Sample records for rapid cadpa release

  1. Validating a Rapid, Automated Test of Spatial Release From Masking. (United States)

    Jakien, Kasey M; Kampel, Sean D; Stansell, Meghan M; Gallun, Frederick J


    age only reached significance for colocated conditions. The SR2 is a reliable and effective method of testing spatial release from masking, suitable for screening abnormal listening abilities and for tracking rehabilitation over time. Future work should focus on developing and validating rapid, automated testing to identify the ability of listeners to benefit from high-frequency amplification, smaller spatial separations, and larger spectral differences among talkers.

  2. A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.


    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  3. Electrochemical detection of rapid DA release kinetics during hypoxia in perfused-superfused cat CB. (United States)

    Buerk, D G; Lahiri, S; Chugh, D; Mokashi, A


    The hypothesis that hypoxic excitation is coupled to dopamine (DA) secretion was tested in perfused-superfused cat carotid bodies (CB). DA was electrochemically detected by an amperometric method (constant applied potential +150 mV) with Nafion polymer-coated recessed gold microsensors (tip diameter 3-8 microns) in 10 cat CBs. Neural discharge (ND) from the whole sinus nerve was measured simultaneously with DA changes during interruption of perfusate flow and during hypoxic perfusion (5% O2). A computer-controlled instrument using a chronoamperometric technique (+550-mV pulses) with a Nafion-coated carbon fiber microelectrode (tip diameter 35 microns) was used to detect DA changes in two CBs during similar hypoxic stimuli. Rapid DA release kinetics were measured during flow interruption with an initial rate of 1.05 +/- 0.15 (SE) microM/s within the first 10-15 s. At most measurement sites, the increase in DA preceded the rise in ND. After the initial increase, DA release slowed to 0.16 +/- 0.02 microM/s, reaching a maximum DA concentration of 20.7 +/- 2.6 microM above baseline after 90 s of flow interruption. Nicotine (10-micrograms bolus) caused a large increase in ND without a proportional increase in DA release. Spatially detailed time-resolved electrochemical measurements were able to discriminate between DA release during hypoxia and chemoexcitatory responses that do not involve DA release.

  4. Extracellular ATP induces the rapid release of HIV-1 from virus containing compartments of human macrophages. (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Desdouits, Marion; Garzetti, Livia; Podini, Paola; Alfano, Massimo; Rubartelli, Anna; Furlan, Roberto; Benaroch, Philippe; Poli, Guido


    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are believed to act as "Trojan horses" carrying infectious particles to be released on cell necrosis or functional stimulation. Here we explored the hypothesis that extracellular ATP (eATP) could represent a microenvironmental signal potentially affecting virion release from VCC of infected macrophages. Indeed, eATP triggered the rapid release of infectious HIV-1 from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) acutely infected with the CCR5-dependent HIV-1 strain. A similar phenomenon was observed in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells (D-U1) by costimulation with phorbol esters and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Worthy of note, eATP did not cause necrotic, apoptotic, or pyroptotic cell death, and its effect on HIV-1 release was suppressed by Imipramine (an antidepressant agent known to inhibit microvesicle formation by interfering with membrane-associated acid sphingomyelinase). Virion release was not triggered by oxidized ATP, whereas the effect of eATP was inhibited by a specific inhibitor of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Thus, eATP triggered the discharge of virions actively accumulating in VCC of infected macrophages via interaction with the P2X7R in the absence of significant cytopathicity. These findings suggest that the microvesicle pathway and P2X7R could represent exploitable targets for interfering with the VCC-associated reservoir of infectious HIV-1 virions in tissue macrophages.

  5. The physical origins of rapid soil CO2 release following wetting (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus; Grahm, Lina; Or, Dani


    A rainfall event after an extended dry period is known to produce large spikes in CO2 release from soil, a phenomenon referred to as the "Birch effect". The Birch effect is commonly attributed to biological factors, such as the rapid activation of dormant microbial populations and stimulation of soil organic carbon turnover. Evidence suggests that CO2 emissions set in at time scales too short for microbial activation and growth (seconds to minutes after onset of wetting). We conducted controlled wetting experiments on sterilized soil in the lab showing CO2 efflux dynamics that are consistent in magnitude with those reported in field studies (up to 4 mmol m-2 s-1 per mm of precipitation). The explanation proposed is purely physical, involving desorption of CO2 from soil surfaces as it is replaced by the more polar water during wetting. We present experimental results and a CO2 adsorption and desorption model that lend credence to the notion that a large fraction of the early soil CO2 emission during wetting (minutes to an hour) is associated with physical processes independent of microbial activity. This suggests that a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 becomes bound to soil surfaces during dry seasons and is rapidly released at the onset of wet seasons world-wide, irrespective of the soil organic carbon cycle.

  6. Rapid neodymium release to marine waters from lithogenic sediments in the Amazon estuary (United States)

    Rousseau, Tristan C. C.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Chmeleff, Jérôme; van Beek, Pieter; Souhaut, Marc; Boaventura, Geraldo; Seyler, Patrick; Jeandel, Catherine


    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations and neodymium isotopic composition (ɛNd) are tracers for ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. Although models suggest that REE release from lithogenic sediment in river discharge may dominate all other REE inputs to the oceans, the occurrence, mechanisms and magnitude of such a source are still debated. Here we present the first simultaneous observations of dissolved (<0.45 μm), colloidal and particulate REE and ɛNd in the Amazon estuary. A sharp drop in dissolved REE in the low-salinity zone is driven by coagulation of colloidal matter. At mid-salinities, total dissolved REE levels slightly increase, while ɛNd values are shifted from the dissolved Nd river endmember (−8.9) to values typical of river suspended matter (−10.6). Combining a Nd isotope mass balance with apparent radium isotope ages of estuarine waters suggests a rapid (3 weeks) and globally significant Nd release by dissolution of lithogenic suspended sediments. PMID:26158849

  7. Rapid release of growth factors regenerates force output in volumetric muscle loss injuries (United States)

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Do, Duc M.; Page, Raymond L.; Pins, George D.


    A significant challenge in the design and development of biomaterial scaffolds is to incorporate mechanical and biochemical cues to direct organized tissue growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loaded, crosslinked fibrin (EDCn-HGF) microthread scaffolds on skeletal muscle regeneration in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). The rapid, sustained release of HGF significantly enhanced the force production of muscle tissue 60 days after injury, recovering more than 200% of the force output relative to measurements recorded immediately after injury. HGF delivery increased the number of differentiating myoblasts 14 days after injury, and supported an enhanced angiogenic response. The architectural morphology of microthread scaffolds supported the ingrowth of nascent myofibers into the wound site, in contrast to fibrin gel implants which did not support functional regeneration. Together, these data suggest that EDCn-HGF microthreads recapitulate several of the regenerative cues lost in VML injuries, promote remodeling of functional muscle tissue, and enhance the functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. Further, by strategically incorporating specific biochemical factors and precisely tuning the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin microthreads, we have developed a powerful platform technology that may enhance regeneration in other axially aligned tissues. PMID:26344363

  8. Rapid aqueous release of fission products from high burn-up LWR fuel: Experimental results and correlations with fission gas release (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Kobler Waldis, J.; Linder, H. P.; Low, J.; Cui, D.; Ekeroth, E.; Spahiu, K.; Evins, L. Z.


    Studies of the rapid aqueous release of fission products from UO 2 and MOX fuel are of interest for the assessment of the safety of geological disposal of spent fuel, because of the associated potential contribution to dose in radiological safety assessment. Studies have shown that correlations between fission gas release (FGR) and the fraction rapidly leached of various long-lived fission products can provide a useful method to obtain some of this information. Previously, these studies have been limited largely to fuel with burn-up values below 50 MWd/kg U. Collaborative studies involving SKB, Studsvik, Nagra and PSI have provided new data on short-term release of 137Cs and 129I for a number of fuels irradiated to burn-ups of 50-75 MWd/kgU. In addition a method for analysis of leaching solutions for 79Se was developed. The results of the studies show that the fractional release of 137Cs is usually much lower than the FGR covering the entire range of burn-ups studied. Fractional 129I releases are somewhat larger, but only in cases in which the fuel was forcibly extracted from the cladding. Despite the expected high degree of segregation of fission gas (and by association 137Cs and 129I) in the high burn-up rim, no evidence was found for a significant contribution to release from the rim region. The method for 79Se analysis developed did not permit its detection. Nonetheless, based on the detection limit, the results suggest that 79Se is not preferentially leached from spent fuel.

  9. A rapidly deployable chemical sensing network for the real-time monitoring of toxic airborne contaminant releases in urban environments (United States)

    Lepley, Jason J.; Lloyd, David R.


    We present findings of the DYCE project, which addresses the needs of military and blue light responders in providing a rapid, reliable on-scene analysis of the dispersion of toxic airborne contaminants following their malicious or accidental release into a rural, urban or industrial environment. We describe the development of a small network of ad-hoc deployable chemical and meteorological sensors capable of identifying and locating the source of the contaminant release, as well as monitoring and estimating the dispersion characteristics of the plume. We further present deployment planning methodologies to optimize the data gathering mission given a constrained asset base.

  10. Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile. (United States)

    Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland


    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Formulation of 3D Printed Tablet for Rapid Drug Release by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): Screening Polymers for Drug Release, Drug-Polymer Miscibility and Printability. (United States)

    Solanki, Nayan; Tahsin, Md; Shah, Ankita; Serajuddin, Abu T M


    The primary aim of this study was to identify pharmaceutically acceptable amorphous polymers for producing 3D printed tablets of a model drug, haloperidol, for rapid release by fused deposition modeling (FDM). Filaments for 3D printing were prepared by hot melt extrusion at 150°C with 10 and 20% w/w of haloperidol using Kollidon(®) VA64, Kollicoat(®) IR, Affinsiol(™)15 cP and HPMCAS either individually or as binary blends (Kollidon(®) VA64+Affinisol(™)15 cP, 1:1; Kollidon(®) VA64+HPMCAS, 1:1). Dissolution of crushed extrudates was studied at pH 2 and 6.8, and formulations demonstrating rapid dissolution rates were then analyzed for drug-polymer, polymer-polymer and drug-polymer-polymer miscibility by film casting. Polymer-polymer (1:1) and drug-polymer-polymer (1:5:5 and 2:5:5) mixtures were found to be miscible. Tablets with 100 and 60 % infill were printed using MakerBot printer at 210°C, and dissolution tests of tablets were conducted at pH 2 and 6.8. Extruded filaments of Kollidon(®) VA64-Affinisol(™)15 cP mixtures were flexible and had optimum mechanical strength for 3D printing. Tablets containing 10% drug with 60 and 100% infill showed complete drug release at pH 2 in 45 and 120 min, respectively. Relatively high dissolution rates were also observed at pH 6.8. The 1:1-mixture of Kollidon(®) VA64 and Affinisol(™)15 cP was thus identified as a suitable polymer system for 3D printing and rapid drug release. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Corrosion inhibitor storage and release property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunchandran, C.; Ramya, S.; George, R.P. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail: [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method. ► Benzotriazole was loaded into the TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders. ► Low pH induced release of benzotriazole from TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders was proved. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most studied substances in material science due to its versatile properties and diverse applications. In this study titanium dioxide nanotube powder were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization (RBA) method. The synthesis involved potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} electrolyte under an applied voltage of 20 V and rapid stirring. The morphology and the phase of titanium dioxide nanotube powder were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Benzotriazole was chosen as model inhibitor to evaluate TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder's corrosion inhibitor loading and releasing properties. The storage and release properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder were studied using UV–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  13. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards. (United States)

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M


    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microfabricated Renewable Beads-Trapping/Releasing Flow Cell for Rapid Antigen-Antibody Reaction in Chemiluminescent Immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhifeng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe


    A filter pillar-array microstructure was coupled with a pneumatic micro-valve to fabricate a reusable miniaturized beads-trapping/releasing flow cell, in which trapping and releasing beads can be conveniently realized by switching the micro-valve. This miniaturized device was suitable to construct automatic fluidic system for “renewable surface analysis”. The renewable surface strategy based on pneumatic micro-valve enabled capture of beads in beads chamber prior to each assay, and release of the used beads after the assay. Chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) was performed as a model to demonstrate the application potential of this reusable miniaturized flow cell. The whole fluidic assay process including beads trapping, immuno-binding, beads washing, beads releasing and signal collection could be completed in 10 min. Immunoassay of TCP using this miniaturized device showed a linear range of 0.20-70 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.080 ng/mL. The device had been successfully used for detection of TCP spiked in rat serum with average recovery of 97%. This investigation provides a rapid, sensitive, reusable, low-cost and automatic miniaturized device for solid-phase biochemical analysis for various purposes.

  15. Wax: A benign hydrogen-storage material that rapidly releases H2-rich gases through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Slocombe, D R; Xiao, T; Aldawsari, A; Yao, B; Kuznetsov, V L; Liberti, E; Kirkland, A I; Alkinani, M S; Al-Megren, H A; Thomas, J M; Edwards, P P


    Hydrogen is often described as the fuel of the future, especially for application in hydrogen powered fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV's). However, its widespread implementation in this role has been thwarted by the lack of a lightweight, safe, on-board hydrogen storage material. Here we show that benign, readily-available hydrocarbon wax is capable of rapidly releasing large amounts of hydrogen through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. This discovery offers a new material and system for safe and efficient hydrogen storage and could facilitate its application in a HFCV. Importantly, hydrogen storage materials made of wax can be manufactured through completely sustainable processes utilizing biomass or other renewable feedstocks.

