WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid design space

  1. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  2. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  3. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  4. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  5. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  6. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  7. The Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    The Design Space: the design process as the construction, exploration and expansion of a conceptual space.   Abstract The principal motivation for this dissertation and the research endeavour as a whole was the concern that current descriptions of the design process, generally conceptualised...... the empirical examples and their analyses, it emerged that it is possible to describe an alternative concept of the design process, namely as the construction, exploration and expansion of a conceptual space, a Design Space, where there is a transactional relationship between those three principle processes......, the one effecting the other. As much as the processes of construction, exploration and expansion of a Design Space can be described in general terms as social and as design activities, it also emerged that there are a number of interrelated processes, sensibilities and skills in constant transaction...

  8. Funky-Design-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    .e., industrial designers) throughout the design process. In a series of activities with fifty designers, the creation of mood boards was identified as an important task for them, and studied in depth. The funky-design spaces vision of a holistic design studio housing interconnected tools that support...

  9. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  10. Rich Design Research Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Sevaldson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and discusses a Rich Research Space as an inclusive methodological framework and scaffold for research-by-design. The Rich Research Space especially addresses the issue of richness in design processes and design-led research. There is a general trend towards increased complexity in design processes, caused on one hand by the increasing depth and width in the use of design media and methods, and on the other hand by the increasing complexity and interdependency of society due to globalisation. These issues confront the designer-researcher with new challenges. This paper formulates a research strategy for research-by-design in fields that have a high degree of richness in the use of media, the amount of information, and the methods involved. The Rich Research Space concept proposed takes into account the physical, social, and cultural spaces, and the virtual and visual media spaces in which the research-by-design takes place. The concept takes the form of a specific integral approach to design, and a holistic theoretical mindset. It embraces many types of investigation, from analytical to intuitive. The Rich Research Space provides a flexible framework within which the complexity of research-by-design can be interrelated, discussed, and reflected upon. Potentially, it can create a more involved role for the designer-researcher, a role that allows contributions towards the resolution of ever more pressing issues in our society. This approach is currently one of a limited number of possible frameworks that the design professions can utilize in order to make a difference in a world of at times overwhelming complexity. The concept of the Rich Research Space is discussed with reference to an art installation called Barely.Keywords: Research by design, collaborative design, complexity, creativity, research methods.

  11. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  12. Temporary Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    For more than 40 years designers, researchers and engineers have used prototypes and other types of materiality to involve a great number of diverse actors in co-design processes. Researchers such as Blanco, Boujout, Vinck and Jeantet (Blanco & Boujut, 2003; Vinck & Jeantet, 1995) has promoted...... the concept of intermediary objects focusing on direct interactions centred around prototypes. However, not on-ly the prototype foster production and translation of knowledge in design processes, which is why this article introduces the concept of intermediary spaces to broaden the perspective. Intermediary...... spaces offer a framework for analysing design pro-cesses and following the translation and navigation of knowledge and actors from one space to the next. The framework can be used analytically to follow the translation and transformation of knowledge and actors and practically for designers to stage...

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  14. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  15. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  16. Designing Collaborative Interactive Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Hans-Christian; Geyer, Florian; Reiterer, Harald; Dachselt, Raimund; Fischer, Gerhard; Groh, Rainer; Haller, Michael; Herrmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Interactive spaces are ubiquitous computing environments for computer-supported collaboration that exploit and enhance the existing cognitive, physical and social skills of users or groups of users. The workshop aims at documenting and advancing the current state-of-the-art of co-located collaboration in interactive spaces and identifying research challenges and formulating a research agenda by inviting high-quality position and research papers from HCI, Information Visualization, CSCW and CSCL.

  17. Designing New Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We are moving towards new learning spaces merging the digital and the physical world. Real world objects get augmented by information streams and real world activities are measured with sensor technology to be reviewed afterwards or in real time. A variety of links is currently created to link

  18. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  19. The Information Infrastructures Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Rapti, Charikleia; Jensen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for characterising the design space of Information Infrastructures (IIs). Existing research has generally sought to unravel the convergent characteristics and mechanisms uniting IIs across a wide range of manifestations. In this research, we explore this divergence...... within the II design space. We do so by reviewing the II literature, focusing on the two domains of design situation and design resolution. Design situation refers to the relevant dimensions of the context in which an II is employed. Design resolution covers the dimensions along which the socio...

  20. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...

  1. Space-Charge Simulation of Integrable Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that enables strong nonlinear focusing without generating parametric resonances. We use a Synergia space-charge simulation to investigate the application of integrable optics to a high-intensity hadron ring that could replace the Fermilab Booster. We find that incorporating integrability into the design suppresses the beam halo generated by a mismatched KV beam. Our integrable rapid cycling synchrotron (iRCS) design includes other features of modern ring design such as low momentum compaction factor and harmonically canceling sextupoles. Experimental tests of high-intensity beams in integrable lattices will take place over the next several years at the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) and the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER).

  2. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  3. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  4. The RapidEye mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  5. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  6. Introduction to Space Systems Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The definition of all space systems starts with the establishment of its fundamental parameters: requirements to be fulfilled, overall system and satellite design, analysis and design of the critical elements, developmental approach, cost, and schedule. There are only a few texts covering early design of space systems and none of them has been specifically dedicated to it. Furthermore all existing space engineering books concentrate on analysis. None of them deal with space system synthesis – with the interrelations between all the elements of the space system. Introduction to Space Systems concentrates on understanding the interaction between all the forces, both technical and non-technical, which influence the definition of a space system. This book refers to the entire system: space and ground segments, mission objectives as well as to cost, risk, and mission success probabilities. Introduction to Space Systems is divided into two parts. The first part analyzes the process of space system design in an ab...

  7. Multiprocessor systems on chip design space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Kempf, Torsten; Leupers, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to the design challenges of MPSoC platforms focuses on early space exploration and defines an iterative methodology to increase the abstraction level, enabling the evaluation of design decisions earlier in the design process.

  8. Worship space acoustics 3 decades of design

    CERN Document Server

    Ryherd, Erica; Ronsse, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour through churches, synagogues, mosques, and other worship spaces designed during the past 30 years. The book begins with a series of essays on topics ranging from the soundscape of worship spaces to ecclesiastical design at the turn of the 21st Century. Perspective pieces from an architect, audio designer, music director, and worship space owner are also included. The core of the book presents the acoustical and architectural design of a wide variety of individual worship space venues. Acoustical consulting firms, architects, and worship space designers from across the world contributed their recent innovative works in the area of worship space acoustics. The contributions include detailed renderings and architectural drawings, as well as informative acoustic data graphs and evocative descriptions of the spaces. Filled with beautiful photography and fascinating modern design, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in religious architecture, acoustical d...

  9. Lost in Space: Designing for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The design of a learning space, and the many factors that come together to create that space, impact on how we feel and behave in that space and ultimately how we learn. This paper will discuss the importance of mission statements, policy and planning in light of how we create spaces that are learning-driven, human-centred and flexible. Of…

  10. Design spaces in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Hellström, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Design agendas are changing, and so are design communities and design processes. Over the last few decades, a growing number of professionals have started to see their core activity as "designing" rather than "planning" or "engineering". At the same time the "old" design professions to an increas......-ended. Transcending established genres, contemporary design questions well-proven distinctions between designed object and context of use as well as between designerly authorship and consumerist apprehension.......Design agendas are changing, and so are design communities and design processes. Over the last few decades, a growing number of professionals have started to see their core activity as "designing" rather than "planning" or "engineering". At the same time the "old" design professions...... to an increasing extent have to face challenges of the conventional conceiption of design as "a means to convey symbolic meaning through physical form". The "designer" is nog longer the outstanding, creative individual bringing artifacts into the world, but rather a member of a collaborative design team engaging...

  11. Trade Space Specification Tool (TSST) for Rapid Mission Architecture (Version 1.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Borden, Chester S.; Moeller, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Trade Space Specification Tool (TSST) is designed to capture quickly ideas in the early spacecraft and mission architecture design and categorize them into trade space dimensions and options for later analysis. It is implemented as an Eclipse RCP Application, which can be run as a standalone program. Users rapidly create concept items with single clicks on a graphical canvas, and can organize and create linkages between the ideas using drag-and-drop actions within the same graphical view. Various views such as a trade view, rules view, and architecture view are provided to help users to visualize the trade space. This software can identify, explore, and assess aspects of the mission trade space, as well as capture and organize linkages/dependencies between trade space components. The tool supports a user-in-the-loop preliminary logical examination and filtering of trade space options to help identify which paths in the trade space are feasible (and preferred) and what analyses need to be done later with executable models. This tool provides multiple user views of the trade space to guide the analyst/team to facilitate interpretation and communication of the trade space components and linkages, identify gaps in combining and selecting trade space options, and guide user decision-making for which combinations of architectural options should be pursued for further evaluation. This software provides an environment to capture mission trade space elements rapidly and assist users for their architecture analysis. This is primarily focused on mission and spacecraft architecture design, rather than general-purpose design application. In addition, it provides more flexibility to create concepts and organize the ideas. The software is developed as an Eclipse plug-in and potentially can be integrated with other Eclipse-based tools.

  12. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  13. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  14. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  15. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  16. Principles of Space Plasma Wave Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Space plasma waves span the frequency range from somewhat below the ion cyclotron frequency to well above the electron cyclotron frequency and plasma frequency. Because of the large frequency range involved, the design of space plasma wave instrumentation presents many interesting challenges. This chapter discusses the principles of space plasma wave instrument design. The topics covered include: performance requirements, electric antennas, magnetic antennas, and signal processing. Where appropriate, comments are made on the likely direction of future developments.

  17. Organizational Design for USSOCOM Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    2 Ibid., 249. 25 of the programs.3 In rapid innovation , it is important for Program Executive Officers to ensure that technical...organizational learning is what the company does in order to create innovative products and survive. They note that, “interviewees emphasized the importance ...14. ABSTRACT USSOCOM Special Operations Forces (SOF) Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) struggles to keep pace with technology innovation

  18. Space Transportation Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    3-16 1. Domestic (STS-Space Shuttle) ................................. 3-16 2. Foreign (Soviet Energia /Buran...5-8 7. Laser and Solar Propulsion ................................... 5-9 8. Satellite Propulsion Systems...event to be observed may be the major constraint. 2-2 o Sun-Earth-spacecraft geometry during ascent and initial orbit. This affects solar heating of the

  19. John Frassanito &Associates: Designer for Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowsky, John

    2002-01-01

    When most people think of design for space travel they think immediately of engineers and scientists, not architects or industrial designers. Yet, one of those arts professionals has been at the center of creating "space" in space for almost four decades. John Frassanito (born 1941) is an industrial designer who trained at the Art Center (now the famous Art Center College of Design in Pasadena) in the mid 1960s. After graduation in 1968, he began his design career by working with Raymond Loewy and William Snaith at the same time that Loewy's office was designing the interiors of Skylab, America's first space station (launched 1973). Frassanito worked on Skylab while at the Loewy firm until the early 1970s, when he was hired as a designer within the Computer Terminal Corporation where, in 1972, he designed the Datapoint 2000 -- the computer that the journal Invention and Technology (Fall 1994) called the "direct ancestor of today's PC." Frassanito started his own firm in 1983, where he continued to design computers as well as products for companies such as Sani-Fresh and Scott Paper. But he has made his mark on design for space travel since the mid-1980s, where he has been an outside contractor who has worked on a variety of NASA projects through today. These include 1980s works such as interior configuration and design for Space Station Freedom, as well as concepts for inflatable TransHab structures, through 1990s computer- generated animations for NASA missions, real and conceptual. In fact, Frassanito's high quality of design and animated imaging has been consistently utilized by NASA over the past decade to present mission realities and future concepts to scientists, engineers, lawmakers, and the general public alike. A survey of his work will be the subject of this paper in an effort to document the essential role that visual arts professionals play in designing "space" for space.

  20. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    . To enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions...

  1. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  2. Space Software for Automotive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

  3. The design space for solving instructional-design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.

    2001-01-01

    The development of design science is outlinedin this article followed by a description ofthe concept of design space, which isillustrated by maritime design. The example isused to illuminate and situate the currentstate of instructional-design science. Thearticle summarizes the developments of

  4. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  5. New Combustion CFD Algorithms Designed for Rapid GPU Computations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose development of new algorithms specifically designed to exploit the highly parallel structure of graphics processing units (GPUs) for performing the...

  6. Using the Phase Space to Design Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Architecture that is responsive, adaptive, or interactive can contain active architectural elements or robotic sensor-actuator systems. The consideration of architectural robotic elements that utilize distributed control and distributed communication allows for self-organization, emergence...... it to the realm of computational design in architecture, specifically by considering the phase space and related concepts. We consider the scale and predictability of certain design characteristics, and originate the concept of a formation space extension to the phase space, for design to deal directly...... with materializations left by robot swarms or elements, rather than robots' internal states. We detail a case study examination of design methodology using the formation space concept for assessment and decision-making in the design of active architectural artifacts....

  7. Translating material and design space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Joseffson, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    This paper shares findings from the project DevA (Developable surfaces in Architecture), a research by design based project developed a collaboration between academic and industry partners. The project aims to investigate the use of curved sheet material in architecture using hybridised 3D...

  8. Computationally designed libraries for rapid enzyme stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Baker, David; Marrink, Siewert J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    The ability to engineer enzymes and other proteins to any desired stability would have wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate that computational design of a library with chemically diverse stabilizing mutations allows the engineering of drastically stabilized and fully functional variants

  9. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hahn; Ben Ryckman; Maria Lux

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are ...

  10. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  11. Space Engineering Projects in Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R.; Wood, K.; Nichols, S.; Hearn, C.; Corrier, S.; DeKunder, G.; George, S.; Hysinger, C.; Johnson, C.; Kubasta, K.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design courses of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, focusing on the first-semester design methodology course. The philosophical basis and pedagogical structure of this course is summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper includes a summary of the projects completed during the 1992-93 Academic Year in the methodology course, and concludes with an example of two projects completed by student design teams.

  12. Design methodology and projects for space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  13. Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    Hans Kiib Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark - a survey on 100 Danish projects from 2002 – 2010. This article is based on an evaluation of 100 Danish open space projects form 2000 – 2010. The projects was initially proposals from Danish municipalities for the Campaign on Better Open...... Spaces (Bedre Byrums Kampagne) run by Realdania stating in 2002. These projects are all proposed just after 2002. Based on the quality of the projects including the goals for the proposal, the quality of the proposed design, and finally to what extent the projects contributed to new concepts...... and perspectives in open space design, 24 proposals were selected for further development. These projects were developed in the period from 2003 – 2007 with support from consultants. The evaluation has been carried out in 2011. It categorizes the initial 100 projects in relation to location, goals, concepts, scale...

  14. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Jonie

    2015-01-01

    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  15. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  16. Advanced tribology design tools for space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. W.; Lewis, S. D.

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the current status of, and updates to, three well-established ESTL/TM design aids and tools which are frequently used in the design of spacecraft mechanisms. The design aids covered are: - Space Tribology Handbook - DOLLS: a database on space oils and greases - CABARET: a ball bearing analysis code. The Space Tribology Handbook has become established as the definitive guide to space tribology. This paper reports on updates made to the Handbook and the plans to incorporate it into ECSS Guidelines. The database known as DOLLS provides the fundamental information needed for selection of a fluid lubricant for space applications. The database is being upgraded to include details on new oils and greases and, where available, new data on the characteristics of listed fluid lubricants. The bearing analysis code, CABARET, allows the prediction of bearing performance for a range of applications from low-speed mechanisms to high-speed turbo-pumps. Its predictive capabilities include torque, contact stress, stiffness thermal effects, cage motion, and fatigue life. Each design aid and its current status are discussed further.

  17. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  18. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  19. Design Space of Flexible Multigigabit LDPC Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schläfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multigigabit LDPC decoders are demanded by standards like IEEE 802.15.3c and IEEE 802.11ad. To achieve the high throughput while supporting the needed flexibility, sophisticated architectures are mandatory. This paper comprehensively presents the design space for flexible multigigabit LDPC applications for the first time. The influence of various design parameters on the hardware is investigated in depth. Two new decoder architectures in a 65 nm CMOS technology are presented to further explore the design space. In the past, the memory domination was the bottleneck for throughputs of up to 1 Gbit/s. Our systematic investigation of column- versus row-based partially parallel decoders shows that this is no more a bottleneck for multigigabit architectures. The evolutionary progress in flexible multigigabit LDPC decoder design is highlighted in an extensive comparison of state-of-the-art decoders.

  20. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are normally shelved in the starting location but that are currently checked out. Using formative UX methods, grant staff shaped app interface and functionality through early user testing. This paper reports results of UX testing; a redesigned mobile interface, and provides considerations on the future development of personalized recommendation functionality.

  1. Universal design of public open spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban open spaces are public places that must assure access for all users. They should be designed for equal use despite disabilities and special recreational needs. Their design must be functional and must meet user’s special requirements, either everyday functional or special (recreational needs. It is not just about overcoming architectural obstacles by building ramps of suitable slope and size; it is about inclusive, universal landscape design of urban space made for all citizens. For this matter, different ways of public use for each group of users is defined, functional criteria are determined, and examples of good and bad design are assembled to present the differences between technically accomplished ramps, and slope paths that include quality landscape inclusive design. To prove the unsuitability of public open spaces in Ljubljana, various analyses were made, including the measurement of steepness, lengths and wideness of certain urban elements. As an application of results, the universal designing principles are summarized in new proposal for entrance into Tivoli Park.

  2. Designing the DC-3 of space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of an SSTO, the Delta Clipper, scheduled to fly in 1993 which is expected to become a cheap, reliable, reusable space launch system. It has been decided that a vertical/vertical launch and recovery concept, by eliminating the dead weight of wings, is the lightest and most cost-effective design. High controllability, coupled with an onboard updated GPS navigation and control system will provide precision landing capability. The basic design capability calls for a 400 nm polar orbit of 10,000 lb or more than 22,000 lb in an easterly LEO orbit, or approximately 18,000 lb to Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the eventual commercial applications of this new space launch system.

  3. Public Space Design Between Alienation and Approporiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalized codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  4. Public Space Design between Alienation and Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalised codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  5. Space Shuttle food galley design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C.; Fischer, R.; Cooper, B.

    1974-01-01

    A food galley has been designed for the crew compartment of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter. The rationale for the definition of this design was based upon assignment of priorities to each functional element of the total food system. Principle priority categories were assigned in the following order: food quality, nutrition, food packaging, menu acceptance, meal preparation efficiency, total system weight, total system volume, and total power requirements. Hence, the galley was designed using an 'inside-out' approach which first considered the food and related biological functions and subsequently proceeded 'outward' from the food to encompass supporting hardware. The resulting galley is an optimal design incorporating appropriate priorities for trade-offs between biological and engineering constraints. This design approach is offered as a model for the design of life support systems.

  6. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  7. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  8. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  9. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  10. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  11. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2017-07-21

    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  12. Space station design - Innovation and compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.; Cohen, A.; Craig, M.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station will consist of three main elements: habitable modules, solar collectors, and their interconnecting hardware. The most arduous of the requirements to be met by this configuration is the simultaneous integration of terrestrial, solar, and celestial viewing instruments, since omnidirectional simultaneous viewing is made difficult by the station's large solar energy collection devices. The space station also imposes unique design conditions on individual subsystems, such as the power distribution and energy storage hardware. In particular, the thermal control subsystem must be designed to meet a variety of mission, payload, and housekeeping tasks that demand a large heat rejection capacity. Novel environmental control and life support subsystem technology will be indispensable.

  13. The Design Space of Information Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Petersen, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    A semiotic approach to the design space of information presentation is presented in which Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is used to represent and explore attributes of abstract sign types and the media (graphical, haptic, acoustic, gestic) through which they are presented as specific...... representational forms. Early taxonomies in design have typically been incomplete (in only considering graphics) and inconsistent (in the absence of separation between media and sign types). With digital multimedia and the future semantic web, we need a consistent taxonomy to support component-based flexible...

  14. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  15. Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, John; Cutlip, William; Hametz, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode suppliers, the ATS Group has developed an interactive Mission Design web site. The ATS web site provides both the information and the tools necessary to assist mission planners in selecting and planning their ride to space. This includes the evaluation of single payloads vs. ride-sharing opportunities to reduce the cost of access to space. Features of this site include the following: (1) Mission Database. Our mission database contains a listing of missions ranging from proposed missions to manifested. Missions can be entered by our user community through data input tools. Data is then accessed by users through various search engines: orbit parameters, ride-share opportunities, spacecraft parameters, other mission notes, launch vehicle, and contact information. (2) Launch Vehicle Toolboxes. The launch vehicle toolboxes provide the user a full range of information on vehicle classes and individual configurations. Topics include: general information, environments, performance, payload interface, available volume, and launch sites.

  16. Tourism Spaces: The New Experience Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cipolletti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to offer a theoretical contribution to the organisation, design and significance of tourism spaces, at a time when tourist practices are experiencing both change and intensification. From an architectural perspective, the study seeks to understand the evolutionary link between holiday practices and spaces, interpreting tourism as a context of creative relations between people, aspects, things and the places in which practices take place.Based on this interpretation, the paper defines architectural and urban categories of tourism, briefly comparing various literature on tourist organisations. In the second part, through the examination of recent examples of tourist experiences, planning actions and their ability to generate new tourism landscapes are evaluated. For both places and tourist experiences, that which emerges and the fields of application involved constitute guidelines and development tools for a form of tourism design that is more knowledgeable about the encounter between tourists and residents, and more reliable given that it is founded on the distinctive features of territories. The study demonstrates that tourism spaces, if intended as contexts of creative relations between people, aspects, things and places in which practices take place, may now develop a certain potential that once again calls into question a series of much debated opposites, tourists - residents, free time - work time, holiday space - day-to-day space, attractive resources and their transformation into elements of tourism, which had otherwise previously been consolidated by the tourist phenomenon. In the end, tourism proves itself to be an imaginative impulse, which is capable of reinventing the qualities of places and successfully orientating urban events.

  17. LEARNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Softer Learning Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ümran TOPÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a central part of everyone’s life that is often associated with school and  classrooms. Today’ classroom looks and functions like the classroom of an earlier century. Desks lined up in neat rows, facing the teacher and a board or screen is the general condition in many educational institutions. Most of us have sat through classes in plain, hard rooms. Although they did not look very pleasant, we all coped with them. If they could be designed slightly more tolerable, would they help in the betterment of education and learning in any measurable way? This paper aims at describing an attempt to design an alternative classroom. Based on several years of experience, it is observed that there is a demand among students for softer, warmer and more intimate instructional spaces. Students of “People and Environment” Course were asked to select a suitable space to redesign as a “Soft Classroom” within Bahçeşehir University Besiktas Campus  premises. This case study presented a potential research project to etter understand,  how student engagement can be increased by changing learning spaces.

  18. Mapping the pharmaceutical design space by amorphous ionic liquid strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Johannes; Saedtler, Marco; Balk, Anja; Merget, Benjamin; Widmer, Toni; Bruhn, Heike; Raccuglia, Marc; Walid, Elbast; Picard, Franck; Stopper, Helga; Dekant, Wolfgang; Lühmann, Tessa; Sotriffer, Christoph; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2017-10-31

    Poor water solubility of drugs fuels complex formulations and jeopardizes patient access to medication. Simplifying these complexities we systematically synthesized a library of 36 sterically demanding counterions and mapped the pharmaceutical design space for amorphous ionic liquid strategies for Selurampanel, a poorly water soluble drug used against migraine. Patients would benefit from a rapid uptake after oral administration to alleviate migraine symptoms. Therefore, we probed the ionic liquids for the flux, supersaturation period and hygroscopicity leading to algorithms linking molecular counterion descriptors to predicted pharmaceutical outcome. By that, 30- or 800-fold improvements of the supersaturation period and fluxes were achieved as were immediate to sustained release profiles through structural counterions' optimization compared to the crystalline free acid of Selurampanel. Guided by ionic liquid structure, in vivo profiles ranged from rapid bioavailability and high maximal plasma concentrations to sustained patterns. In conclusion, the study outlined and predicted the accessible pharmaceutical design space of amorphous ionic liquid based and excipient-free formulations pointing to the enormous pharmaceutical potential of ionic liquid designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  20. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a framework for understanding and manoeuvring design spaces based on insights from research into creativity constraints. We define the design space as a conceptual space, which in addition to being co-constituted, explored and developed by the designer encompasses the creativity...... constraints governing the design process. While design spaces can be highly complex, our constraint-based understanding enables us to argue for the benefits of a systematic approach to mapping and manipulating aspects of the design space. We discuss how designers by means of a simple representation, a design...... space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...

  1. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenius, Steve

    2015-01-01

    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  2. Process characterization and Design Space definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemeyer, Christian; McKnight, Nathan; St John, Rick; Meier, Steven; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kelley, Brian; Zettl, Frank; Puskeiler, Robert; Kleinjans, Annika; Lim, Fred; Wurth, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb). This chapter describes the tools used for the characterization and validation of MAb manufacturing process under the QbD paradigm. This comprises risk assessments for the identification of potential Critical Process Parameters (pCPPs), statistically designed experimental studies as well as studies assessing the linkage of the unit operations. Outcome of the studies is the classification of process parameters according to their criticality and the definition of appropriate acceptable ranges of operation. The process and product knowledge gained in these studies can lead to the approval of a Design Space. Additionally, the information gained in these studies are used to define the 'impact' which the manufacturing process can have on the variability of the CQAs, which is used to define the testing and monitoring strategy. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  4. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Hahn; Ben Ryckman; Maria Lux

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features...

  5. Design of a stabilized, compact gimbal for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, A.; Shubert, P.; McNally, J.; Jacka, N.; Pierson, R.

    2017-02-01

    Data transmits via optical communications through fibers at 10's of Terabits per second. Given the recent rapid explosion for bandwidth and competing demand for radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations among differing interests, the need for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC) systems is ever increasing. FSOC systems offer advantages of higher data rates, smaller size and weight, narrower beam divergence, and lower power than RF systems. Lightweight, small form factor, and high performance two-axis gimbals are of strong interest for satellite FSOC applications. Small gimbal and optical terminal designs are important for widespread implementation of optical communications systems; in particular, for satellite-to-satellite crosslinks where the advantages of more secure communications links (Lower Probability of Intercept (LPI)/Lower Probability of Detect (LPD)) are very important. We developed design concepts for a small gimbal focusing on the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) subsystems to establish their feasible implementation against the pointing stabilization, size, weight and power (SWaP), and performance challenges. The design drivers for the gimbal were weight, the elevation and azimuth field of regards, the form factor envelope (1U CubeSats), 100 μrad pointing accuracy, and 10 degrees per second slew capability. Innovations required in this development included a continuous fiber passed through an Azimuth Fiber Wrap and Elevation Fiber Wrap, overcoming typical mechanical and stress related limitations encountered with fiber optic cable wraps. In this presentation, we describe the configuration trades and design of such a gimbal.

