary to improve recommendations regarding diet and fluid intake. Understanding the impact of associated conditions that are rapidly increasing will improve the prevention of stone disease.

  6. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  7. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farahmand M, Nahrevanian H, Shirazi HA, Naeimi S,. Farzanehnejad Z. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in. Iran. Braz J Infect Dis 2011; 15(1): 17-21. 12. Bousslimi N, Aoun K, Ben-Abda I, Ben-Alaya-Bouafif N,. Raouane M, Bouratbine A. Epidemiologic and clinical.

  8. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... evidenced-based prevention practice. The contribution of 'implementation epidemiology' beyond the more traditionally defined scope of the discipline is to extend the definition of epidemiology from 'the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions' to include the empirical measurement and quantification ...

  9. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence

  10. Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; De Bruin, Marie L; Koopmanschap, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause considerable mortality and morbidity but no recent reviews are currently available for the European region. Therefore, we performed a review of all epidemiological studies quantifying ADRs in a European setting that were published between 1 January 2000 and 3...... regarding the epidemiology of ADRs in this setting....

  11. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them. Objectives: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic ...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in ruminants in different parts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Narnaware, Shirish D; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2016-03-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important, chronic, and incurable disease in ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Understanding the genetic variability of MAP strains is important in diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and the formation of strategies for prevention and control of the disease. In the present study, a total of 61 MAP isolates obtained from different parts and species of India were typed using IS1311 polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) to analyze the genetic difference(s), if any, between them and the host adaptation. Based on PCR-REA results, bison B type was detected in 54 (87%) MAP isolates obtained from cattle, sheep, and goats. Of these, 19 were from sheep of the Rajasthan (n=17) and Bareilly (n=2), North India regions, 28 were from cattle of Chennai, South India (n=3), Bareilly, North India (n=3), and Nagpur, West India (n=22), and seven goat isolates from Bareilly, North India region. The 'C' type strain was detected in only seven cattle isolates obtained from the Bareilly region. The study revealed that in India, bison B-type MAP strains were prevalent in most of the ruminant species. These results have important epidemiological implications with regard to control and prevention of paratuberculosis in India. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M

    2017-07-08

    The flagellated protozoan Dientamoeba fragilis is one of the most commonly diagnosed parasite of the human gut, with a global distribution. Nevertheless, essential aspects of its biology remain incompletely understood or controversial, most notably life cycle, host range, transmission routes and the ability to cause disease. Molecular epidemiologic studies are also scarce, and limited by the lack of informative genotyping tools. To date, two D. fragilis genotypes (1 and 2) are recognized, with a strong predominance of genotype 1 in both humans and few animal hosts. Recent studies have shown that a very low level of genetic variability characterizes parasite isolates collected in various geographic areas and from both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. This has raised the hypothesis D. fragilis may be a clonal organism. The recent availability of transcriptome data should greatly assist the development of markers useful to understand genetic diversity of D. fragilis at the population level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  16. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  17. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  18. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  19. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  20. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  1. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  2. MapBook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Beginning with the systematic mapping of the lunar surface more than three decades ago, this database contains over 1600 maps of the planets and satellites of the...

  3. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. RadMap

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadMap is an interactive desktop tool featuring a nationwide geographic information systems (GIS) map of long-term radiation monitoring locations across the United States with access to key information about the monitor and the area surrounding it.

  5. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  6. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Prevent Obesity Early Care and Education State Indicator Report Salad Bars to School Healthy Food Service ... Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and Maps Adult Obesity Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & ...

  7. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  8. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H

    1999-11-01

    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  9. Patients with Prion: Blocking Precautions Epidemiological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liarine Fernandes Bedin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the epidemiological blocking measures carried out in the hospital care of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Methodology: retrospective case series of four patients admitted to a referral hospital in southern Brazil, from June 2012 to June 2015. Results: Epidemiological profile: female, aged between 56 and 65anos only one with comorbid preview, all in palliative care, one death, a tall, two transfers to source hospitals. epidemiological blocking measures taken: mandatory notification of registration of CJD; standard precautions, identification and packaging materials for risk of transmission; disinfecting materials preceding sterilization; and handling of warranty and place of proper disposal of waste. Conclusions: The epidemiological control measures and resolutions regarding the management of these patients are recent. It is important that the health team appropriates the theme in order to provide proper care and quality. KEY WORDS: Prions. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome. Epidemiological Monitoring.