  16. High and rapid hydrogen release from thermolysis of ammonia borane near PEM fuel cell operating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Arvind; Hwang, Hyun Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad


    A system for generating and purifying hydrogen. To generate hydrogen, the system includes inlets configured to receive a hydrogen carrier and an inert insulator, a mixing chamber configured to combine the hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, a heat exchanger configured to apply heat to the mixture of hydrogen carrier and the inert insulator, wherein the applied heat results in the generation of hydrogen from the hydrogen carrier, and an outlet configured to release the generated hydrogen. To purify hydrogen, the system includes a primary inlet to receive a starting material and an ammonia filtration subassembly, which may include an absorption column configured to absorb the ammonia into water for providing purified hydrogen at a first purity level. The ammonia filtration subassembly may also include an adsorbent member configured to adsorb ammonia from the starting material into an adsorbent for providing purified hydrogen at a second purity level.

  17. Rapid release of tissue enzymes into blood after blast exposure: potential use as biological dosimeters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peethambaran Arun

    Full Text Available Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is important, since polytrauma and systemic factors significantly contribute to blast-induced traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the activity of plasma enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK at different time points after blast exposure using a mouse model of single and repeated blast exposures to assess the severity of injury. Our data show that activities of all the enzymes in the plasma were significantly increased as early as 1 h after blast exposure. The elevated enzyme activity remained up to 6 h in an overpressure dose-dependent manner and returned close to normal levels at 24 h. Head-only blast exposure with body protection showed no increase in the enzyme activities suggesting that brain injury alone does not contribute to the systemic increase. In contrast to plasma increase, AST, ALT and LDH activity in the liver and CK in the skeletal muscle showed drastic decrease at 6 h after blast exposures. Histopathology showed mild necrosis at 6 h and severe necrosis at 24 h after blast exposures in liver and no changes in the skeletal muscle suggesting that the enzyme release from the tissue to plasma is probably triggered by transient cell membrane disruption from shockwave and not due to necrosis. Overpressure dependent transient release of tissue enzymes and elevation in the plasma after blast exposure suggest that elevated enzyme activities in the blood can be potentially used as a biological dosimeter to assess the severity of blast injury.

  18. Release of leukotrienes during rapid expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from immune rats. (United States)

    Moqbel, R; Wakelin, D; MacDonald, A J; King, S J; Grencis, R K; Kay, A B


    Rapid expulsion of the nematode Trichinella spiralis from immune rats is associated with an increase in volume of intestinal exudate and the presence of large numbers of tissue mucosal mast cells (MMC) and eosinophils. We have measured the concentrations of leukotrienes (LT) C4 (LTC4) and B4 (LTB4) in gut perfusates and mucosal homogenates at 30 min, 1, 3, 6 and 20 hr after challenge with larvae. Leukotrienes were identified by radioimmunoassay (RIA) combined with reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There were significant elevations at 30 min and 1 hr in the concentrations of LTC4 in the perfusates from the gut of challenged immune rats compared to controls (infected unchallenged and uninfected naive rats). Similar increases in immunoreactive LTC4 and LTB4 were observed in mucosal homogenates from the gut of immune challenged animals. A second peak of LTB4 was also observed at 20 hr in both immune and naive challenged rats. There were also elevations in serum concentration of the MMC-associated specific serine protease, rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII). Since LTC4 causes smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability and stimulation of mucus hypersecretion, and LTB4 recruits and activates inflammatory cells, leukotrienes may participate in the process of rapid expulsion of T. spiralis. PMID:3032780

  19. Rapid releases of metal salts and nutrients following the deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gislason, Sigurður R.


    Deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments leads to dissolution of adsorbed metal salts and aerosols, increasing the bioavailability of key nutrients. Volcanogenic fertilization events could increase marine primary productivity, leading to a drawdown of atmospheric CO 2. Here we conduct flow-through experiments on unhydrated volcanic ash samples from a variety of locations and sources, measuring the concentrations and fluxes of elements into de-ionized water and two contrasting ocean surface waters. Comparisons of element fluxes show that dissolution of adsorbed surface salts and aerosols dominates over glass dissolution, even in sustained low pH conditions. These surface ash-leachates appear unstable, decaying in situ even if kept unhydrated. Volcanic ash from recent eruptions is shown to have a large fertilization potential in both fresh and saline water. Fluorine concentrations are integral to bulk dissolution rates and samples with high F concentrations display elevated fluxes of some nutrients, particularly Fe, Si, and P. Bio-limiting micronutrients are released in large quantities, suggesting that subsequent biological growth will be limited by macronutrient availability. Importantly, acidification of surface waters and high fluxes of toxic elements highlights the potential of volcanic ash-leachates to poison aqueous environments. In particular, large pH changes can cause undersaturation of CaCO 3 polymorphs, damaging populations of calcifying organisms. Deposition of volcanic ash can both fertilize and/or poison aqueous environments, causing significant changes to surface water chemistry and biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P


    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  1. Unsteady flow model of Priest Rapids Dam releases at Hanford Reach, Columbia River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneider, S.C.; Skaggs, R.L.


    A model was developed to simulate water levels at three locations on the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam River Mile 396.1 (River Kilometer 639.0) and River Mile 361.50 (River Kilometer 581.7). The model was calibrated and verified over a range of flows. The results of calibration and verification indicate that the model, with reasonable accuracy, simulates stages to within +-0.08 m (+- 0.25 ft) and surface wave timing to within +-20 min. The model can be used by researchers, river system managers, planners, and decision makers as a tool to predict fluctuating water levels at locations downstream of dams. Data produced by the model can be used to evaluate and quantify possible impacts on aquatic organisms, water supply, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and additional hydropower enhancement. Although the results of this model calibrationand the model simulations presented are site-specific, the methodology is generic. Therefore, the model can be adapted to reflect dam discharges and resulting river flows at other river systems affected by water-level fluctuations.

  2. Rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors by AMD3100 and catecholamines is mediated by CXCR4-dependent SDF-1 release from bone marrow stromal cells (United States)

    Kalinkovich, Alexander; Itkin, Tomer; Ludin, Aya; Kao, Wei-Ming; Battista, Michela; Tesio, Melania; Kollet, Orit; Cohen, Neta Netzer; Margalit, Raanan; Buss, Eike C.; Baleux, Francoise; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Larochelle, Andre; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Frenette, Paul S.; Lapidot, Tsvee


    Steady-state egress of hematopoietic progenitor cells can be rapidly amplified by mobilizing agents such as AMD3100, the mechanism, however, is poorly understood. We report that AMD3100 increased the homeostatic release of the chemokine SDF-1 to the circulation in mice and non-human primates. Neutralizing antibodies against CXCR4 or SDF-1 inhibited both steady-state and AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release and reduced egress of murine progenitor cells over mature leukocytes. Intra-bone injection of biotinylated SDF-1 also enhanced release of this chemokine and murine progenitor cell mobilization. AMD3100 directly induced SDF-1 release from CXCR4+ human bone marrow osteoblasts and endothelial cells and activated uPA in a CXCR4/JNK-dependent manner. Additionally, ROS inhibition reduced AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release, activation of circulating uPA and mobilization of progenitor cells. Norepinephrine treatment, mimicking acute stress, rapidly increased SDF-1 release and progenitor cell mobilization, while β2-adrenergic antagonist inhibited both steady-state and AMD3100-induced SDF-1 release and progenitor cell mobilization in mice. In conclusion, this study reveals that SDF-1 release from bone marrow stromal cells to the circulation emerges as a pivotal mechanism essential for steady state egress and rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, but not mature leukocytes. PMID:21494253

  3. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by leptin. (United States)

    Pekary, A E; Sattin, Albert; Blood, James


    Leptin is not only a feedback modulator of feeding and energy expenditure but also regulates reproductive functions, CNS development and mood. Obesity and major depression are growing public health concerns which may derive, in part, from disregulation of leptin feedback at the level of the hypothalamic feeding centers and mood regulators within the limbic system. Identifying downstream mediators of leptin action may provide therapeutic opportunities. We and others have previously reported that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) and TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) have neuroprotective, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, analeptic, anti-ataxic, and anorectic properties. For this reason, young, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ip with 1mg/kg rat leptin and peptide and protein levels were measured in brain and peripheral tissues at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2h later. Eleven brain regions: pyriform cortex (PYR), entorhinal cortex (ENT), cerebellum (CBL), nucleus accumbens (NA), frontal cortex (FCX), amygdala (AY), posterior cingulate (PCNG), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HC), medulla oblongata (MED) and anterior cingulate (ACNG) and five peripheral tissues (adrenals, testes, epididymis, pancreas and prostate) were analyzed. TRH and six TRH-like peptide levels in STR fell by 0.5h consistent with leptin-induced release of these peptides: STR (7 downward arrow). Significant changes in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels for other brain regions were: CBL (5 downward arrow), ENT (5 downward arrow), HC (4 downward arrow), AY (4 downward arrow), FCX (3 downward arrow), and ACNG (1 downward arrow). The rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release combined with their similarity in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immunomodulatory, metabolic and steroidogenic effects to that of leptin is consistent with these peptides participating in downstream signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (United States)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko


    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang Q S; Hein, San


    showed that the scaffold was osteoinductive. The drug-release kinetics was investigated by loading doxorubicin into the scaffold. The scaffolds comprising nanoclay released up to 45% of the drug for up to 2 months, while the scaffold without nanoclay released 95% of the drug within 4 days. Therefore...

  6. Methodology for Rapid Measures of Glutamate Release in Rat Brain Slices Using Ceramic-Based Microelectrode Arrays: Basic Characterization and Drug Pharmacology (United States)

    Quintero, Jorge E.; Pomerleau, François; Huettl, Peter; Johnson, Kirk W.; Offord, James; Gerhardt, Greg A.


    Excessive excitability or hyperexcitability of glutamate-containing neurons in the brain has been proposed as a possible explanation for anxiety, stress-induced disorders, epilepsy, and some neurodegenerative diseases. However, direct measurement of glutamate on a rapid time scale has proven to be difficult. Here we adapted enzyme-based microelectrode arrays (MEA) capable of detecting glutamate in vivo, to assess the effectiveness of hyperexcitability modulators on glutamate release in brain slices of the rat neocortex. Using glutamate oxidase coated ceramic MEAs coupled with constant voltage amperometry, we measured resting glutamate levels and synaptic overflow of glutamate after K+ stimulation in brain slices. MEAs reproducibly detected glutamate on a second-by-second time scale in the brain slice preparation after depolarization with high K+ to evoke glutamate release. This stimulus-evoked glutamate release was robust, reproducible, and calcium dependent. The K+-evoked glutamate release was modulated by ligands to the a2δ subunit of voltage sensitive calcium channels (PD-0332334 and PD-0200390). Meanwhile, agonists to Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (LY379268 and LY354740), which are known to alter hyperexcitability of glutamate neurons, attenuated K+-evoked glutamate release but did not alter resting glutamate levels. This new MEA technology provides a means of directly measuring the chemical messengers involved in glutamate neurotransmission and thereby helping to reveal the role multiple glutamatergic system components have on glutamate signaling. PMID:21664606

  7. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by ghrelin and 3-TRP-ghrelin. (United States)

    Pekary, A Eugene; Sattin, Albert


    Ghrelin is not only a modulator of feeding and energy expenditure but also regulates reproductive functions, CNS development and mood. Obesity and major depression are growing public health concerns which may derive, in part, from dysregulation of ghrelin feedback at brain regions regulating feeding and mood. We and others have previously reported that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) and TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) have neuroprotective, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, analeptic, anti-ataxic, and anorectic properties. For this reason male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ip with 0.1mg/kg rat ghrelin or 0.9mg/kg 3-Trp-rat ghrelin. Twelve brain regions: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, piriform cortex and 5 peripheral tissues (adrenals, testes, epididymis, pancreas and prostate) were analyzed. Rapid and profound decreases in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels (increased release) occurred throughout brain and peripheral tissues following ip ghrelin. Because ghrelin is rapidly deacylated in vivo we also studied 3-Trp-ghrelin which cannot be deacylated. Significant increases in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels following 3-Trp-ghrelin, relative to those after ghrelin were observed in all brain regions except posterior cingulate and all peripheral tissues except prostate and testis. The rapid stimulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release by ghrelin in contrast with the inhibition of such release by 3-Trp-TRH is consistent with TRH and TRH-like peptides modulating the downstream effects of both ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément


    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... bioethanol production, and the spectra were analysed to identify components associated with recalcitrance....

  9. Leuna methods of rapid emptying and pressure release of operating equipment filled with combustible liquids and gases, as means of prevention of spreading fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    At times, the considerable amounts of combustible liquids in the equipment during distillation, gas separation, scrubbing, etc. required special precautionary measures even under normal conditions. Obviously, such amounts of combustibles carried the danger of spreading fires from any disturbance, such as breaks in the piping, of the slides, explosions, and small fires. The past precautions taken in this matter had been fire extinguishers, construction of localizing compartments, spray systems, reduction of the amount of liquids, and other similar measures. However, such measures were of little use in case of an attack. Leuna decided to provide a means of rapid emptying with a simultaneous rapid exhausting of all equipment under danger. Releasing the pressure would prevent the formation of sharp-pointed flames with their devastating consequences. The installation consisted essentially of groups of valves (easily accessible), long pipe lines, storage farms for liquids, and a discharge into the air. Provisions were made for returning the materials under atmospheric pressure to prevent losses. The figures showed rapid emptying of scrubbers for circulating gas under high pressure, gasoline catchpot still, and pressure release of gas separation unit. These installations proved worthy and became a necessary part of operations. Four diagrams are given showing this installation. 4 diagrams

  10. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by prazosin. (United States)

    Sattin, Albert; Pekary, Albert Eugene; Blood, James


    Hyperresponsiveness to norepinephrine contributes to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prazosin, a brain-active blocker of α(1)-adrenoceptors, originally used for the treatment of hypertension, has been reported to alleviate trauma nightmares, sleep disturbance and improve global clinical status in war veterans with PTSD. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) may play a role in the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, and PTSD (an anxiety disorder). To investigate whether TRH or TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) participate in the therapeutic effects of prazosin, male rats were injected with prazosin and these peptides then measured in brain and endocrine tissues. Prazosin stimulated TRH and TRH-like peptide release in those tissues with high α(1)-adrenoceptor levels suggesting that these peptides may play a role in the therapeutic effects of prazosin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash (United States)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.