  6. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  7. Robotic Design Choice Overview Using Co-Simulation and Design Space Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peter Christiansen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid robotic system development has created a demand for multi-disciplinary methods and tools to explore and compare design alternatives. In this paper, we present a collaborative modeling technique that combines discrete-event models of controller software with continuous-time models of physical robot components. The proposed co-modeling method utilizes the Vienna development method (VDM and MATLAB for discrete-event modeling and 20-sim for continuous-time modeling. The model-based development of a mobile robot mink feeding system is used to illustrate the collaborative modeling method. Simulations are used to evaluate the robot model output response in relation to operational demands. An example of a load-carrying challenge in relation to the feeding robot is presented, and a design space is defined with candidate solutions in both the mechanical and software domains. Simulation results are analyzed using design space exploration (DSE, which evaluates candidate solutions in relation to preselected optimization criteria. The result of the analysis provides developers with an overview of the impacts of each candidate solution in the chosen design space. Based on this overview of solution impacts, the developers can select viable candidates for deployment and testing with the actual robot.

  8. Designing the Orbital Space Tourism Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Sub-orbital space tourism is now well on its way to becoming a reality, with offerings by Virgin Galactic, Rocketplane, and others soon to be made available. Orbital space tourism is harder to achieve, but, if successful as a business model, will make significant contributions towards improved operational efficiencies, reusability, reliability and economies of scale to the world of crewed space flight. Some responses to the President's Vision for Space Exploration have included public space travel in low Earth orbit as sustaining and enabling elements of the vision in a post-Shuttle space architecture. This paper addresses the steps necessary to make possible such a US-based orbital space tourism business, and will assist commercial and government agencies concerned with the development of this new sector.

  9. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  10. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bossuet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  11. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  12. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  13. Strategies to Assess Studio Spaces Designed to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Reza; Saiki, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are not always aware of how the classroom design influences teaching, particularly in many family and consumer sciences (FCS) classes that require studio space, such as apparel and interior design classes. The purpose of this paper is to introduce strategies to assess studio spaces that are designed for enhancement of student learning.…

  14. Impact verification of space suit design for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The ballistic limits of single sheet and double sheet structures made of 6061 T6 Aluminum of 1.8 mm and larger nominal thickness were investigated for projectiles of 1.5 mm diameter fired in the Vertical Gun Range Test Facility and NASA Ames Research Center. The hole diameters and sheet deformation behavior were studied for various ratios of sheet spacing to projectile diameter. The results indicate that for projectiles of less than 1.5 mm diameter the ballistic limit exceeds the nominal 10 km/sec orbital debris encounter velocity, if a single-sheet suit of 1.8 mm thickness is behind a single bumper sheet of 1 mm thickness spaced 12.5 mm apart.

  15. Value-informed space systems design and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Joy

    Investments in space systems are substantial, indivisible, and irreversible, characteristics that make them high-risk, especially when coupled with an uncertain demand environment. Traditional approaches to system design and acquisition, derived from a performance- or cost-centric mindset, incorporate little information about the spacecraft in relation to its environment and its value to its stakeholders. These traditional approaches, while appropriate in stable environments, are ill-suited for the current, distinctly uncertain, and rapidly changing technical and economic conditions; as such, they have to be revisited and adapted to the present context. This thesis proposes that in uncertain environments, decision-making with respect to space system design and acquisition should be value-based, or at a minimum value-informed. This research advances the value-centric paradigm by providing the theoretical basis, foundational frameworks, and supporting analytical tools for value assessment of priced and unpriced space systems. For priced systems, stochastic models of the market environment and financial models of stakeholder preferences are developed and integrated with a spacecraft-sizing tool to assess the system's net present value. The analytical framework is applied to a case study of a communications satellite, with market, financial, and technical data obtained from the satellite operator, Intelsat. The case study investigates the implications of the value-centric versus the cost-centric design and acquisition choices. Results identify the ways in which value-optimal spacecraft design choices are contingent on both technical and market conditions, and that larger spacecraft for example, which reap economies of scale benefits, as reflected by their decreasing cost-per-transponder, are not always the best (most valuable) choices. Market conditions and technical constraints for which convergence occurs between design choices under a cost-centric and a value

  16. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  17. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  18. Robotic Design Choice Overview using Co-simulation and Design Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Rapid robotic system development has created a demand for multi-disciplinary methods and tools to explore and compare design alternatives. In this paper, we present a collaborative modelling technique that combines discrete-event models of controller software with continuous-time models of physical...... robot components. The proposed co-modelling method utilises Vienna Development Method (VDM) and Matlab for discrete-event modelling and 20-sim for continuous-time modelling. The model-based development of a mobile robot mink feeding system is used to illustrate the collaborative modelling method....... Simulations are used to evaluate the robot model output response in relation to operational demands. An example of a load carrying challenge in relation to the feeding robot is presented and a design space is defined with candidate solutions in both the mechanical and software domains. Simulation results...

  19. Designing Multicomponent Nanosystems for Rapid Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Khobragade, Vrushali; Khandare, Jayant

    2017-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood circulation holds immense promise as it predicts the overall probability of patient survival. Therefore, CTC-based technologies are gaining prominence as a "liquid biopsy" for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of two distinct multicomponent magnetic nanosystems for rapid capture and detection of CTCs. The multifunctional Magneto-Dendrimeric Nano System (MDNS) composed of an anchoring dendrimer that is conjugated to multiple agents such as near infrared (NIR) fluorescent cyanine 5 NHS (Cy5), glutathione (GSH), transferrin (Tf), and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for simultaneous tumor cell-specific affinity, multimodal high resolution confocal imaging, and cell isolation. The second nanosystem is a self-propelled microrocket that is composed of carbon nanotube (CNT), chemically conjugated with targeting ligand such as transferrin on the outer surface and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface. The multicomponent nanosystems described here are highly efficient in targeting and isolating cancer cells thus benefiting early diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  20. Utilizing Weather RADAR for Rapid Location of Meteorite Falls and Space Debris Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This activity utilizes existing NOAA weather RADAR imagery to locate meteorite falls and space debris falls. The near-real-time availability and spatial accuracy of these data allow rapid recovery of material from both meteorite falls and space debris re-entry events. To date, at least 22 meteorite fall recoveries have benefitted from RADAR detection and fall modeling, and multiple debris re-entry events over the United States have been observed in unprecedented detail.

  1. Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first......-order derivatives between the mapped coarse model and the fine model at the current iteration point. We also consider an enhanced version in which the input SM coefficients are frequency dependent. The performance of our new algorithms is comparable with the recently published SMIS algorithm when applied...

  2. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    cyberinfrastructure must support organizing computations (or "data transformations" in general) into complex workflows with resource discovery, automatic resource allocation, monitoring, preserving provenance as well as to aggregate heterogeneous, distributed data into knowledge databases. Such service orchestration is the responsibility of the "collective services" layer. For RPC, this layer will be based on Java Business Integration (JBI, [JSR-208]) specification which is a standards-based integration platform that combines messaging, web services, data transformation, and intelligent routing to reliably connect and coordinate the interaction of significant numbers of diverse applications (plug-in components) across organizational boundaries. JBI concept is a new approach to integration that can provide the underpinnings for loosely coupled, highly distributed integration network that can scale beyond the limits of currently used hub-and-spoke brokers. This presentation discusses the requirements, design and early prototype of the NASA-sponsored RPC system under development at Mississippi State University, demonstrating the integration of data provisioning mechanisms, data transformation tools and computational models into a single interoperable system enabling rapid execution of RPC experiments.

  3. The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...

  4. The role of urban space design characteristics in influencing social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study carried out in Old Town Mombasa, a Swahili city in Kenya, situated along the East African Coast. Its focus is on social life of the town's street system as a correlate of urban space design characteristics. Urban design elements within the streets have been disregarded resulting in spaces that do ...

  5. Information Architecture the Design of Digital Information Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Information Architecture is about organizing and simplifying information, designing and integrating information spaces/systems, and creating ways for people to find and interact with information content. Its goal is to help people understand and manage information and make right decisions accordingly. In the ever-changing social, organizational and technological contexts, Information Architects not only design individual information spaces (e.g., individual websites, software applications, and mobile devices), but also tackle strategic aggregation and integration of multiple information spaces

  6. Man and machine design for space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louviere, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The factors involved in creating effective designs for living and working in a weightless environment are discussed. Among the areas covered are special provisions for eating and drinking, a special shower nozzle to remove soap, electric shavers designed for vacuum containment of the clippings, and the need for restraint systems at the crew's workstations. Attention is given to the fact that the crewmen assume a neutral body posture in weightlessness which is an important consideration in designing displays, controls, and windows. It is concluded that the incorporation of the change in body posture and the requirement for restraint into future designs will greatly facilitate the crewman's task in the weightless environment.

  7. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  8. Towards system level runtime design space exploration of reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigdel, K.; Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.; Bertels, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing intricacy of the systems and the increasing use of reconfigurble heterogeneous devices significantly enlarges the design complexity of the modern embedded systems. As a result, to create a good design, it is essential to perform Design Space Exploration( DSE) at various design

  9. An Argument for Design Space Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Halskov, Kim; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    2016-01-01

    by design activities. Third we are prompted to challenge these constraints and reconsider disregarded opportunities. To support this argument, we revisit key activities from two projects in our interaction design lab’s portfolio, selected because of the detailed documentation available. We also introduce...

  10. Towards design space exploration for biological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polstra, S.; Pronk, T.E.; Pimentel, A.D.; Breit, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    For both embedded systems and biological cell systems, design is a feature that defines their identity. The assembly of different components in designs of both systems can vary widely. Given the similarities between computers and cellular systems, methods and models of computation from the domain of

  11. Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Oscar

    Research on residential crime patterns in 150,000 New York City public housing units has established that the combined effect of the residents' social characteristics and the projects' design affects the crime rate. Architectural design concepts applicable to all-level income housing ranging in type from single-family housing to high-rise…

  12. Plane and space in pattern design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salo-Mattila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In garment design, flat pattern design is central to form giving. In designing, the three-dimensional form is developed in two dimensions. Interaction between the two-dimensional presentation and three-dimensional reality is characteristic of the process. Despite its essential role in the teaching and learning of pattern design, the process has received only a limited interest in didactic studies. Internationally, most of the studies are American, and they have concentrated on the effects of spatial ability. The present article enquires how students in the textile teacher program of a Finnish university experienced the flat pattern design process and its difficulties, and what kind of processes were actually used. The results of the conducted survey indicate that studies in clothing design and construction had only a minor effect on how the students evaluated the difficulty of various pattern design tasks on the advanced level as compared with the introductory level. The possibility that this is due to crafts in the curriculum of  the Finnish comprehensive school is discussed. As to the processes of pattern design, the survey found that on the advanced level, when the students were free to choose among various alternatives, more than half of the processes were different from each other. Half of the processes included a mix of 2D and 3D methods, and two thirds of the total were iterative in nature. Improvement of design and ease allowances were the main reasons for iteration. After the basics, a flexible approach to the pattern design process appears to be advantageous for students' development in the subject.

  13. Space Transportation Analysis and Design (Reissue A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-17

    RECOVERABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES ..................... 3-12 1. Domestic (STS Space Shuttle) ....................................... 3-12 2. Foreign (CIS Energia ...affects solar heating of the spacecraft and the availability of solar energy for generating spacecraft power. 2-1 Table 2-1. Typical Orbits and...Foreign (CIS Energia Buran) The CIS Energia , which became operational in 1987, was developed to launch a variety of heavy payloads including the Buran

  14. A Rapid Python-Based Methodology for Target-Focused Combinatorial Library Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiliang; Song, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical space is so vast that only a small portion of it has been examined. As a complementary approach to systematically probe the chemical space, virtual combinatorial library design has extended enormous impacts on generating novel and diverse structures for drug discovery. Despite the favorable contributions, high attrition rates in drug development that mainly resulted from lack of efficacy and side effects make it increasingly challenging to discover good chemical starting points. In most cases, focused libraries, which are restricted to particular regions of the chemical space, are deftly exploited to maximize hit rate and improve efficiency at the beginning of the drug discovery and drug development pipeline. This paper presented a valid methodology for fast target-focused combinatorial library design in both reaction-based and production-based ways with the library creating rates of approximately 70,000 molecules per second. Simple, quick and convenient operating procedures are the specific features of the method. SHAFTS, a hybrid 3D similarity calculation software, was embedded to help refine the size of the libraries and improve hit rates. Two target-focused (p38-focused and COX2-focused) libraries were constructed efficiently in this study. This rapid library enumeration method is portable and applicable to any other targets for good chemical starting points identification collaborated with either structure-based or ligand-based virtual screening.

  15. Scenarios and design: Scoping the dialogue space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea; Kimbell, Lucy; Ramirez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinary......'s contribution is to suggest how scenario planning can engage with design, resulting in new opportunities for research and projects. These modes of engagement provide a framing to explore dialogues between other management disciplines....

  16. Conceptual space systems design using meta-heuristic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungsoo

    A recent tendency in designing Space Systems for a specific mission can be described easily and explicitly by the new design-to-cost philosophy, "faster, better, cheaper" (fast-track, innovative, lower-cost, small-sat). This means that Space Systems engineers must do more with less and in less time. This new philosophy can result in space exploration programs with smaller spacecraft, more frequent flights at a remarkably lower cost per flight (cost first, performance second), shorter development schedules, and more focused missions. Some early attempts at "faster, better, cheaper" possibly moved too fast and eliminated critical tests or did not "space-qualify" the innovations, causing failure. A new discipline of Constrained Optimization must be employed. With this new philosophy, Space Systems Design becomes a difficult problem to model in the new, more challenging environment. The objective of Space Systems Design has moved from maximizing space mission performance under weak time and weak cost constraints (accepting schedule slippage and cost growth) but with technology risk constraints, to maximizing mission goals under firm cost and schedule constraints but with prudent technology risk constraints, or, equivalently maximizing "expected" space mission performance per unit cost. Within this mindset, a complex Conceptual Space Systems Design Model was formulated as a (simply bounded) Constrained Combinatorial Optimization Problem with Estimated Total Mission Cost (ETMC) as its objective function to be minimized and subsystems trade-offs and design parameters as the decision variables in its design space, using parametric estimating relationships (PERs) and cost estimating relationships (CERs). Here, given a complex Conceptual Space Systems Design Problem, a (simply bounded) Constrained Combinatorial Optimization "solution" is defined as the process of achieving the most favorable alternative for the system on the basis of objective decision-making evaluation

  17. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  18. Healthy campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Siu Yu Lau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the architectural and landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress alleviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives: healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches (landscape design, spatial design and green design are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.

  19. A Three-Space Design Strategy for Digital Learning Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Jef

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the change in learning materials to digital formats and considers whether current design and production methods for educational software are still appropriate or if there is a need for a new design and production strategy. Describes structural versus associative design strategies and a new three-space strategy. (LRW)

  20. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  1. Dynamics and design of space nets for orbital capture

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Leping; Zhen, Ming; Liu, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the topics of theoretical principles, dynamics model and algorithm, mission analysis, system design and experimental studies of space nets system, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for those interested. Space nets system represents a forefront field in future development of aerospace technologies. However, it involves new challenges and problems such as nonlinear and distorted nets structure, complex rigid flexible coupling dynamics, orbital transfer of space flexible composite and dynamics control. Currently, no comprehensive books on space nets dynamics and design are available, so potential readers can get to know the working mechanism, dynamics elements, and mission design of the space nets system from a Chinese perspective.

  2. Rethinking public space: A new lexicon for design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Robbins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the debate about the importance and the design of well planned public open spaces, it is critical that we address the meaning and implications of the notions of public space. Most definitions are fundamentally overdetermined and fraught with contradictions and ambiguities. Equally as critical, for designers especially, is that these definitions of public space provide little guidance for creating successful public places. The paper’s author examines these definitions and the issues they pose and goes on to argue that what is needed is a new lexicon for addressing public space. Such a lexicon is briefly proposed. Such a lexicon, it is argued, would provide a more useful and broader discourse about what qualities define place and its political and spatial implications. In so doing it would also offer better guidance and insights for the design of social spaces.

  3. Reliability evaluation of nonlinear design space in pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Shingo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Takayama, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    Formulation design space of indomethacin tablets was investigated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation (RSM-S). In this study, a resampling method with replacement was applied to evaluate the reliability of border on the design space estimated by RSM-S. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Response surfaces were estimated using RSM-S, and the nonlinear design space was defined under the restriction of more than 3 kgf hardness and more than 70% dissolution 30 min before and after an accelerated test. The accuracy of the resampling method was elucidated and high correlation coefficients were produced. However, the distribution of the border on the design space generated by the resampling method was far from normal, and the confidence interval of the border was estimated using a nonparametric percentile technique. Consequently, the reliability of the design space was decreased by approaching the edge of the experimental design. RSM-S and this resampling method might be useful for estimating the reliability of nonlinear design space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    perspective on how people as resourceful individuals and groups invest their time, skill, and knowledge in interactive environments. Within this overarching perspective, the notion of means of engagement is presented denoting the intentional constructs that mediate engagement. The notion stretches beyond...... and conventions are re-shaped or suspended in participatory design inquiries. The motivation for staging fictional space in participatory design is to invite participants in design to re-think existing practices and imagine what their practices might be like if established conventions were altered....... The notion of fictional space is traced through design theory and developed within the scope of participatory design. Fictional space and the notions presented within this perspective are not ready-made methods or techniques for conducting design inquiries. Rather, I suggest that they enable critical...

  5. DeafSpace and the principles of universal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Claire; Harold, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates about the epistemological origins of Universal Design (UD) have questioned how far universalist design approaches can address the particularities and diversities of the human form through a series of standardised, technical responses. This article contributes to these debates by discussing an emergent architectural paradigm known as DeafSpace, which articulates a set of design principles originating from the d/Deaf community in the US. Commentary. DeafSpace has emerged as a design paradigm rooted in an expression of d/Deaf cultural identity based around sign language, rather than as a response designed to compensate for, or minimise, impairment. It distinguishes itself from UD by articulating a more user-centred design process, but its principles are arguably rooted in notions of d/Deaf identity based around consensus and homogeneity, with less attention paid to the socio-political contexts which shape diverse experiences of d/Deafness and the exclusion(s) of d/Deaf people from the built environment. While proponents of DeafSpace argue that UD and DeafSpace are not mutually exclusive, nor DeafSpace principles applicable only to d/Deaf people, questions remain about the type of spaces DeafSpace creates, most notably whether they lead to the creation of particularist spaces of and for the d/Deaf community, or reflect a set of design principles which can be embedded across a range of different environments. Implications for Rehabilitation UD as a basis for rehabilitation has been critiqued on the basis that creates "standardised", or universal solutions, thus negating the particularities of the human form. DeafSpace is an architectural paradigm rooted in socio-linguistic understandings of Deafness and the cultural identity of the Deaf community. It challenges UD's technocratic emphasis on minimising impairment and asserts design which is rooted in a more qualitative understanding of individuals' relationship with their environment. DeafSpace seeks to

  6. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  7. Linearized FUN3D for Rapid Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Design and Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop a hybrid approach in FUN3D, referred herein to as the Linearized FUN3D, for rapid aeroelastic and...

  8. Design of free space interconnected signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdocca, Miles; Stone, Thomas

    1993-12-01

    Progress is described on a collaborative effort between the Photonics Center at Rome Laboratory (RL), Griffiss AFB and Rutgers University, through the RL Expert Science and Engineering (ES&E) program. The goal of the effort is to develop a prototype random access memory (RAM) that can be used in a signal processor for a computing model that consists of cascaded arrays of optical logic gates interconnected in free space with regular patterns. The effort involved the optical and architectural development of a cascadable optical logic system in which microlaser pumped S-SEED devices serve as logic gates. At the completion of the contract, two gate-level layouts of the module were completed which were created in collaboration with RL personnel. The basic layout of the optical system has been developed, and key components have been tested. The delayed delivery of microlaser arrays precluded completion of the processor during the contract period, but preliminary testing was made possible through the use of other microlaser devices.

  9. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  10. Practical design of low-cost large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Macneal, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The practical design of low-cost space structures involves the use of approaches that reduce the cost of the design and development effort itself. Such approaches include: (1) design with criteria arrived at rationally; (2) design for simplicity, repeatability, and modularity; (3) assembly without adjustments; (4) design for testability on the ground; (5) the attainment of structural efficiency by configuration and material choice rather than by squeezing down on the design margins; and (6) prefabrication and preassembly before launch. Attention is given to truss platform designs, and the Seasat Extendible Support Structure is discussed as a particular example.

  11. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models to ...... to specify synchronization events and follow up actions on the client and server side. The notation is based on UML....

  12. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  13. SEP Mission Design Space for Mars Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of solar-electric propulsion (SEP) technologies and larger, light-weight solar arrays offer a tremendous advantage to Mars orbiters in terms of both mass and timeline flexibility. These advantages are multiplied for round-trip orbiters (e.g. potential Mars sample return) where a large total Delta V would be required. In this paper we investigate the mission design characteristics of mission concepts utilizing various combinations and types of SEP thrusters, solar arrays, launch vehicles, launch dates, arrival dates, etc. SEP allows for greater than 50% more mass delivered and launch windows of months to years. We also present the SEP analog to the ballistic Porkchop plot - the "Bacon" plot.

  14. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  15. Software design space exploration for exascale combustion co-design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Cy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Unat, Didem [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lijewski, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Weiqun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bell, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-09-26

    The design of hardware for next-generation exascale computing systems will require a deep understanding of how software optimizations impact hardware design trade-offs. In order to characterize how co-tuning hardware and software parameters affects the performance of combustion simulation codes, we created ExaSAT, a compiler-driven static analysis and performance modeling framework. Our framework can evaluate hundreds of hardware/software configurations in seconds, providing an essential speed advantage over simulators and dynamic analysis techniques during the co-design process. Our analytic performance model shows that advanced code transformations, such as cache blocking and loop fusion, can have a significant impact on choices for cache and memory architecture. Our modeling helped us identify tuned configurations that achieve a 90% reduction in memory traffic, which could significantly improve performance and reduce energy consumption. These techniques will also be useful for the development of advanced programming models and runtimes, which must reason about these optimizations to deliver better performance and energy efficiency.

  16. New design for a space cryo-mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Amiaux, Jérôme; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Carty, Michael; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Bouzat, Marylène; Duboué, Bruno; Lagage, Pierre Olivier; Lebeuf, Didier; Lepage, Erwan; Lemer, Isabelle; Marlaguey, Nathalie Peydrol; Poupar, Sébastien

    2008-07-01

    Based on its experience of space application instrument and its development of cryomechanism for astronomical ground based instrument VLT / VISIR, CEA Saclay is proposing a new concept of Space Cryomechanism. This design is based on VLT/VISIR cryo-mechanism design adapted to space requirements taking into account all the specification of space environment (vibrations at launch, cryogenic vacuum, materials, radiations, ...). The original concept of the design is based on the association of the key elements: a dog-clutch with Hirth teeth jaws coupled to a step-by-step space qualified cryo-motor, a bellows that allows for separation of indexing and rotating functions, and enlarged bearings design in "O" arrangement that increase robustness to vibration. The actuator has 360 steady positions that can be reached within les than a second with repeatability of 5 arcsec peak to peak. After a presentation of the details of the concept and of its benefits to robustness to space environment, the paper describes the thoroughly qualification program of the cryo-mechanism with respect to space requirements (cryo-cycling, indexing accuracy, power consumption, heat dissipation, motorisation margins, vibrations). This cryo-mechanism may be built in 3 different sizes for wheels up to 10 kg.

  17. Independent Space Operators: Gaining a Voice in Design for Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Claybaugh, William R., II

    2006-01-01

    Affordable and sustainable space exploration remains an elusive goal. We explore the competitive advantages of evolving towards independent operators for space transportation in our economy. We consider the pros and cons of evolving business organizations that operate and maintain space transportation system assets independently from flight system manufacturers and from host spaceports. The case is made that a more competitive business climate for creating inherently operable, dependable, and supportable space transportation systems can evolve out of today's traditional vertical business model-a model within which the voice of the operator is often heard, but rarely acted upon during crucial design commitments and critical design processes. Thus new business models may be required, driven less by hardware consumption and more by space system utilization.

  18. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  19. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...... mapping by adaptive adjustment of the response correction term according to the changes of the space-mapped coarse model response. Examples indicate the robustness of our approach....

  20. Scenario-based design space exploration of MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Early design space exploration (DSE) is a key ingredient in system-level design of MPSoC-based embedded systems. The state of the art in this field typically still explores systems under a single, fixed application workload. In reality, however, the applications are concurrently executing and

  1. DESIGN OF THE GROUND PUBLIC SPACE UNIVERSITY SQUARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRICULESCU Antonina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a few representative phases about the University Square, which contributed over time to the image that reflects today and two proposals of modern design. I will focus on creating a friendly and dynamic public space that promotes a high quality way of life with a modern design.

  2. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  3. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.

  4. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  5. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  6. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Zhou, Yuhong

    2014-08-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user's inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user’s inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. PMID:24088579

  8. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  9. Space Mapping and Beyond: Knowledge-Driven Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Madsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    models that can replace the CPU-intensive EM-simulated structure of interest in the search for optimum design. The surrogate models exploiting physically-based low-fidelity models (e.g., circuit equivalents) can be particularly efficient: the knowledge about the structure under design embedded...... in such a low-fidelity model allows us to dramatically reduce the number of EM simulations necessary to find a satisfactory design. Here, we review the concept of knowledge-driven design as well as specific design techniques, including space mapping, simulation-based tuning, and various response correction...

  10. The Art of Space Flight Exercise Hardware: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Nahom M.

    2004-01-01

    The design of space flight exercise hardware depends on experience with crew health maintenance in a microgravity environment, history in development of flight-quality exercise hardware, and a foundation for certifying proper project management and design methodology. Developed over the past 40 years, the expertise in designing exercise countermeasures hardware at the Johnson Space Center stems from these three aspects of design. The medical community has steadily pursued an understanding of physiological changes in humans in a weightless environment and methods of counteracting negative effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. The effects of weightlessness extend to the pulmonary and neurovestibular system as well with conditions ranging from motion sickness to loss of bone density. Results have shown losses in water weight and muscle mass in antigravity muscle groups. With the support of university-based research groups and partner space agencies, NASA has identified exercise to be the primary countermeasure for long-duration space flight. The history of exercise hardware began during the Apollo Era and leads directly to the present hardware on the International Space Station. Under the classifications of aerobic and resistive exercise, there is a clear line of development from the early devices to the countermeasures hardware used today. In support of all engineering projects, the engineering directorate has created a structured framework for project management. Engineers have identified standards and "best practices" to promote efficient and elegant design of space exercise hardware. The quality of space exercise hardware depends on how well hardware requirements are justified by exercise performance guidelines and crew health indicators. When considering the microgravity environment of the device, designers must consider performance of hardware separately from the combined human-in-hardware system. Astronauts are the caretakers of the hardware

  11. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  12. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  13. Designing for competence: spaces that enhance collaboration readiness in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gerri; Shraiky, James

    2013-09-01

    Many universities in the United States are investing in classrooms and campuses designed to increase collaboration and teamwork among the health professions. To date, we know little about whether these learning spaces are having the intended impact on student performance. Recent advances in the identification of interprofessional teamwork competencies provide a much-needed step toward a defined outcome metric. Rigorous study of the relationship between design and student competence in collaboration also requires clear specification of design concepts and development of testable frameworks. Such theory-based evaluation is crucial for design to become an integral part of interprofessional education strategies and initiatives. Current classroom and campus designs were analyzed for common themes and features in collaborative spaces as a starting place for specification of design concepts and model development. Four major themes were identified: flexibility, visual transparency/proximity, technology and environmental infrastructure. Potential models linking this preliminary set of design concepts to student competencies are proposed and used to generate hypotheses for future study of the impact of collaborative design spaces on student outcomes.