  10. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  11. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerged...... at the end of Word War II was a much more complex enterprise that investigated a multiplicity of risk factors for each disease. Involved in the development of chronic disease epidemi-ology were therefore fundamental discussions on the notion of causality, especially the question when causal inferences could...... be justified. In this paper, I shall analyze the implicit normativity of these de-bates. First, I shall give a brief overview of the historical background on which chronic disease epi-demiology emerged and describe how the pioneer studies on smoking and lung cancer became icon of the major challenge...

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Using maps in genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps are one of many sources you may need to complete a family tree. In genealogical research, maps can provide clues to where our ancestors may have lived and where to look for written records about them. Beginners should master basic genealogical research techniques before starting to use topographic maps.

  15. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  16. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically...

  17. Mapping landscape corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Marcin Iwanowski; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Pierre Soille

    2007-01-01

    Corridors are important geographic features for biological conservation and biodiversity assessment. The identification and mapping of corridors is usually based on visual interpretations of movement patterns (functional corridors) or habitat maps (structural corridors). We present a method for automated corridor mapping with morphological image processing, and...

  18. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  19. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  1. Applied epidemiology and public health: are we training the future generations appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Samet, Jonathan M; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-02-01

    To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment. This commentary describes existing approaches to and competencies for training in epidemiology, maps macro trends with competencies, highlights an example of competency-based education in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and suggests expanded and more dynamic training approaches. A reexamination of current approaches to epidemiologic training is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Malaria Risk Mapping for Control in the Republic of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; ElMardi, Khalid A.; Abdelgader, Tarig M.; Patil, Anand P.; Amine, Ahmed A. A.; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2–10 years of age (PfPR2–10). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR2–10 map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR2–10. Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400

  3. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  5. World Epidemiology Review No. 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-08

    rapid land development and among the Orang Asli in the interior areas. The campaign involved the spraying of DDT on the walls of houses, detec... MALAYSIA 2 PHILIPPINES ’.....’ .... 7 QATAR. .... 10 SULTANATE OF OMAN. ". 16 SYRIA 18 TANZANIA... .. 21 THAILAND 22 TURKEY • 24 VENEZUELA...51 ITALY. • 53 [III - INT - 134] CONTENTS (Continued) Page KENYA 55 MALAYSIA 55 MOZAMBIQUE. ..’.’ .... 57 NEW ZEALAND 59 NIGERIA

  6. Geography Education Through Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Demiralp

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Geography studies the relationship between human and the earth and pay attention to space, place and environment. In its simplest definition, maps are language and communication tools in transferring knowledge of an area in the science of geography which studies the space. Thus teaching and teaching how to use maps is quite important. This is not valid just for all matters of geography education; they can be used at any point, level, age or grade in teaching. This is because map reading involves transferring a piece of information by coding it on a platform and the users to read and interpret the information by encoding it according to their needs. Thus, we can say that teaching maps and teaching how to use maps is the transformation or translation of a piece of knowledge from life, with the appropriate language. In order for this kind of teaching and learning to be accomplished it is a must that the map maker and the map user to know the common language of maps, which is map language, and for them to know qualities, types and limitations of maps. To gain this kind of knowledge, students must see every type of map from the simplest to the most complicated and study and analyse them, as well as get to know their different usages.

  7. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  8. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently the Chittagong Hill tracts have been hyperendemic for malaria. A past cross-sectional RDT based survey in 2007 recorded rates of approximately 15%. This study was designed to understand the present epidemiology of malaria in this region, to monitor and facilitate the uptake of malaria intervention activities of the national malaria programme and to serve as an area for developing new and innovative control strategies for malaria. Methods This research field area was established in two rural unions of Bandarban District of Bangladesh north of Bandarban city, which are known to be endemic for malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The project included the following elements: a a demographic surveillance system including an initial census with updates every four months, b periodic surveys of knowledge attitude and practice, c a geographic information system, d weekly active and continuous passive surveillance for malaria infections using smears, rapid tests and PCR, f monthly mosquito surveillance, and e daily weather measures. The programme included both traditional and molecular methods for detecting malaria as well as lab methods for speciating mosquitoes and detecting mosquitoes infected with sporozoites. Results The demographic surveillance enumerated and mapped 20,563 people, 75% of which were tribal non-Bengali. The monthly mosquito surveys identified 22 Anopheles species, eight of which were positive by circumsporozoite ELISA. The annual rate of malaria was close to 1% with 85% of cases in the rainy months of May-October. Definitive clustering identified in the low transmission season persisted during the high transmission season. Conclusion This demographically and geographically defined area, near to the Myanmar border, which is also hypoendemic for malaria, will be useful for future studies of the epidemiology of malaria and for evaluation of strategies for malaria control including new drugs and