    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectroscopy (ICP-SFMS) and ion chromatography (IC). High release rates of mainly S, Na, Ca, Mg, F and Cl were observed during the first 10 min but after 12 h, the most abundant element released was Si. The effluent was alkaline. Secondary phases of mainly Al and Fe precipitated on the ash surfaces and these were suspected of scavenging As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Te, V and Zn. The maximum total of surface salts containing F, Cl and S, carried by the erupted ash, was 11, 13 and 117 kilotonne. The flux of nutrient and toxic elements from the Grímsvötn ash was low compared with that from other eruptions and would not

  12. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  13. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian


    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Wu, Jun Hua


    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E(2) elevated [Ca(2+)]( i ) and increased Ca(2+) oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E(2) mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E(2) activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E(2) induces the non-genomic responses Ca(2+) release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E(2) responses.

  15. pH-Responsive Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles with Rapid Antigen Release Behavior Promote Immune Response. (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiaoming; Jia, Jilei; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Tingyuan; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui


    In the quest to treat intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection, nanoparticles (NPs) have been considered to be efficient tools for inducing potent immune responses, specifically cellular immunity. Antigen processing and presenting by antigen presenting cells (APCs) could influence immune response, especially the priming of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity. Here, we fabricated pH-responsive poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with rapid antigen intracellular release behavior in APCs. The NPs, which had thin shells and large inner space, contain ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which could regulate release in endosomes and lysosomes, acting as an antigen release promoter in dendritic cells (DCs), and were coencapsulated with antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). Hydrogen ions (H(+)) in DC endosomes and lysosomes (pH ∼5.0 and 6.5) could react with NH4HCO3 to generate NH3 and CO2, which broke NPs and released antigens. After uptake by DCs, antigens encapsulated in pH-responsive PLGA NPs could escape from lysosomes into the cytoplasm and be cross-presented. Moreover, the NPs induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and stimulated cytokine production. Mouse immunization with pH-responsive PLGA NPs induced greater lymphocyte activation, more antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, stronger cytotoxic capacity (IFN-γ and granzyme B), enhanced antigen-specific IgG antibodies, and higher serum IgG2a/IgG1, indicating cellular immunity. The NPs also improved generation of memory T cells to protect against reinfection. Thus, pH-responsive PLGA NPs, which induced strong cellular immune responses and offered antibody protection, could be potentially useful as effective vaccine delivery and adjuvant systems for the therapy of intracellular infectious diseases and virus infection.

  16. Rapid and sensitive controlled release monitoring method of biomedical combined products with IDM for pain management and cancer treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Hsia-Wei; Huang, Ching-Cheng


    New designed combined products and its determination for pain management and cancer treatment were studied. A rapid and sensitive stability indicating HPLC method had been developed and validated for the determination of Indomethacin(IDM) in a transdermal patch. This analytical method was successfully applied to the determination of Indomethacin in a transdermal patch and can be used for routine quality control analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on an Inertsil® C8-3 column utilizing a mobile phase of acetonitrile / 0.01 M monobasic sodium phosphate and 0.01 M dibasic sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3) (65:35, v/v) at the flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at the wavelength of 210 nm. The system suitability was performed, and the result showed that Indomethacin(IDM) and its impurity were separated. The calibration curve of Indomethacin(IDM) was linear in the range of 0.1~15 ppm (r = 0.9989, n = 3).

  17. [Chronic non-cancer-related pain. Long-term treatment with rapid-release and short-acting opioids in the context of misuse and dependency]. (United States)

    Scharnagel, R; Kaiser, U; Schütze, A; Heineck, R; Gossrau, G; Sabatowski, R


    Annually published data show a continual increase in the volume of opioid prescriptions in Germany, thus indicating an intensification of opioid therapy. The majority of opioids are prescribed to treat chronic non-cancer-related pain. On the basis of current guidelines, as well as in terms of the lack of data regarding long-term use of opioids and their effectiveness beyond a period of 3 months, this development must be viewed critically. With reference to four case reports, we discuss and evaluate opioid therapy in relation to medication misuse and the development of drug dependency. Particular emphasis is placed on the administration of rapid-release and short-acting opioid preparations, which we consider to be particularly problematic.

  18. Preparation of multilocation reduction-sensitive core crosslinked folate-PEG-coated micelles for rapid release of doxorubicin and tariquidar to overcome drug resistance (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Quan; Xu, Jiaqi; Yuan, Gongdao; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Feng


    Herein, we prepared folate-targeting core crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCL/FA) containing multiple disulfide bonds located at the interface and core of the micelles to co-deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar (TQR) for reversing drug resistance. The stability and redox-responsive behavior of the CCL/FA micelles was evaluated through the changes in morphology, molecular weight and hydrodynamic size. On the one hand, the micelles possessed good stability, which led to the suppression of drug release from the CCL micelles in the physiological environment. On the other hand, under reductive conditions, the CCL micelles collapsed rapidly and accelerated drug release markedly. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry, confirmed that the dual-drug-loaded micelles exhibited obviously higher cytotoxicity to MCF-7/ADR-resistant cells than free DOX · HCl, single-drug loaded CCL micelles and nontargeted CCL micelles. The results imply that co-delivering DOX and TQR by CCL/FA micelles may be a promising way of overcoming multidrug resistance in tumor treatments.

  19. Metal Affinity-Enabled Capture and Release Antibody Reagents Generate a Multiplex Biomarker Enrichment System that Improves Detection Limits of Rapid Diagnostic Tests. (United States)

    Bauer, Westley S; Gulka, Christopher P; Silva-Baucage, Lidalee; Adams, Nicholas M; Haselton, Frederick R; Wright, David W


    Multi-antigen rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are highly informative, simple, mobile, and inexpensive, making them valuable point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools. However, these RDTs suffer from several technical limitations-the most significant being the failure to detect low levels of infection. To overcome this, we have developed a magnetic bead-based multiplex biomarker enrichment strategy that combines metal affinity and immunospecific capture to purify and enrich multiple target biomarkers. Modifying antibodies to contain histidine-rich peptides enables reversible loading onto immobilized metal affinity magnetic beads, generating a novel class of antibodies coined "Capture and Release" (CaR) antibody reagents. This approach extends the specificity of immunocapture to metal affinity magnetic beads while also maintaining a common trigger for releasing multiple biomarkers. Multiplex biomarker enrichment is accomplished by adding magnetic beads equipped with CaR antibody reagents to a large sample volume to capture biomarkers of interest. Once captured, these biomarkers are magnetically purified, concentrated, and released into a RDT-compatible volume. This system was tailored to enhance a popular dual-antigen lateral flow malaria RDT that targets Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-II (HRPII) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). A suite of pLDH CaR antibody reagents were synthesized, characterized, and the optimal CaR antibody reagent was loaded onto magnetic beads to make a multiplex magnetic capture bead that simultaneously enriches pLDH and HRPII from Plasmodium falciparum parasitized blood samples. This system achieves a 17.5-fold improvement in the dual positive HRPII/pan-pLDH detection limits enabling visual detection of both antigens at levels correlating to 5 p/μL. This front-end sample processing system serves as an efficient strategy to improve the sensitivity of RDTs without the need for modifications or remanufacturing.

  20. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  1. Rapid onset of treatment effects on psychosis, depression, and mania in patients with acute exacerbation of schizoaffective disorder following treatment with oral extended-release paliperidone. (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Bossie, Cynthia A; Patel, Hiren; Alphs, Larry


    Patients with schizoaffective disorder (SCA) experience complicated interplays of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms. Paliperidone extended-release (pali ER) tablets have been shown to be efficacious in these patients, but treatment response has not been studied relative to the onset of effects for these symptom domains. In a pooled analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, the onset of treatment effects with oral pali ER was evaluated by symptom domain (psychosis, depression, mania) in patients with an acute SCA exacerbation. Subjects were categorized as having prominent psychotic (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score >70), depressive (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 score ≥16), or manic (Young Mania Rating Scale score ≥16) symptoms at baseline. Of the 614 patients in these analyses, 597 (97.2%), 411 (66.9%), and 488 (79.5%) had prominent psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms at baseline, respectively. Pali ER treatment was associated with rapid and significant improvement of all three symptom domains versus placebo within 1 week of initiation, regardless of whether treatment was given as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. Adverse events were similar to those reported in the original published studies. This post hoc analysis of two phase 3 trials requires confirmation in prospective studies. This pooled analysis suggests that treatment with pali ER is associated with rapid control of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms in patients with SCA. Its findings support the benefit of pali ER as a primary treatment for the management of SCA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Verification of computer system PROLOG - software tool for rapid assessments of consequences of short-term radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Alexey A.; Krylov, Alexey L.; Bogatov, Sergey A. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Bolshaya Tulskaya st. 52, 115191, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In case of nuclear and radiation accidents emergency response authorities require a tool for rapid assessments of possible consequences. One of the most significant problems is lack of data on initial state of an accident. The lack can be especially critical in case the accident occurred in a location that was not thoroughly studied beforehand (during transportation of radioactive materials for example). One of possible solutions is the hybrid method when a model that enables rapid assessments with the use of reasonable minimum of input data is used conjointly with an observed data that can be collected shortly after accidents. The model is used to estimate parameters of the source and uncertain meteorological parameters on the base of some observed data. For example, field of fallout density can be observed and measured within hours after an accident. After that the same model with the use of estimated parameters is used to assess doses and necessity of recommended and mandatory countermeasures. The computer system PROLOG was designed to solve the problem. It is based on the widely used Gaussian model. The standard Gaussian model is supplemented with several sub-models that allow to take into account: polydisperse aerosols, aerodynamic shade from buildings in the vicinity of the place of accident, terrain orography, initial size of the radioactive cloud, effective height of the release, influence of countermeasures on the doses of radioactive exposure of humans. It uses modern GIS technologies and can use web map services. To verify ability of PROLOG to solve the problem it is necessary to test its ability to assess necessary parameters of real accidents in the past. Verification of the computer system on the data of Chazhma Bay accident (Russian Far East, 1985) was published previously. In this work verification was implemented on the base of observed contamination from the Kyshtym disaster (PA Mayak, 1957) and the Tomsk accident (1993). Observations of Sr-90

  3. The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume (United States)

    Lazarev, V.; Geidmanis, D.


    The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid - dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid - wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative. The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents

  4. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I


    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  5. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain, pancreas, and testis by a GSK-3beta inhibitor. (United States)

    Pekary, Albert Eugene; Stevens, Schetema A; Blood, James D; Sattin, Albert


    Antidepressants have been shown to be neuroprotective and able to reverse damage to glia and neurons. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is an endogenous antidepressant-like neuropeptide that reduces the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), an enzyme that hyperphosphorylates tau and is implicated in bipolar disorder, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the potential role of GSK-3beta in the modulation of depression by TRH and TRH-like peptides and the therapeutic potential of GSK-3beta inhibitors for neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases, young adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were (a) injected ip with 1.8mg/kg of GSK-3beta inhibitor VIII (GSKI) and sacrificed 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h later or (b) injected with 0, 0.018, 0.18 or 1.8mg/kg GSKI and bled 4h later. Levels of TRH and TRH-like peptides were measured in various brain regions involved in mood regulation, pancreas and reproductive tissues. Large, 3-15-fold, increases of TRH and TRH-like peptide levels in cerebellum, for example, as well as other brain regions were noted at 2 and 4h. In contrast, a nearly complete loss of TRH and TRH-like peptides from testis within 2h and pancreas by 4h following GSKI injection was observed. We have previously reported similar acute effects of corticosterone in brain and peripheral tissues. Incubation of a decapsulated rat testis with either GSKI or corticosterone accelerated release of TRH, and TRH-like peptides. Glucocorticoids, via inhibition of GSK3-beta activity, may thus be involved in the inhibition of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in brain, thereby contributing to the depressogenic effect of this class of steroids. Corticosterone-induced acceleration of release of these peptides from testis may contribute to the decline in reproductive function and redirection of energy needed during life-threatening emergencies. These contrasting effects of glucocorticoid on peptide release appear to be mediated by GSK-3beta. Published

  6. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail:; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  7. A super-agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone causes rapid improvement of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Sikorska, Hanna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Załecka, Klaudia; Gorczyńska, Joanna; Kubik, Małgorzata; Czerwieńska, Beata; Gosek, Katarzyna; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Wagner, David A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Hakonen, Tiina; Kay, Sam Wai Kit; Jouhikainen, Taneli; Schaefer, Franz


    Chronic kidney disease is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting related to chronic inflammation and a resistance to anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone (GH). In this study, we determined whether a new GH-releasing hormone super-agonist (AKL-0707) improved the anabolism and nutritional status of nondialyzed patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease randomized to twice daily injections of the super-agonist or placebo. After 28 days, this treatment significantly increased 24-h GH secretion by almost 400%, without altering the frequency or rhythmicity of secretory bursts or fractional pulsatile GH release, and doubled the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level. There was a significant change in the Subjective Global Assessment from 'mildly to moderately malnourished' to 'well-nourished' in 6 of 9 patients receiving AKL-0707 but in none of 10 placebo-treated patients. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both the mean fat-free mass and the body mineral content increased, but fat mass decreased, all significantly. In the AKL-0707-treated group, both serum urea and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance significantly decreased with no change in dietary protein intake, indicating a protein anabolic effect of treatment. Thus, our study shows that stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by AKL-0707 overcomes uremic catabolism of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  8. Localized infusions of the partial alpha 7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711 evoke rapid and transient increases in prefrontal glutamate release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Mikkelsen, J D; Bruno, J P


    that inhibited (threo-beta-benzyl-oxy-aspartate (TβOA), 100.0μM) or facilitated (ceftriaxalone, 200mg/kg, i.p.) excitatory amino acid transporters. TβOA slowed both the clearance (s) and rate of clearance (μM/s) by 10-fold, particularly at the mid-late stages of the return to baseline. Ceftriaxone reduced......The ability of local infusions of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetycholine receptor (α7 nAChR) partial agonist SSR180711 to evoke glutamate release in prefrontal cortex was determined in awake rats using a microelectrode array. Infusions of SSR180711 produced dose-dependent increases in glutamate levels...