  14. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  15. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-10

    The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy.

  16. Rapid Prediction of Configuration Aerodynamics in the ConceptualDesign Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Munro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual aircraft design is characterised by the requirement to analyse a large number of configurations rapidly and cost effectively. For unusual configurations such as those typified by unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs adequately predicting their aerodynamic characteristics through existing empirical methods is fraught with uncertainty. By utilising rapid and low cost experimental tools such as the water tunnel and subscale flight testing it is proposed that the required aerodynamic characteristics can rapidly be acquired with sufficient fidelity for the conceptual design phase. Furthermore, the initial design predictions can to some extent be validated using flight-derived aerodynamic data from subscale flight testing.

  17. Value-centric design architecture based on analysis of space system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.

    2018-03-01

    Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.

  18. The rapid enrollment design for Phase I clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Wang, Yunfei; Foster, Matthew C

    2016-07-10

    We propose a dose-finding design for Phase I oncology trials where each new patient is assigned to the dose most likely to be the target dose given observed data. The main model assumption is that the dose-toxicity curve is non-decreasing. This method is beneficial when it is desirable to assign a patient to a dose as soon as the patient is enrolled into a study. To prevent assignments to doses with limited toxicity information in fast accruing trials we propose a conservative rule that assigns temporary fractional toxicities to patients still in follow-up. We also recommend always using a safety rule in any fast accruing dose-finding trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design introduces original design methods to achieve interference cancellation, low-complexity decoding and full diversity for a series of multi-user systems. In multi-user environments, co-channel interference will diminish the performance of wireless communications systems. In this book, we investigate how to design robust space-time codes and pre-coders to suppress the co-channel interference when multiple antennas are available.   This book offers a valuable reference work for graduate students, academic researchers and engineers who are interested in interference cancellation in wireless communications. Rigorous performance analysis and various simulation illustrations are included for each design method.   Dr. Feng Li is a scientific researcher at Cornell University.

  20. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Faruk Sözcü; İsmail İpek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training and developing e-learning projects as well as multimedia design tools. For this reason, this paper will clarify the basic e-learning development tech...

  1. Deep Learning: Generalization Requires Deep Compositional Feature Space Design

    OpenAIRE

    Haloi, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    Generalization error defines the discriminability and the representation power of a deep model. In this work, we claim that feature space design using deep compositional function plays a significant role in generalization along with explicit and implicit regularizations. Our claims are being established with several image classification experiments. We show that the information loss due to convolution and max pooling can be marginalized with the compositional design, improving generalization ...

  2. Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.

  3. Space-time design of the public city

    CERN Document Server

    Thomaier, Susanne; Könecke, Benjamin; Zedda, Roberto; Stabilini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Time has become an increasingly important topic in urban studies and urban planning. The spatial-temporal interplay is not only of relevance for the theory of urban development and urban politics, but also for urban planning and governance. The space-time approach focuses on the human being with its various habits and routines in the city. Understanding and taking those habits into account in urban planning and public policies offers a new way to improve the quality of life in our cities. Adapting the supply and accessibility of public spaces and services to the inhabitants’ space-time needs calls for an integrated approach to the physical design of urban space and to the organization of cities. In the last two decades the body of practical and theoretical work on urban space-time topics has grown substantially. The book offers a state of the art overview of the theoretical reasoning, the development of new analytical tools, and practical experience of the space-time design of public cities in major Europea...

  4. Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.

  5. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  6. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2015-07-27

    Large space telescopes made of deployable and lightweight structures suffer from aberrations caused by thermal deformations, gravitational release, and alignment errors which occur during the deployment procedure. An active optics system would allow on-site correction of wave-front errors, and ease the requirements on thermal and mechanical stability of the optical train. In the course of a project funded by the European Space Agency we have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror is able to work in space environment and is designed to correct for large aberrations of low order with high surface fidelity. This paper discusses design, manufacturing and performance results of the deformable mirror.

  7. Open the Windows: Design New Spaces for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    As a technologist, the author is interested in how the digital world is changing the educational landscape. As he began to research effective learning spaces, he discovered that the architecture, design, and school facilities communities are making a great deal of progress in creating better classrooms and school buildings. Unfortunately, many in…

  8. ASSESSMENT OF WORK-SPACE AND WORK-METHOD DESIGNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries among its workforce. This research assessed work-space (WsD) and work-method designs (WmD), level of compliance with recommended standards (RSs) and effects on workers' wellbeing. Clearances for services in 55 supine ...

  9. A critical systems perspective on the design of organizational space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first to introduce critical systems thinking into a new emerging research strand: the design of organizational space. The study revealed two things. First, critical systems thinking provides a thorough framework to understand the possibilities to connect organization and building;

  10. How to design and fly your humanly space object in space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor; Hall, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Today's space exploration, both robotic- and human-exploration driven, is dominated by objects and artifacts which are mostly conceived, designed and built through technology and engineering approaches. They are functional, reliable, safe, and expensive. Building on considerations and concepts established in an earlier paper, we can state that the current approach leaves very little room for art and design based objects, as organizations-typically led by engineers, project and business managers-see the inclusion of these disciplines and artifacts as nice to have instead of a genuine need, let alone requirement. In this paper we will offer initial discussions about where design and engineering practices are different or similar and how to bridge them and highlight the benefits that domains such as design or art can offer to space exploration. Some of the design considerations and approaches will be demonstrated through the double diamond of divergence-convergence cycles of design, leading to an experimental piece called a ;cybernetic astronaut chair;, which was designed as a form of abstraction and discussion point to highlight a subset of concepts and ideas that designers may consider when designing objects for space use, with attention to human-centered or humanly interactions. Although there are few suggested functional needs for chairs in space, they can provide reassuring emotional experiences from home, while being far away from home. In zero gravity, back-to-back seats provide affordances-or add variety in a cybernetic sense-to accommodate two astronauts simultaneously, while implying the circularity of cybernetics in a rather symbolic way. The cybernetic astronaut chair allows us to refine the three-actor model proposed in a previous paper, defining the circular interactions between the artist or designer; object or process; and user or observer. We will also dedicate a brief discussion to the process of navigating through the complex regulations of space

  11. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  12. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie

    2015-01-01

    -changing interfaces is a growing area in HCI design research and that authors often shy away from articulating the special qualities brought to a design by using changing shape to communicate information, we set out to explore shape changing interfaces through a series of sketching experiments through the support...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  13. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    -changing interfaces is a growing area in HCI design research and that authors often shy away from articulating the special qualities brought to a design by using changing shape to communicate information, we set out to explore shape changing interfaces through a series of sketching experiments through the support...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  14. Design of space-type electronic power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, J. F.; Lagadinos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Both open and encapsulated varieties of high reliability, low weight, and high efficiency moderate and high voltage transformers were investigated to determine the advantages and limitations of their construction in the ranges of power and voltage required for operation in the hard vacuum environment of space. Topics covered include: (1) selection of the core material; (2) preliminary calculation of core dimensions; (3) selection of insulating materials including magnet wire insulation, coil forms, and layer and interwinding insulation; (4) coil design; (5) calculation of copper losses, core losses and efficiency; (6) calculation of temperature rise; and (7) optimization of design with changes in core selection or coil design as required to meet specifications.

  15. Designing carbon markets, Part 2. Carbon markets in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [Grantham Research Institute and Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Hepburn, Cameron [Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, and Smith School for Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the first principles of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market. (author)

  16. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel, E-mail: s.fankhauser@lse.ac.u [Grantham Research Institute and Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Hepburn, Cameron, E-mail: cameron.hepburn@economics.ox.ac.u [Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, and Smith School for Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  17. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  18. A Design Space for Virtuality-Introduced Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Gushima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information technologies will enable the physical world to be fused with the virtual world. These digital services will be advanced via virtuality, which means that things that do not physically exist make people believe in their existence. We propose a design space for digital services that are enhanced via virtuality based on insights extracted from three case studies that we have developed and from discussions in focus groups that analyze how existing commercial IoT products proposed in a commercial crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, could be enhanced through virtuality. The derived design space offers three dimensions to design a digital service to fuse IoT technologies with virtuality: (1 Taxonomy of IoT; (2 Visualizing Level, and (3 Virtuality Level. The design space will help IoT-based digital service designers to develop advanced future IoT products that incorporate virtuality.

  19. Timelines Revisited: A Design Space and Considerations for Expressive Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Matthew; Lee, Bongshin; Bach, Benjamin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Munzner, Tamara

    2017-09-01

    There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout. Twenty combinations of these choices are viable timeline designs that can be matched to different narrative points, while smooth animated transitions between narrative points allow for the presentation of a cohesive story, an important aspect of both interactive storytelling and data videos. We further validate this design space by realizing the full set of viable timeline designs and transitions in a proof-of-concept sandbox implementation that we used to produce seven example timeline stories. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform and inspire the design of future tools for storytelling with timelines.

  20. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  1. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  2. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Salvat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  3. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  4. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  5. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  6. Design of low energy bunch compressors with space charge effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore a method to manipulate low energy electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime, and we use this method to design low energy linac bunch compressors to compress electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime. In the method, we use the space charge effects instead of avoiding them; i.e., we use the space charge forces to generate the required energy chirp instead of the ordinary method which uses the rf accelerating system to generate the chirp. We redefine the concepts of the dispersion function and beta functions in a space charge dominated regime to guide the optimization. Using this method, we study the low energy (5–22 MeV linac bunch compressor design to produce short (∼150  fs and small size (∼30  μm bunches for the electron beam slicing project. The low energy linac bunch compressors work in a space charge dominated regime, and the bunches at the downstream of the gun have a negative energy chirp due to the space charge effects. To provide compression for the negative energy chirped bunch, we design a positive R_{56} dispersive section using a four-dipole chicane with several quadrupole magnets. We have designed low energy linac bunch compressors with different photocathode rf guns. For example, one linac bunch compressor with the BNL photocathode electron rf gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 166 fs rms bunch length, 28 and 31  μm rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 5 MeV with 50 pC charge. Another example with LBNL’s very-high frequency gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs rms bunch length, 42 and 25  μm rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.

  7. The Design Space of Multi-Language Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Non-trivial software systems integrate many artifacts expressed in multiple modeling and program- ming languages. However, even though these artifacts heavily depend on each other, existing development envi- ronments do not sufficiently support handling relations between artifacts in different...... and challenges faced by tool builders? To what extent MLDEs are desired by users, and for what support features? Our main conclusions are that (a) cross-language re- lations are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language systems, (b) users highly appreciated cross-language sup- port mechanisms of MLDEs and (c...... languages. By means of a literature survey, tool prototyping and experiments we study the design space of multi-language development environments (MLDEs)—tools that consider the cross-language relations as first artifacts. We ask: what is the state of the art in the MLDE space? What are the design choices...

  8. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs designs for future segmented space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Kathryn; Fogarty, Kevin; Zimmerman, Neil; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Stark, Chris; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Pueyo, Laurent; Vanderbei, Robert; Soummer, Remi

    2018-01-01

    A coronagraphic starlight suppression system situated on a future flagship space observatory offers a promising avenue to image Earth-like exoplanets and search for biomarkers in their atmospheric spectra. One NASA mission concept that could serve as the platform to realize this scientific breakthrough is the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR). Such a mission would also address a broad range of topics in astrophysics with a multi-wavelength suite of instruments.In support of the community’s assessment of the scientific capability of a LUVOIR mission, the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) has launched a multi-team technical study: Segmented Coronagraph Design and Analysis (SCDA). The goal of this study is to develop viable coronagraph instrument concepts for a LUVOIR-type mission. Results of the SCDA effort will directly inform the mission concept evaluation being carried out by the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. The apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) is one of several coronagraph design families that the SCDA study is assessing. The APLC is a Lyot-style coronagraph that suppresses starlight through a series of amplitude operations on the on-axis field. Given a suite of seven plausible segmented telescope apertures, we have developed an object-oriented software toolkit to automate the exploration of thousands of APLC design parameter combinations. In the course of exploring this parameter space we have established relationships between APLC throughput and telescope aperture geometry, Lyot stop, inner working angle, bandwidth, and contrast level. In parallel with the parameter space exploration, we have investigated several strategies to improve the robustness of APLC designs to fabrication and alignment errors and integrated a Design Reference Mission framework to evaluate designs with scientific yield metrics.

  9. Design Considerations for Space Transfer Vehicles Using Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The economical deployment of satellites to high energy earth orbits is crucial to the ultimate success of this nations commerical space ventures and is highly desirable for deep space planetary missions requiring earth escape trajectories. Upper stage space transfer vehicles needed to accomplish this task should ideally be simple, robust, and highly efficient. In this regard, solar thermal propulsion is particularly well suited to those missions where high thrust is not a requirement. The Marshall Space Flight Center is , therefore, currently engaged in defining a transfer vehicle employing solar thermal propulsion capable of transferring a 1000 lb. payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) to a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) using a Lockheed launch vehicle (LLV3) with three Castors and a large shroud. The current design uses liquid hydrogen as the propellant and employs two inflatable 16 x 24 feet eliptical off-axis parabolic solar collectors to focus sunlight onto a tungsten/rhenium windowless black body type absorber. The concentration factor on this design is projected to be approximately 1800:1 for the primary collector and 2.42:1 for the secondary collector for an overall concentration factor of nearly 4400:1. The engine, which is about twice as efficient as the best currently available chemical engines, produces two pounds of thrust with a specific impulse (Isp) of 860 sec. Transfer times to GEO are projected to be on the order of one month. The launch and deployed configurations of the solar thermal upper stage (STUS) are depicted.

  10. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  11. MSDT - A Central Executive to Coordinate Rapid Mission and Spacecraft Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The integrated design centers currently in place at the Goddard and Ames research institutions are highly productive infrastructures, allowing a group of domain...

  12. VisualCommander for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a highly extensible and user-configurable software application for end-to-end mission simulation and design. We will leverage...

  13. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  14. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...... and yield-driven design. We illustrate our results using a capacitively-loaded two-section impedance transformer, a single-resonator waveguide filter and a six-section H-plane waveguide filter....

  15. Next-Generation Space Telescope design reference mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric P.; Mather, John C.; Stockman, Hervey S.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Burg, Richard

    1998-08-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Design Reference Mission (DRM) represents a suite of potential astronomical programs and targets along with their expected physical properties, and desired observation modes. This broad science program is being used to drive the observatory design in a way as fundamental as traditional engineering parameters. Astronomers use the DRM to communicate their desires in a quantitative fashion to the engineers who will eventually construct the observatory. The DRM is also the primary tool used to measure the relative value of NGST mission architectures and technological readiness of the program. Specifically, the fraction of the DRM completed by a given observatory configuration in a given time is, to first order, a measure of the value of the design. Those designs which complete a higher fraction of the observations listed below are more capable than those complete lesser fractions.

  16. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...

  17. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...

  18. SPONGENT: The Design Space of Lightweight Cryptographic Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    focused on building block ciphers. As opposed to that, the design of lightweight hash functions is still far from being well investigated with only few proposals in the public domain. In this paper, we aim to address this gap by exploring the design space of lightweight hash functions based on the sponge...... construction instantiated with present-type permutations. The resulting family of hash functions is called spongent. We propose 13 spongent variants--or different levels of collision and (second) preimage resistance as well as for various implementation constraints. For each of them, we provide several ASIC...

  19. Space qualified Nd:YAG laser (phase 1 - design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. D.; Kirk, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a design study and preliminary design of a space qualified Nd:YAG laser are presented. A theoretical model of the laser was developed to allow the evaluation of the effects of various parameters on its performance. Various pump lamps were evaluated and sum pumping was considered. Cooling requirements were examined and cooling methods such as radiation, cryogenic and conductive were analysed. Power outputs and efficiences of various configurations and the pump and laser lifetime are discussed. Also considered were modulation and modulating methods.

  20. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  1. Rapid prototyping as a Tool for Designing and Manufacturing of Customised Anatomical Implants

    OpenAIRE

    RM Sherekar; AN Pawar; SV Bhalerao

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies are mostly related with applications in the product development and the design process as well as with small batch manufacturing. Due to their comparatively high rapidity and flexibility, however, they have also been engaged in various non-manufacturing applications. A field that attracts increasingly more attention by the scientific community is related to the application of technologies in medicine and health care. The associated research is focused both ...

  2. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  3. Optimal design of k-space trajectories using a multi-objective genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Brian M; Lewin, Jonathan S; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2004-10-01

    Spiral, radial, and other nonrectilinear k-space trajectories are an area of active research in MRI due largely to their typically rapid acquisition times and benign artifact patterns. Trajectory design has commonly proceeded from a description of a simple shape to an investigation of its properties, because there is no general theory for the derivation of new trajectories with specific properties. Here such a generalized methodology is described. Specifically, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) is used to design trajectories with beneficial flow and off-resonance properties. The algorithm converges to a well-defined optimal set with standard spiral trajectories on the rapid but low-quality end, and a new class of trajectories on the slower but high-quality end. The new trajectories all begin with nonzero gradient amplitude at the k-space origin, and curve gently outward relative to standard spirals. Improvements predicted in simulated imaging experiments were found to correlate well with improvements in actual experimental measures of image quality. The impact of deviations from the desired k-space trajectory is described, as is the impact of using different phantoms.

  4. Standardization Process for Space Radiation Models Used for Space System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Daly, Eamonn; Brautigam, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The space system design community has three concerns related to models of the radiation belts and plasma: 1) AP-8 and AE-8 models are not adequate for modern applications; 2) Data that have become available since the creation of AP-8 and AE-8 are not being fully exploited for modeling purposes; 3) When new models are produced, there is no authorizing organization identified to evaluate the models or their datasets for accuracy and robustness. This viewgraph presentation provided an overview of the roadmap adopted by the Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models.

  5. Advanced Numerical Tools for Design and Analysis of In-Space, Valve and Feed Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-space valves are required to provide precise mass flow control, wide throttling range and handle rapid on-off control. These requirements can result in...

  6. Advanced Numerical Tools for Design and Analysis of In-Space, Valve and Feed Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-space valves for the main fuel and oxidizer feed systems are required to provide precise control, wide throttling range and handle rapid on-off control. These...

  7. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  8. Design of a smart bidirectional actuator for space operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarbini, Marco; Magni, Marianna; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2017-03-01

    A common need for space borne instruments, satellites and planetary exploration payloads is the usage of compact, light and low power actuators. In the recent years, this need has been partially solved by the development of customized solutions with an increasing usage of smart materials. A linear bidirectional actuator based on shape memory alloy technology is presented in this work. The device has been conceived to lock the double-pendulum scanning mechanism of a miniaturized Fourier transform spectrometer for planetary observation. The mechanism class is that of pin pullers, with the pin locking the movable components of the spectrometer during launch and landing phases. The proposed mechanism, differently from available off-the-shelf devices, allows multiple actuations without the need of manual resetting. Moreover, the device requires to be powered only to change its status. An appealing feature of the adopted concept is that the actuation is intrinsically shock-less, a key requirement for deployment of devices sensitive to mechanical vibration and shocks. All these characteristics, in addition to the design flexibility of the proposed concept in terms of achievable forces and strokes, make the designed actuator promising for many different applications, from space to ground. The designed bidirectional actuator provides 0.6 mm stroke and a 50 N preload but it represents just an example of implementation for the proposed concept. Structural design of the functional elastic components and SMA alloy characterization have guided the actuator development. A mockup of the actuator has been manufactured and the predicted performances preliminary validated.

  9. Reverse Design and Rapid Prototyping ABS Part Assembly with Hard Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yaodong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the variant design of the existing product , and rapid completion of the manufacturing and assembly, a new product was designed by reverse design method,and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to finish assembly with hard material part. An experiment of rapid prototyping part with different model scales assembling with metal part was done to find the right scale of 1.008 of the model in H/h tolerance fit and 0.1mm more in size in interference fit. Through the static theory analysis, the amount of the interference fit was calculated by equal torque in contrast with mechanical assembly.The result was further proved by ProE mechanica simulation for stress and strain. Applying the rule of the results in experiment,prototyping part assembly with hard material part in different types of fit can be realized.

  10. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M.; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  11. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  12. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  13. Delay-Tolerant Networking for Space Flight Operations: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. The Internet protocols are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances; a Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture has been proposed instead. DTN is now a rapidly growing research field, but most implementations are mainly aimed at supporting applications of DTN technology to terrestrial networking problems. Those implementations are not necessarily suitable for deployment in an interplanetary network. Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) is an implementation of the DTN architecture that is specifically designed for use in resource-constrained embedded systems, such as interplanetary robotic spacecraft.

  14. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  15. High Temperature Superconducting Space Experiment II (HTSSE II) cryogenic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, T. G.; Chappie, S. S.; Mahony, D. R.

    At 60 to 80 K large performance gains are possible from high temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave devices for communications applications. The High Temperature Superconducting Space Experiment II (HTSSE II) will demonstrate eight HTS experiments in space for up to 3 years of operation. HTSSE II is the first application of HTS technology to space. In addition to demonstrating HTS devices, an important secondary goal is to demonstrate the cryogenic technologies required for long life HTS space applications. HTSSE II utilizes a British Aerospace 80 K Stirling cycle cryocooler to refrigerate a central cryogenic bus of seven HTS experiments and has an additional stand-alone TRW HTS experiment cooled by a TRW Stirling cycle cryocooler. The HTSSE II flight unit has been assembled and has successfully passed vibration and thermal vacuum environmental tests. HTSSE II was developed on a fixed budget and a fast track schedule of 24 months and is due to launch in March 1997 on the ARGOS spacecraft. This paper presents the design and test results of the cryogenic subsystem, cryocooler integration and a cryogenic coaxial cable I/O assembly.

  16. Design and performance oof space station photovoltaic radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. Alan; Fleming, Mike L.; Lee, Avis Y.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module Thermal Control System radiators is presented. The PV Radiator is of a single phase pumped loop design using liquid ammonia as the coolant. Key design features are described, including the base structure, deployment mechanism, radiator panels, and two independent coolant loops. The basis for a specific mass of 7.8 kg/sqm is discussed, and methods of lowering this number for future systems are briefly described. Key performance paramters are also addressed. A summary of test results and analysis is presented to illustrate the survivability of the radiator in the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment. A design criterion of 95% probability of no penetration of both fluid loops over a 10 year period is shown to be met. Methods of increasing the radiator survivability even further are presented. Thermal performance is also discussed, including a comparison of modeling predictions with existing test results. Degradation in thermal performance due to exposure to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in the low Earth orbit environment is presented. The structural criteria to which the radiator is designed are also briefly addressed. Finally, potential design improvements are discussed.

  17. Proof of Concept Study of Trade Space Configuration Tool for Spacecraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft design is a very difficult and time consuming process because requirements and criteria are often changed or modified as the design is refined. Accounting for these adjustments in the design constraints plays a significant role in furthering the overall progress. There are numerous aspects and variables that hold significant influence on various characteristics of the design. This can be especially frustrating when attempting to conduct rapid trade space analysis on system configurations. Currently, the data and designs considered for trade space evaluations can only be displayed by using the traditional interfaces of Excel spreadsheets or CAD (Computer Aided Design) models. While helpful, these methods of analyzing the data from a systems engineering approach can be rather complicated and overwhelming. As a result, a proof of concept was conducted on a dynamic data visualization software called Thinkmap SDK (Software Developer Kit) to allow for better organization and understanding of the relationships between the various aspects that make up an entire design. The Orion Crew Module Aft Bay Subsystem was used as the test case for this study because the design and layout of many of the subsystem components will be significant in ensuring the overall center of gravity of the capsule is correct. A simplified model of this subsystem was created and programmed using Thinkmap SDK to create a preliminary prototype application of a Trade Space Configuration Tool. The completed application ensures that the core requirements for the Tool can be met. Further development is strongly suggested to produce a full prototype application to allow final evaluations and recommendations of the software capabilities.

  18. Antenna design considerations for MIMO TV white-space handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wireless communication is to provide high-speed services utilizing MIMO antenna systems. Moreover, cognitive radio (CR) technology targets to exploit the so-called TV white space (TVWS) utilizing tunable antennas operating over vacant TV bands. The joint requirements for cognition...... and spatial multiplexing expressed by sufficient antenna matching and decoupling bandwidth, frequency agility over the TVWS as well as minimum occupying space and complexity impose significant challenges to antenna engineers. The paper discusses the major design considerations for compact TVWS terminals...... and presents a promising approach that empowers the TVWS device with CR-MIMO capabilities under modern smartphone size constraints. The idea is to aggregate a pair of antennas per communication port for a) providing attractive bandwidth properties across the desired TV bands and b) isolating the communication...