  9. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  10. The checkered history of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-12-01

    American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  11. Gardony Map Drawing Analyzer: Software for quantitative analysis of sketch maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2016-03-01

    Sketch maps are effective tools for assessing spatial memory. However, despite their widespread use in cognitive science research, sketch map analysis techniques remain unstandardized and carry limitations. In the present article, we present the Gardony Map Drawing Analyzer (GMDA), an open-source software package for sketch map analysis. GMDA combines novel and established analysis techniques into a graphical user interface that permits rapid computational sketch map analysis. GMDA calculates GMDA-unique measures based on pairwise comparisons between landmarks, as well as bidimensional regression parameters (Friedman & Kohler, 2003), which together reflect sketch map quality at two levels: configural and individual landmark. The configural measures assess the overall landmark configuration and provide a whole-map analysis. Individual landmark measures, introduced in GMDA, assess individual landmark placement and indicate how individual landmarks contribute to the configural scores. Together, these measures provide a more complete psychometric picture of sketch map analysis, allowing for comparisons between sketch maps and between landmarks. The calculated measures reflect specific and cognitively relevant aspects of interlandmark spatial relationships, including distance and angular representation. GMDA supports complex environments (up to 48 landmarks) and two software modes that capture aspects of maps not addressed by existing techniques, such as landmark size and shape variation and interlandmark containment relationships. We describe the software and its operation and present a formal specification of calculation procedures for its unique measures. We then validate the software by demonstrating the capabilities and reliability of its measures using simulation and experimental data. The most recent version of GMDA is available at www.aarongardony.com/tools/map-drawing-analyzer.

  12. $2^n-$rational maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kassotakis, Pavlos; Nieszporski, Maciej; Damianou, Pantelis

    2015-01-01

    We present a natural extension of the notion of nondegenerate rational maps (quadrirational maps) to arbitrary dimensions. We refer to these maps as $2^n-$rational maps. In this note we construct a rich family of $2^n-$rational maps. These maps by construction are involutions and highly symmetric in the sense that the maps and their companion maps have the same functional form.

  13. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  14. ShakeMaps during the Emilia sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Lauciani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ShakeMap is a software package that can be used to generate maps of ground shaking for various peak ground motion (PGM parameters, including peak ground acceleration (PGA, peak ground velocity, and spectral acceleration response at 0.3 s, 1.0 s and 3.0 s, and instrumentally derived intensities. ShakeMap has been implemented in Italy at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology since 2006 (http://shakemap.rm.ingv.it, with the primary aim being to help the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC; Civil Protection Department civil defense agency in the definition of rapid and accurate information on where earthquake damage is located, to correctly direct rescue teams and to organize emergency responses. Based on the ShakeMap software package [Wald et al. 1999, Worden et al. 2010], which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, the INGV is constructing shake maps for Ml ≥3.0, with the adoption of a fully automatic procedure based on manually revised locations and magnitudes [Michelini et al. 2008]. The focus of this study is the description of the progressive generation of these shake maps for the sequence that struck the Emilia-Romagna Region in May 2012. […

  15. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calka, Beata; Cahan, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  16. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  17. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  18. Hepatitis C epidemiology in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, P; Laleman, W; Stärkel, P; Van Vlierberghe, H; Vandijck, D; Hindman, S J; Razavi, H; Moreno, C

    2014-06-01

    The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is significant and is increasing with the aging population. The results of a modeling study that included Belgium, along with many other countries, was published in April 2014. An in depth discussion surrounding the epidemiology of HCV in Belgium will be presented here. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the historical and current clinical burden of HCV in Belgium. Two expert panels were convened to discuss the strengths and limitations surrounding the available data and to generate consensus regarding the best estimates for total number of HCV cases, number of cases diagnosed, and the number of patients treated and cured, including potential HCV control strategies. Although no national studies exist, there were an estimated 70,000 (10,000-91,000) viremic HCV infections in 1994. By 2010 there were an estimated 22,900 individuals diagnosed with viremic HCV, and in 2011 approximately 710 patients were treated annually. An estimated 13% of liver transplants were attributable to HCV in 2011. Genotype 1 predominated (59%), followed by genotypes 3 (19%) and 4 (14%). Estimates of HCV prevalence, diagnosed cases and liver transplants due to HCV were available through published studies. However these publications were subject to bias and were occasionally outdated. Improved estimates of HCV prevalence would be useful for informing treatment, prevention and policy efforts in Belgium.