  9. Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), but not prostate-specific antigen (PSA), rapidly complexes with protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) released from prostate carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Saedi, M S; Zhu, Z; Marker, K; Liu, R S; Carpenter, P M; Rittenhouse, H; Mikolajczyk, S D


    Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously identified a novel complex between human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) in prostate cancer tissue. PI-6 is an intracellular serine protease inhibitor with both antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activity. In the current study we have shown that PI-6 forms a rapid in vitro complex with hK2 but does not complex with PSA. Recombinant mammalian cells expressing both hK2 and PI-6 showed hK2-PI-6 complex in the spent media only after cell death and lysis. Similarly, LNCaP cells expressing endogenous hK2 and PI-6 showed extracellular hK2-PI-6 complex formation concurrently with cell death. Immunostaining of prostate cancer tissues with PI-6 monoclonal antibodies showed a marked preferential staining pattern in cancerous epithelial cells compared with noncancerous tissue. These results indicate that the hK2-PI-6 complex may be a naturally occurring marker of tissue damage and necrosis associated with neoplasia. Both hK2 and PI-6 were shed into the lumen of prostate cancer glands as granular material that appeared to be cellular necrotic debris. The differential staining pattern of PI6 in tissues suggests a complex regulation of PI-6 expression that may play a role in other aspects of neoplastic progression. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  11. Analysis of the Germination of Individual Clostridium sporogenes Spores with and without Germinant Receptors and Cortex-Lytic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Wang


    Full Text Available The Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe Clostridium sporogenes is a significant cause of food spoilage, and it is also used as a surrogate for C. botulinum spores for testing the efficacy of commercial sterilization. C. sporogenes spores have also been proposed as a vector to deliver drugs to tumor cells for cancer treatments. Such an application of C. sporogenes spores requires their germination and return to life. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy were used to analyze the germination kinetics of multiple individual C. sporogenes wild-type and germination mutant spores. Most individual C. sporogenes spores germinated with L-alanine began slow leakage of ∼5% of their large Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA depot at T1, all transitioned to rapid CaDPA release at Tlag1, completed CaDPA release at Trelease, and finished peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis at Tlys. T1, Tlag1, Trelease, and Tlys times for individual spores were heterogeneous, but ΔTrelease (Trelease – Tlag1 periods were relatively constant. However, variability in T1 (or Tlag1 times appeared to be the major reason for the heterogeneity between individual spores in their germination times. After Trelease, some spores also displayed another lag in rate of change in DIC image intensity before the start of a second obvious DIC image intensity decline of 25–30% at Tlag2 prior to Tlys. This has not been seen with spores of other species. Almost all C. sporogenes spores lacking the cortex-lytic enzyme (CLE CwlJ spores exhibited a Tlag2 in L-alanine germination. Sublethal heat treatment potentiated C. sporogenes spore germination with L-alanine, primarily by shortening T1 times. Spores without the CLEs SleB or CwlJ exhibited greatly slowed germination with L-alanine, but spores lacking all germinant receptor proteins did not germinate with L-alanine. The absence of these various germination proteins also decreased but did not abolish

  12. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte


    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located...

  13. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  14. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE (United States)

    Dickson, J.J.


    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  15. Renin release from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Baumbach, Lars Anders


    1. The effects of calcium deprivation and D600 on the rate of renin release and seasonal variations in the response were studied on juxtaglomerular cells from a preparation of isolated rat glomeruli superfused in vitro. 2. Reduction of superfusate calcium concentration caused an increase in renin...... release, which was significantly higher during the summer (May-August) than during the rest of the year. 3. Addition of D600 (2 X 10(-4) M) to a calcium-free medium in the low responsive period caused a markedly increased renin release. In the high responsive period renin release increased more rapidly...

  16. News/Press Releases (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  17. Chemical release module facility (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.


    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.


    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  20. The readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G


    Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP. We conclude that many RRP vesicles are docked, that some docked vesicles may not be part of the RRP, and that undocked vesicles can contribute to the RRP by rapid recruitment to unoccupied, molecularly activated ready-to-release sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoride release/recharging ability and bond strength of glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 17, 2015 ... and erosion of GICs during the early setting period, followed by a rapid .... fluoride ions released from each specimen were measured at. 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, .... adhesion to enamel and dentin tissues and fluoride release are some of ...

  2. Release the Body, Release the Mind. (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff


    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  3. Explosive energy release in magnetic shocks (United States)

    Vainshtein, S. I.; Rosner, R.; Sagdeev, R. Z.


    We show that a magnetic shock whose initial density and/or magnetic perturbation exceeds the Hugoniot limit may lead to substantial and rapid energy release in low β plasmas (such as occur in the magnetospheres of neutron stars). We illustrate this effect for a fast Magnetohydrodynamic perturbation, as well as for large density perturbations which can be naturally created in low β plasmas. Using the Riemann solution and simulations, we show that slow modes of finite magnitudes and Alfvénic perturbations can generate strong density perturbations. These perturbations develop into shocks, resulting in efficient energy release.

  4. Dopamine neurons release transmitter via a flickering fusion pore. (United States)

    Staal, Roland G W; Mosharov, Eugene V; Sulzer, David


    A key question in understanding mechanisms of neurotransmitter release is whether the fusion pore of a synaptic vesicle regulates the amount of transmitter released during exocytosis. We measured dopamine release from small synaptic vesicles of rat cultured ventral midbrain neurons using carbon fiber amperometry. Our data indicate that small synaptic vesicle fusion pores flicker either once or multiple times in rapid succession, with each flicker releasing approximately 25-30% of vesicular dopamine. The incidence of events with multiple flickers was reciprocally regulated by phorbol esters and staurosporine. Thus, dopamine neurons regulate the amount of neurotransmitter released by small synaptic vesicles by controlling the number of fusion pore flickers per exocytotic event. This mode of exocytosis is a potential mechanism whereby neurons can rapidly reuse vesicles without undergoing the comparatively slow process of recycling.

  5. Miniature Release Mechanism Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  6. The 2017 Release Cloudy (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.


    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  7. Required Information Release


    Chong, Stephen N


    Many computer systems have a functional requirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system’s information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about permitted information flows, but not required information flows. In this paper, we introduce and explore the specification and enforcement of required information release in a language-based setting. We define semantic security conditions that express both what i...

  8. Required Information Release


    Chong, Stephen N


    Many computer systems have a functional requirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system's information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about permitted information flows, but not required information flows. In this paper, we introduce and explore the specification and enforcement of required information release in a language-based setting. We define semantic security conditions that express both wha...

  9. Nanotechnologies for noninvasive measurement of drug release. (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; Chen, Hongyu; Morrison, Rachel; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeffrey N; Alexis, Frank


    A wide variety of chemotherapy and radiotherapy agents are available for treating cancer, but a critical challenge is to deliver these agents locally to cancer cells and tumors while minimizing side effects from systemic delivery. Nanomedicine uses nanoparticles with diameters in the range of ∼1-100 nm to encapsulate drugs and target them to tumors. The nanoparticle enhances local drug delivery efficiency to the tumors via entrapment in leaky tumor vasculature, molecular targeting to cells expressing cancer biomarkers, and/or magnetic targeting. In addition, the localization can be enhanced using triggered release in tumors via chemical, thermal, or optical signals. In order to optimize these nanoparticle drug delivery strategies, it is important to be able to image where the nanoparticles distribute and how rapidly they release their drug payloads. This Review aims to evaluate the current state of nanotechnology platforms for cancer theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic particles) that are capable of noninvasive measurement of release kinetics.

  10. Nanotechnologies for Noninvasive Measurement of Drug Release (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; Chen, Hongyu; Morrison, Rachel; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeffrey N.; Alexis, Frank


    A wide variety of chemotherapy and radiotherapy agents are available for treating cancer, but a critical challenge is to deliver these agents locally to cancer cells and tumors while minimizing side effects from systemic delivery. Nanomedicine uses nanoparticles with diameters in the range of ~1–100 nm to encapsulate drugs and target them to tumors. The nanoparticle enhances local drug delivery effciency to the tumors via entrapment in leaky tumor vasculature, molecular targeting to cells expressing cancer biomarkers, and/or magnetic targeting. In addition, the localization can be enhanced using triggered release in tumors via chemical, thermal, or optical signals. In order to optimize these nanoparticle drug delivery strategies, it is important to be able to image where the nanoparticles distribute and how rapidly they release their drug payloads. This Review aims to evaluate the current state of nanotechnology platforms for cancer theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic particles) that are capable of noninvasive measurement of release kinetics. PMID:24215280

  11. Investigation of excipient type and level on drug release from controlled release tablets containing HPMC. (United States)

    Williams, Robert O; Reynolds, Thomas D; Cabelka, Tim D; Sykora, Matthew A; Mahaguna, Vorapann


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of excipient type and level on the release of alprazolam formulated in controlled release matrix tablets containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Each tablet formulation contained alprazolam, HPMC (Methocel K4MP), excipients, and magnesium stearate. The soluble excipients investigated were lactose monohydrate, sucrose, and dextrose, and the insoluble excipients included dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, and calcium sulfate dihydrate. The similarity factor (f2 factor) was used to compare the dissolution profile of each formulation. The insoluble excipients, especially dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, caused the drug to be released at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than the soluble excipients. Soluble excipients created a more permeable hydrated gel layer for drug release, increased the porosity resulting in faster diffusion of drug, and increased the rate of tablet erosion. Use of binary mixtures of lactose monohydrate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate produced release profiles of intermediate duration. Rapid drug dissolution was obtained when only 9.1% w/w of lactose monohydrate was present in the tablet formulation. Only when the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate level was sufficiently high (36.5% w/w) was the release rate and extent decreased. It was demonstrated that the type and level of excipient influenced the rate and extent of drug release from controlled release tablets containing HPMC. The release mechanism of alprazolam from each tablet formulation was described by either the Hixson-Crowell cube root kinetics equation or Peppas's equation. However, the different excipient types investigated did not influence the release mechanism of alprazolam from the final tablets.

  12. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils. (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni


    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration (United States)


    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  15. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  16. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K


    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  17. Release the Prisoners Game (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja


    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  18. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L


    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopic...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R


    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  20. Restraint stress increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. (United States)

    Mo, Bing; Feng, Na; Renner, Kenneth; Forster, Gina


    Decreases in serotonergic activity in the central nucleus of the amygdala reduce responses to stressors, suggesting an important role for serotonin in this region of the amygdala in stress reactivity. However, it is not known whether exposure to stressors actually increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that restraint stress increases extracellular serotonin within the central nucleus of the amygdala and adjacent medial amygdala using in vivo microdialysis in awake male rats during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle. Serotonin release in the central nucleus increased immediately in response to restraint stress. In contrast, there was no change in serotonin release within the adjacent medial amygdala during or following restraint. Since corticotropin-releasing factor is an important mediator of both responses to stressors and serotonergic activity, subsequent experiments tested the hypothesis that central nucleus serotonergic response to restraint stress is mediated by central corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Administration of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptor antagonist d-Phe-CRF (icv, 10 microg/5 microl) prior to restraint stress suppressed restraint-induced serotonin release in the central nucleus. The results suggest that restraint stress rapidly and selectively increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala by the activation of central corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Furthermore, the results imply that corticotropin-releasing factor mediated serotonergic activity in central nucleus of the amygdala may be an important component of a stress response.

  1. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis. (United States)

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T


    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them.

  2. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef


    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  5. Hydra Code Release


    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.


    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; , . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  6. Sudden releases of gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana


    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  7. Releasable suture technique for trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Pushpa


    Full Text Available We studied the effect of the releasable suture technique on immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP. Nine eyes of nine patients with glaucoma had trabeculectomy with a releasable suture. In the six eyes that did not receive antimitotics, the suture was released by the fifth postoperative day; in the others suture release was delayed up to the fourteenth day. Of the nine patients, one had an acceptable postoperative IOP and did not need suture release; in another the suture broke and could not be released. In the remaining seven patients, the difference between the pre-release and post-release IOP was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The complications of this technique include failed suture release, subconjunctival hematoma and a distinctive "windshield wiper" keratopathy.

  8. Contact: Releasing the news (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  9. A novel release mechanism from responsive microgel capsules (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander


    We use a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels to study the release of nanoparticles from hollow microcapsules. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations show that capsule swelling results in a steady release of encapsulated nanoparticle, which is set by the ability of particles to diffuse through the capsule network. For deswelling capsules, we show that a fluid flow induced by capsule shrinking leads to rapid nanoparticle release. This release, however, is limited due to decreasing mesh size of the deswelling shell. We show that by introducing solid microrods inside deswelling capsules, we can control the rapid release. Our calculations reveal that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings reveal a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that may be useful for designing new drug delivery systems. Financial support from the Donors of the PetroleumResearchFund, administered by theACS, is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  11. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  12. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni


    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  13. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  14. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  15. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.