  19. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  20. GOES-R Rapid Refresh Imagery Advancements for the Earth and Space Weather Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T. J.; Lindsey, D. T.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of GOES, the GOES-R series, with planned launch in early 2016 offers improved spacecraft and instrument technology to provide more accurate, detailed and timely detection of high impact environmental phenomena, and at the same time significant opportunities and challenges in quickly creating, updating, and disseminating data and products in near real-time to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will provide three times more spectral information, four times the spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the current system with rapid scan imagery of severe storms, tropical cyclones, volcanic eruptions, and fires potentially as often as every thirty seconds in mesoscale mode and at least every 5 min or 15 min (as opposed to the 7.5, 15 or 30 min data from today's imager). Additional advancements over current GOES capabilities include continuous total lightning detection and mapping of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) with only twenty second latency or less, and increased dynamic range, resolution, and sensitivity imaging solar activity with the Solar UV Imager (SUVI) every ten seconds. The total lightning is very useful for identifying hazardous and severe thunderstorms, monitoring storm intensification and tracking evolution. Used in tandem with radar, visible satellite, and surface observations, total lightning data has great potential to increase lead time for severe storm warnings and improve public safety. The space weather instruments provide more detailed observations of coronal mass ejection, solar flares, and energetic particles to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings of solar storms. The data from the ABI, GLM and space weather instruments will have a wide-range of uses and multiple societal benefits in areas such as severe weather, energy, transportation, and commerce. This presentation will highlight the

  1. In-Space Engine (ISE-100) Development - Design Verification Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Popp, Chris; Bullard, Brad

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, NASA has formulated science mission concepts with an anticipation of landing spacecraft on the lunar surface, meteoroids, and other planets. Advancing thruster technology for spacecraft propulsion systems has been considered for maximizing science payload. Starting in 2010, development of In-Space Engine (designated as ISE-100) has been carried out. ISE-100 thruster is designed based on heritage Missile Defense Agency (MDA) technology aimed for a lightweight and efficient system in terms volume and packaging. It runs with a hypergolic bi-propellant system: MON-25 (nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, with 25% of nitric oxide, NO) and MMH (monomethylhydrazine, CH6N2) for NASA spacecraft applications. The utilization of this propellant system will provide a propulsion system capable of operating at wide range of temperatures, from 50 C (122 F) down to -30 C (-22 F) to drastically reduce heater power. The thruster is designed to deliver 100 lb(sub f) of thrust with the capability of a pulse mode operation for a wide range of mission duty cycles (MDCs). Two thrusters were fabricated. As part of the engine development, this test campaign is dedicated for the design verification of the thruster. This presentation will report the efforts of the design verification hot-fire test program of the ISE-100 thruster in collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) test teams. The hot-fire tests were conducted at Advance Mobile Propulsion Test (AMPT) facility in Durango, Colorado, from May 13 to June 10, 2016. This presentation will also provide a summary of key points from the test results.

  2. The Space Mission Design Example Using LEO Bolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four sample space launch missions were designed using rotating momentum transfer tethers (bolos within low Earth orbit and a previously unknown phenomenon of “aerospinning” was identified and simulated. The momentum transfer tethers were found to be only marginally more efficient than the use of chemical rocket boosters. Insufficient power density of modern spacecrafts was identified as the principal inhibitory factor for tether usage as a means of launch-assistance, with power densities at least 10 W/kg required for effective bolos operation.

  3. The Design Space of Type Checkers for XML Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    We survey work on statically type checking XML transformations, covering a wide range of notations and ambitions. The concept of type may vary from idealizations of DTD to full-blown XML Schema or even more expressive formalisms. The notion of transformation may vary from clean and simple...... transductions to domain-specific languages or integration of XML in general-purpose programming languages. Type annotations can be either explicit or implicit, and type checking ranges from exact decidability to pragmatic approximations. We characterize and evaluate existing tools in this design space...

  4. Joint Curriculum Developments in the Field of Virtual Space Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Zupancic, Tadeja; Juvancic, Matevz

    2006-01-01

    initiates a discussion-forum to raise and discuss open questions of joint curriculum development in the field of virtual space design, especially where CVE-s take the key role within the educational process. The starting points of the discussion can be found in the ongoing endeavours of the e......-Learning project entitled VIPA and the current curricular changes in the ‘new’ EU countries following relevant directives and declarations. The main goal of this forum is the development of the specific criteria for quality assurance, to enhance the motivation of joint curricular developments in the field...

  5. Design and manufacturing of ear prosthesis by means of rapid prototyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzio, F; Fantini, M; Ciocca, L; Persiani, F; Scotti, R

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the complete procedure to design and construct reusable moulds for implant-based ear prosthesis and manufacture substructures by means of a computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) procedure and rapid prototyping (RP) technology is presented. The scan of the healthy ear, the virtual superimposition of its mirrored image on to the defective side, and the rapid manufacturing of the substructure and of the mould eliminate several steps of traditional procedures (wax, stone, try-in). Moreover, the precise design and customization of the substructure is presented, with the original and engineered shape for the retention of the silicone. The time and cost saving results of this protocol are presented together with a discussion of the main design features that make the prosthesis a stable and reproducible system to improve rehabilitation of patients with auricular defects or absence.

  6. Changing space and sound: Parametric design and variable acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christopher William

    This thesis examines the potential for parametric design software to create performance based design using acoustic metrics as the design criteria. A former soundstage at the University of Southern California used by the Thornton School of Music is used as a case study for a multiuse space for orchestral, percussion, master class and recital use. The criteria used for each programmatic use include reverberation time, bass ratio, and the early energy ratios of the clarity index and objective support. Using a panelized ceiling as a design element to vary the parameters of volume, panel orientation and type of absorptive material, the relationships between these parameters and the design criteria are explored. These relationships and subsequently derived equations are applied to Grasshopper parametric modeling software for Rhino 3D (a NURBS modeling software). Using the target reverberation time and bass ratio for each programmatic use as input for the parametric model, the genomic optimization function of Grasshopper - Galapagos - is run to identify the optimum ceiling geometry and material distribution.

  7. Rapid object indexing using locality sensitive hashing and joint 3D-signature space estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Bogdan; Shan, Ying; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Tan, Yi; Kumar, Rakesh; Huber, Daniel; Hebert, Martial

    2006-07-01

    We propose a new method for rapid 3D object indexing that combines feature-based methods with coarse alignment-based matching techniques. Our approach achieves a sublinear complexity on the number of models, maintaining at the same time a high degree of performance for real 3D sensed data that is acquired in largely uncontrolled settings. The key component of our method is to first index surface descriptors computed at salient locations from the scene into the whole model database using the Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), a probabilistic approximate nearest neighbor method. Progressively complex geometric constraints are subsequently enforced to further prune the initial candidates and eliminate false correspondences due to inaccuracies in the surface descriptors and the errors of the LSH algorithm. The indexed models are selected based on the MAP rule using posterior probability of the models estimated in the joint 3D-signature space. Experiments with real 3D data employing a large database of vehicles, most of them very similar in shape, containing 1,000,000 features from more than 365 models demonstrate a high degree of performance in the presence of occlusion and obscuration, unmodeled vehicle interiors and part articulations, with an average processing time between 50 and 100 seconds per query.

  8. A Software/Hardware Platform For Rapid Prototyping of Video and Multimedia Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Paul; Mattavelli, Marco; Chirila-Rus, Adrian; Turney, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Traditional design and test of complex multimedia systems involves a large number of test vectors and is a difficult and time-consuming task. The simulation times are prohibitively long on current desktop computers. Driving actual design scenarios and timing burst behavior which produce real-time effects is difficult to do with current simulation environments. This paper describes a rapid emulation framework for accessing multiple hardware IP blocks on an FPGA. This solution involves an abstr...

  9. SCOUT: developing a modular multimission spacecraft architecture for high-capability rapid access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Aaron; Shoemaker, James; Jordan, Luis; McDermott, Scott

    2004-08-01

    The long lead and cycle times currently associated with development and launch of satellite systems have established a prohibitive environment for responsive deployment of tactical capability to orbit. With the advent of the RASCAL program - poised to offer launch capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 24 hours - there is a clear motivation for a comparable, multi-mission, rapidly configurable microsatellite. The SCOUT program is developing the key enabling technologies that will enable this capability while also addressing the production and logistic challenges essential to its implementation. Intrinsic to the design will be a "Plug-and-Sense" capability, which will enable a vehicle to detect the presence and orientation of integrated subsystem modules, as well as ascertain their function, and communicate key performance parameters. The system will utilize a heuristic, self-interrogation approach to provide a robust means of performing configuration and diagnostics activities that transcend nominal housekeeping routines to include an enhanced degree of system autonomy. A minimally structured design, emphasizing a lightweight, interchangeable framework will enable quick integration and deployment, while preserving high on-orbit payload mass fraction. Similarly, the system will also feature a novel approach to assembly, integration, and test activities that spans ground through on-orbit operations.

  10. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  11. Using Chip Multithreading to Speed Up Scenario-Based Design Space Exploration: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Early design space exploration (DSE) is a key element of system-level design of complex embedded systems, helping designers to make design decisions during the early design phases. For early DSE, where the design space is vast, it is crucial that the exploration process is as efficient as possible.

  12. Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

  13. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Schubert, Christian; Krutzik, Markus; Bote, Lluis Gesa; Gaaloul, Naceur; Hartwig, Jonas; Ahlers, Holger; Herr, Waldemar; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Rudolph, Jan; Seidel, Stephan; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Sven; Kubelka-Lange, André; Milke, Alexander; Rievers, Benny; Rocco, Emanuele; Hinton, Andrew; Bongs, Kai; Oswald, Markus; Franz, Matthias; Hauth, Matthias; Peters, Achim; Bawamia, Ahmad; Wicht, Andreas; Battelier, Baptiste; Bertoldi, Andrea; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Massonnet, Didier; Lévèque, Thomas; Wenzlawski, Andre; Hellmig, Ortwin; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; von Klitzing, Wolf; Chaloner, Chris; Summers, David; Ireland, Philip; Mateos, Ignacio; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Williams, Michael; Trenkel, Christian; Gerardi, Domenico; Chwalla, Michael; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Heske, Astrid; Wille, Eric; Gehler, Martin; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gürlebeck, Norman; Braxmaier, Claus; Rasel, Ernst

    2015-06-01

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species 85Rb/87Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for 10-11 mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (814 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  14. Space Shuttle Day-of-Launch Trajectory Design and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    A top priority of any launch vehicle is to insert as much mass into the desired orbit as possible. This requirement must be traded against vehicle capability in terms of dynamic control, thermal constraints, and structural margins. The vehicle is certified to a specific structural envelope which will yield certain performance characteristics of mass to orbit. Some envelopes cannot be certified generically and must be checked with each mission design. The most sensitive envelopes require an assessment on the day-of-launch. To further minimize vehicle loads while maximizing vehicle performance, a day-of-launch trajectory can be designed. This design is optimized according to that day s wind and atmospheric conditions, which will increase the probability of launch. The day-of-launch trajectory verification is critical to the vehicle's safety. The Day-Of-Launch I-Load Uplink (DOLILU) is the process by which the Space Shuttle Program redesigns the vehicle steering commands to fit that day's environmental conditions and then rigorously verifies the integrated vehicle trajectory's loads, controls, and performance. The Shuttle methodology is very similar to other United States unmanned launch vehicles. By extension, this method would be similar to the methods employed for any future NASA launch vehicles. This presentation will provide an overview of the Shuttle's day-of-launch trajectory optimization and verification as an example of a more generic application of dayof- launch design and validation.

  15. Without Gravity: Designing Science Equipment for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses space biology research, the space flight factors needed to design hardware to conduct biological science in microgravity, and examples of NASA and commercial hardware that enable space biology study.

  16. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  17. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray

    2017-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  18. The use of semiconductor processes for the design and characterization of a rapid thermal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodul, David; Metha, Sandeep

    1989-02-01

    While a variety of tools are used for the design of semiconductor equipment, processes themselves are often the most informative, providing a convenient and direct method for improving both the hardware and the process. Experiments have been done to evaluate the performance of a commercial rapid thermal processing (RTP) instrument. The effects of chamber geometry and optics as well as the time/temperature recipe were probed using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), sintering of tungsten suicide and molybdenum silicide, and partial activation of implanted ions. We show how sheet resistance and film thickness maps can be used to determine the dynamic and static temperature uniformity.

  19. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  20. Architecture for space habitats. Role of architectural design in planning artificial environment for long time manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Vera

    2007-02-01

    The paper discusses concepts about the role of architecture in the design of space habitats and the development of a general evaluation criteria of architectural design contribution. Besides the existing feasibility studies, the general requisites, the development studies, and the critical design review which are mainly based on the experience of human space missions and the standards of the NASA-STD-3000 manual and which analyze and evaluate the relation between man and environment and between man and machine mainly in its functionality, there is very few material about design of comfort and wellbeing of man in space habitat. Architecture for space habitat means the design of an artificial environment with much comfort in an "atmosphere" of wellbeing. These are mainly psychological effects of human factors which are very important in the case of a long time space mission. How can the degree of comfort and "wellbeing atmosphere" in an artificial environment be measured? How can the quality of the architectural contribution in space design be quantified? Definition of a criteria catalogue to reach a larger objectivity in architectural design evaluation. Definition of constant parameters as a result of project necessities to quantify the quality of the design. Architectural design analysis due the application and verification within the parameters and consequently overlapping and evaluating results. Interdisciplinary work between architects, astronautics, engineers, psychologists, etc. All the disciplines needed for planning a high quality habitat for humans in space. Analysis of the principles of well designed artificial environment. Good quality design for space architecture is the result of the interaction and interrelation between many different project necessities (technological, environmental, human factors, transportation, costs, etc.). Each of this necessities is interrelated in the design project and cannot be evaluated on its own. Therefore, the design

  1. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  3. Direct Parametric Image Reconstruction in Reduced Parameter Space for Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhoulei; Liu, Zhen; Navab, Nassir; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Keller, Ulrich; Ziegler, Sibylle; Shi, Kuangyu

    2015-02-12

    The separation of multiple PET tracers within an overlapping scan based on intrinsic differences of tracer pharmacokinetics is challenging, due to limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PET measurements and high complexity of fitting models. In this study, we developed a direct parametric image reconstruction (DPIR) method for estimating kinetic parameters and recovering single tracer information from rapid multi-tracer PET measurements. This is achieved by integrating a multi-tracer model in a reduced parameter space (RPS) into dynamic image reconstruction. This new RPS model is reformulated from an existing multi-tracer model and contains fewer parameters for kinetic fitting. Ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) was employed to approximate log-likelihood function with respect to kinetic parameters. To incorporate the multi-tracer model, an iterative weighted nonlinear least square (WNLS) method was employed. The proposed multi-tracer DPIR (MTDPIR) algorithm was evaluated on dual-tracer PET simulations ([18F]FDG and [11C]MET) as well as on preclinical PET measurements ([18F]FLT and [18F]FDG). The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to the indirect parameter estimation method with the original dual-tracer model. The respective contributions of the RPS technique and the DPIR method to the performance of the new algorithm were analyzed in detail. For the preclinical evaluation, the tracer separation results were compared with single [18F]FDG scans of the same subjects measured 2 days before the dual-tracer scan. The results of the simulation and preclinical studies demonstrate that the proposed MT-DPIR method can improve the separation of multiple tracers for PET image quantification and kinetic parameter estimations.

  4. Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)

  5. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  6. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  7. Designing localized electromagnetic fields in a source-free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, George N

    2002-06-01

    An approach to characterizing and designing localized electromagnetic fields, based on the use of differentiable manifolds, differentiable mappings, and the group of rotation, is presented. By way of illustration, novel families of exact time-harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in the source-free space--localized fields defined by the rotation group--are obtained. The proposed approach provides a broad spectrum of tools to design localized fields, i.e., to build-in symmetry properties of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, to govern the distributions of their energy densities (both size and form of localization domains), and to set the structure of time-average energy fluxes. It is shown that localized fields can be combined as constructive elements to obtain a complex field structure with desirable properties, such as one-, two-, or three-dimensional field gratings. The proposed approach can be used in designing localized electromagnetic fields to govern motion and state of charged and neutral particles. As an example, motion of relativistic electrons in one-dimensional and three-dimensional field gratings is treated.

  8. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  9. Supporting Space Systems Design via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariniello, Cesare

    The increasing size and complexity of space systems and space missions pose severe challenges to space systems engineers. When complex systems and Systems-of-Systems are involved, the behavior of the whole entity is not only due to that of the individual systems involved but also to the interactions and dependencies between the systems. Dependencies can be varied and complex, and designers usually do not perform analysis of the impact of dependencies at the level of complex systems, or this analysis involves excessive computational cost, or occurs at a later stage of the design process, after designers have already set detailed requirements, following a bottom-up approach. While classical systems engineering attempts to integrate the perspectives involved across the variety of engineering disciplines and the objectives of multiple stakeholders, there is still a need for more effective tools and methods capable to identify, analyze and quantify properties of the complex system as a whole and to model explicitly the effect of some of the features that characterize complex systems. This research describes the development and usage of Systems Operational Dependency Analysis and Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis, two methods based on parametric models of the behavior of complex systems, one in the operational domain and one in the developmental domain. The parameters of the developed models have intuitive meaning, are usable with subjective and quantitative data alike, and give direct insight into the causes of observed, and possibly emergent, behavior. The approach proposed in this dissertation combines models of one-to-one dependencies among systems and between systems and capabilities, to analyze and evaluate the impact of failures or delays on the outcome of the whole complex system. The analysis accounts for cascading effects, partial operational failures, multiple failures or delays, and partial developmental dependencies. The user of these methods can

  10. Rapid Preliminary Design of Interplanetary Trajectories Using the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This set of tutorial slides is an introduction to the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's autonomous tool for preliminary design of interplanetary missions. This slide set covers the basics of creating and post-processing simple interplanetary missions in EMTG using both high-thrust chemical and low-thrust electric propulsion along with a variety of operational constraints.

  11. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  12. Conceptualizing, Designing, and Investigating Locative Media Use in Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantaki, Katerina; Rizopoulos, Charalampos; Charitos, Dimitris; Kaimakamis, Nikos

    This chapter investigates the social implications of locative media (LM) use and attempts to outline a theoretical framework that may support the design and implementation of location-based applications. Furthermore, it stresses the significance of physical space and location awareness as important factors that influence both human-computer interaction and computer-mediated communication. The chapter documents part of the theoretical aspect of the research undertaken as part of LOcation-based Communication Urban NETwork (LOCUNET), a project that aims to investigate the way users interact with one another (human-computer-human interaction aspect) and with the location-based system itself (human-computer interaction aspect). A number of relevant theoretical approaches are discussed in an attempt to provide a holistic theoretical background for LM use. Additionally, the actual implementation of the LOCUNET system is described and some of the findings are discussed.

  13. Thermal analysis of a reflective baffle designed for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Lüthi, B. S.; Messina, G.; Piazza, D.; Seiferlin, K.; Thomas, N.

    2011-09-01

    The implementation and results from thermal mathematical modelling of a Stavroudis-type reflective baffle for the BepiColombo laser altimeter (BELA) are presented. BELA and other instruments on board the European Space Agency's Mercury Planetary Orbiter are exposed to a harsh environment in Mercury orbit. This environment is briefly discussed and the detailed design solution for the baffle is presented. Special attention has been paid to the implementation of the thermal model because specific approximations were required. The results of the thermal mathematical models show the temperature behaviour in orbit and the feasibility of the solution. The work has applications to future missions which will go inside the orbit of Venus (e.g. ESA's Solar Orbiter).

  14. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  15. Space laser design. Final technical report, Mar--Dec 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.E.; Yates, E.

    1973-03-01

    The results of a program to design and develop a high-efficiency CW ND:YAG laser which has space-applicable thermal properties are described. The laser is being developed for use in the 405B laser communications system. A laser was constructed that incorporated radiation cooling of the CW potassium-rubidium-arc pump lamp and direct-conduction cooling of the laser rod. The rod was soldered to a slotted composite metal wedge heat sink for minimum residual stress and greatest uniformity of thermal gradients. An optical pumping cavity was developed, using a pyrex sphere coated with a multilayer dielectric cold mirror. This transmits or absorbs unwanted lamp radiation while efficiently imaging pump band radiation in the laser rod.

  16. Design concepts of solar thermoelectric generators in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raag, V.; Hankins, L.; Swerdling, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several thermoelectric technologies have been examined as to their suitability for use in a solar thermoelectric generator (STG) as a nonpropulsive power source for space applications. The results show that of all the presently available thermoelectric technologies, i.e., lead telluride, bismuth telluride, selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys, the latter type provides the optimum STG. Detailed results are presented on the performance and configurational characteristics of various silicon-germanium alloy STGs, including the performance of such STGs as a function of time in a Mercury orbit and the orbit of Mercury around the sun. It is shown that an STG design based on the use of silicon germanium alloy thermoelectric material, using multiple high voltage thermopiles with individual solar concentrators, presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass. Additional concepts studied and discussed are the flat plate individual thermopile type and single concentrator compact thermopile type. The STG possesses an attractive potential for this application and represents a useful addition to the family of power sources for consideration in various space applications.

  17. Environmental design implications for two deep space SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Imken, Travis; Elliott, John; Sherwood, Brent; Frick, Andreas; Sheldon, Douglas; Lunine, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    The extreme environmental challenges of deep space exploration force unique solutions to small satellite design in order to enable their use as scientifically viable spacecraft. The challenges of implementing small satellites within limited resources can be daunting when faced with radiation effects on delicate electronics that require shielding or unique adaptations for protection, or mass, power and volume limitations due to constraints placed by the carrier spacecraft, or even Planetary Protection compliant design techniques that drive assembly and testing. This paper will explore two concept studies where the environmental constraints and/or planetary protection mitigations drove the design of the Flight System. The paper will describe the key technical drivers on the Sylph mission concept to explore a plume at Europa as a secondary free-flyer as a part of the planned Europa Mission. Sylph is a radiation-hardened smallsat concept that would utilize terrain relative navigation to fly at low altitudes through a plume, if found, and relay the mass spectra data back through the flyby spacecraft during its 24-h mission. The second topic to be discussed will be the mission design constraints of the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout concept. NEAScout is a 6U cubesat that would utilize an 86 sq. m solar sail as propulsion to execute a flyby with a near-Earth asteroid and help retire Strategic Knowledge Gaps for future human exploration. NEAScout would cruise for 24 months to reach and characterize one Near-Earth asteroid that is representative of Human Exploration targets and telemeter that data directly back to Earth at the end of its roughly 2.5 year mission.

  18. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  19. Wind Tunnel Model Design and Test Using Rapid Prototype Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-23

    UNCLASSIFIED WIND TUNNEL MODEL DESIGN AND TEST USING RAPID PROTOTYPE MATERIALS AND PROCESSES Richard R. Heisler and Clifford L. Ratliff The Johns Hopkins...deflection, and attach directly to the strongback with screws. A and tolerance deviations when the material was grown. schematic diagram of the RPM...constructed around the clay to contain the I. R. R. Heisler , "Final Test Report for the Wind pouring of silicon resin. Tunnel Test of the JHU/APL WTM-01 at

  20. Space shuttle orbiter windshield system design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, K.; Suppanz, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development and testing of primary structural elements that are necessary to design a windshield system for the space shuttle orbiter are summarized. The elements include the outer (heat shield) panes, the inner pressure panes, the seals for both panes, and components of both window frames. One test article representing a pressure pane, including frames and seals, was tested under two sets of conditions. One set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on the innermost pane of the three-pane window system, and the second set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on a middle pane. A second test article representing an outer (heat sheild) pane was tested to conditions of 120 entry cycles, which equates to 100 entry cycles plus sufficient fatigue on the pane to account for 100 boost cycles. All elements of the design survived the test conditions in good condition. Window system for the shuttle orbiter vehicle.

  1. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, Rex A.

    2002-01-01

    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  2. Somatosensory Space Abridged: Rapid Change in Tactile Localization Using a Motion Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Taylor, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Organization of tactile input into somatotopic maps enables us to localize stimuli on the skin. Temporal relationships between stimuli are important in maintaining the maps and influence perceived locations of discrete stimuli. This points to the spatiotemporal stimulation sequences experienced as motion as a potential powerful organizing principle for spatial maps. We ask whether continuity of the motion determines perceived location of areas in the motion path using a novel tactile stimulus designed to ‘convince’ the brain that a patch of skin does not exist by rapidly skipping over it. Method Two brushes, fixed 9 cm apart, moved back and forth along the forearm (at 14.5 cm s−1), crossing a 10-cm long ‘occluder’, which prevented skin stimulation in the middle of the motion path. Crucially, only one brush contacted the skin at any one time, and the occluder was traversed almost instantaneously. Participants pointed with the other arm towards the felt location of the brush when it was briefly halted during repetitive motion, and also reported where they felt they had been brushed. Results Participants did not report the 10-cm gap in stimulation – the motion path was perceptually completed. Pointing results showed that brush path was ‘abridged’: locations immediately on either side of the occluder, as well as location at the ends of the brush path, were perceived to be >3 cm closer to each other than in the control condition (F(1,9) = 7.19; p = .025 and F(1,9) = 6.02, p = .037 respectively). This bias increased with prolonged stimulation. Conclusions An illusion of completion induced by our Abridging stimulus is accompanied by gross mislocalization, suggesting that motion determines perceived locations. The effect reveals the operation of Gestalt principles in touch and suggests the existence of dynamic maps that quickly adjust to the current input pattern. PMID:24603595

  3. Trajectory Design and Orbital Dynamics of Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. H.

    2013-05-01

    The term of deep space exploration is used for the exploration in which a probe, unlike an earth satellite, escapes from the Earth's gravitation field, and conducts the exploration of celestial bodies within or away from the solar system. As the progress of aerospace science and technology, the exploration of the Moon and other planets of the solar system has attracted more and more attention throughout the world since late 1990s. China also accelerated its progress of the lunar exploration in recent years. Its first lunar-orbiting spacecraft, Chang'e 1, was successfully launched on 2007 October 24. It then achieved the goals of accurate maneuver and lunar orbiting, acquired a large amount of scientific data and a full lunar image, and finally impacted the Moon under control. On 2010 October 1, China launched Chang'e 2 with success, which obtained a full lunar image with a higher resolution and a high-definition image of the Sinus Iridum, and completed multiple extended missions such as orbiting the Lagrangian point L2, laying the groundwork for future deep space exploration. As the first phase of the three main operational phases (orbiting, landing, return) of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, the successful launches and flights of Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2 are excellent applications of the orbit design of both the Earth-Moon transfer orbit and the circumlunar orbit, yet not involving the design of the entire trajectory consisting of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit, the circumlunar orbit, and the return orbit, which is produced particularly for sample return spacecraft. This paper studies the entire orbit design of the lunar sample return spacecraft which would be employed in both the third phase of the lunar exploration program and the human lunar landing program, analyzes the dynamic characteristics of the orbit, and works out the launch windows based on specific conditions. The results are universally applicable, and could serve as the basis of the orbit

  4. Deployment history and design considerations for space reactor power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2009-05-01

    The history of the deployment of nuclear reactors in Earth orbits is reviewed with emphases on lessons learned and the operation and safety experiences. The former Soviet Union's "BUK" power systems, with SiGe thermoelectric conversion and fast neutron energy spectrum reactors, powered a total of 31 Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATs) from 1970 to 1988 in 260 km orbit. Two of the former Soviet Union's TOPAZ reactors, with in-core thermionic conversion and epithermal neutron energy spectrum, powered two Cosmos missions launched in 1987 in ˜800 km orbit. The US' SNAP-10A system, with SiGe energy conversion and a thermal neutron energy spectrum reactor, was launched in 1965 in 1300 km orbit. The three reactor systems used liquid NaK-78 coolant, stainless steel structure and highly enriched uranium fuel (90-96 wt%) and operated at a reactor exit temperature of 833-973 K. The BUK reactors used U-Mo fuel rods, TOPAZ used UO 2 fuel rods and four ZrH moderator disks, and the SNAP-10A used moderated U-ZrH fuel rods. These low power space reactor systems were designed for short missions (˜0.5 kW e and ˜1 year for SNAP-10A, <3.0 kW e and <6 months for BUK, and ˜5.5 kW e and up to 1 year for TOPAZ). The deactivated BUK reactors at the end of mission, which varied in duration from a few hours to ˜4.5 months, were boosted into ˜800 km storage orbit with a decay life of more than 600 year. The ejection of the last 16 BUK reactor fuel cores caused significant contamination of Earth orbits with NaK droplets that varied in sizes from a few microns to 5 cm. Power systems to enhance or enable future interplanetary exploration, in-situ resources utilization on Mars and the Moon, and civilian missions in 1000-3000 km orbits would generate significantly more power of 10's to 100's kW e for 5-10 years, or even longer. A number of design options to enhance the operation reliability and safety of these high power space reactor power systems are presented and discussed.