  19. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  1. Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Ole; Wilbek, Erik; Erickson, Pennifer A.

    1969-01-01

    The introduction of chemotherapy dramatically changed the epidemiology of tuberculosis as the risk of infection was thereby nearly eliminated. The present paper illustrates the risk of disease under these conditions. A large and representative segment of the Danish population, a total of over 626 000 persons aged 15-44 years, was examined by a standardized technique in 1950-52 and has now been followed for 12 years. It has been possible by means of simple parameters such as infection and vaccination status, X-ray lesion and age to divide the population into groups with widely different incidence rates. The time trend in disease rates among vaccinated persons and natural reactors suggests that post-primary tuberculosis is of great significance in the present tuberculosis situation. Three-quarters of all cases stem from the natural reactors. It would have been of great practical significance to identify high-risk groups which yielded a great part of the patients. This was not possible since the majority of cases developed among reactors whose distinctive feature was that they were infected at time of examination. PMID:5309087

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Epidemiological profile of ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Corchado, Luz María; González-Geroniz, Manuel; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, ovarian cancer represents 5.3% of cancer diagnoses in all age groups and 21% of gynecologic cancers. The states with the highest incidence of this disease Nuevo León, Mexico State and Federal District. To determine the epidemiological profile of ovarian cancer. A retrospective cross-sectional study that included all patients with complete records, diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated at the Oncology department UMAE Monterrey No. 23, January 2009 to 31 December 2009. We identified 40 patients with ovarian cancer. The average age of menarche was 12.7 years, 40% were of reproductive age, 25% were nulliparous, 15% had a pregnancy and 37.5% had two pregnancies. Of the total patients, 17% had a history of breast cancer, 40% used a contraceptive method, 37% used oral contraceptives. The tumor marker CA 125 was found in 40% of patients, 63.1% had ultrasound markers for cancer. The most frequent clinical stage 1A in which they found 32% of cases. Papillary serous adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 25% of patients, endometroid adenocarcinoma and mucinous tumor of low malignant potential was diagnosed borderline at 20%, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 18% tumor granulosa cells in 7% and papillary adenocarcinoma ring cell adenocarcinoma in 5%. In total, 43% of patients received chemotherapy. The majority of cases tenia50 years or more. The background was the most frequent hereditary breast cancer. There were no deaths during the study.

  4. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: literature update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, Ernest R; Kwoh, C Kent

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, disease impact, and potential risk factors. Osteoarthritis is highly prevalent in the United States and around the globe. It is a leading cause of disability and can negatively impact people's physical and mental well being. Healthcare resources and costs associated with managing the disease can be substantial. There is increasing evidence that there are different osteoarthritis phenotypes that reflect different mechanisms of the disease. Various person-level risk factors are recognized, including sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. female sex, African-American race), genetic predispositions, obesity, diet-related factors, and high bone density/mass. Joint-level risk factors include specific bone/joint shapes, thigh flexor muscle weakness, joint malalignment, participation in certain occupational/sports activities, and joint injury. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of preradiographic lesions associated with osteoarthritis. Application of these new findings may allow us to develop innovative strategies and novel therapies with the purpose of preventing new disease onset and minimizing disease progression.

  5. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Global trends in suicide epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Tse, Robyn; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates. At an individual level, past self-harm, parental loss or separation and younger age relative to classmates all confer risk. There is mixed evidence for religious affiliation and lithium levels in drinking water as protective factors. Means restriction strategies including barriers at suicide hotspots, firearms restrictions and limiting access to both pesticides and charcoal have all prevented suicide. Other interventions with recent evidence include improvements in mental health systems, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and lithium treatment in youth and mental health awareness in schools. The evidence for risk/protective factors for suicide continues to grow and, more importantly, numerous prevention efforts continue to demonstrate positive outcomes. Public policy experts should attend to the environmental and social determinants of health when devising suicide prevention programs, and the evidence-based prevention strategies identified here should be implemented more broadly.