    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  16. Mechanisms of HSP72 release

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2007 ... Cancer; Chaperokine; heat shock proteins; inflammation; receptors, signal transduction ... release mechanism, including necrotic cell death, severe blunt trauma, surgery and following infection with lytic viruses, and an active release mechanism which involves the non classical protein release pathway.

  17. Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles (United States)


    SUBTITLE Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Vehicles 6. AUTHOR(S) Laird-Philip Ryan Lewis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited RAPID MOTION PLANNING AND AUTONOMOUS OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR UNMANNED...of Robot Motion; Theory, Algorithms, and Implementation, The MIT Press, 2005. 7. Zefran, M., Continuous Methods for Motion Planning , Doctoral

  18. Regulation of endothelial cell t-PA synthesis and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, T.; Schrauwen, Y.; Arts, J.; Emeis, J.J.


    The fibrinolytic activity of blood is to a large extent determined by the plasma level of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Changes in the plasma level of t-PA are mainly achieved by the endothelium by two mechanisms: (a) a rapid, short-term release of t-PA, which occurs within minutes

  19. Chlorhexidine release from orthodontic adhesives after topical chlorhexidine treatment. (United States)

    Lim, Bum-Soon; Cheng, Yanping; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Ahn, Sug-Joon


    This study was designed to investigate the ability of orthodontic adhesives to adsorb and release chlorhexidine (CHX) after periodic treatment with 1% CHX solution. Composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GIC) adhesive disks were incubated with whole saliva or distilled water for 2 h. Release of CHX was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography after 1, 2, and 5 d of incubation, 1 min after exposure to 1% CHX solution. The CHX measurements were performed in a 5-d cycle, which was repeated four consecutive times (n = 7). The amount of CHX adsorbed and the cumulative amounts of CHX released, with respect to type of adhesive and saliva-coating, were analyzed using repeated-measures anova. Chlorhexidine-adsorbed orthodontic adhesives demonstrated a short-term release of CHX, which rapidly returned to near-baseline levels within 3 d. Saliva-coating did not significantly influence CHX release from RM-GIC, but increased the amount of CHX released from the composite. The amount of CHX released from the composite was 20-fold higher than that released from the RM-GIC after saliva-coating. The composite adhesive showed a greater adsorption capacity for CHX than did the RM-GIC, which was more evident after saliva-coating. This study suggests that composite adhesives may be a significantly more effective CHX reservoir than RM-GICs in the oral cavity filled with saliva. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.


    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  1. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.


    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  2. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  3. Chemical Safety Alert: Hazards of Ammonia Releases at Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities (United States)

    Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant in mechanical compression systems, often liquefied under pressure which increases exposure risk due to potential for rapid release into the air as a toxic gas.

  4. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  5. Rapid Prototyping in PVS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)


    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  6. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered (United States)

    Desrosier, James


    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  7. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. There is no 'one' procedure for extracting DNA from the whole blood of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological ...

  8. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological basis is followed in this procedure, in which, when the bloodis placed in water, ...

  9. ODI launches RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach online guide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 17, 2014 ... The UK-based Overseas Development Institute has released its online guide to understanding, engaging with, and influencing policy. ... The RAPID team's focus on learning and evolution remains a central part of the approach, with a chapter devoted to the design of monitoring and evaluation activities that ...

  10. Long-term cell-mediated protein release from calcium phosphate ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, E.; Hofstetter, W.; Liu, Y.; Wu, G.; Sebald, H.J.; Wismeijer, D.; Hunziker, E.B.; Siebenrock, K.A.; Klenke, F.M.


    Efficient delivery of growth factors from carrier biomaterials depends critically on the release kinetics of the proteins that constitute the carrier. Immobilizing growth factors to calcium phosphate ceramics has been attempted by direct adsorption and usually resulted in a rapid and passive release

  11. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil


    Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items....... Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these....... Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future...

  12. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  13. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin


    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  14. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  15. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  16. Declines in stimulated striatal dopamine release over the first 32 h following microdialysis probe insertion: generalization across releasing mechanisms. (United States)

    Holson, R R; Gazzara, R A; Gough, B


    In a recent paper [R.R. Holson, J.F. Bowyer, P. Clausing, B. Gough, Methamphetamine-stimulated striatal dopamine release declines rapidly over time following microdialysis probe insertion, Brain Res. 739 (1996) 301-307] we reported that methamphetamine-stimulated striatal dopamine release declined rapidly over the first eight hours following microdialysis probe insertion. This decline was strictly a function of time post-probe implantation, and not due to tolerance or desensitization. To further examine this phenomenon, we subjected rats to three brief pulses of several DA-releasing compounds at 2, 4 and 6 h post-probe insertion, and compared these results to those caused by a single pulse 6 h post-insertion, or in some cases to pulses given more than 24 h post-insertion. We found that when buproprion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, was infused briefly into the striatum via the microdialysis probe, there was a pronounced drop in the amount of dopamine released at 6 h vs. 2 h post-insertion; this drop was not due to repeated exposure, since dopamine release at 6 h post-insertion was the same for a single pulse, or when preceded by two earlier pulses. Twenty-four hours later, buproprion-stimulated dopamine release was still lower, but did not appear to drop further thereafter. Potassium-stimulated dopamine release, on the other hand, dropped rapidly over the first 8 h post-insertion, and this decline continued throughout the 24-32 h interval post-insertion. Similarly, a single i.p. injection of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol released three times as much dopamine when given two compared to six hours post-implantation. Both bupropion- and potassium-stimulated dopamine release were accompanied by declines in extracellular DOPAC concentrations, and these declines were the same 2 or 26 h post-insertion. In contrast, haloperidol exposure increased extracellular DOPAC, and this haloperidol-stimulated DOPAC increase was also greatly attenuated at 6 compared to 2 h post-insertion. We

  17. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  18. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.


    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  19. The Granting of Work Release. (United States)

    Knox, William E.; Humphrey, John A.


    Analyzed the process of granting work release. Administrative data on a 10 percent random sample of incarcerated males provided the basis for a path analysis. High custody grade was found to have a very strong direct path with granting of work releases. Other variables had weaker paths. (Author)

  20. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  1. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.


    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  2. Right-Rapid-Rough (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig


    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  3. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  5. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Impulsive Rats Exhibit Blunted Dopamine Release Dynamics during a Delay Discounting Task Independent of Cocaine History (United States)

    Moschak, Travis M.


    Abstract The inability to wait for a large, delayed reward when faced with a small, immediate one, known as delay discounting, has been implicated in a number of disorders including substance abuse. Individual differences in impulsivity on the delay discounting task are reflected in differences in neural function, including in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. We examined the role of a history of cocaine self-administration, as well as individual differences in impulsivity, on rapid dopamine (DA) release dynamics in the NAc core. Rats with a history of cocaine or water/saline self-administration were tested on delay discounting while being simultaneously assayed for rapid DA release using electrochemical methods. In controls, we found that cue DA release was modulated by reward delay and magnitude, consistent with prior reports. A history of cocaine had no effect on either delay discounting or DA release dynamics. Nonetheless, independent of drug history, individual differences in impulsivity were related to DA release in the NAc core. First, high impulsive animals exhibited dampened cue DA release during the delay discounting task. Second, reward delay and magnitude in high impulsive animals failed to robustly modulate changes in cue DA release. Importantly, these two DAergic mechanisms were uncorrelated with each other and, together, accounted for a high degree of variance in impulsive behavior. Collectively, these findings demonstrate two distinct mechanisms by which rapid DA signaling may influence impulsivity, and illustrate the importance of NAc core DA release dynamics in impulsive behavior. PMID:28451642

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz


    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Modified Release and Immediate Release Tacrolimus Formulations. (United States)

    Tremblay, Simon; Alloway, Rita R


    The science of drug delivery has evolved considerably and has led to the development of multiple sustained release formulations. Each of these formulations can present particular challenges in terms of clinical evaluation and necessitate careful study to identify their optimal use in practice. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in organ transplant recipients. However, it is poorly soluble, has an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile subject to important genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions, and has a narrow therapeutic index. For these reasons, it represents an agent that could benefit from modified release formulations to overcome these limitations. The objective of this review is to discuss the clinical evaluation of immediate and modified release tacrolimus formulations in renal transplant recipients. Clinical trials from early development of immediate release tacrolimus to formulation-specific post-marketing trials of modified release tacrolimus formulations are reviewed with an emphasis on key elements relating to trial design end endpoint assessment. Particular elements that can be addressed with formulation alterations, such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, and toxicity and corresponding clinical evaluations are discussed. In addition, current knowledge gaps in the clinical evaluation of immediate and modified release tacrolimus formulations are discussed to highlight potential avenues for the future development of different tacrolimus formulations with outcomes relevant to the regulators, the transplant community, and to transplant recipients. This review shows that new formulations may alter tacrolimus bioavailability, alleviate certain adverse events while potentially enhancing patient convenience.

  11. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent. (United States)

    Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P


    The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.

  12. Note on Strain Release Variation with Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the present paper an attempt is made to approach
    the problem of the upper mantle structure by studying the strain
    variation with depth. If the method and data used in this paper are adequate,
    we may be allowed to say that although there is no strain release
    evidence for the depth of the upper boundary of the asthenospliere zone on
    account of lack of adequate accuracy in the determination of focal depths,
    nevertheless there is ample indication of a discontinuity at about 125 km
    depth. The abrupt change in the rate of decrease in the strain release
    with depth near this level clearly indicates that a sudden decrease in the
    yield strength of the material in the earth should occur at about this depth.
    I t might even be possible to think that the melting point of some kind of
    crystal grains or rocks in the earth is attained at that depth. However,
    this does not involve a completely molten state. This state should rather
    occur at depths where there is a complete lack of strain release. Regionally
    this state is attained at different depths, but in some regions the partially
    molten state, i. e. the heterogeneity of the mantle, probably recurs or increases
    due to the pressure increase or some other reason and reaches a minor
    maximum beyond which it might be possible to speculate that the heterogeneity
    of the mantle falls off rapidly and a continuous layer of material
    in molten state covers the whole earth. If data from other sources will
    confirm this structure, there will be good reasons to think of redefining
    the upper boundaries of surface and intermediate shocks at depths of 125
    and 425 km or thereabouts, respectively.

  13. SHAKER Version 0.0/5 Pre-release Notes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    SHAKER V0.0/5 is a pre-release of a simple cocktail central rapidity phase space event generator developed for the simulation of LHC Heavy Ion events. A modified version of JETSET 7.3 (the / LUJETS / common has been enlarged to 50000 particles and the LUEDIT routine has been modified to rearrange the particle weights vectors when called with MEDIT=1) is used to manage the events. All event information is included in / LUJETS / according to Lund conventions [1].

  14. Heparin release from thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Thermosensitive hydrogels (TSH) were synthesized and investigated as heparin releasing polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis. TSH were synthesized with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAAm) copolymerized with butyl methacrylate (BMA) (hydrophobic) or acrylic acid (AAc) (hydrophilic)

  15. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)


    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  16. Building a rapid response team. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard


    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  17. Metallosupramolecular receptors for fullerene binding and release. (United States)

    García-Simón, Cristina; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi


    Fullerene extracts are easily available from fullerene soot, but finding an efficient strategy to obtain them in pure form remains elusive, especially for higher fullerenes (Cx, x > 70). The properties of the latter remain unclear and their potential application to multiple research fields has not been developed mainly due to their purification difficulties. In this Tutorial Review we cover the use of molecular receptors for the separation of fullerenes by means of host-guest interactions. This strategy allows gaining selectivity, no specialized equipment is required and, ideally, recyclable systems can be designed. We focus on the metallosupramolecular receptors using the metal-ligand coordination approach, which offers a controlled and versatile strategy to design fullerene hosts, and the latest strategies to release the fullerene guest will be described. The field is probably in its beginnings but it is rapidly evolving and we are confident that this tutorial review will help researchers to rapidly gain a general overview of the main works and concepts that are leading this promising strategy and that may lead towards a useful methodology to purify fullerenes.

  18. Problems of rapid growth. (United States)

    Kim, T D


    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  19. Rapid Polymer Sequencer (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)


    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  20. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  1. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and dopamine release in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Payer, Doris; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Stevanovski, Suzanna; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Le Foll, Bernard; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Mizrahi, Romina; George, Susan R; George, Tony P; Boileau, Isabelle


    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key component of the neuroendocrine response to stress. In animal models, CRH has been shown to modulate dopamine release, and this interaction is believed to contribute to stress-induced relapse in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether CRH administration induces dopamine release in humans, using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers (5 female, 22-48 years old) completed two PET scans with the dopamine D2/3 receptor radioligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO: once after saline injection, and once after injection of corticorelin (synthetic human CRH). We also assessed subjective reports and measured plasma levels of endocrine hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol). Relative to saline, corticorelin administration decreased binding of the D2/3 PET probe [11C]-(+)-PHNO, suggesting dopamine release. Endocrine stress markers were also elevated, in line with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but we detected no changes in subjective ratings. Preliminary results from this proof-of-concept study suggests that CRH challenge in combination with [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET may serve as an assay of dopamine release, presenting a potential platform for evaluating CRH/dopamine interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and CRH antagonists as potential treatment avenues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques. (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J


    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  3. Computational nanomedicine for mechanistic elucidation of bilayer nanoparticle-mediated release for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Kelly, Michael E; Chen, Xiongbiao


    Temporal control of growth-factor release from nanoparticles is essential to many tissue engineering applications, yet remains a challenge due to its complicated behavior. The interplay between nanoparticle characteristics and release mechanisms can be captured using computational models. This study aims to develop two novel models to represent the release of bilayer nanoparticles. Bilayer nanoparticles were prepared and characterized experimentally. 'Local volume averaging' and 'Geno-Mechanistic' models were developed and validated with experiments, and then used to identify critical release parameters and elucidate the release mechanisms. Models presented an agreement with experimental data and successfully estimated transport/degradation parameters, which were closely associated with nanoparticle polymer mass ratio and crystallinity. Models suggested that despite relatively rapid core degradation, shell predominantly controlled overall release patterns. The developed models and computational frameworks offer a great potential for optimizing/tuning bilayer polymeric nanoparticles for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T.; Kanda, K.; Mishima, K.