  5. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure. [for application to the space tug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading, axial compression, and torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. Honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiberglass meteoroid protection layers were the designs selected for further evaluation. Procurement of materials required for fabrication is reported and the structural test plan and fabrication drawings are included. Construction of the graphite/epoxy faceskins, chem mill of the aluminum faceskins, chem mill of aluminum truss components, and fabrication of the graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich development panel is also reported.

  6. Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

    1994-02-01

    This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through February 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Following the executive summary are four report sections: Motor Selection, Tests Stand Development, Health Monitoring and Fault Management, and Experiment Planning. Three specific motor types have been considered as prime movers for TVC EMA applications: the brushless dc motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the induction motor. The fundamental finding was that, in general, the primary performance issues were energy efficiency and thermal dissipation (rotor heating). In terms of all other issues, the three motor types were found to compare quite equally. Among the design changes made to the test stand since the last progress report is the addition of more mounting holes in the side beams. These additional holes allow the movable end beam to be attached in a greater number of positions than previously. With this change the movable end beam can move from full forward to full back in three inch increments. Specific mathematical details on the approach that have been employed for health monitoring and fault management (HMFM) have been reported previously. This approach is based on and adaptive Kalman filter strategy. In general, a bank of filters can be implemented for each primary fault type. Presently under consideration for the brushless dc machine are the following faults: armature winding open-circuits, armature winding short-circuits (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), bearing degradation, and rotor flux weakening. The mechanically oriented experiments include transient loading experiments, transverse loading experiment, friction experiment, motor performance experiment, and HMFM experiment.

  7. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  8. A new stellarator coil design tool using space curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart; Breslau, Joshua; Lazerson, Samuel; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2016-10-01

    Finding easy-to-build coils has always been critical for stellarator design. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ``winding'' surface. Either a surface current potential is constructed using a Green's function; or a discrete set of filamentary coils lying on the winding surface is non-linearly optimized. The winding surface concept ensures that the coils are separated from the plasma surface; however, requiring the coils lie on a given winding surface may overly constrain the coil optimization process. In this work, we investigate whether a winding surface is required. Our starting point is to represent each discrete coil as an arbitrary closed curve embedded in 3D space. From the Fundamental Theorem for Curves, such curves are uniquely described by the curvature and torsion functions. Our representation does not need a winding surface and can allow coils to evolve arbitrarily. We have constructed different penalty functions, F, that incorporate both the `physics' and `engineering' constraints. The first and second derivatives of F with respect to the parameters describing the coils are constructed analytically and are exploited to enable fast optimization algorithms for finding minima. Illustrations of coils for W7X and other stellarators will be presented. China Scholarship Council.

  9. XTMS: pathway design in an eXTended metabolic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Herisson, Joan; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-01-01

    As metabolic engineering and synthetic biology progress toward reaching the goal of a more sustainable use of biological resources, the need of increasing the number of value-added chemicals that can be produced in industrial organisms becomes more imperative. Exploring, however, the vast possibility of pathways amenable to engineering through heterologous genes expression in a chassis organism is complex and unattainable manually. Here, we present XTMS, a web-based pathway analysis platform available at http://xtms.issb.genopole.fr, which provides full access to the set of pathways that can be imported into a chassis organism such as Escherichia coli through the application of an Extended Metabolic Space modeling framework. The XTMS approach consists on determining the set of biochemical transformations that can potentially be processed in vivo as modeled by molecular signatures, a specific coding system for derivation of reaction rules for metabolic reactions and enumeration of all the corresponding substrates and products. Most promising routes are described in terms of metabolite exchange, maximum allowable pathway yield, toxicity and enzyme efficiency. By answering such critical design points, XTMS not only paves the road toward the rationalization of metabolic engineering, but also opens new processing possibilities for non-natural metabolites and novel enzymatic transformations. PMID:24792156

  10. Rapid Calculation Program of Certain Sizes used in design of Synchronous Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a program of rapid determination of certain sizes required in the design of synchronous machines using Mathcad software. During the design of electrical machines are phases in which certain sizes are extracted from different tables depending on certain variables. This operation is difficult and sometimes hard to do. To eliminate this problem and greatly shorten the time of determination of sizes and to ensure accurate values we have designed a program allowing even interpolation between two known values. The program developed applied, in this paper, to quickly determine the value of the voltage form factor kB and the value of the ideal polar coverage coefficient αi of polar step τ.

  11. Design of rapid prototype of UAV line-of-sight stabilized control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Liting; Li, Yinlong; Yu, Fei; Lin, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    The line-of-sight (LOS) stable platform is the most important technology of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), which can reduce the effect to imaging quality from vibration and maneuvering of the aircraft. According to the requirement of LOS stability system (inertial and optical-mechanical combined method) and UAV's structure, a rapid prototype is designed using based on industrial computer using Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Windows RTX to exchange information. The paper shows the control structure, and circuit system including the inertial stability control circuit with gyro and voice coil motor driven circuit, the optical-mechanical stability control circuit with fast-steering-mirror (FSM) driven circuit and image-deviation-obtained system, outer frame rotary follower, and information-exchange system on PC. Test results show the stability accuracy reaches 5μrad, and prove the effectiveness of the combined line-of-sight stabilization control system, and the real-time rapid prototype runs stable.

  12. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  13. Evaluation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography design space for sugars and sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Evan M; Kramer, Timothy T; Risley, Donald S

    2017-03-17

    Based on a column-screening exercise, a column ranking system was developed for sample mixtures containing any combination of 26 sugar and sugar alcohol analytes using 16 polar stationary phases in the HILIC mode with acetonitrile/water or acetone/water mobile phases. Each analyte was evaluated on the HILIC columns with gradient elution and the subsequent chromatography data was compiled into a statistical software package where any subset of the analytes can be selected and the columns are then ranked by the greatest separation. Since these analytes lack chromophores, aerosol-based detectors, including an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and a charged aerosol detector (CAD) were employed for qualitative and quantitative detection. Example qualitative applications are provided to illustrate the practicality and efficiency of this HILIC column ranking. Furthermore, the design-space approach was used as a starting point for a quantitative method for the trace analysis of glucose in trehalose samples in a complex matrix. Knowledge gained from evaluating the design-space led to rapid development of a capable method as demonstrated through validation of the following parameters: specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing optimized ultra-lightweighted mirror structures made of Cesic for space and ground based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Peter; Krödel, Matthias R.

    2010-07-01

    Today's space applications increasingly utilize lightweighted construction concepts, motivated by the demands of manufacturing and functionality, and by economics. Particularly for space optics, mirror stability and stiffness need to be maximized, while mass needs to be minimized. Therefore, mirror materials must possess, besides high material strength and manufacturing versatility, high thermal conductivity combined with low heat capacity and long-term stability against varying thermal loads. Additionally, optical surfaces need to be compatible with reflective coating materials. In order to achieve these requirements, the interplay between material properties and mirror design on one hand, and budgetary constraints on the other must be considered. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting an FEM design study of open and closed-back mirror structures with extremely thin reinforcing ribs, with the goal of obtaining optimal physical and optical characteristics. Furthermore, we show that ECM's carbon-fiber reinforced SiC composite, Cesic®, and its newly developed, HB-Cesic® , with their low CTE, low density, and high stiffness, are not only excellent mirror materials, but allow the rapid manufacturing of complex monolithic optical structures at reasonable cost.

  15. [Computer aided design and rapid manufacturing of removable partial denture frameworks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To introduce a method of digital modeling and fabricating removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks using self-developed software for RPD design and rapid manufacturing system. The three-dimensional data of two partially dentate dental casts were obtained using a three-dimensional crossing section scanner. Self-developed software package for RPD design was used to decide the path of insertion and to design different components of RPD frameworks. The components included occlusal rest, clasp, lingual bar, polymeric retention framework and maxillary major connector. The design procedure for the components was as following: first, determine the outline of the component. Second, build the tissue surface of the component using the scanned data within the outline. Third, preset cross section was used to produce the polished surface. Finally, different RPD components were modeled respectively and connected by minor connectors to form an integrated RPD framework. The finished data were imported into a self-developed selective laser melting (SLM) machine and metal frameworks were fabricated directly. RPD frameworks for the two scanned dental casts were modeled with this self-developed program and metal RPD frameworks were successfully fabricated using SLM method. The finished metal frameworks fit well on the plaster models. The self-developed computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD-CAM) system for RPD design and fabrication has completely independent intellectual property rights. It provides a new method of manufacturing metal RPD frameworks.

  16. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  17. Parameter space discretization and exploration for conceptual design of Mars in-situ instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Joel David

    New system design processes are changing the way space instrument conceptual designs are generated. Processes are developed for concurrent engineering, and optimizing instrument mass, cost, and volume. However, it is often the case that using these processes generates only point designs, or a fraction of possible design solutions within the parameter space. Parameter space includes design and performance spaces. Design space is the decomposition of a product design into tasks and options. Design parameters of interest constitute the performance space. Furthermore, although the point designs are valid solutions, there are often viable solutions that have not been considered, which may better solve the optimization problem. The hypothesis of this research is that designers exploring the parameter space will find solutions that may not have otherwise been considered. These previously unconsidered solutions may better optimize design parameters than the point designs found with other methods. Current design approaches are summarized, and a GENEration of Space Instrument Systems (GENESIS) parameter space discretization and exploration conceptual design process is described that expands on these approaches. GENESIS combines design approaches, parametric models, database tools, and intelligent agents in a unique manner to discretize and explore instrument parameter space. While generic enough to apply to wide ranges of problems, this research focuses on application to Mars in-situ instruments. In-situ instruments are those that take measurements in contact with or close proximity to the object being measured. These instruments are interesting because they are often under strict mass, cost, and volume constraints, and require unique design solutions to meet these constraints. An instrument design model built around existing Mars in-situ instruments supports GENESIS. Case studies of existing instruments are examined to answer the question, 'Where do existing Mars in

  18. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test a proof of concept prototype for a standard CubeSat form factor platform, designed for missions to deep space targets, as opposed to...

  19. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  20. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  1. Rapid Computation of Thermodynamic Properties over Multidimensional Nonbonded Parameter Spaces Using Adaptive Multistate Reweighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden, Levi N; Shirts, Michael R

    2016-04-12

    We show how thermodynamic properties of molecular models can be computed over a large, multidimensional parameter space by combining multistate reweighting analysis with a linear basis function approach. This approach reduces the computational cost to estimate thermodynamic properties from molecular simulations for over 130,000 tested parameter combinations from over 1000 CPU years to tens of CPU days. This speed increase is achieved primarily by computing the potential energy as a linear combination of basis functions, computed from either modified simulation code or as the difference of energy between two reference states, which can be done without any simulation code modification. The thermodynamic properties are then estimated with the Multistate Bennett Acceptance Ratio (MBAR) as a function of multiple model parameters without the need to define a priori how the states are connected by a pathway. Instead, we adaptively sample a set of points in parameter space to create mutual configuration space overlap. The existence of regions of poor configuration space overlap are detected by analyzing the eigenvalues of the sampled states' overlap matrix. The configuration space overlap to sampled states is monitored alongside the mean and maximum uncertainty to determine convergence, as neither the uncertainty or the configuration space overlap alone is a sufficient metric of convergence. This adaptive sampling scheme is demonstrated by estimating with high precision the solvation free energies of charged particles of Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb functional form with charges between -2 and +2 and generally physical values of σij and ϵij in TIP3P water. We also compute entropy, enthalpy, and radial distribution functions of arbitrary unsampled parameter combinations using only the data from these sampled states and use the estimates of free energies over the entire space to examine the deviation of atomistic simulations from the Born approximation to the solvation free

  2. Adding a Factor in the Course of a Design Space Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, Eric D.; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2012-01-01

    Introduction An early decision on the design space of a pharmaceutical could imply that some process parameter is to be held fixed during production. Therefore, the effect of such a parameter is not studied in the exploration of the design space with statistically designed experiments. Later

  3. Adequacy of different experimental designs for eucalyptus spacing trials in Portuguese environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Soares; Margarida Tome

    2000-01-01

    In Portugal, several eucalyptus spacing trials cover a relatively broad range of experimental designs: trials with a non-randomized block design with plots of different size and number of trees per plot; trials based on a non-systematic design in which spacings were randomized resulting in a factorial arrangement with plots of different size and shape and equal number...

  4. Virtual Mission Operations of Remote Sensors With Rapid Access To and From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, Dave; Walke, Jon; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Steven; Miller, Eric; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the United Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC), is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC s availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL s mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL s and Universal Space Network s (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN s assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards.

  5. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  6. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-04

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  7. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  8. On the design of a planar phased array radar antenna architecture for space debris situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, Javier; Noval Sánchez de Toca, Alvaro; Montesinos Ortego, Ignacio; Fernández González, José Manuel; Sierra Pérez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program from the European Space Agency (ESA) protects Europe's citizens and their satellite-based services by detecting space hazards. ESA Ground Systems (GS) division is currently designing a phased array radar composed of thousands of radiating elements for future stages of the SSA program [1]. The radar shall guarantee the detection of most of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris, providing a general map of space junk. While range accuracy is mainly ...

  9. Rapid modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipoles for a masked density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Taylor, A. N.; de la Torre, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we reformulate the forward modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipole moments for a masked density field, as encountered in galaxy redshift surveys. Exploiting the symmetries of the redshift-space correlation function, we provide a masked-field generalization of the Hankel transform relation between the multipole moments in real and Fourier space. Using this result, we detail how a likelihood analysis requiring computation for a broad range of desired P(k) models may be executed 103-104 times faster than with other common approaches, together with significant gains in spectral resolution. We present a concrete application to the complex angular geometry of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey PDR-1 release and discuss the validity of this technique for finite-angle surveys.

  10. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  11. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  12. State-space modeling indicates rapid invasion of an alien shrub in coastal dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Frølund; Nygaard, Bettina; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Invasion by alien plants has negative effects on coastal dunes. Monitoring local spread of invasive species depends on long-term data with sufficient spatial resolution. Bayesian state-space models are a new method for monitoring invasive plants based on unbalanced permanent-plot data. The method...

  13. Express Payload Project - A new method for rapid access to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, Mark L.; Timm, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    The deployment and permanent operation of Space Station Freedom will enable researchers to enter a new era in the 21st century, in which continuous on-orbit experimentation and observation become routine. In support of this objective, the Space Station Freedom Program Office has initiated the Express Payload Project. The fundamental project goal is to reduce the marginal cost associated with small payload development, integration, and operation. This is to be accomplished by developing small payload accommodations hardware and a new streamlined small payload integration process. Standardization of small payload interfaces, certification of small payload containers, and increased payload developer responsibility for mission success are key aspects of the Express Payload Project. As the project progresses, the principles will be applied to both pressurized payloads flown inside the station laboratories and unpressurized payloads attached to the station external structures. The increased access to space afforded by Space Station Freedom and the Express Payload Project has the potential to significantly expand the scope, magnitude, and success of future research in the microgravity environment.

  14. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  15. Flexible Space-Filling Designs for Complex System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    known as “model bias.” We desire designs less susceptible to model bias and with the ability to detect it when it occurs. Thus, we prefer designs that...changepoint. To increase the odds of detecting localized effects, we favor designs that sample throughout the experimental region. Such designs are called...variables (Hernandez, 2008). Although this criterion is somewhat arbitrary, designs meeting it suffer minimal adverse multicollinearity effects

  16. Feel the Fear: Learning Graphic Design in Affective Places and Online Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Anitra

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the idea of pedagogic affect in both onsite and online graphic design learning spaces, and speculates on the role that this affect plays in the formation of the design student. I argue that embodied design knowledge is built by interactions with design professionals, activities that mimic the daily work of designers, and…

  17. An improved design of water-soluble propofol prodrugs characterized by rapid onset of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bing-Chen; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Luo, Yun; Kang, Yi; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Phosphate ester prodrugs of propofol (fospropofol, HX0969W) were designed to avoid the unsatisfactory water solubility of the parent drug. However, in previous clinical trials, there were reported prodrug side effects such as paresthesia and pruritus. The accumulation of a phosphate ester component was found to be the main culprit. To exclude this potential risk, we designed 2 amino acid propofol prodrugs (HX0969-Gly-F3, HX0969-Ala-HCl) based on the lead compound (HX0969) by introducing the amino acid group into the structures of the propofol prodrugs. We hypothesized that the improved propofol prodrugs could not only eliminate those adverse effects but also retain their rapid action and good water solubility. The lead compound HX0969 was synthesized by the sodium borohydride-iodine system. HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl were synthesized from HX0969. The solubility of fospropofol, HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl in normal saline was tested. The bioconversions from those prodrugs to propofol in different physiological media (rat plasma, rhesus monkey plasma, and rat hepatic microsomes) were determined in vitro. An in vivo test in the rats was performed to measure the 50% effective dose (ED50) of the 4 propofol prodrugs. Their action onset time and duration time were also measured after their equipotent doses were given. (1) The water solubility of fospropofol, HX0969W, HX0969-Gly-F3, and HX0969-Ala-HCl was 461.46 ± 26.40 mg/mL, 189.45 ± 5.02 mg/mL, 49.88 ± 0.58 mg/mL, and 245.99 ± 4.83 mg/mL, respectively; (2) The hydrolysis tests in both the rat plasma and the rhesus monkey plasma revealed that the 2 amino acid prodrugs released propofol to a greater extent at a more rapid rate than the 2 phosphate prodrugs during the testing period of 5 hours. All 4 prodrugs released propofol rapidly in the presence of rat hepatic enzymes; (3) Compared with the previous prodrugs (fospropofol, HX0969W), the 2 novel compounds (HX0969-Gly-F3, HX0969-Ala

  18. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  19. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P, E-mail: adiaz@etsii.upm.es

    2010-11-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  20. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery...

  1. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  2. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  3. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  4. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  5. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  6. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  7. Workstation-Based Simulation for Rapid Prototyping and Piloted Evaluation of Control System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Colbourne, Jason D.; Chang, Yu-Kuang; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary-. wing aircraft consume a significant portion of the overall time and cost of aircraft development. Substantial savings can be achieved if the time required to develop and flight test the control system, and the cost, is reduced. To bring about such reductions, software tools such as Matlab/Simulink are being used to readily implement block diagrams and rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed system. Moreover, tools such as CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) have been developed that enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied, all within a fully interactive, user friendly, unified software environment.

  8. Flood Adaptation Measures Applicable in the Design of Urban Public Spaces: Proposal for a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Matos Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the importance of public space design in the implementation of effective adaptation action towards urban flooding, this paper identifies and systematizes a wide range of flood adaptation measures pertinent to the design of public spaces. It presents findings from both a systematic literature review and an empirical analysis retrieved from concrete public space design precedents. It concludes with the presentation of a conceptual framework that organizes the identified measures in accordance to their main, and secondary, infrastructural strategies. The intention behind the disclosed framework is to aid a multitude of professionals during the initial exploratory phases of public space projects that incorporate flooding adaptation capacities.

  9. Solving QCD evolution equations in rapidity space with Markovian Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Golec-Biernat, K; Placzek, W; Skrzypek, M

    2009-01-01

    This work covers methodology of solving QCD evolution equation of the parton distribution using Markovian Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithms in a class of models ranging from DGLAP to CCFM. One of the purposes of the above MMCs is to test the other more sophisticated Monte Carlo programs, the so-called Constrained Monte Carlo (CMC) programs, which will be used as a building block in the parton shower MC. This is why the mapping of the evolution variables (eikonal variable and evolution time) into four-momenta is also defined and tested. The evolution time is identified with the rapidity variable of the emitted parton. The presented MMCs are tested independently, with ~0.1% precision, against the non-MC program APCheb especially devised for this purpose.

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325 Public Contracts and Property... authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by § 102-74.320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated interior...

  11. The Rhetoric of Space in the Design of Academic Writing Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Amanda Nicole Metz

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the rhetoric of space as it relates to academic computer writing locations--specifically, computer labs, computer classrooms, and writing centers. Using observation, surveys, interviews, and textual analysis, the author discusses seven rhetorical principles of design for these spaces, including designing for specific…

  12. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the National Aeronautics And Space Administration To Act as Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the National Aeronautics... Memorandum of January 16, 2009 Designation of Officers of the National Aeronautics And Space Administration To Act as Administrator Memorandum for the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space...

  13. Exploring the Design Space of Immersive Urban Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhutian; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Tianchen; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zhigeng; Qu, Huamin; Wu, Yingcai

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose an theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Further more, based on our comprehensiv...

  14. Nonuniformly Spaced Linear Antenna Array Design Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonuniformly spaced linear antenna array with broadside radiation characteristics is synthesized using firefly algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The objective of the work is to find the optimum spacing between the radiating antenna elements which will create a predefined arbitrary radiation pattern. The excitation amplitudes of all the antenna elements are assumed to be constant. The optimum spacing between the array elements are obtained using firefly algorithm. The minimum allowed distance between the antenna elements is defined in such a way that mutual coupling between the elements can be ignored. Numerical analysis is performed to calculate the far-field radiation characteristics of the array. Two numerical examples are shown to form two different desired predefined radiation patterns. The performance of the firefly algorithm and particle swarm optimization is compared in terms of convergence rate and global best solution achieved. The performances of the optimized nonuniformly spaced arrays are analyzed. Finally, contour plots of the radiated power from the optimized array in the horizontal plane and vertical plane in the far-field region are provided.

  15. Design of Balanced Mechanisms based on Reconfiguration for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wei, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Often, one achieves the dynamic balancing condition by resorting to counter-devices approach, however, by doing this, one adds extra weight and therefore the inertia are increased inside the whole system, which is not cost-effective when the system is sent into space and later used in space. In this study, it is suggested one is able to achieve the reactionless condition through combining the self-balanced system. For example, the dynamic balancing condition can be realized via the reconfiguration concept. Extra counter-mass is not employed but through reconfiguring the whole structure, in this way, the system will not get to be heavy and therefore, reduce the energy costs and make the system more applicable and flexible for space applications. Based on this concept, first and foremost, one needs to balance a single component through the reconfiguration approach (i.e. decomposition process) and after that integrate the above balanced components to build the entire system (i.e. integration process). Finally, with the mechanical reconfiguration, the control laws governing the operation of the mechanism also need to be changed, so as to make whole systems more flexible when they are used in space.

  16. Provoking Performing Objects: Expanding the Design Space for Soft Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bewley, Harvey; Vallgårda, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Soft robots are typically developed with specific functions in mind. What we propose here is to shift focus to their aesthetic and performative qualities as means to open up a larger space of potential expressions and tacit abilities of these animated artefacts. Basically, to focus on the aesthetic...

  17. Socio-technical Spaces: Guiding Politics, Staging Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    to the analysis of two distinct cases: Business Process Reengineering (BPR), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the light of 'film-less' radiological practice, respectively. Socio-technical space is elaborated as being an occasioning as well as a result of sociotechnical choices and processes. It points...

  18. A Rapid Assessment Tool for Space Access Vehicle Configurations in Guidance and Control Performance (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    following equations from Roskam :3 Ixx = W g (kx b)2 (1) Iyy = W g (ky l)2 (2) Izz = W g (kz b+ l 2 )2 (3) The non-dimensional radii of gyration (k...Proceedings of the 2003 AIAA Guidance Navigation and Control Conference, AIAA 2003-5738, August 2003. 3Roskam, J., Airplane Design, Roskam Aviation

  19. Use of probabilistic design methods for NASA applications. [to be used in design phase of Space Transportation Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.

  20. SURVEY DESIGN TO GRASP AND COMPARE USER'S ATTITUDES ON BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaiampalam SIVAKUMAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mitigating urban transportation problems and providing a sustainable transit system, rail-based systems have become popular. While rail-based systems are welcome in many developed countries, it is impractical for cities in developing countries due to the high cost of system building and operation. Thus, a staged or incremental adjustment towards fixed guide way transit implementation of greater interest to many agencies today, and these days it has started developing in terms of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT. As it is very new to developing cities, it is a challenge to get the users to understand the system and to grasp their attitude. Besides, there are many other general issues like literacy, lack of a sample frame etc. Survey design needs to be tuned carefully for these cities to obtain a resonant output. Concerning all these problems, a hypothetical questionnaire survey such as Stated Preference (SP has become popular. This study conducted a survey on BRT implementation with SP as a hypothetical tool at a selected corridor in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The main objectives were to identify questionnaire design(media effects, literacy of users, segmental variation, and the important variable(s. In this survey design, system explanation has been set in two slightly different ways (media: TEXT ∼ IMAGE for comparison and it was found that even a slight difference on design affected the users' response considerably. Income level could not be predicted directly, but car ownership was found to be a good predictor, it was found to be an important variable and it showed a correlation with literacy.

  1. Fixed solar array designs for GPS space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachesky, P. A.; Simburger, E. J.; Zwibel, H. S.

    A risk reduction approach for the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) replenishment satellite block which uses fixed rather than tracking solar arrays is described. This design study was carried out as a result of reliability and electromagnetic interference (EMI) concerns with solar array drive power and transfer systems (SADPT). Fixed solar array designs eliminate the need for a SADPT, but result in larger arrays than tracking arrays in order to maintain acceptable end-of-life (EOL) performance. The weight increase due to the larger array is partially compensated for by the elimination of the SADPT. If advanced solar arrays and/or lightweight array designs are used, fixed array designs can lead to weight savings over baseline silicon cell-based designs.

  2. Space power distribution system technology. Volume 1: Reference EPS design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D. K.; Cannady, M. D.; Cassinelli, J. E.; Farber, B. F.; Lurie, C.; Fleck, G. W.; Lepisto, J. W.; Massner, A.; Ritterman, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The multihundred kilowatt electrical power aspects of a mannable space platform in low Earth orbit is analyzed from a cost and technology viewpoint. At the projected orbital altitudes, Shuttle launch and servicing are technically and economically viable. Power generation is specified as photovoltaic consistent with projected planning. The cost models and trades are based upon a zero interest rate (the government taxes concurrently as required), constant dollars (1980), and costs derived in the first half of 1980. Space platform utilization of up to 30 years is evaluated to fully understand the impact of resupply and replacement as satellite missions are extended. Such lifetimes are potentially realizable with Shuttle servicing capability and are economically desirable.