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of genes that control fatness in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, David W.; Hocking, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Chicken genomics has benefited from the rapid technological advances in the genomics of model organisms and man. A number of resources and approaches are now well established, in the chicken, including genetic markers and maps (both genetic and physical), quantitative trait loci mapping, comparative mapping, expressed sequence tag and bacterial artificial chromosome resources, and physical mapping. In addition, the next phase of gene discovery, functional genomics, is underway. Progress in ma...

  8. Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical

  9. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks. PMID:21486465

  10. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  11. Principles of Electroanatomic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bhakta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiologic testing and radiofrequency ablation have evolved as curative measures for a variety of rhythm disturbances. As experience in this field has grown, ablation is progressively being used to address more complex rhythm disturbances. Paralleling this trend are technological advancements to facilitate these efforts, including electroanatomic mapping (EAM. At present, several different EAM systems utilizing various technologies are available to facilitate mapping and ablation. Use of these systems has been shown to reduce fluoroscopic exposure and radiation dose, with less significant effects on procedural duration and success rates. Among the data provided by EAM are chamber reconstruction, tagging of important anatomic landmarks and ablation lesions, display of diagnostic and mapping catheters without using fluoroscopy, activation mapping, and voltage (or scar mapping. Several EAM systems have specialized features, such as enhanced ability to map non-sustained or hemodynamically unstable arrhythmias, ability to display diagnostic as well as mapping catheter positions, and wide compatibility with a variety of catheters. Each EAM system has its strengths and weaknesses, and the system chosen must depend upon what data is required for procedural success (activation mapping, substrate mapping, cardiac geometry, the anticipated arrhythmia, the compatibility of the system with adjunctive tools (i.e. diagnostic and ablation catheters, and the operator's familiarity with the selected system. While EAM can offer significant assistance during an EP procedure, their incorrect or inappropriate application can substantially hamper mapping efforts and procedural success, and should not replace careful interpretation of data and strict adherence to electrophysiologic principles.

  12. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Ethiopia : the rural-ruban gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Fikru

    2008-01-01

    Background Changes in the population structure and the main causes of death result in the growing burden of chronic diseases, which characterize the epidemiological transition. The transition takes place at different paces in different parts of the world. The developed world has taken over a century to complete the transition, and the rapidly developing countries of Asia and Latin America are undergoing a swift transition. In contrast, many sub-Saharan African countries are said to be experie...

  13. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  14. LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Eoin; Sud, Manish; Cotter, Dawn; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The LIPID MAPS consortium has developed a number of online tools for performing tasks such as drawing lipid structures and predicting possible structures from mass spectrometry (MS) data. A simple online interface has been developed to enable an end-user to rapidly generate a variety of lipid chemical structures, along with corresponding systematic names and ontological information. The structure-drawing tools are available for six categories of lipids: (i) fatty acyls, (ii) glycerolipids, (i...

  15. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  16. Candida auris: emergence and epidemiology of a highly pathogenic yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Slomp Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant emerging yeast, which was responsible for healthcare-associated infection outbreaks, and was cataloged as a new species in 2009, after being isolated from a patient’s ear canal secretion in Japan. Since the notification of this first occurrence, numerous cases have been reported throughout the world, including Brazil. C. auris affects mainly inpatients, patients in intensive care units, exposed to broad-spectrum antifungal medications and who make use of vascular catheters. Currently, this yeast is one of the main responsible for invasive infections in hospitals and has been cause of concern by authorities and organs due to its rapid dissemination and difficult treatment caused by its low susceptibility to antifungal agents traditionally used in clinical practice. As a contributor to the severity of infections associated with C. auris, the transmission mechanism is still unknown, which implies in a lack of control of the microorganism and high mortality rates. Thus, this literature review presents relevant information in order to alert the importance of C. auris as an etiological agent of systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and the real challenges of the treatment. Keywords: Candida auris; candidiasis; candidemia; multidrug-resistance; biofilm; epidemiology; diagnosis

  17. Catching the common cold : Rapid detection and epidemiology of respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, A.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Symptoms can be mild, for example those of the ‘common cold’, but severe complications such as pneumonia may develop. Respiratory viruses are thought to be responsible for the vast majority of respiratory

  18. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  19. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  20. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.