    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel-cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500/sup 0/C was found negligible. The firist rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561 +- 1/sup 0/C on the plates. The next release at 585/sup 0/C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640/sup 0/C of U-Al/sub x/. The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed.

  5. Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum matrix tablets. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Amrita; Barman, Gouranga; Mukherjee, Sudipta; Sa, Biswanath


    This study was undertaken to investigate correlation between the carboxymethylation-induced rheological changes and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum (LBG) matrix tablets. LBG was derivatized to carboxymethyl LBG (CMLBG) and characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR and elemental analyses. Rheological studies revealed that LBG, in contact with water, produced a strong elastic gel which swelled less due to lower penetration of water resulting in slower drug release. On the other hand, CMLBG formed a viscous polymer solution through which higher influx of water resulted in rapid swelling of the matrix and faster drug release. Although the release from a particular matrix was dependent on drugs' solubilities, CMLBG matrix tablet produced faster release of all the drugs than LBG matrix tablets. In conclusion, rheological study appeared to be an useful tool to predict release of drugs from polysaccharide matrix tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Programmed subcellular release to study the dynamics of cell detachment (United States)

    Wildt, Bridget

    Cell detachment is central to a broad range of physio-pathological changes however there are no quantitative methods to study this process. Here we report programmed subcellular release, a method for spatially and temporally controlled cellular detachment and present the first quantitative results of the detachment dynamics of 3T3 fibroblasts at the subcellular level. Programmed subcellular release is an in vitro technique designed to trigger the detachment of distinct parts of a single cell from a patterned substrate with both spatial and temporal control. Subcellular release is achieved by plating cells on an array of patterned gold electrodes created by standard microfabrication techniques. The electrodes are biochemically functionalized with an adhesion-promoting RGD peptide sequence that is attached to the gold electrode via a thiol linkage. Each electrode is electrically isolated so that a subcellular section of a single cell spanning multiple electrodes can be released independently. Upon application of a voltage pulse to a single electrode, RGD-thiol molecules on an individual electrode undergo rapid electrochemical desorption that leads to subsequent cell contraction. The dynamics of cell contraction are found to have characteristic induction and contraction times. This thesis presents the first molecular inhibition studies conducted using programmed subcellular release verifying that this technique can be used to study complex signaling pathways critical to cell motility. Molecular level dynamics of focal adhesion proteins and actin stress fibers provide some insight into the complexities associated with triggered cell detachment. In addition to subcellular release, the programmed release of alkanethiols provides a tool for to study the spatially and temporally controlled release of small molecules or particles from individually addressable gold electrodes. Here we report on experiments which determine the dynamics of programmed release using fluorophore

  7. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey


    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  8. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging (United States)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco


    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  9. In vitro and in vivo metal ion release. (United States)

    Brown, S A; Farnsworth, L J; Merritt, K; Crowe, T D


    A series of experiments was conducted to study in vitro and in vivo metal ion release and the urine excretion of metal ions. Metal salts were injected and urine analyzed. Anodic potentials were applied to stainless steel and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CCM) specimens to cause an acceleration of corrosion rates. Corrosion experiments were done in saline, 10% serum and in a subcutaneous space in hamsters. Corrosion rates were determined by measurements of weight loss and calculations of net charge transfer. Metal ion concentrations were determined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and were calculated from total charge using Faraday's law. The results with stainless steel showed that the weight loss and metal ion release from stainless steel in vitro and in vivo can be calculated using Faraday's Law, assuming release in proportion to alloy composition. The results with CCM indicated that release rates in vitro can be used to determine the proportionality of release in vivo. All the nickel and most of the cobalt was rapidly excreted, while less than 50% of the chromium was excreted. The excretion of metals following salt injection or in vivo corrosion were very similar.

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package (United States)

    Peters, Gregory


    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  12. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  13. Protein release from collagen matrices. (United States)

    Sano; Hojo; Maeda; Fujioka


    The effective delivery of protein drugs is an important research subject in the field of pharmacology, and to prolong the effect of protein drugs, many studies are being conducted to control the release of proteins from various carrier materials. Collagen is one of the most useful candidates for this purpose, and many studies have been reported; pharmaceutical formulations containing collagen in gel, film and sponge form are used to incorporate low-molecular-weight compounds such as antibiotics and carcinostatics, and the release of these compounds is controlled by the concentration of the gel as well as the shape and degree of crosslinking of the matrix. However, it is still difficult to retain protein drugs in the collagen. In this article, we report on the controlled release of protein drugs using collagen which exhibits good biocompatibility as a carrier, focusing on a new drug delivery system, the Minipellet, which we have developed.

  14. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded......, and the digitalisation of the support material through Moodle courses has been further refined....

  15. Controlled release from recombinant polymers. (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza


    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza


    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  17. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.


    of photoresist which is removed using oxygen ashing in a reactive ion etcher (RIE), with CHF3 plasma induced deposition of an fluorocarbon (FC) film acting as an antistiction coating. All in a single RIE sequence. The dry release process is contamination free and batch process compatible. Furthermore......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  18. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN


    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  19. Complications of Carpal Tunnel Release. (United States)

    Karl, John W; Gancarczyk, Stephanie M; Strauch, Robert J


    Carpal tunnel release for compression of the median nerve at the wrist is one of the most common and successful procedures in hand surgery. Complications, though rare, are potentially devastating and may include intraoperative technical errors, postoperative infection and pain, and persistent or recurrent symptoms. Patients with continued complaints after carpal tunnel release should be carefully evaluated with detailed history and physical examination in addition to electrodiagnostic testing. For those with persistent or recurrent symptoms, a course of nonoperative management including splinting, injections, occupational therapy, and desensitization should be considered prior to revision surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the release of lactose from polymer matrix tablets with an amperometric biosensor utilizing cellobiose dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Knöös, Patrik; Schulz, Christopher; Piculell, Lennart; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo; Wahlgren, Marie


    The release of lactose (hydrophilic) from polymer tablets made with hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) have been studied and compared to the release of ibuprofen, a hydrophobic active substance. Lactose is one of the most used excipients for tablets, but lactose release has not been widely studied. One reason could be a lack of good analytical tools. A novel biosensor with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was used to detect the lactose release, which has a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) layer that increases the response. A sample treatment using polyethylenimine (PEI) was developed to eliminate possible denaturants. The developed methodology provided a good approach to detect and quantify the released lactose. The release was studied with or without the presence of a model amphiphilic substance, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the release medium. Ibuprofen showed very different release rates in the different media, which was attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the drug, the HMPAA and the SDS in the release medium. The release of hydrophilic lactose, which did not associate to any of the other components, was rapid and showed only minor differences. The new methodology provides a useful tool to further evaluate tablet formulations by a relatively simple set of experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth


    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  2. Muscle relaxants and histamine release. (United States)

    Moss, J


    Many anaesthetic drugs and adjuvants can cause the release of histamine by chemical (anaphylactoid) or immunologic (anaphylactic) mechanisms. While both types of reactions can be clinically indistinguishable, they are mechanistically different. In anaphylactoid reactions, only preformed mediators are released, of which histamine may be the most clinically important. In true immunologic reactions, mast cell degranulation occurs, and many vasoactive substances (including histamine) are released. Clinical signs and symptoms of both classes of reactions include hypotension (most common), tachycardia, bronchospasm, or cutaneous manifestations. Anaphylactoid reactions may occur commonly under anaesthesia in response to many drugs, including induction agents, some opiates, plasma expanders, and curariform relaxants. Anaphylactic reactions are far less common than anaphylactoid reactions, but they nevertheless represent more than half of the life-threatening reactions that occur in anaesthetic practice. Muscle relaxants are the most frequently implicated class of drugs; suxamethonium is the most common agent implicated in anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia, but even drugs without apparent chemical histamine release (i.e., vecuronium) are frequently implicated in anaphylactic reactions.

  3. Results of carpal tunnel release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, J.J.W; Blaauw, G.; Vredeveld, J.W.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    We evaluated, by means of a prospective study, the results of carpal tunnel release both clinically and electrophysiologically in 188 patients with a carpal tunnel syndrome. A questionnaire was completed by patient and surgeon pre- and post-operatively (6 and 12 months after operation), when

  4. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  5. Controlled Release from Zein Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Jacob; Belton, Peter; Venema, Paul; Linden, Van Der Erik; Vries, De Renko; Qi, Sheng


    Purpose: In earlier studies, the corn protein zein is found to be suitable as a sustained release agent, yet the range of drugs for which zein has been studied remains small. Here, zein is used as a sole excipient for drugs differing in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point: indomethacin,

  6. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts to...

  7. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia


    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  8. Studies on aminophenazone and phenobarbital release from suppositories prepared on different bases. (United States)

    Piasecka, H; Zakrzewski, Z


    Employing in the studies in vitro the dynamic system, we investigated aminophenazone (APH) and phenobarbital (PHB) release through semipermeable membrane from suppositories prepared on different bases, namely. Massupol, Oleum Cacao, H-15 Witepsol, Imhausen Suppositorien Masse SB, 1500 polioxyethylene glycol. The rate of APH liberation was highest from Imhausen and lowest from H-15 Witepsol; PHB was released most rapidly from Oleum Cacao, the poorest results being observed in the case of polioxyethylene glycol.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of two modified-release oral morphine formulations (Reliadol® and Kapanol®) and an immediate-release morphine tablet (Morfin 'DAK') in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochner, F.; Somogyi, A.A.; Danz, C.


    Objective: Reliadol® (Nycomed Denmark A/S) is a new modified-release morphine formulation undergoing clinical evaluation. It consists of a mixture of rapid- and modified-release microencapsulated granules of morphine. The study aims were to investigate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of morphine...... adverse events were nausea and headache. Conclusions: Reliadol® is likely to be suitable for once-daily administration in patients with chronic pain because of its unique plasma concentration versus time profile resulting from the mixture of rapid- and modified-release morphine pellets....

  10. Astronomical pacing of methane release in the Early Jurassic period. (United States)

    Kemp, David B; Coe, Angela L; Cohen, Anthony S; Schwark, Lorenz


    A pronounced negative carbon-isotope (delta13C) excursion of approximately 5-7 per thousand (refs 1-7) indicates the occurrence of a significant perturbation to the global carbon cycle during the Early Jurassic period (early Toarcian age, approximately 183 million years ago). The rapid release of 12C-enriched biogenic methane as a result of continental-shelf methane hydrate dissociation has been put forward as a possible explanation for this observation. Here we report high-resolution organic carbon-isotope data from well-preserved mudrocks in Yorkshire, UK, which demonstrate that the carbon-isotope excursion occurred in three abrupt stages, each showing a shift of -2 per thousand to -3 per thousand. Spectral analysis of these carbon-isotope measurements and of high-resolution carbonate abundance data reveals a regular cyclicity. We interpret these results as providing strong evidence that methane release proceeded in three rapid pulses and that these pulses were controlled by astronomically forced changes in climate, superimposed upon longer-term global warming. We also find that the first two pulses of methane release each coincided with the extinction of a large proportion of marine species.

  11. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston


    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  12. Radium release mechanisms during hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus Shale (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Landis, J. D.; Renock, D. J.


    Wastewater co-produced with methane from Devonian Marcellus Shale is hypersaline and enriched in Ra. Recent studies find that water injected during hydraulic fracturing can leach out significant quantities of Na, Ca, Ba and Sr from solid phases in the shale over just hours to days. Here, we show with water-rock leaching experiments that the measured 226Ra/228Ra ratios of Marcellus wastewater could also derive from rapid leaching of mineral and organic phases of the shale. Radium isotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 a) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.8 a) are produced through radioactive decay of 238U (t1/2 = 4.5 Ga) and 232Th (t1/2 = 14 Ga), respectively. In the absence of processes that fractionate U, Th and Ra from one another, the decay rates of each parent-daughter pair become identical over 5 half-lives of the daughter radionuclide reaching a condition of secular equilibrium. Water-rock interaction may induce pronounced deviations from secular equilibrium in the water phase, however. Such is the case during hydraulic fracturing, where Ra is soluble and mobile, and is orphaned from insoluble U and Th parents. Once 226Ra and 228Ra are mobilized no fractionation between these isotopes is expected during their transport to the surface. Thus the 226Ra/228Ra ratio in wastewater provides a fingerprint of Ra source(s). Leaching Marcellus Shale with pure water under anoxic conditions releases mainly 228Ra from clays; extraction of 228Ra from radiation damaged sites is likely the dominant contributing mechanism. Using a novel isotope dilution technique we find that 90% of the Ra released in pure water partitions back onto rock (possibly clays). In comparison, leaching with high ionic strength solutions induces the release of 226Ra from mainly organics; the breakdown of organic matter in these solutions may be the driving mechanism controlling 226Ra release in solution. Radium released by high ionic strength solutions strongly partitions into water and results in the development of leachates

  13. Release of Dissolved CO2 from Water in Laboratory Porous Media Following Rapid Depressurization (United States)

    Crews, J. B.; Cooper, C. A.