  3. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  4. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: opentopology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  5. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space and Earth Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Shutts, Stacy (Principal Investigator); Bacon, John; Ewert, Michael; Paul, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biodigesters harness and utilize byproducts, and are a valuable technology for waste conversion and advanced exploration closed loops targets (6.1.a-E), including that of human waste. On Mars and at JSC, this could lead to growing food and to more sustainable uses of waste. It is critical to understand biogas generation rates, odor management of the effluent, and nutrient viability. Improved efficiency and reliance on this renewable energy source can become feasible for deep space missions.

  6. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

  7. Design of low SWaP optical terminals for free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, P.; Cline, A.; McNally, J.; Pierson, R.

    2017-02-01

    Along with advantages in higher data rates, spectrum contention, and security, free space optical communications can provide size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages over radio frequency (RF) systems. SWaP is always an issue in space systems and can be critical in applying free space optical communications to small satellite platforms. The system design of small space-based free space optical terminals with Gbps data rates is addressed. System architectures and requirements are defined to ensure the terminals are capable of acquisition, establishment and maintenance of a free space optical communications link. Design trades, identification of blocking technologies, and performance analyses are used to evaluate the practical limitations to terminal SWaP. Small terminal design concepts are developed to establish their practicality and feasibility. Techniques, such as modulation formats and capacity approaching encoding, are considered to mitigate the disadvantages brought by SWaP limitations, and performance as a function of SWaP is evaluated.

  8. Design of a CCD Camera for Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    demonstration of the SensorSat satellite to scan the geosynchronous- orbit belt from low Earth orbit . This mission is technology pathfinder follow-on for the...the geo belt from an equatorial orbit . This is done with a novel approach via microsatellite of only 120 Kg. The satellite will scan the belt...electronics design for observing satellites in the geo belt. The paper discusses the design overview, tactics for tuning operation of a CCD, and

  9. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  10. Designing Transient Learning Spaces in Second Life - a case study based on the Kamimo experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Molka-Danielsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the grant “Virtual Campus for Life Long Learning” (NUV, 2007, we have gained experience in the design and building of a virtual island or “sim” in Second Life for the purpose of education. This paper discusses the virtual representations, tools, context and spaces used in course activities conducted under the project. While SL can replicate the classroom lecture, it gives further opportunities for interactive and active teaching as learning activities can take place in dispersed and diversified virtual spaces. These can be defined as transient spaces insofar as participants, activities and representations change over time. Designing transient learning spaces raises different challenges and opportunities from designing learning in the traditional physical classroom. Challenges include enabling new users to orient themselves in these spaces and how to behave in the new environments, for example. Transient learning spaces also offer new opportunities, such as the ability to design and develop a specific space for each course. The aim of this article is thus to help the teacher and “sim” designers to recognize the potential of transient learning spaces and the factors that influence their effective design.

  11. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen

    2015-01-01

    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  12. On the design and feasibility of a pneumatically supported actively guided space tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Raj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Space tethers have been investigated widely as a means to provide easy access to space. However, the design and construction of such a device presents significant unsolved technological challenges. An alternative approach is proposed to the construction of a space elevator that utilises a free-standing core structure to provide access to near space regions and to reduce the cost of space launch. The theoretical and experimental investigation of the bending of inflatable cylindrical cantilevered beams made of modem fabric materials provides the basis for the design of an inflatable space tower. Experimental model structures were deployed and tested in order to determine design guidelines for the core structure. The feasibility of the construction of a thin walled inflatable space tower of 20 km vertical extent comprised of pneumatically inflated sections that are actively controlled and stabilised to balance external disturbances and support the structure is discussed. The response of the structure under wind loads is analyzed and taken into account for determining design guidelines. Such an approach avoids problems associated with a space tether including material strength constraints, the need for in-space construction, the fabrication of a cable at least 50,000 km in length, and the ageing and meteorite damage effects associated with a thin tether or cable in Low Earth Orbit. A suborbital tower of 20 km height would provide an ideal mounting point where a geostationary orbital space tether could be attached without experiencing atmospheric turbulence and weathering in the lower atmosphere. The tower can be utilized as a platform for various scientific and space missions or as an elevator to carry payloads and tourists. In addition, space towers can significantly be utilized to generate electrical power by harvesting high altitude renewable energy sources. Keywords: Space Elevator, Inflatable Space Tower, Inflatable Structure, Inflatable Beam, Inflatable Multiple

  13. Design and Principles Enabling the Space Reference FOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Bjoern; Dexter, Dan; Madden, Michael; Crues, Edwin Z.; Garro, Alfredo; Skuratovskiy, Anton

    2017-01-01

    A first complete draft of the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Space Reference Federation Object Model (FOM) has now been produced. This paper provides some insights into its capabilities and discusses the opportunity for reuse in other domains. The focus of this first version of the standard is execution control, time management and coordinate systems, well-known reference frames, as well as some basic support for physical entities. The biggest part of the execution control is the coordinated start-up process. This process contains a number of steps, including checking of required federates, handling of early versus late joiners, sharing of federation wide configuration data and multi-phase initialization. An additional part of Execution Control is the coordinated and synchronized transition between Run mode, Freeze mode and Shutdown. For time management, several time lines are defined, including real-time, scenario time, High Level Architecture (HLA) logical time and physical time. A strategy for mixing simulations that use different time steps is introduced, as well as an approach for finding common boundaries for fully synchronized freeze. For describing spatial information, a mechanism with a set of reference frames is specified. Each reference frame has a position and orientation related to a parent reference frame. This makes it possible for federates to perform calculations in reference frames that are convenient to them. An operation on the Moon can be performed using lunar coordinates whereas an operation on Earth can be performed using Earth coordinates. At the same time, coordinates in one reference frame have an unambiguous relationship to a coordinate in another reference frame. While the Space Reference FOM is originally being developed for Space operations, the authors believe that many parts of it can be reused for any simulation that has a focus on physical processes with one or more coordinate systems, and require high

  14. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  15. Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report consists of two separate reports. The first one describes our work on the use of variable gain amplifiers to increase the receiver dynamic range of space borne laser altimeters such as NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter Systems (GLAS). The requirement of the receiver dynamic range was first calculated. A breadboard variable gain amplifier circuit was made and the performance was fully characterized. The circuit will also be tested in flight on board the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) next year. The second report describes our research on the master clock oscillator frequency calibration for space borne laser altimeter systems using global positioning system (GPS) receivers.

  16. Rapid sphere sizing using a Bayesian analysis of reciprocal space imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziovas, K; Sederman, A J; Gehin-Delval, C; Gunes, D Z; Hughes, E; Mantle, M D

    2016-01-15

    Dispersed systems are important in many applications in a wide range of industries such as the petroleum, pharmaceutical and food industries. Therefore the ability to control and non-invasively measure the physical properties of these systems, such as the dispersed phase size distribution, is of significant interest, in particular for concentrated systems, where microscopy or scattering techniques may not apply or with very limited output quality. In this paper we show how reciprocal space data acquired using both 1D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2D X-ray micro-tomographic (X-ray μCT) data can be analysed, using a Bayesian statistical model, to extract the sphere size distribution (SSD) from model sphere systems and dispersed food foam samples. Glass spheres-in-xanthan gels were used as model samples with sphere diameters (D) in the range of 45μm⩽D⩽850μm. The results show that the SSD was successfully estimated from both the NMR and X-ray μCT with a good degree of accuracy for the entire range of glass spheres in times as short as two seconds. After validating the technique using model samples, the Bayesian sphere sizing method was successfully applied to air/water foam samples generated using a microfluidics apparatus with 160μm⩽D⩽400μm. The effect of different experimental parameters such as the standard deviation of the bubble size distribution and the volume fraction of the dispersed phase is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the design space of immersive urban analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhutian Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Furthermore, based on our comprehensive and concise model, we contribute a typology of combination methods of 2D and 3D visualizations that distinguishes between linked views, embedded views, and mixed views. We also propose a supporting guideline to assist users in selecting a proper view under certain circumstances by considering visual geometry and spatial distribution of the 2D and 3D visualizations. Finally, based on existing work, possible future research opportunities are explored and discussed.

  18. Pathway design using de novo steps through uncharted biochemical spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Wang, Lin; Ng, Chiam Yu; Maranas, Costas D

    2018-01-12

    Existing retrosynthesis tools generally traverse production routes from a source to a sink metabolite using known enzymes or de novo steps. Generally, important considerations such as blending known transformations with putative steps, complexity of pathway topology, mass conservation, cofactor balance, thermodynamic feasibility, microbial chassis selection, and cost are largely dealt with in a posteriori fashion. The computational procedure we present here designs bioconversion routes while simultaneously considering any combination of the aforementioned design criteria. First, we track and codify as rules all reaction centers using a prime factorization-based encoding technique (rePrime). Reaction rules and known biotransformations are then simultaneously used by the pathway design algorithm (novoStoic) to trace both metabolites and molecular moieties through balanced bio-conversion strategies. We demonstrate the use of novoStoic in bypassing steps in existing pathways through putative transformations, assembling complex pathways blending both known and putative steps toward pharmaceuticals, and postulating ways to biodegrade xenobiotics.

  19. THE SKELETON SPACE: A FINITE SET OF ORGANIC DESIGNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R D K; Reif, W-E

    1993-04-01

    The structures of animal skeletons converge repeatedly on a limited number of architectural designs that can be constructed by growing organisms and that are functionally viable, although often not optimal. Properties of materials, construction rules that determine patterns of development, and physical constraints exerted by the requirements of function suggest that organic structure must necessarily approach these recurrent elements of design. A set of potential designs for the elements of animal skeletons is derived in terms of geometric and construction rules and the properties of materials. Skeletons of actual living and extinct organisms are matched with the possibilities defined within this theoretical morphospace. This provides a metric of skeletal complexity and of the extent to which various groups of animals have been able to exploit the range of possibilities of organic structure. These analyses show that the most evolutionarily advanced animals within a given phylum do not have the most complex skeletons; that arthropods are less morphologically diverse than vertebrates and molluscs; that the physical constraints of life on land and in the air substantially limit the variety of skeletal structures suitable for life in these environments; and that overall the range of possible skeletal designs has been very fully exploited by living and extinct organisms. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the essential elements of organic design are inherent in the material properties of the universe. The organizational properties of animal skeletons suggest that their design elements are fixed point attractors, structures that we characterize as topological attractors that evolution cannot avoid. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  1. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  2. Designing Public Space for Mobility: Contestation, Negotiation and Experiment at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated...... the complexity and interdependency of the interests at stake in the airport design, as well the value of an airport terminal as an urban design exercise. This is particularly relevant in the discussion of the transformation of spaces of mobility, such as airports or railway stations, into multifunctional public...... spaces and may also be valid for urban spaces where mobilities are becoming increasingly important. The paper analyses the challenges and opportunities that arise in such design situations, tracing the recent transformations of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol from the perspective of professionals who have...

  3. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  4. Fragment library design: efficiently hunting drugs in chemical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, S.M.; de Kloe, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    With the growth in fragment-based drug discovery, numerous strategies have been described for the design of fragment libraries. Key choices need to be made on both the selection criteria to be applied and the source of the fragments in the library. Here we review some of the key trends and recent

  5. Design and Analysis of Turbomachinery for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, D.; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of CORSAIR, a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics software code for the analysis of turbomachinery components available from NASA, and discusses its potential use in the design of these parts. Topics covered include: time-dependent equations of motion, grid topology, turbulence models, boundary conditions, parallel simulations and miscellaneous capabilities.

  6. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  7. Development of X-TOOLSS: Preliminary Design of Space Systems Using Evolutionary Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Andrew R.; Hull, Patrick V.; Turner, Mike L.; Dozier, Gerry; Alverson, Lauren; Garrett, Aaron; Reneau, Jarred

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary computational (EC) techniques such as genetic algorithms (GA) have been identified as promising methods to explore the design space of mechanical and electrical systems at the earliest stages of design. In this paper the authors summarize their research in the use of evolutionary computation to develop preliminary designs for various space systems. An evolutionary computational solver developed over the course of the research, X-TOOLSS (Exploration Toolset for the Optimization of Launch and Space Systems) is discussed. With the success of early, low-fidelity example problems, an outline of work involving more computationally complex models is discussed.

  8. Designing with Space Syntax : A configurative approach to architectural layout, proposing a computational methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an

  9. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  10. Exploring Exploration: A Tutorial Introduction to Embedded Systems Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.

    As embedded systems grow more complex and as new applications such as IoT require many design constraints, sophisticated design space exploration techniques are essential in order to find the best compromise between different design goals and their tradeoff. This tutorial gives a structured insight

  11. Design of deep convolutional networks for prediction of image rapid serial visual presentation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijing Mao; Wan Xiang Yao; Yufe Huang

    2017-07-01

    We report in this paper an investigation of convolutional neural network (CNN) models for target prediction in time-locked image rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) experiment. We investigated CNN models with 11 different designs of convolution filters in capturing spatial and temporal correlations in EEG data. We showed that for both within-subject and cross-subject predictions, the CNN models outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms: Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) and xDAWN spatial filtering and achieved >6% improvement. Among the 11 different CNN models, the global spatial filter and our proposed region of interest (ROI) achieved best performance. We also implemented the deconvolution network to show how we can visualize from activated hidden units for target/nontarget events learned by the ROI-CNN. Our study suggests that deep learning is a powerful tool for RSVP target prediction and the proposed model is applicable for general EEG-based classifications in brain computer interaction research. The code of this project is available at https://github.com/ZijingMao/ROICNN.

  12. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Romero

    Full Text Available This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system.From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data.Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants.

  13. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu

    2015-03-25

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  14. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  15. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  16. Negative extensibility metamaterials: Occurrence and design-space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Eduard G.; Danso, Larry A.; Klein, John T.

    2017-08-01

    A negative extensibility material structure pulls back and contracts when the external tensile load reaches a certain critical level. In this paper, we reveal basic mathematical features of the nonlinear strain energy function responsible for this unusual mechanical property. A systematic discussion leads to a comprehensive phase diagram in terms of design parameters for a simple unit cell structure that provides a panoramic view of all possible nonlinear mechanical behaviors. A negative extensibility region clearly is identified in the diagram. The sought property is seen to be rare, occurring only for a very narrow range of the design parameters. Nonetheless, due to the simplicity of the studied structure we suggest that the negative extensibility should be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. It can appear in simple bistable cells made of only several linearly elastic links, although at some peculiar combinations of their properties. These bistable unit cells can be used to design periodic mechanical metamaterials whose examples are shown as well as innovative architectural metastructures.

  17. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... aspects for reclaiming public space. The PhotoSwapper application is presented as an example of a system designed to integrate pervasive technology in a public setting. The system is strongly inspired by the activities at a traditional market place. Based on the design of the application we discuss four...

  18. Space Shuttle Operations and Infrastructure: A Systems Analysis of Design Root Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2005-01-01

    This NASA Technical Publication explores and documents the nature of Space Shuttle operations and its supporting infrastructure and addresses fundamental questions often asked of the Space Shuttle program why does it take so long to turnaround the Space Shuttle for flight and why does it cost so much? Further, the report provides an overview of the cause-and effect relationships between generic flight and ground system design characteristics and resulting operations by using actual cumulative maintenance task times as a relative measure of direct work content. In addition, this NASA TP provides an overview of how the Space Shuttle program's operational infrastructure extends and accumulates from these design characteristics. Finally, and most important, the report derives a set of generic needs from which designers can revolutionize space travel from the inside out by developing and maturing more operable and supportable systems.

  19. Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication (PDFF) will develop and implement a novel design methodology that leverages the rapidly evolving Solid Freeform...

  20. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA University Advanced Aeronautics Design Program and Advanced Space Design Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was established in 1984 as an attempt to add more and better design education to primarily undergraduate engineering programs. The original focus of the pilot program encompassing nine universities and five NASA centers was on space design. Two years later, the program was expanded to include aeronautics design with six universities and three NASA centers participating. This year marks the last of a three-year cycle of participation by forty-one universities, eight NASA centers, and one industry participant. The Advanced Space Design Program offers universities an opportunity to plan and design missions and hardware that would be of usc in the future as NASA enters a new era of exploration and discovery, while the Advanced Aeronautics Design Program generally offers opportunities for study of design problems closer to the present time, ranging from small, slow-speed vehicles to large, supersonic and hypersonic passenger transports. The systems approach to the design problem is emphasized in both the space and aeronautics projects. The student teams pursue the chosen problem during their senior year in a one- or two-semester capstone design course and submit a comprehensive written report at the conclusion of the project. Finally, student representatives from each of the universities summarize their work in oral presentations at the Annual Summer Conference, sponsored by one of the NASA centers and attended by the university faculty, NASA and USRA personnel and aerospace industry representatives. As the Advanced Design Program has grown in size, it has also matured in terms of the quality of the student projects. The present volume represents the student work accomplished during the 1992-1993 academic year reported at the Ninth Annual Summer Conference hosted by NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, June 14-18, 1993.

  1. Design, Participation, and Social Change: What Design in Grassroots Spaces Can Teach Learning Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…

  2. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  3. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-Yu.; Lai, Wei-Hsiang [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701 (China); Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, P.O. Box No. 90008-8-3 Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm x 6 cm x 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm{sup -2} and 0.4 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm{sup -2} at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of

  4. The ``Semantics'' of Evolution: Trajectories and Trade-offs in Design Space and Niche Space.

    OpenAIRE

    Sloman, Aaron

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterise a unifying overview of the practice of software engineers, AI designers, developers of evolutionary forms of computation, designers of adaptive systems, etc. The topic overlaps with theoretical biology, developmental psychology and perhaps some aspects of social theory. Just as much of theoretical computer science follows the lead of engineering intuitions and tries to formalise them, there are also some important emerging high level cross disciplinary idea...

  5. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  6. Parameter Space Techniques for Robust Control System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    JSEP-NO0014- 79-C-0424 Juergen Ackermann, S. Norman Franklin, Christine FS-78-3633 AFOSR-78-3633 B. Chato, and Douglas P. Looze 9. PERFORMING...Ackermann, S. Norman Franklin, Christine B. Chato, and Douglas P. Looze P DThis work was supported in part by the Joint Services Electronics Program (U.S...example of a crane. In Chapter 5, it will be used to design a dynamic controller for the short period longitudinal mode of an F4-E aircraft with canards

  7. "Space and Consequences": The Influence of the Roundtable Classroom Design on Student Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore how the design of both physical and virtual learning spaces influence student dialogue in a modern university. Qualitative analysis of the learning spaces in an undergraduate liberal arts program was conducted. Interview and focus group data from students and faculty, in addition to classroom observations, resulted in…

  8. Space station Simulation Computer System (SCS) study for NASA/MSFC. Volume 4: Conceptual design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Simulation Computer System (SCS) is the computer hardware, software, and workstations that will support the Payload Training Complex (PTC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PTC will train the space station payload scientists, station scientists, and ground controllers to operate the wide variety of experiments that will be onboard the Space Station Freedom. In the first step of this task, a methodology was developed to ensure that all relevant design dimensions were addressed, and that all feasible designs could be considered. The development effort yielded the following method for generating and comparing designs in task 4: (1) Extract SCS system requirements (functions) from the system specification; (2) Develop design evaluation criteria; (3) Identify system architectural dimensions relevant to SCS system designs; (4) Develop conceptual designs based on the system requirements and architectural dimensions identified in step 1 and step 3 above; (5) Evaluate the designs with respect to the design evaluation criteria developed in step 2 above. The results of the method detailed in the above 5 steps are discussed. The results of the task 4 work provide the set of designs which two or three candidate designs are to be selected by MSFC as input to task 5-refine SCS conceptual designs. The designs selected for refinement will be developed to a lower level of detail, and further analyses will be done to begin to determine the size and speed of the components required to implement these designs.

  9. Architectural Design Space Exploration of an FPGA-based Compressed Sampling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad; Koch, Peter; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We present the architectural design space exploration of a compressed sampling engine for use in a wireless heart-rate monitoring system. We show how parallelism affects execution time at the register transfer level. Furthermore, two example solutions (modified semi-parallel and full......-parallel) selected from the design space are prototyped on an Altera Cyclone III FPGA platform; in both cases the FPGA resource usage is less than 1% and the maximum frequency is 250 MHz....

  10. Space Shuttle - The new baseline. [design changes and refinements for cost reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Recent design alterations and refinements in the Space Shuttle program are considered with particular attention to the present baseline Shuttle configurations, performance characteristics, mission profiles, and flight and ground operations. Hardware and software development and testing, propulsion systems, entry trajectory events, and payload capability are covered. The refined Space Shuttle system design is characterized as one reflecting firm technical and economic considerations. Systems development is well under way, with all major contractors progressing on schedule.

  11. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  12. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  13. Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Ian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH (33°C for 12-24 hours as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/Design This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres ice-cold (4°C normal saline. The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. Discussion This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678

  14. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica

    2017-11-30

    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid application design of an electronic clinical skills portfolio for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Tim; Lee, Catherine; Stopford, Adam; Hosie, Liam; Maredia, Neil; Rector, Alan

    2005-04-01

    The aim was to find how to use information and communication technology to present the clinical skills content of an undergraduate medical curriculum. Rapid application design was used to develop the product, and technical action research was used to evaluate the development process. A clinician-educator, two medical students, two computing science masters students, two other project workers, and a hospital education informatics lead, formed a design team. A sample of stakeholders took part in requirements planning workshops and continued to advise the team throughout the project. A university hospital had many features that favoured fast, inexpensive, and successful system development: a clearly defined and readily accessible user group; location of the development process close to end-users; fast, informal communication; leadership by highly motivated and senior end-users; devolved authority and lack of any rigidly imposed management structure; cooperation of clinicians because the project drew on their clinical expertise to achieve scholastic goals; a culture of learning and involvement of highly motivated students. A detailed specification was developed through storyboarding, use case diagramming, and evolutionary prototyping. A very usable working product was developed within weeks. "SkillsBase" is a database web application using Microsoft Active Server Pages, served from a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating system running Internet Information Server 5.0. Graphing functionality is provided by the KavaChart applet. It presents the skills curriculum, provides a password-protected portfolio function, and offers training materials. The curriculum can be presented in several different ways to help students reflect on their objectives and progress towards achieving them. The reflective portfolio function is entirely private to each student user and allows them to document their progress in attaining skills, as judged by self, peer and tutor assessment, and

  16. Preliminary design and cost of a 1-megawatt solar-pumped iodide laser space-to-space transmission station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G. L.; Conway, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a space-based solar pumped iodide laser emitting 1 megawatt of laser power for space-to-space power transmission is described. A near parabolic solar collector focuses sunlight onto the t-C4F9I (perfluoro-t butyl iodide) lasant within a transverse flow optical cavity. Using waste heat, a thermal system was designed to supply compressor and auxiliary power. System components were designed with weight and cost estimates assigned. Although cost is very approximate, the cost comparison of individual system components leads to valuable insights for future research. In particular, it was found that laser efficiency was not a dominant cost or weight factor, the dominant factor being the laser cavity and laser transmission optics. The manufacturing cost was approx. two thirds of the total cost with transportation to orbit the remainder. The flowing nonrenewable lasant comprised 20% of the total life cycle cost of the system and thus was not a major cost factor. The station mass was 92,000 kg without lasant, requiring approx. four shuttle flights to low Earth orbit where an orbital transfer vehicle will transport it to the final altitude of 6378 km.

  17. A novel radiation hard pixel design for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, A. M.; Marochkin, V. V.; Tuuva, T.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a novel radiation hard photon detector concept based on Modified Internal Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) wherein a buried Modified Internal Gate (MIG) is implanted underneath a channel of a FET. In between the MIG and the channel of the FET there is depleted semiconductor material forming a potential barrier between charges in the channel and similar type signal charges located in the MIG. The signal charges in the MIG have a measurable effect on the conductance of the channel. In this paper a radiation hard double MIGFET pixel is investigated comprising two MIGFETs. By transferring the signal charges between the two MIGs Non-Destructive Correlated Double Sampling Readout (NDCDSR) is enabled. The radiation hardness of the proposed double MIGFET structure stems from the fact that interface related issues can be considerably mitigated. The reason for this is, first of all, that interface generated dark noise can be completely avoided and secondly, that interface generated 1/f noise can be considerably reduced due to a deep buried channel readout configuration. Electrical parameters of the double MIGFET pixel have been evaluated by 3D TCAD simulation study. Simulation results show the absence of interface generated dark noise, significantly reduced interface generated 1/f noise, well performing NDCDSR operation, and blooming protection due to an inherent vertical anti-blooming structure. In addition, the backside illuminated thick fully depleted pixel design results in low crosstalk due to lack of diffusion and good quantum efficiency from visible to Near Infra-Red (NIR) light. These facts result in excellent Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and very low crosstalk enabling thus excellent image quality. The simulation demonstrates the charge to current conversion gain for source current read-out to be 1.4 nA/e.

  18. 77 FR 31831 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration....S.C. 71-87k. Alan R. Christian, Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  19. Robust Analysis and Prediction for Integrated Design of Structures (RAPIDS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercially available software suites such as the Automate Structural Optimization System (ASTROS) and MSC/NASTRAN represent the current industry standard in...

  20. Cellular changes in microgravity and the design of space radiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Cell metabolism, secretion and cell-cell interactions can be altered during space flight. Early radiobiology experiments have demonstrated synergistic effects of radiation and microgravity as indicated by increased mutagenesis, increased chromosome aberrations, inhibited development, and retarded growth. Microgravity-induced changes in immune cell functions include reduced blastogenesis and cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, increased cytokine secretions, but inhibited cytotoxic effects an macrophage differentiation. These effects are important because of the high radiosensitivity of immune cells. It is difficult to compare ground studies with space radiation biology experiments because of the complexity of the space radiation environment, types of radiation damage and repair mechanisms. Altered intracellular functions and molecular mechanisms must be considered in the design and interpretation of space radiation experiments. Critical steps in radiocarcinogenesis could be affected. New cell systems and hardware are needed to determine the biological effectiveness of the low dose rate, isotropic, multispectral space radiation and the potential usefulness of radioprotectants during space flight.

  1. Cellular changes in microgravity and the design of space radiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1994-10-01

    Cell metabolism, secretion and cell-cell interactions can be altered during space flight. Early radiobiology experiments have demonstrated synergistic effects of radiation and microgravity as indicated by increased mutagenesis, increased chromosome aberrations, inhibited development, and retarded growth. Microgravity-induced changes in immune cell functions include reduced blastogenesis and cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, increased cytokine secretions, but inhibited cytotoxic effects and macrophage differentiation. These effecrs are important because of the high radiosensitivity of immune cells. It is difficult to compare ground studies with space radiation biology experiments because of the complexity of the space radiation environment, types of radiation damage and repair mechanisms. Altered intracellular functions and molecular mechanisms must be considered in the design and interpretation of space radiation experiments. Critical steps in radiocarcinogenesis could be affected. New cell systems and hardware are needed to determine the biological effectiveness of the low dose rate, isotropic, multispectral space radiation and the potential usefulness of radioprotectants during space flight.