    A bench-top laboratory study is undertaken to investigate the effects of seismic shocks on brine aquifers into which carbon dioxide has been injected for permanent storage. Long-term storage in deep saline aquifers has been proposed and studied as one of the most viable near-term options for sequestering fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to curb anthropogenic climate change. Upon injection into the subsurface, it is expected that CO2, as either a gas or supercritical fluid, will mix convectively with the formation water. The possibility exists, however, that dissolved CO2 will come out of solution as a result of an earthquake. The effect is similar to that of slamming an unsealed container of carbonated beverage on a table; previously dissolved CO2 precipitates, forms bubbles, and rises due to buoyancy. In this study, we measure the change in gas-phase CO2 concentration as a function of the magnitude of the shock and the initial concentration of CO2. In addition, we investigate and seek to characterize the nucleation and transport of CO2 bubbles in a porous medium after a seismic shock. Experiments are conducted using a Hele-Shaw cell and a CCD camera to quantify the fraction of dissolved CO2 that comes out of solution as a result of a sharp mechanical impulse. The data are used to identify and constrain the conditions under which CO2 comes out of solution and, further, to understand the end-behavior of the precipitated gas-phase CO2 as it moves through or is immobilized in a porous medium.

  14. Sustained release matrix tablets prepared from cospray dried mixtures with starch hydrophobic esters. (United States)

    Sakhnini, N; Al-Zoubi, N; Al-Obaidi, G H; Ardakani, A


    In this work, starch acetate and propanoate derivatives with moderate degree of substitution were synthesized and characterized for employment as matrix formers for sustained release from tablets. Matrix tablets were prepared from cospray-dried and simple physical mixtures of starch/starch derivatives and theophylline as a model drug. The release was rapid for matrix tablets prepared from simple physical mixtures. On the other hand, tablets prepared from cospray-dried mixtures with starch acetate and starch propanoate showed much slower and extended release. Scanning electron micrographs of tablet surfaces revealed enhanced inter-particulate bonding and plastification for cospray-dried agglomerates in comparison with physical mixtures.

  15. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment (United States)


    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  16. Release from 'prison' in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Anita


    Full Text Available In my study I introduce the Hungarian conditional release and presidential pardon and new compulsory presidential pardon system. This study is based on research carried out in the Ministry of Justice at the Pardon Department in which I analyzed several dozen petition pardons. In connection with the new compulsory presidential pardon I examined the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, which has condemned Hungary because of its adoption of real (whole life imprisonment.

  17. NK cell-released exosomes


    Fais, Stefano


    We have recently reported that human natural killer (NK) cells release exosomes that express both NK-cell markers and cytotoxic molecules. Similar results were obtained with circulating exosomes from human healthy donors. Both NK-cell derived and circulating exosomes exerted a full functional activity and killed both tumor and activated immune cells. These findings indicate that NK-cell derived exosomes might constitute a new promising therapeutic tool.

  18. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  19. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  20. Emergency patients receiving anaesthesiologist-based pre-hospital treatment and subsequently released at the scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, S G; Sørensen, L P; Mikkelsen, Søren


    diagnoses were assigned to patients released at the scene following treatment, to investigate the need for secondary contact with the hospital and to assess mortality in patients released at the scene. METHODS: All records regarding patients released at the scene from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were......BACKGROUND: The Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Odense, Denmark consists of a rapid response car, manned with an anaesthesiologist and an emergency medical technician. Eleven per cent of the patients are released at the scene following treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate which...... investigated. In each patient, diagnosis as well as any renewed contact with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit or the hospital within 24 h was registered. RESULTS: ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED NINE: patients were released at the scene. Diagnoses within the category 'examination and investigation' [International...

  1. Electrospun nanofibers-mediated on-demand drug release. (United States)

    Chen, Menglin; Li, Yan-Fang; Besenbacher, Flemming


    A living system has a complex and accurate regulation system with intelligent sensor-processor-effector components to enable the release of vital bioactive substances on demand at a specific site and time. Stimuli-responsive polymers mimic biological systems in a crude way where an external stimulus results in a change in conformation, solubility, or alternation of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, and consequently release of a bioactive substance. Electrospinning is a straightforward and robust method to produce nanofibers with the potential to incorporate drugs in a simple, rapid, and reproducible process. This feature article emphasizes an emerging area using an electrospinning technique to generate biomimetic nanofibers as drug delivery devices that are responsive to different stimuli, such as temperature, pH, light, and electric/magnetic field for controlled release of therapeutic substances. Although at its infancy, the mimicry of these stimuli-responsive nanofibers to the function of the living systems includes both the fibrous structural feature and bio-regulation function as an on demand drug release depot. The electrospun nanofibers with extracellular matrix morphology intrinsically guide cellular drug uptake, which will be highly desired to translate the promise of drug delivery for the clinical success. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.


    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  3. Quantitative fluorescence imaging reveals point of release for lipoproteins during LDLR-dependent uptake. (United States)

    Pompey, Shanica; Zhao, Zhenze; Luby-Phelps, Kate; Michaely, Peter


    The LDL receptor (LDLR) supports efficient uptake of both LDL and VLDL remnants by binding lipoprotein at the cell surface, internalizing lipoprotein through coated pits, and releasing lipoprotein in endocytic compartments before returning to the surface for further rounds of uptake. While many aspects of lipoprotein binding and receptor entry are well understood, it is less clear where, when, and how the LDLR releases lipoprotein. To address these questions, the current study employed quantitative fluorescence imaging to visualize the uptake and endosomal processing of LDL and the VLDL remnant β-VLDL. We find that lipoprotein release is rapid, with most release occurring prior to entry of lipoprotein into early endosomes. Published biochemical studies have identified two mechanisms of lipoprotein release: one that involves the β-propeller module of the LDLR and a second that is independent of this module. Quantitative imaging comparing uptake supported by the normal LDLR or by an LDLR variant incapable of β-propeller-dependent release shows that the β-propeller-independent process is sufficient for release for both lipoproteins but that the β-propeller process accelerates both LDL and β-VLDL release. Together these findings define where, when, and how lipoprotein release occurs and provide a generalizable methodology for visualizing endocytic handling in situ.

  4. Impact of treated sewage sludge application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils (United States)

    Hosseinpur, Alireza; Pashamokhtari, Hamed


    Treated sewage sludge contains significant amount of phosphorus and is widely used in agriculture. Kinetics of P release in soils is a subject of importance in soil and environmental sciences. There are few studies about P release kinetics in treated sewage sludge amended soils. For this purpose, sludge was mixed with ten soils at a rate equivalent to 100 Mg sludge ha-1, and P desorption was determined by successive extraction using 0.01 M CaCl2 over a period of 65 days at 25 ± 1°C. Phosphorus release rate was rapid at first (until about first 360 h) and then became slower until equilibrium was approached. Average of P released within 360 h for the unamended and amended soils was about 65 and 73% of the total desorbed P, respectively. Zero-order, first-order, second-order, power function, simplified Elovich and parabolic diffusion law kinetics models were used to describe P release. First-order, Elovich, power function and parabolic diffusion models could well describe P release in the unamended and amended soils. Correlation coefficients between P release rate parameters and selected soil properties showed that in the control soils, calcium carbonate equivalent and Olsen-extractable P; and in the amended soils, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and Olsen-extractable P were significantly correlated with P release parameters. The results of this study showed that application of sewage sludge can change P release characteristics of soils and increase P in runoff.

  5. Influence of Citric Acid on the Metal Release of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazinanian, N.; Wallinder, I. Odnevall; Hedberg, Y. S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Knowledge of how metal releases from the stainless steels used in food processing applications and cooking utensils is essential within the framework of human health risk assessment. A new European standard test protocol for testing metal release in food contact materials made from metals and alloys has recently been published by the Council of Europe. The major difference from earlier test protocols is the use of citric acid as the worst-case food simulant. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of citric acid at acidic, neutral, and alkaline solution pH on the extent of metal release for stainless steel grades AISI 304 and 316, commonly used as food contact materials. Both grades released lower amounts of metals than the specific release limits when they were tested according to test guidelines. The released amounts of metals were assessed by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and changes in the outermost surface composition were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that both the pH and the complexation capacity of the solutions affected the extent of metal release from stainless steel and are discussed from a mechanistic perspective. The outermost surface oxide was significantly enriched in chromium upon exposure to citric acid, indicating rapid passivation by the acid. This study elucidates the effect of several possible mechanisms, including complex ion- and ligand-induced metal release, that govern the process of metal release from stainless steel under passive conditions in solutions that contain citric acid.

  6. Release of fumigant residues from grain by microwave irradiation. (United States)

    Ren, Y L; Desmarchelier, J M


    Multiresidue analysis of fumigants is important because of their widespread use on staple foodstuffs, such as grain. Fumigants are usually extracted from grain either by solvent extraction or by purge-and-trap techniques. In this paper, fumigant residues in wheat were "extracted" by a microwave procedure. Wheat, in gas-tight Erlenmeyer flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for CH3Br, PH3, CS2, and COS. Recoveries of fortified samples were > 90%. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwave-irradiated wheat. This amount, determined from both solvent extraction and from further microwave irradiation, was always small (microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  7. Effect of pineal gland on testosterone release in vitro. (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Thieblot, P; Boucher, D


    We studied the effect of hCG, aminoglutethimide and pineal effluent on the basal testosterone secretion by superfused adult rat interstitial cells. The period used to determine the mean rates of release was 120-240 min. after the start of superfusion i.e. when basal secretory rate was stable. A 2 h administration of hCG (10 mUI/ml) induced a rapid increase in testosterone output while aminoglutethimide (100 microM) decreased it. Basal testosterone release was not modified when interstitial cells were superfused with effluent of a chamber containing 1, 2 or 4 pineal glands. These results suggest that pineal secretory products exert no direct acute action on testosterone biosynthesis by rat interstitial cells.

  8. Hypotonic shock stimulates ascorbate release from coronary artery endothelial cells by a Ca2+ -independent pathway. (United States)

    Davis, Kim A; Samson, Sue E; Wilson, John X; Grover, Ashok K


    In endothelial cells, anion channels open upon osmotic swelling during shear stress and hypotonic shock. Therefore, we examined the effects of hypotonic shock on release of the antioxidant anion ascorbate from pig coronary artery endothelial cells. Hypotonic shock potentiated ascorbate release from freshly isolated or cultured pig coronary artery endothelial cells; subsequently cultured endothelial cells were used. The hypotonic shock-induced increase in Asc release was rapid, depended on the degree of hypotonic shock, and not due to membrane leakiness. Stimulating P2Y2 like receptors in endothelial cells with ATP causes ascorbate release via a Ca2+ -mediated pathway. Hypotonic shock-induced release differed from the Ca2+-mediated Asc release because: (a) the increase in release with hypotonic shock was additive to that with ATP or A23187 (Ca2+ -ionophore), (b) apyrase, suramin or removing extracellular Ca2+ did not affect the hypotonic shock-stimulated release, (c) anion channel blockers inhibited the release by the two pathways differently, and (d) hypotonic shock increased the ascorbate release from endothelial cells and cultured smooth muscle cells whereas the Ca2+ -mediated ascorbate release occurred only in endothelial cells. Accumulation of ascorbate by endothelial cells was examined at extracellular ascorbate concentrations of 10 (Na+ -ascorbate symporter not saturated) and 5000 microM (Na+ -ascorbate symporter saturated). Hypotonic shock and A23187 decreased ascorbate accumulation at 10 microM ascorbate but increased it at 5000 microM. The effects of the two treatments were additive and also differed from each other with substitution of gluconate for extracellular chloride. Thus, ascorbate release from endothelial cells can be potentiated by two distinct pathways - hypotonic shock mediated and ATP/Ca2+ stimulated.

  9. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.


    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  11. Oral hydromorphone extended-release. (United States)

    Guay, David R P


    To review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and role of the Osmotic-controlled Release Oral delivery System (OROS) hydromorphone extended-release (ER) tablets. A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986-August 2010) was conducted to identify studies in the English language, with additional references being obtained from their bibliographies. All studies of hydromorphone ER were reviewed. This is the second long-acting hydromorphone formulation to receive approval by the Food and Drug Administration (a twice-daily formulation was approved in September 2004, but was subsequently withdrawn in July 2005). Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic mu-opioid receptor agonist structurally similar to morphine, hydrocodone, and oxymorphone. OROS ER technology allows once-daily dosing. Clinical trials have focused on the convertibility of (an) other opioid(s) to hydromorphone ER in chronic malignant and nonmalignant pain. This product displays the expected opioid side effects, being comparable to oxycodone controlled-release. Coadministration with ethanol does not produce the degree of "dose-dumping" seen with the former hydromorphone twice-daily product or oxymorphone ER. Hydromorphone ER is indicated for the management of moderate-to-severe pain in opioidtolerant patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30-60 mL/min). Hydromorphone ER is the newest oral opioid to enter a crowded marketplace now totaling 15 different Schedule 2 opioids (including tapentadol), and tramadol, available in oral, parenteral, rectal, transdermal, transmucosal, and intranasal formulations. It does not appear to have any unique assets or liabilities and should be considered as one of many oral opioids available for the management of persistent pain of moderate

  12. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.


    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  13. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per


    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils...... not associated with organic C (r > 0.89, P colloid release rates were highly correlated with the total clay content (r > 0.84, P ... content measured using a more classical end-over-end method (r > 0.89, P 0.89, P colloids and colloid-facilitated transport...