  2. Research-Informed Principles for (Re)Designing Teaching and Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Adam; Ferris, Jennie; Weston, Cynthia; Winer, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Designing physical learning environments that connect to indicators of effective educational practice reflects a university's pedagogical commitment to student success. This article describes an approach to teaching and learning space design based on research-informed pedagogical principles successfully implemented at our university. It then…

  3. An interactive visualization tool for the analysis of multi-objective embedded systems design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghavi, T.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The design of today’s embedded systems involves a complex Design Space Exploration (DSE) process. Typically, multiple and conflicting criteria (objectives) should be optimized simultaneously such as performance, power, cost, etc. Usually, Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) are used to

  4. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  5. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  6. Tabletop Support for Collaborative Design: An Initial Evaluation of IdeaSpace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Andri; Loizides, Fernando; Vasiliou, Christina; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Parmaxi, Antigoni

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing availability of interactive tabletops, researchers and practitioners have the opportunity to expand the learning environment and provide further support for collaboration and reflective conversations around design problems. In this manuscript, we present IdeaSpace, a tabletop application designed to support collaborative design…

  7. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of high-speed interaction between impactor and layered-spaced design involving explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Afanas'eva, Svetlana; Belov, Nikolai; Burkin, Viktor; Zykova, Angelica; Rogaev, Konstantin; Yugov, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present calculating and experimental study of high-speed interaction between explosive content, protected by layered-spaced design, and the cermet impactor in wide speed range. An experimental technique and mathematical model of during the behavior of explosives, protected by layer-spaced design, by with high-speed impact. The process of the interaction between the cermet impactor and element of the protective design is customized and depends on the materials of the interacting bodies, the speed and angle of impact.

  9. Design of diffractive optical elements for the fractional Fourier transform domain: phase-space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testorf, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Phase-space optics is used to relate the problem of designing diffractive optical elements for any first-order optical system to the corresponding design problem in the Fraunhofer diffraction regime. This, in particular, provides a novel approach for the fractional Fourier transform domain. For fractional Fourier transforms of arbitrary order, the diffractive element is determined as the optimum design computed for a generic Fourier transform system, scaled and modulated with a parabolic lens function. The phase-space description also identifies critical system parameters that limit the performance and applicability of this method. Numerical simulations of paraxial wave propagation are used to validate the method.

  10. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  11. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  12. Analysis and Design Optimization of a Compact and Lightweight Joint Torque Sensor for Space Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanzhe Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a compact and lightweight joint torque sensor for space manipulators. Space manipulators with torque sensors can not only apply force control approach to more precise and more dexterous space missions, but also monitor the occurrence of unpredicted events as accidental impacts with objects they have to manipulate. At present, most of the compact torque sensors, designed without consideration of space environment, cannot be directly used in space applications. In this paper, we propose a compact and lightweight design for the joint torque sensor based on strain gauge, for the reason of good physical, chemical, and mechanical stabilities under high temperature environment. In addition, to reduce the interferences by axial forces generated by assembling condition and joint motors, the structural optimization for the sensing element is carried out. The proposed design is simulated by FEM software ANSYS, and it shows successful measurements of the torque with a load capacity of 10 Nm, which is sufficient for the torque generated in robot joints. The effect of axial loading is also analyzed by ANSYS. The designed sensor is manufactured by duralumin alloy. The calibration for the sensor is carried out, and several experiments are conducted to ensure its feasibility with the space manipulator.

  13. Design of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for Nuclear Space Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloa O. Maidana; James E. Werner; Daniel M. Wachs

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in evaluating space mission power, propulsion systems and technologies to support the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). NASA will need increased power for propulsion and for surface power applications to support both robotic and human space exploration missions. As part of the Fission Surface Power Technology Project for the development of nuclear reactor technologies for multi-mission spacecrafts, an Annular Linear Induction Pump, a type of Electromagnetic Pump for liquid metals, able to operate in space has to be designed. Results of such design work are described as well as the fundamental ideas behind the development of an optimized design methodology. This project, which is a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), involves the use of theoretical, computational and experimental tools for multi-physics analysis as well as advanced engineering design methods and techniques.

  14. Designed natural spaces: Informal gardens are perceived to be more restorative than formal gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa eTwedt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  15. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  16. Conceptual Kinematic Design and Performance Evaluation of a Chameleon-Like Service Robot for Space Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccarelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conceptual kinematic design of a chameleon-like robot with proper mobility capacity is presented for service applications in space stations as result of design considerations with biomimetic inspiration by looking at chameleons. Requirements and characteristics are discussed with the aim to identify design problems and operation features. A study of feasibility is described through performance evaluation by using simulations for a basic operation characterization.

  17. Design studio as a life space in architectural education: privacy requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Demirbaş, Özgen Osman

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. There is a very important relationship between the educational outcomes and the architectural design of educational facilities. The most commonly used space in an architectural education is the design studio. Therefore, it is claimed that there should be a living process in a ...

  18. Impact of Ice Morphology on Design Space of Pharmaceutical Freeze-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Hiroshika; Do, Gabsoo; Nakagawa, Kyuya

    2016-06-01

    It has been known that the sublimation kinetics of a freeze-drying product is affected by its internal ice crystal microstructures. This article demonstrates the impact of the ice morphologies of a frozen formulation in a vial on the design space for the primary drying of a pharmaceutical freeze-drying process. Cross-sectional images of frozen sucrose-bovine serum albumin aqueous solutions were optically observed and digital pictures were acquired. Binary images were obtained from the optical data to extract the geometrical parameters (i.e., ice crystal size and tortuosity) that relate to the mass-transfer resistance of water vapor during the primary drying step. A mathematical model was used to simulate the primary drying kinetics and provided the design space for the process. The simulation results predicted that the geometrical parameters of frozen solutions significantly affect the design space, with large and less tortuous ice morphologies resulting in wide design spaces and vice versa. The optimal applicable drying conditions are influenced by the ice morphologies. Therefore, owing to the spatial distributions of the geometrical parameters of a product, the boundary curves of the design space are variable and could be tuned by controlling the ice morphologies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Techniques of Participatory Design for Inclusive Public Space Provision in Kampung Kota of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H Kusumaningdyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of participatory design is essential for the future development knowledge of architecture to inform the improvement of architectural education and practice in Asia. Therefore to provide of inclusive public spaces for the community, this research article presents a field study of the usage of community participation design method in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces within the kampung (settlements in Surakarta, Indonesia. Surakarta has a problem to provide inclusive public space for its dense organic-informal kampung’s for the vulnerable populations such as children. Multi dimensional complexities of the kampung’s often challenge the notion of public space provision. Community participation approach arises as one of the preferred alternative methods to solve the problems with its basic community-based foundation. This research chose Sangkrah and Gandekan sub-districts as research locations both of the areas represent kampung’s characteristics and inhabited by many children population. Steps toward the goal of the study are; (1 field observation of the implementation of a community participation design through participatory place making project, and (2 examining typology assessment perspective, and (3 clarify participation techniques. This research used: (1 descriptive analysis for the project implementation, and (2 qualitative analysis for examining community’s perspectives. Through this multi-perspective analysis, this research presents the an alternative framework for implementing techniques community participation methods in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces especially for children in Indonesia and other developing countries.

  20. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  1. Negotiating and Designing Public Space. Experiences with a new M.Sc. in Urban Design Program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Tieben

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on first experiences made with a newly launched Master of Science in Urban Design program at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. As an important part of this program, students have to develop their design proposal in response to feedback of different stakeholders and community members. Thus the program responds to the growing aspiration of Hong Kong’s citizens to shape the urban development of their city and a lack of a meaningful participation process in the region. With its high density, protected country parks, efficient public transport and large scale housing program, generally, Hong Kong offers important lessons for contemporary urbanism. However, since the end of the British colonial rule and in face of increasing property prices, pollution and the disappearance of local heritage, intensive debates started about the regions future. Another central point of the recent discussion in Hong Kong – and key theme of the new urban design program - is the demand for the rights and qualities of public space. The paper presents the set-up of the design studio, which was closely linked to a course on “urban processes”. During the semester, students had to organize community forums and street exhibitions in a specific district, invite stakeholders and residents and discuss with them their ideas. Their projects, then, had to respond on the various feedbacks and integrate them in their design and policy proposals. The text reflects on the student projects and the lessons learned in the process. It addresses general questions such as the challenges in communicating with a diverse community (e.g. language barriers and culturally different ideas of public space. It addresses the question of the intended and unintended effects of a participatory design studio in the community, and possible follow-ups. And it reflects on the general role of design and designers in shaping community spaces.

  2. Designing meaningful educational spaces for the development of competencies in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Otálora Sevilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A meaningful educational space is a learning environment that promotes and strengthens the development of social and cognitive competencies in children. This article offers conceptual and methodological elements from Educational Psychology that facilitates the design of significant educational spaces for the development of child competencies, both in and out of school. On the one hand, the learning environment is defined as a dynamic and complex space of construction of knowledge. On the other it takes into account some considerations about child development which help set five criteria to characterize learning environments as meaningful educational spaces: They are structured, intensive, extensive, generative and interactive situations. Each of these criteria is illustrated through learning environments designed by educators in Colombia, based on the use of cultural practices inherent their communities of origin. Cultural practices were found to be relevant to the development of their children’s competencies.

  3. Robust H infinity control design for the space station with structured parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Geller, David; Sunkel, John

    1992-01-01

    A robust H-infinity control design methodology and its application to a Space Station attitude and momentum control problem are presented. This new approach incorporates nonlinear multi-parameter variations in the state-space formulation of H-infinity control theory. An application of this robust H-infinity control synthesis technique to the Space Station control problem yields a remarkable result in stability robustness with respect to the moments-of-inertia variation of about 73% in one of the structured uncertainty directions. The performance and stability of this new robust H-infinity controller for the Space Station are compared to those of other controllers designed using a standard linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis technique.

  4. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  5. An urban strategy in time of crisis: Mobility management and low-cost public space design

    OpenAIRE

    Papagiannakis Apostolos; Vitopoulou Athina

    2015-01-01

    This research underlines the importance of mobility management tools and small-scale targeted interventions of public space upgrades in order to encourage conscious sustainable mobility behaviour. The paper reviews tools and tactics of soft transport policy measures, as well as of small-scale and low-cost public space design approaches and strategies in the USA and Europe to assess their characteristics and results. It will then focus on Thessaloniki (Greec...

  6. Transformation of Neural State Space Models into LFT Models for Robust Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the extraction of linear state space models and uncertainty models from neural networks trained as state estimators with direct application to robust control. A new method for writing a neural state space model in a linear fractional transformation form in a non-conservative ......-conservative way is proposed, and it is demonstrated how a standard robust control law can be designed for a system described by means of a multi layer perceptron....

  7. A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF REAL-TIME LOCATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Passerone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scope of Research. This paper deals with the problem of design space exploration for a particular class of networked embedded systems called Real-Time Location Systems (RTLS. Methods. The paper contains a clear and detailed plan of anongoing research and could be considered as a review, a vision and a statement of objectives. Analytical and formal methods, simulation and automated verification will be involved in the research. Main Results. Analysis of the state of the art (current design flow, existing simulation tools and verification techniques has revealed several limitations for performing efficientdesign space exploration of RTLS, especially for safety-critical applications. The review part of the paper also contains a clear problem statement. The main outcome of this research is the proposed vision of a novel methodology for determining the best-suited technology and its configuration from the space of potential solutions. In particular, it is planned to extend an existing simulation framework and apply automated verification techniques. The latter will be used for checking simulation results and also for exploring different system configuration alternatives, that is, to optimize the design, which is a novel approach. A case study for validating the methodology is also proposed. Practical Significance. The proposed methodology will highly increase the breadth of design space exploration of RTLS as well as the confidence on taken design decisions. It will also contribute to optimizing the design.

  8. Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  9. Space architecture education for engineers and architects designing and planning beyond earth

    CERN Document Server

    Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This book considers two key educational tools for future generations of professionals with a space architecture background in the 21st century: (1) introducing the discipline of space architecture into the space system engineering curricula; and (2) developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum.  Professionals educated this way will help shift focus from solely engineering-driven transportation systems and “sortie” missions towards permanent off-world human presence. The architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the “overall picture” down to the smallest details, to provide directive intention–not just analysis–to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle. This book will benefit individuals and organizations responsible for planning transportation and habitat systems in space, while a...

  10. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2018-02-09

    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and non-systematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modelling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and, according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step by step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  12. A Rapid Auto-Indexing Technology for Designing Readable E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pao-Ta; Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Su, Ming-Hsiang; Cheng, Po-Jen; Pai, Chun-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid scene indexing method is proposed to improve retrieval performance for students accessing instructional videos. This indexing method is applied to anchor suitable indices to the instructional video so that students can obtain several small lesson units to gain learning mastery. The method also regulates online course progress. These…

  13. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of a miniaturized high quality power switching converter for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, D. W.; Thibodeaux, R. J.

    Power Distribution System (PDS) requirements for space applications are becoming more demanding. Desired PDS architectures consists of a high voltage (270) dc distribution bus for low power loss with local switching regulators to provide high quality power at the load interface. There are difficult performance requirements that these local switching regulators must meet in terms of size, weight, efficiency, transient response, and wide input voltage range. The design of a hybridized switching regulator is realized with a series resonant half-bridge topology employing a high switching frequency. This paper describes the design, analysis, and fabrication of a breadboard power converter for a local rlegulator scheme in a PDS for space applications.

  15. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  16. The Design and Life Test of a Multifunction Power Amplifier for Space Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multifunction power amplifier (MFPA is designed and fabricated for the application of point-to-point K-Band backhaul TR module. A DC temperature life test was performed to model the up-limit temperature effect of the designed MFPA under space application. After 240 hours of 100°C life test, the test results illustrate that the designed MFPA has only slight power degradation at the saturation region without change of the linear gain. The general performance of the designed MFPA satisfies the requirement of the application scenario.

  17. Rogues of the Void : Design process of a space board game

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Riku

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the design process of a space themed board game and board game design theory in general. The question is: do thematic games require some design sacrifices for the sake of gameplay and what are the ways of avoiding doing so. The purpose of this design project is to study these phenomena and prove if these problems are avoidable in general. Secondly, this thesis is meant to introduce board games and their functionalities to readers who are interested in board games and boar...

  18. Manipulability measure of dual-arm space robot and its application to design an optimal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liang, Bin; Wang, Xueqian; Li, Gang; Chen, Zhang; Zhu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    Coupling effect exists among different arms and the base in a multi-arm space robot. The manipulability measure of one arm can be affected by the base and the other arms, which has important effects on the configuration optimization, the singularity avoidance and the compliant control. The manipulability measure for a multi-arm space robot is more complex than that of a single-arm space robot. At present, the manipulability measure of a multi-arm space robot has not been studied. In the paper, a new concept of manipulability measure is applied to analyze the manipulability measure for a dual-arm space robot, especially for the manipulability measure of the mission arm subjecting to the influence from coupling effect of auxiliary arm and the base. Based on the manipulability measure of mission arm, a performance index is introduced and used to design and choose an optimization configuration for a dual-arm space robot. Finally, a plane dual-arm space robot is simulated, which is illustrated the influence of joint angles and the base attitude on mission arm's manipulability measure. Simulation results show that the proposed manipulability measure is useful for a multi-arm space robot and optimal configuration can be extended and applied to the coordinated soft rendezvous and docking and the target capture in the field of on-orbit servicing.

  19. Design, Development, and Integration of A Space Shuttle Orbiter Bay 13 Payload Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Susan H.; Phillips, Michael W.; Upton, Lanny (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Bay 13 of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been limited to small sidewall mounted payloads and ballast. In order to efficiently utilize this space, a concept was developed for a cross-bay cargo carrier to mount Orbital Replacement Units (ORU's) for delivery to the International Space Station and provide additional opportunities for science payloads, while meeting the Orbiter ballast requirements. The Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) Carrie (LMC) was developed and tested by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Boeing Company. The Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS), which was developed for the Spacelab program was modified, removing the keel structure and relocating the sill trunnions to fit in Bay 13. Without the keel fitting, the LMC required a new and innovative concept for transferring Y loads into the Orbiter structure. Since there is no keel fitting available in the Bay 13 location, the design had to utilize the longeron bridge T-rail to distribute the Y loads. This concept has not previously been used in designing Shuttle payloads. A concept was developed to protect for Launch-On-Need ORU's, while providing opportunities for science payloads. Categories of potential ORU's were defined, and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads of similar mass properties were provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Four GAS payloads were manifest as the baseline configuration, preserving the capability to swap up to two ORU's for the corresponding science payloads, after installation into the Orbiter cargo bay at the pad, prior to closeout. Multiple configurations were considered for the analytical integration, to protect for all defined combinations of ORU's and GAS payloads. The first physical integration of the LMC war performed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Kennedy Space Center at an off-line facility at Kennedy Space Center. This paper will discuss the design challenges, structural testing, analytical and physical

  20. Optimized Design and Testing of a Prototype Military Bridge System for Rapid In-Theater Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    MLC 30 were applied to the system with multiple load cases for each axle, truck, and track loading. The load cases were applied sequentially to...flexural failure due to concrete crushing along the center of slab span. The failure was identified with center span cracking and associated concrete...Layer Prefabricated FRP Grids for Rapid Bridge Deck Construction: Case Study. ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction, 10, 201-121. Berg, A. C

  1. Rapid analysis & design methodologies of High-Frequency LCLC Resonant Inverter as Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamp Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Y A; Stone, D A; Bingham, Chris; Foster, M

    2007-01-01

    The papers presents methodologies for the analysis of 4th-order LCLC resonant power converters operating at 2.63 MHz as fluorescent lamp ballasts, where high frequency operation facilitates capacitive discharge into the tube, with near resonance operation at high load quality factor enabling high efficiency. State-variable dynamic descriptions of the converter are employed to rapidly determine the steady-state cyclic behaviour of the ballast during nominal operation. Simulation and experiment...

  2. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  3. Exploring Interaction Space as Abstraction Mechanism for Task-Based User Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C. M.; Overgaard, M.; Pedersen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    Designing a user interface is often a complex undertaking. Model-based user interface design is an approach where models and mappings between them form the basis for creating and specifying the design of a user interface. Such models usually include descriptions of the tasks of the prospective user......, but there is considerable variation in the other models that are employed. This paper explores the extent to which the notion of interaction space is useful as an abstraction mechanism to reduce the complexity of creating and specifying a user interface design. We present how we designed a specific user interface through...... mechanism that can help user interface designers exploit object-oriented analysis results and reduce the complexity of designing a user interface....

  4. A physicochemical descriptor-based scoring scheme for effective and rapid filtering of kinase-like chemical space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The current chemical space of known small molecules is estimated to exceed 1060 structures. Though the largest physical compound repositories contain only a few tens of millions of unique compounds, virtual screening of databases of this size is still difficult. In recent years, the application of physicochemical descriptor-based profiling, such as Lipinski's rule-of-five for drug-likeness and Oprea's criteria of lead-likeness, as early stage filters in drug discovery has gained widespread acceptance. In the current study, we outline a kinase-likeness scoring function based on known kinase inhibitors. Results The method employs a collection of 22,615 known kinase inhibitors from the ChEMBL database. A kinase-likeness score is computed using statistical analysis of nine key physicochemical descriptors for these inhibitors. Based on this score, the kinase-likeness of four publicly and commercially available databases, i.e., National Cancer Institute database (NCI), the Natural Products database (NPD), the National Institute of Health's Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR), and the World Drug Index (WDI) database, is analyzed. Three of these databases, i.e., NCI, NPD, and MLSMR are frequently used in the virtual screening of kinase inhibitors, while the fourth WDI database is for comparison since it covers a wide range of known chemical space. Based on the kinase-likeness score, a kinase-focused library is also developed and tested against three different kinase targets selected from three different branches of the human kinome tree. Conclusions Our proposed methodology is one of the first that explores how the narrow chemical space of kinase inhibitors and its relevant physicochemical information can be utilized to build kinase-focused libraries and prioritize pre-existing compound databases for screening. We have shown that focused libraries generated by filtering compounds using the kinase-likeness score have, on average, better docking

  5. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    independent modules according to different business needs is applied to solve the problem of the independence of the physical space between multiple models. The classic MVC(Model View Controller) software design pattern is concerned to build the architecture of space physics multi-model application integrated system. The JSP+servlet+javabean technology is used to integrate the web application programs of space physics multi-model. It solves the problem of multi-user requesting the same job of model computing and effectively balances each server computing tasks. In addition, we also complete follow tasks: establishing standard graphical user interface based on Java Applet application program; Designing the interface between model computing and model computing results visualization; Realizing three-dimensional network visualization without plug-ins; Using Java3D technology to achieve a three-dimensional network scene interaction; Improved ability to interact with web pages and dynamic execution capabilities, including rendering three-dimensional graphics, fonts and color control. Through the design and implementation of the SPMAIS based on Web, we provide an online computing and application runtime environment of space physics multi-model. The practical application improves that researchers could be benefit from our system in space physics research and engineering applications.

  6. Low Carbon Design Research on the Space Layout Types of Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing

    2018-01-01

    It is beneficial to find out the relationship of the spatial layout and low-carbon design in order to reduce buildings’ carbon emissions in the conceptual design phase. This paper analyzes and compares shape coefficient values, annual energy consumption and lighting performance of office buildings of different space layout types in Shanghai. Based on morphological characteristics of different types, the study also analyzes and presents low-carbon design strategies for each single type. This study assumes that architects should conduct passive and active design according to the specific building space layout, so that to make best use of the advantages and bypassing the disadvantages, in order to maximally reduce buildings’ carbon emissions.

  7. Optimal Design of Calibration Signals in Space Borne Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gibert, Ferran; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Dolesi, Rita; Ferraioli, Luigi; Thorpe, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Future space borne gravitational wave detectors will require a precise definition of calibration signals to ensure the achievement of their design sensitivity. The careful design of the test signals plays a key role in the correct understanding and characterization of these instruments. In that sense, methods achieving optimal experiment designs must be considered as complementary to the parameter estimation methods being used to determine the parameters describing the system. The relevance of experiment design is particularly significant for the LISA Pathfinder mission, which will spend most of its operation time performing experiments to characterize key technologies for future space borne gravitational wave observatories. Here we propose a framework to derive the optimal signals in terms of minimum parameter uncertainty to be injected to these instruments during its calibration phase. We compare our results with an alternative numerical algorithm which achieves an optimal input signal by iteratively improving an initial guess. We show agreement of both approaches when applied to the LISA Pathfinder case.

  8. Scalable and near-optimal design space exploration for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kritikakou, Angeliki; Goutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    This book describes scalable and near-optimal, processor-level design space exploration (DSE) methodologies.  The authors present design methodologies for data storage and processing in real-time, cost-sensitive data-dominated embedded systems.  Readers will be enabled to reduce time-to-market, while satisfying system requirements for performance, area, and energy consumption, thereby minimizing the overall cost of the final design.   • Describes design space exploration (DSE) methodologies for data storage and processing in embedded systems, which achieve near-optimal solutions with scalable exploration time; • Presents a set of principles and the processes which support the development of the proposed scalable and near-optimal methodologies; • Enables readers to apply scalable and near-optimal methodologies to the intra-signal in-place optimization step for both regular and irregular memory accesses.

  9. Anticipating needs and designing new items rapidly - a case study for the design of postural aid equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Marie-Claude; Spooner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, designers proactively proposed new product ideas to a client by using an ergonomic approach. This approach differs from a more traditional approach where one works within a specific, clientdefined project. The methodology used included basic ergonomic techniques such as task analysis and information gathering sessions conducted with users. It was adapted so that these enriched user sessions could be conducted within a short time period. After meeting with five users in seven days, designers identified 20 problems that could be tackled and eight design ideas that could be implemented over the short, medium and long term. The ideas encompassed a wide range of potential projects, including physical product improvements, new product lines, Web-site and software improvements and longer term research. Problems identified and ideas generated involved many disciplines including occupational therapy, mechanical engineering, graphical design, software engineering, sales and manufacturing know-how. This wide range was possible because designers were not constrained to specific project scopes and timelines. The client was involved in the idea evaluation process. As a result of this study two new projects were initiated so far.

  10. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  11. Multi-Dielectric Brownian Dynamics and Design-Space-Exploration Studies of Permeation in Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksik, May; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a multi-dielectric Brownian dynamics simulation framework for design-space-exploration (DSE) studies of ion-channel permeation. The goal of such DSE studies is to estimate the channel modeling-parameters that minimize the mean-squared error between the simulated and expected "permeation characteristics." To address this computational challenge, we use a methodology based on statistical inference that utilizes the knowledge of channel structure to prune the design space. We demonstrate the proposed framework and DSE methodology using a case study based on the KcsA ion channel, in which the design space is successfully reduced from a 6-D space to a 2-D space. Our results show that the channel dielectric map computed using the framework matches with that computed directly using molecular dynamics with an error of 7%. Finally, the scalability and resolution of the model used are explored, and it is shown that the memory requirements needed for DSE remain constant as the number of parameters (degree of heterogeneity) increases.

  12. Evolution of Space Shuttle Range Safety (RS) Ascent Flight Envelope Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Joan D.

    2011-01-01

    Ascent flight envelopes are trajectories that define the normal operating region of a space vehicle s position from liftoff until the end of powered flight. They fulfill part of the RS data requirements imposed by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) on space vehicles launching from the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida. The 45SW is chartered to protect the public by minimizing risks associated with the inherent hazards of launching a vehicle into space. NASA s Space Shuttle program has launched 130+ manned missions over a 30 year period from the ER. Ascent envelopes were delivered for each of those missions. The 45SW envelope requirements have remained largely unchanged during this time. However, the methodology and design processes used to generate the envelopes have evolved over the years to support mission changes, maintain high data quality, and reduce costs. The evolution of the Shuttle envelope design has yielded lessons learned that can be applied to future endevours. There have been numerous Shuttle ascent design enhancements over the years that have caused the envelope methodology to evolve. One of these Shuttle improvements was the introduction of onboard flight software changes implemented to improve launch probability. This change impacted the preflight nominal ascent trajectory, which is a key element in the RS envelope design. While the early Shuttle nominal trajectories were designed preflight using a representative monthly mean wind, the new software changes involved designing a nominal ascent trajectory on launch day using real-time winds. Because the actual nominal trajectory position was not known until launch day, the envelope analysis had to be customized to account for this nominal trajectory variation in addition to the other envelope components.

  13. Principle design of a protontherapy, rapid-cycling, variable energy spiral FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Antoin, S; Beeckman, W; Collot, J; Conjat, M; Forest, F; Fourrier, J; Froidefond, E; Lancelot, J L; Mandrillon, J; Mandrillon, P; Méot, F; Mori, Y; Neuvéglise, D; Ohmori, C; Pasternak, J; Planche, f, T

    2009-01-01

    The FFAG method is nowadays seen as a potential candidate for the acceleration of protons and light ions for hadrontherapy. This has motivated the design of a principle protontherapy installation, in the frame of the RACCAM project. This article presents the design study, a medical spiral scaling FFAG assembly, capable of producing variable energy proton beams, with potentially high repetition and dose delivery rates.

  14. An fNIRS investigation of associative recognition in the prefrontal cortex with a rapid event-related design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, James D; Yennu, Amarnath S; Gandy, Kellen C; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli; Park, Heekyeong

    2014-09-30

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures hemodynamic changes at the cortical level. The use of fNIRS is growing in popularity for studying cognitive neuroscience in which event-related designs are widely used with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the applicability of event-related designs with fNIRS has not been fully understood. Therefore, the present study employed fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design for investigating prefrontal cortical activity during complex associative recognition. Participants studied a list of word pairs and were later given an associative recognition test. Throughout the experiment, each event was presented rapidly (∼4s). Data were sorted based on accuracy of associative memory judgments and analyzed using the general linear model (GLM) with an event-related design. During retrieval, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were observed in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions for successful associative recognition. When comparing retrieval to encoding, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current fNIRS results corroborate previous fMRI findings that have demonstrated the involvement of dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in associative recognition. Therefore, the present study validates versatile use of fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design in the investigation of neural mechanisms of associative memory. The findings of this study provide evidence that fNIRS can be a viable research method for investigating complex cognitive processes commonly of interest in cognitive neuroscience. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fNIRS can be a cost-effective and accessible experimental tool for cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  16. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  17. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  18. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  19. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  20. A very large diversity space of synthetically accessible compounds for use with drug design programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Sergey; Zaitseva, Natalia; Demina, Olga; Solovieva, Vera; Mazin, Evgeny; Mikhalev, Sergey; Smolov, Maxim; Rubinov, Anatoly; Vlasov, Peter; Lepikhin, Dmitry; Khachko, Denis; Fokin, Valery; Queen, Cary; Zosimov, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed a very large virtual diversity space containing more than 1013 chemical compounds. The diversity space is built from about 400 combinatorial libraries, which have been expanded by choosing sizeable collections of suitable R-groups that can be attached to each link point of their scaffolds. These R-group collections have been created by selecting reagents that have drug-like properties from catalogs of available chemicals. As members of known combinatorial libraries, the compounds in the diversity space are in general synthetically accessible and useful as potential drug leads. Hence, the diversity space can be used as a vast source of compounds by a de novo drug design program. For example, we have used such a program to generate inhibitors of HIV integrase enzyme that exhibited activity in the micromolar range.

  1. Design space exploration of a particle filter using higher-0rder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, Rinse; Kuper, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design space exploration methodology based on higher-order functions to facilitate the tradeoff between execution time and area usage on FPGAs. Higher-order function are transformed, resulting in parameterized nodes where the amount of parallelism and thereby performance, can

  2. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent

    2016-01-01

    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  3. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  4. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  5. I-space: Designing for and with Citizens with Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Jensen Bryderup, Karin

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used as reference to a discussion on structures within design...... and innovation processes for citizens with special needs....

  6. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  7. Utilizing Arc Marine Concepts for Designing a Geospatially Enabled Database to Support Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    données d’évaluation environnementale rapide (EER) a été réalisée en vertu d’un contrat . La base de données a été élaborée à l’aide du PostgreSQL, un...quality flags to each specialized data set requires the modification of each specialized access method. Thus, multiple modifications are required...the drivers that dictate any level of effort placed on modifications to the data system. Alternately stated, it is the decision requirement of the

  8. An approach to computerized preliminary design procedure of mid-size superyachts from hull modeling to interior space arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Nam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A concept of preliminary design for mid-size superyachts is explored. First, the profile of a superyacht is interactively designed with the help of freeform curve functionality and graphical user interface (GUI based interaction. The hull form is then constructed using major characteristic curves such as design waterline, deck sideline, and sections in addition to the predefined profile curve. After exterior hull modeling is done, the arrangement of significant interior spaces of all decks is carried out. A genetic algorithm is exploited to find a space arrangement by considering space fitness values, space proximity, and stairs connectivity of relevant spaces. A goal of the paper is to offer a step-by-step procedure for superyacht design from scratch or when initial information is not sufficient for complete design. For this purpose, a GUI based superyacht design system is developed. This design approach is expected to help users interactively design mid-size superyachts.

  9. A rapid method for soil cement design : Louisiana slope value method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-03-01

    The current procedure used by the Louisiana Department of Highways for laboratory design of cement stabilized soil base and subbase courses is taken from standard AASHO test methods, patterned after Portland Cement Association criteria. These methods...

  10. Design of a battery charger for the NASA EOS space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Tom; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

    A battery charger design for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) space platform has been developed and tested. The authors discuss the design of the battery charger power state and its current and voltage control loops. In addition to restoring energy to the batteries, this charger regulates the spacecraft bus voltage during the posteclipse transition period. The battery charger design and analysis were facilitated by use of the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) switch model and the new continuous-time model for current-mode control. Analyses of the battery charger small-signal behavior are compared to hardware measurements to verify modeling accuracy.

  11. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

    2016-12-01

    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  12. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  13. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  14. Expanding the Design Space: Forging the Transition from 3D Printing to Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Matthew

    The synergy of Additive Manufacturing and Computational Geometry has the potential to radically expand the "design space" of solutions available to designers. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is capable of fabricating objects that are highly complex both in geometry and material properties. However, the introduction of any new technology can have a disruptive effect on established design practices and organizations. Before "Design for Additive Manufacturing" (DFAM) is a commonplace means of producing objects employed in "real world" products, appropriate design knowledge must be sufficiently integrated within industry. First, materials suited to additive manufacturing methods must be developed to satisfy existing industry standards and specifications, or new standards must be developed. Second, a new class of design representation (CAD) tools will need to be developed. Third, designers and design organizations will need to develop strategies for employing such tools. This thesis describes three DFAM exercises intended to demonstrate the potential for innovative design when using advanced additive materials, tools, and printers. These design exercises included 1) a light-weight composite layup mold developed with topology optimization, 2) a low-pressure fluid duct enhanced with an external lattice structure, and 3) an airline seat tray designed using a non-uniform lattice structure optimized with topology optimization.

  15. Development of rapidly dissolving pellets within the Quality by Design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzas, A A; Politis, S N; Rekkas, D M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of novel, fast disintegrating, effervescent pellets by employing the direct pelletization technique as a single step process. In line with the Quality by Design (QbD) regulatory framework, statistical experimental design was extensively applied to correlate significant formulation and process variables with the critical quality attributes of the product. Pellets were studied with regards to sphericity, size and size distribution. In contrast to the existing multiparticulate platforms, this development integrated only water-soluble excipients to facilitate the multifunctional use of the final dosage form. The application of a screening fractional factorial design augmented to a full factorial design set the roadmap for the rational selection of the composition and process parameters, revealing in parallel the positive contribution of the powder feeder on the CQAs, when the critical process and formulation factors were properly adjusted. The response surface methodology was exploited for the final process optimization phase, which allowed the construction of appropriate mathematical models connecting the input variables and the CQAs under study. The implementation of the desirability function, lead to the optimum formulation and process settings for the production of pellets with narrow size distribution and geometric mean diameter of approximately 800 μm. In conclusion, using a lean approach supported by design of experiments (DoE) techniques within the QbD framework, a novel multifunctional formulation platform has been developed.

  16. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  17. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  18. Efficient design of nanoplasmonic waveguide devices using the space mapping algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Pouya; Veronis, Georgios

    2013-12-30

    We show that the space mapping algorithm, originally developed for microwave circuit optimization, can enable the efficient design of nanoplasmonic waveguide devices which satisfy a set of desired specifications. Space mapping utilizes a physics-based coarse model to approximate a fine model accurately describing a device. Here the fine model is a full-wave finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulation of the device, while the coarse model is based on transmission line theory. We demonstrate that simply optimizing the transmission line model of the device is not enough to obtain a device which satisfies all the required design specifications. On the other hand, when the iterative space mapping algorithm is used, it converges fast to a design which meets all the specifications. In addition, full-wave FDFD simulations of only a few candidate structures are required before the iterative process is terminated. Use of the space mapping algorithm therefore results in large reductions in the required computation time when compared to any direct optimization method of the fine FDFD model.

  19. An urban strategy in time of crisis: Mobility management and low-cost public space design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannakis Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research underlines the importance of mobility management tools and small-scale targeted interventions of public space upgrades in order to encourage conscious sustainable mobility behaviour. The paper reviews tools and tactics of soft transport policy measures, as well as of small-scale and low-cost public space design approaches and strategies in the USA and Europe to assess their characteristics and results. It will then focus on Thessaloniki (Greece presenting 1 the main findings of a trip survey concerning the impact of the economic crisis on mobility behaviour and 2 the shift to low-cost street scale urban design projects which have emerged during the crisis. The paper states that quality public space and urban transport constitute conditions necessary to attain long-term change in mobility behaviour. While the importance of hard transport policy measures should not be underestimated, the strategy for achieving sustainable urban mobility and public space design adapted to the economic crisis-specific conditions is discussed.

  20. The use of SMIRP for the rapid design and implementation of pedagogical constructs: Case study of a question-answer-reference framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boecker,

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SMIRP, a web-based collaborative tool, for an application in an undergraduate and a graduate class is described. SMIRP was used to rapidly construct a collaborative space where students could work on their assignment, request assistance and view their grades. The pedagogical construct was based on a question-answer-reference model where students were required to answer a series of questions based only on the material present in references they selected from the open literature. The answers and grades of all students were visible to all students in real time, although pseudonyms were used to respect student privacy. Email alerts were provided to the teacher, teaching assistants and in the second class also to the students and a librarian. Based on the analysis of log files, overall student performance in the class was found to correlate positively with curiosity and negatively with procrastination. Student expectations of turnaround times for grades and general queries were also analyzed and compared to actual performance. At the end of both classes a questionnaire module was created and an analysis of student satisfaction and preferences is reported. The successful implementation of SMIRP in these two classes supports the contention that this collaborative tool is flexible enough for the rapid design and implementation of relatively complex pedagogical constructs, with the possibility of obtaining detailed metrics.

  1. Preliminary Design of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research Broadband Radiometer for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, L. A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Savonov, G. S.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Silva, M. R.; Guarnieri, F.; Sampaio, M.; Barbosa, M. J.; Vilas Boas, J. V.; Branco, R. H. F.; Nishimori, M.; Silva, L. A.; Carlesso, F.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Alves, L. R.; Vaz Castilho, B.; Santos, J.; Silva Paula, A.; Cardoso, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  2. The role of criteria in design and management of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Explicit requirements and standards arising in connection with space systems management serve as a framework for technical management and furnish legally binding control of development, verification, and operations. As a project develops, additional requirements are derived which are unique to the system in question; these are designated 'derived requirements'. The reliability and cost-effectiveness of a space system are best ensured where a balance has arisen between formal (legally binding) and informal. Attention is presently given to the development of criteria consistent with total quality management.

  3. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  4. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Design and Implementation of an Adaptive Space-Time Antenna Array for GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxing; Zhang, Ming; Shi, Hongyu; Zheng, Shi; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an adaptive space-time antenna array to preserve global positioning system (GPS) signals while at the same time cancelling all interfering signals was designed and implemented. In the design, a new constraint vector and modified least mean square (M-LMS) algorithm were introduced and utilized to compute the real-time weights. An experimental system with a total size of 200 mm×200 mm×50 mm was implemented to verify the design. Design considerations and experimental results were presented and discussed. Experimental results show that high anti-jam capability has been achieved in the presence of wideband interfering signals. Therefore, the proposed design can be well applied for GPS receivers to enhance robustness.

  6. Rapid Recollection of Foresight Judgments Increases Hindsight Bias in a Memory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion. This component is measured with a memory design, in which individuals answer questions, learn the correct answers, and recall their original answers. Hindsight bias occurs when participants' recollections are closer to the correct answers than their original judgments actually were. The present…

  7. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Design Space Approach in Optimization of Fluid Bed Granulation and Tablets Compression Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Djuriš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors.

  9. Design space approach in optimization of fluid bed granulation and tablets compression process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuriš, Jelena; Medarević, Djordje; Krstić, Marko; Vasiljević, Ivana; Mašić, Ivana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content) using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force) and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors.

  10. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  12. Rapid prototyping of an automated video surveillance system: a hardware-software co-design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    FPGA devices with embedded DSP and memory blocks, and high-speed interfaces are ideal for real-time video processing applications. In this work, a hardware-software co-design approach is proposed to effectively utilize FPGA features for a prototype of an automated video surveillance system. Time-critical steps of the video surveillance algorithm are designed and implemented in the FPGAs logic elements to maximize parallel processing. Other non timecritical tasks are achieved by executing a high level language program on an embedded Nios-II processor. Pre-tested and verified video and interface functions from a standard video framework are utilized to significantly reduce development and verification time. Custom and parallel processing modules are integrated into the video processing chain by Altera's Avalon Streaming video protocol. Other data control interfaces are achieved by connecting hardware controllers to a Nios-II processor using Altera's Avalon Memory Mapped protocol.

  13. Design of the RINSE trial: the rapid infusion of cold normal saline by paramedics during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Conor; Bernard, Stephen; Cameron, Peter; Jacobs, Ian; Smith, Karen; Hein, Cindy; Grantham, Hugh; Finn, Judith

    2011-10-13

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH) (33 °C for 12-24 hours) as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres) ice-cold (4 °C) normal saline.The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678.

  14. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  15. The prerequisites of forming a risk management system in the design of facilities space application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panychev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the term of active existence of space-use equipment is relevant. Application of risk management system in the design and manufacture of space-use equipment is a promising approach to increase resiliency and reliability of spacecraft. This paper discusses the preconditions of the risk management system, which is based on the use of critical small amounts of the state of control objects. The technique of statistical processing of the data of the risks based of the additive approximation of the standard statistical distributions is presented. The generalized structure of the adaptive system of statistical diagnostics risk of abnormal conditions in the space application equipment is offered.

  16. Quality by Design approach in the development of a magnetic transducer for biomedical measurements: preliminary results on Design Space configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, D. R.; Monteiro, E. C.; Rivero, A. M.; Fortaleza, L. G. S.; Barbosa, C. R. H.; Velázquez, D. R. T.; Silva, E. C.; Gusmão, L. A. P.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry since 2004, changing the focus on inspections to embrace greater control in the manufacturing process. This new approach contributed to lower production costs and higher quality of medicines. This work discusses the first steps towards the implementation of a QbD approach aimed at ensuring the quality of a biomedical device under development. This device will be applied as a non-magnetic metallic foreign body localization system for surgical removal guidance. It should be highlighted that a new approach was used to define the Design Space, based on fuzzy logic rather than the typical statistical techniques.

  17. Advanced Software Techniques for Data Management Systems. Volume 2: Space Shuttle Flight Executive System: Functional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design of software executive system for the space shuttle avionics computer is presented. Three primary functions of the executive are emphasized in the design: task management, I/O management, and configuration management. The executive system organization is based on the applications software and configuration requirements established during the Phase B definition of the Space Shuttle program. Although the primary features of the executive system architecture were derived from Phase B requirements, it was specified for implementation with the IBM 4 Pi EP aerospace computer and is expected to be incorporated into a breadboard data management computer system at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center's Information system division. The executive system was structured for internal operation on the IBM 4 Pi EP system with its external configuration and applications software assumed to the characteristic of the centralized quad-redundant avionics systems defined in Phase B.

  18. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  19. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics

    2006-10-10

    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I&T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I&T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I&T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I&T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I&T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I&T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry.

  20. Conservation Value of Residential Open Space: Designation and Management Language of Florida’s Land Development Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara M. Wald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were reviewed to determine the amount of open space required, how open space is protected during construction, the delegation of responsibilities, and the designation of funds for management. Definitions of open space varied dramatically across the state. Most county codes provided inadequate descriptions of management recommendations, which could lead to a decline in the conservation value of the protected space.

  1. Formal and Informal Methods for Multi-Core Design Space Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Kempf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a tool-supported methodology for design-space exploration for embedded systems. It provides means to define high-level models of applications and multi-processor architectures and evaluate the performance of different deployment (mapping, scheduling strategies while taking uncertainty into account. We argue that this extension of the scope of formal verification is important for the viability of the domain.

  2. Aerodynamic design of a space vehicle using the numerical simulation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Wada, Yasuhiro; Takanashi, Susumu; Ishiguro, Mitsuo; 山本 行光; 和田 安弘; 高梨 進; 石黒 満津夫

    1994-01-01

    Optimization or the aerodynamic configuration or a space vehicle 'HOPE' (H-2 Orbiting Plane) is conducted by using several numerical simulation codes in the transonic and hypersonic speed ranges. Design requirements are set on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics in the transonic speed and the aerodynamic heat characteristics in the hypersonic speed. This paper describes the procedure or the optimization or aerodynamic configurations by using the numerical simulation technique as an e...

  3. Preliminary design and implementation of the baseline digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Yeh, H.-G.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline design and implementation of the digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders is investigated and identified. Trade studies on the selection of the number of bits for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and optimum sampling schemes are presented. In addition, the proposed optimum sampling scheme is analyzed in detail. Descriptions of possible implementations for the digital baseband (or digital front end) and digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) for carrier tracking are also described.

  4. Conscious design and new technologies for the optimization of therapeutic space

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Morena

    2015-01-01

    The project Casa pre-dimissioni is aimed at facilitating the recovery of the daily life by whom suffers of disability, adapting domestic spaces to the specific needs of use. The project was developed, under the aegis of the EU research programme DE3207 FACILE: Support tools for housing design and management, integrated with telematics system and services, devoted to disabled and elderly people (TIDE Program, European Commission DG XIII). The main aim of the project was to define and to implem...

  5. Controller Design for Direct Torque Controlled Space Vector Modulated (DTC-SVM) Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelechowski, M.; Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of PI controllers for direct torque controlled-space vector modulated induction motor drives have been studied. The first one is simple method based only on symmetric optimum criterion. The second approach takes into account the full model of induction motor...... including rotor voltage equation and uses root locus method. Some simulated and experimental oscillograms that illustrate properties of the presented controller design methods are shown....

  6. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    between intrinsic and extrinsic technology-enabled practice transformation, and foreground the need for interaction design research and practice to more directly deal with analysis and construction of technology-enhanced activity spaces. The implications of these notions for the research agenda...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of “the object of design” and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate...

  7. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  8. Design requirements for high-efficiency high concentration ratio space solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Patterson, R.

    1980-01-01

    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator system concept was developed for low cost, multikilowatt space solar arrays. The system imposes some requirements on solar cells which are new and different from those imposed for conventional applications. The solar cells require a circular active area of approximately 4 mm in diameter. High reliability contacts are required on both front and back surfaces. The back area must be metallurgically bonded to a heat sink. The cell should be designed to achieve the highest practical efficiency at 100 AMO suns and at 80 C. The cell design must minimize losses due to nonuniform illumination intensity and nonnormal light incidence. The primary radiation concern is the omnidirectional proton environment.

  9. Preliminary design work on a DSN VLBI correlator. [Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.; Layland, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is in the process of fielding high-density digital instrumentation recorders for support of the Pioneer Venus 1978 entry experiment and other related tasks. It has long been obvious that these recorders would also serve well as the recording medium for very long base interferometry (VLBI) experiments with relatively weak radio sources, provided that a suitable correlation processor for these tape recordings could be established. The overall design and current status of a VLBI correlator designed to mate with these tape recorders are described.

  10. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  11. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  12. Shifting learning goals: from competent tool use to participatory media spaces in the emergent design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld

    2009-03-01

    Recently, the relationship between identity and learning has come front and center in discussions about how to design successful learning environments for youth who struggle in mainstream institutions. In this essay, I explore the role identity development plays in constructing learning environments for traditionally marginalized youth. While I agree with DeGennaro and Brown on the importance of identity development for learning, I stretch the relationship between these two constructs in several ways: First, I will argue that how we define "technology" and what that means for marginalized youth, particularly those who are assumed to be victims of the "digital divide" is a crucial aspect of the design of successful digital learning environments. Second, I discuss how identity is represented in these digital learning spaces, and analyze how meaning is constructed in multimodal spaces such as websites. Finally, I reflect on DeGennaro and Brown's notion of "emergent design," as a positive contribution to design research, and propose the idea of incorporating youths' already existing competencies into the emergent design process.

  13. Design strategies for the International Space University's variable gravity research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    A variable gravity research facility named 'Newton' was designed by 58 students from 13 countries at the International Space University's 1989 summer session at the Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourge, France. The project was comprehensive in scope, including a political and legal foundation for international cooperation, development and financing; technical, science and engineering issues; architectural design; plausible schedules; and operations, crew issues and maintenance. Since log-term exposure to zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body, the main goal was to design a unique variable gravity research facility which would find a practical solution to this problem, permitting a manned mission to Mars. The facility would not duplicate other space-based facilities and would provide the flexibility for examining a number of gravity levels, including lunar and Martian gravities. Major design alternatives included a truss versus a tether based system which also involved the question of docking while spinning or despinning to dock. These design issues are described. The relative advantages or disadvantages are discussed, including comments on the necessary research and technology development required for each.

  14. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  15. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  16. Design considerations for space radiators based on the liquid sheet (LSR) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    Concept development work on space heat rejection subsystems tailored to the requirements of various space power conversion systems is proceeding over a broad front of technologies at NASA LeRC. Included are orbital and planetary surface based radiator concepts utilizing pumped loops, a variety of heat pipe radiator concepts, and the innovative liquid sheet radiator (LSR). The basic feasibility of the LSR concept was investigated in prior work which generated preliminary information indicating the suitability of the LSR concept for space power systems requiring cycle reject heat to be radiated to the space sink at low-to-mid temperatures (300 to 400 K), with silicon oils used for the radiator working fluid. This study is directed at performing a comparative examination of LSR characteristics as they affect the basic design of low earth orbit solar dynamic power conversion systems. The power systems considered were based on the closed Brayton (CBC) and the Free Piston Stirling (FPS) cycles, each with a power output of 2 kWe and using previously tested silicone oil (Dow-Corning Me2) as the radiator working fluid. Conclusions indicate that, due to its ability for direct cold end cooling, an LSR based heat rejection subsystem is far more compatible with a Stirling space power system than with a CBC, which requires LSR coupling by means of an intermediate gas/liquid heat exchanger and adjustment of cycle operating conditions.

  17. Novel Design Integrating a Microwave Applicator into a Crystallizer for Rapid Temperature Cycling. A Direct Nucleation Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The control of nucleation in crystallization processes is a challenging task due to the often lacking knowledge on the process kinetics. Inflexible (predetermined) control strategies fail to grow the nucleated crystals to the desired quality because of the variability in the process conditions, disturbances, and the stochastic nature of crystal nucleation. Previously, the concept of microwave assisted direct nucleation control (DNC) was demonstrated in a laboratory setup to control the crystal size distribution in a batch crystallization process by manipulating the number of particles in the system. Rapid temperature cycling was used to manipulate the super(under)saturation and hence the number of crystals. The rapid heating response achieved with the microwave heating improved the DNC control efficiency, resulting in halving of the batch time. As an extension, this work presents a novel design in which the microwave applicator is integrated in the crystallizer, hence avoiding the external loop though the microwaves oven. DNC implemented in the 4 L unseeded crystallizer, at various count set points, resulted in strong efficiency enhancement of DNC, when compared to the performance with a slow responding system. The demonstrated crystallizer design is a basis for extending the enhanced process control opportunity to other applications. PMID:28729813

  18. Application of the rapid prototyping technique to design a customized temporomandibular joint used to treat temporomandibular ankylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaware, Suresh M.; Bagaria, Vaibhav; Kuthe, Abhay

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery. PMID:19881026

  19. Academician V.F. Utkin, General Designer of Space Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyukhov, S.; Novykov, O.

    2002-01-01

    Academician Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin was an outstanding scientist and designer of rocket and space machinery, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin Prize and USSR State Prize winner, bearer of six Orders of Lenin and many other government awards. For 19 years, 1971 - 1990, V. F. Utkin held a position of General Designer in Yuzhnoye SDO having inherited this post from Academician Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - Yuhnoye's founder. From 1990 till 2000 V. F. Utkin headed Central Scientific Research Institute of Machinery of Russia (TsNIIMash) as its General Designer. Under leadership of V. F. Utkin Yuzhnoye SDO designed several generations of unique strategic missile systems that laid the foundation for Rocket Strategic Forces of the Soviet Union and Russia, subsequently, developed one of the largest high-performance liquid- propellant ICBM SS-18 (Satan), solid-propellant ICBM SS-24 designed for both silo and rail- road deployment, environment friendly Zenit launch vehicle, delivered more than three hundred military, scientific and environmental satellites with tasks. A series of complicated scientific and technical problems has been resolved, a number of unique designing and technological solutions has been implemented in course of development, e.g. separating and orbital warheads, pop-up launch of heavy missiles from a container, continuous and persistent combat duty of liquid-propellant missiles, missile tolerance to nuclear explosion damage, liberation of vessels from ice captivity in the Arctic Ocean using Cosmos-1500 satellite - ancestor of the Ocean satellite constellation designed for accomplishment of seafaring tasks. The existing Russian Program for Rocket and Space Machinery development was designed under leadership of V.F. Utkin.

  20. The Environmental Design of Working Spaces in Equatorial Highlands Zones: The Case of Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Carla Soares Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical investigations have indicated that the majority of occupants in office buildings would appreciate contact with the external environment, especially in cities where the climate is mild for part of the year. Supported by the possibilities of adaptive thermal models, the design of naturally ventilated buildings has been elaborated since the decade of 1990s. More communal areas rather than private ones are demanded due to the importance of social interaction and knowledge transfer among employees. In this context, this paper investigates the possibility of daylight and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated working environments, located in cities of mild climatic conditions, by redefining the parameters of a façade’s design and exploring coupling strategies with the outdoors. For this purpose, the city of Bogotá (Latitude 4°7′ N, in Colombia, a place with great potential for passive strategies, is taken as the geographic context of this research, which is supported by fieldwork with occupants of 37 office buildings and analytical work. The survey revealed that being close to a window is valued by the majority. Furthermore, 50% would like to have informal areas and outdoor spaces attached to their working environments. In additithe analytical studies showed how the combination of a set of environmental design strategies, including a schedule for coupling and decoupling of indoor spaces with the outdoors and a variation of occupancy density, made thermal comfort possible in free running working spaces in Bogotá.