  14. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats. (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu


    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1 mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1 mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments completely suppressed GH-releasing responses to GHRH in both male and female goats (P < 0.05). The prolactin (PRL)-releasing response to an i.v. injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1 μg/kg BW) was additionally examined in male goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that hypothalamic DA was involved in the regulatory mechanisms of GH, as well as PRL secretion in goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth kinetics of dry heat-treated individual spores ofBacillusspecies. (United States)

    He, Lin; Chen, Zhan; Wang, Shiwei; Wu, Muying; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing


    DNA damage kills dry-heated spores of Bacillus subtilis , but dry heat-treatment effects on spore germination and outgrowth have not been studied. This is important, since if dry heat-killed spores germinate and undergo outgrowth, toxic proteins could be synthesized. Here, Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy were used to study germination and outgrowth of individual dry heat-treated B. subtilis and Bacillus megaterium spores. Major findings in this work were as follows. 1) Spores dry heat-treated at 140°C for 20 min nearly all lost viability but retained their Ca 2+ -dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) depot. 2) In most cases, dry heat treatment increased the average times of and variability in all major events in B. subtilis spore germination with nutrient germinants or CaDPA, and one nutrient germination event with B. megaterium spores. 3) B. subtilis spore germination with dodecylamine, which activates spores' CaDPA release channel, was unaffected by dry heat treatment. 4) These results indicate that dry heat treatment likely damages spore proteins important in nutrient germinant recognition and cortex peptidoglycan hydrolysis, but not CaDPA release itself. 5) Analysis of single spores incubated on nutrient-rich agar showed that while dry heat-treated spores that are dead can complete germination, they cannot proceed into outgrowth thus not to vegetative growth. The results of this study provide new information on effects of dry heat on bacterial spores, and indicate that dry heat sterilization regimens should give spores that cannot outgrow and thus cannot synthesize potentially dangerous proteins. IMPORTANCE Much research has shown that high temperature dry heat is a promising means for the inactivation of spores on medical devices and spacecraft decontamination. Dry heat is known to kill Bacillus subtilis spores by DNA damage. However, knowledge about effects of dry heat treatment on spore germination and outgrowth is limited

  16. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases. (United States)


    ... establish the continuity and stability of the release; (2) Reporting the release to the National Response Center for a period sufficient to establish the continuity and stability of the release; or (3) When a... sensitive populations and ecosystems within a one-mile radius of the facility or vessel (e.g., elementary...

  17. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken


    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  18. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre [Department of Production and Quality Engineering, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail:; Vinnem, Jan Erik [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway)


    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  19. Pharmacological and clinical aspects of immediate release fentanyl preparations: Criteria for selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); C.Th. Zandvliet; A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)


    textabstractIn palliative care, pain management is often hampered by episodes of breakthrough pain, characterised by a rapid onset and, on average, duration less than 1 h. Until recently, only immediate release morphine and oxycodon preparations were available for the treatment of these episodes but

  20. How Do RIM-BPs Link Voltage-Gated Ca(2+) Channels to Evoked Neurotransmitter Release? (United States)

    Li, Ying C; Kavalali, Ege T


    Coupling between voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx and synaptic vesicle exocytosis is essential for rapid evoked neurotransmission. Acuna et al. show that the knockout of RIM-BPs, which are key structural components of this coupling, decreases the reliability of evoked neurotransmitter release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lindemann


    Full Text Available Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems.

  2. Secondary anchor targeted cell release. (United States)

    Ansari, Ali; Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; Amos, Jennifer R; Imoukhuede, P I


    Personalized medicine offers the promise of tailoring therapy to patients, based on their cellular biomarkers. To achieve this goal, cellular profiling systems are needed that can quickly and efficiently isolate specific cell types without disrupting cellular biomarkers. Here we describe the development of a unique platform that facilitates gentle cell capture via a secondary, surface-anchoring moiety, and cell release. The cellular capture system consists of a glass surface functionalized with APTES, d-desthiobiotin, and streptavidin. Biotinylated mCD11b and hIgG antibodies are used to capture mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human breast cancer (MCF7-GFP) cell lines, respectively. The surface functionalization is optimized by altering assay components, such as streptavidin, d-desthiobiotin, and APTES, to achieve cell capture on 80% of the functionalized surface and cell release upon biotin treatment. We also demonstrate an ability to capture 50% of target cells within a dual-cell mixture. This engineering advancement is a critical step towards achieving cell isolation platforms for personalized medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S


    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  4. Minimal model for calcium alternans due to SR release refractoriness (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Inma R.; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Peñaranda, Angelina; Echebarria, Blas


    In the heart, rapid pacing rates may induce alternations in the strength of cardiac contraction, termed pulsus alternans. Often, this is due to an instability in the dynamics of the intracellular calcium concentration, whose transients become larger and smaller at consecutive beats. This alternation has been linked experimentally and theoretically to two different mechanisms: an instability due to (1) a strong dependence of calcium release on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, together with a slow calcium reuptake into the SR or (2) to SR release refractoriness, due to a slow recovery of the ryanodine receptors (RyR2) from inactivation. The relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the RyR2 has been more elusive than the corresponding SR Ca load mechanism. To study the former, we reduce a general calcium model, which mimics the deterministic evolution of a calcium release unit, to its most basic elements. We show that calcium alternans can be understood using a simple nonlinear equation for calcium concentration at the dyadic space, coupled to a relaxation equation for the number of recovered RyR2s. Depending on the number of RyR2s that are recovered at the beginning of a stimulation, the increase in calcium concentration may pass, or not, over an excitability threshold that limits the occurrence of a large calcium transient. When the recovery of the RyR2 is slow, this produces naturally a period doubling bifurcation, resulting in calcium alternans. We then study the effects of inactivation, calcium diffusion, and release conductance for the onset of alternans. We find that the development of alternans requires a well-defined value of diffusion while it is less sensitive to the values of inactivation or release conductance.

  5. Pulsatile protein release from monodisperse liquid-core microcapsules of controllable shell thickness (United States)

    Xia, Yujie; Pack, Daniel W.


    Purpose Pulsatile delivery of proteins, in which release occurs over a short time after a period of little or no release, is desirable for many applications. This paper investigates the effect of biodegradable polymer shell thickness on pulsatile protein release from biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Methods Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse microcapsules were fabricated encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a liquid core surrounded by a drug-free poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) shell of uniform, controlled thickness from 14 to 19 μm. Results When using high molecular weight PLG (Mw 88 kDa), microparticles exhibited the desired core-shell structure with high BSA loading and encapsulation efficiency (55-65%). These particles exhibited very slow release of BSA for several weeks followed by rapid release of 80-90% of the encapsulated BSA within seven days. Importantly, with increasing shell thickness the starting time of the pulsatile release could be controlled from 25 to 35 days. Conclusions Biodegradable polymer microcapsules with precisely controlled shell thickness provide pulsatile release with enhanced control of release profiles. PMID:24831313

  6. Clusters of calcium release channels harness the Ising phase transition to confine their elementary intracellular signals. (United States)

    Maltsev, Anna V; Maltsev, Victor A; Stern, Michael D


    Intracellular Ca signals represent a universal mechanism of cell function. Messages carried by Ca are local, rapid, and powerful enough to be delivered over the thermal noise. A higher signal-to-noise ratio is achieved by a cooperative action of Ca release channels such as IP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors arranged in clusters (release units) containing a few to several hundred release channels. The channels synchronize their openings via Ca-induced Ca release, generating high-amplitude local Ca signals known as puffs in neurons and sparks in muscle cells. Despite the positive feedback nature of the activation, Ca signals are strictly confined in time and space by an unexplained termination mechanism. Here we show that the collective transition of release channels from an open to a closed state is identical to the phase transition associated with the reversal of magnetic field in an Ising ferromagnet. Our simple quantitative criterion closely predicts the Ca store depletion level required for spark termination for each cluster size. We further formulate exact requirements that a cluster of release channels should satisfy in any cell type for our mapping to the Ising model and the associated formula to remain valid. Thus, we describe deterministically the behavior of a system on a coarser scale (release unit) that is random on a finer scale (release channels), bridging the gap between scales. Our results provide exact mapping of a nanoscale biological signaling model to an interacting particle system in statistical physics, making the extensive mathematical apparatus available to quantitative biology.

  7. Nanostructured bioluminescent sensor for rapidly detecting thrombin. (United States)

    Chen, Longyan; Bao, Yige; Denstedt, John; Zhang, Jin


    Thrombin plays a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The abnormal level of thrombin in body fluids may lead to different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. Detection of thrombin level in blood and/or urine is one of important methods for medical diagnosis. Here, a bioluminescent sensor is developed for non-invasively and rapidly detecting thrombin in urine. The sensor is assembled through conjugating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a recombinant protein containing Renilla luciferase (pRluc) by a peptide, which is thrombin specific substrate. The luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence can be quenched by peptide-conjugating Au NPs. In the presence of thrombin, the short peptide conjugating luciferase and Au NPs is digested and cut off, which results in the recovery of bioluminescence due to the release of luciferase from Au NPs. The bioluminescence intensity at 470 nm is observed, and increases with increasing concentration of thrombin. The bioluminescence intensity of this designed sensor is significantly recovered when the thrombin digestion time lasts for 10 min. In addition, a similar linear relationship between luminescence intensity and the concentration of thrombin is found in the range of 8 nM to 8 μM in both buffer and human urine spiked samples. The limit of detection is as low as 80 pM. It is anticipated that our nanosensor could be a promising tool for clinical diagnosis of thrombin in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation. (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael


    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  9. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  10. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E


    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  11. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der


    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  12. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration (United States)


    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  13. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  14. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon


    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  15. Screw-released roller brake (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  16. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Adam


    Full Text Available RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler’s ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  17. Mechanisms of monoclonal antibody stabilization and release from silk biomaterials (United States)

    Guziewicz, Nicholas A.; Massetti, Andrew J.; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo J.; Kaplan, David L.


    The availability of stabilization and sustained delivery systems for antibody therapeutics remains a major clinical challenge, despite the growing development of antibodies for a wide range of therapeutic applications due to their specificity and efficacy. A mechanistic understanding of protein-matrix interactions is critical for the development of such systems and is currently lacking as a mode to guide the field. We report mechanistic insight to address this need by using well-defined matrices based on silk gels, in combination with a monoclonal antibody. Variables including antibody loading, matrix density, charge interactions, hydrophobicity and water access were assessed to clarify mechanisms involved in the release of antibody from the biomaterial matrix. The results indicate that antibody release is primarily governed by hydrophobic interactions and hydration resistance, which are controlled by silk matrix chemistry, peptide domain distribution and protein density. Secondary ionic repulsions are also critical in antibody stabilization and release. Matrix modification by free methionine incorporation was found to be an effective strategy for mitigating encapsulation induced antibody oxidation. Additionally, these studies highlight a characterization approach to improve the understanding and development of other protein sustained delivery systems, with broad applicability to the rapidly developing monoclonal antibody field. PMID:23859659

  18. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.


    Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF) and semen simulant fluid (SSF) with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF) and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h. PMID:24999606

  19. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri


    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  20. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.


    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  1. Bioinspired Heparin Nanosponge Prepared by Photo-crosslinking for Controlled Release of Growth Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Won Il; Sahu, Abhishek; Vilos, Cristian


    Growth factors have great therapeutic potential for various disease therapy and tissue engineering applications. However, their clinical efficacy is hampered by low bioavailability, rapid degradation in vivo and non-specific biodistribution. Nanoparticle based delivery systems are being evaluated...... factor binding ability. Four different growth factors, bFGF, VEGF, BMP-2, and HGF were successfully encapsulated into Hep-NS. In vitro studies showed sustained release of all the growth factors for almost 60 days and the rate of release was directly dependent on the amount of heparin in Hep......-NS. The released growth factors retained their bioactivity as assessed by a cell proliferation assay. This heparin nanosponge is therefore a promising nanocarrier for the loading and controlled release of growth factors....

  2. Tunable biphasic drug release from ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang; Williams, Gareth R.


    This manuscript reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers that provide tunable biphasic release of quercetin. The nanofibers were fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process, in which a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated concentric spinneret was employed. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as the polymer matrices to form the shell and core parts of the nanofibers, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers had linear morphologies and core-shell structures. The quercetin was found to be present in the nanofibers in the amorphous physical status, on the basis of X-ray diffraction results. In vitro release profiles showed that the PVP shell very rapidly freed its drug cargo into the solution, while the EC core provided the succedent sustained release. Variation of the drug loading permitted the release profiles to be tuned.

  3. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities


    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich


    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  4. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng


    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  5. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati


    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 ( The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  6. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt


    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  7. Intestinal Targeting of Ganciclovir Release Employing a Novel HEC-PAA Blended Lyomatrix. (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mostafa; Mulla, Jameel A S; Kumar, Pradeep; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Badhe, Ravindra V; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness


    A hydroxyethylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) (HEC-PAA) lyomatrix was developed for ganciclovir (GCV) intestine targeting to overcome its undesirable degradation in the stomach. GCV was encapsulated within the HEC-PAA lyomatrix prepared by lyophilization. Conventional tablets were also prepared with identical GCV concentrations in order to compare the GCV release behavior from the lyomatrix and tablets. GCV incorporation (75.12%) was confirmed using FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The effect of GCV loading on the microstructure properties of the lyomatrix was evaluated by SEM, AFM, and BET surface area measurements. The in vitro drug release study showed steady and rapid release profiles from the GCV-loaded lyomatrix compared with the tablet formulation at identical pH values. Minimum GCV release was observed at acidic pH (≤40%) and maximum release occurred at intestinal pH values (≥90%) proving the intestinal targeting ability of the lyomatrix. Kinetic modeling revealed that the GCV-loaded lyomatrix exhibited zero-order release kinetics (n = 1), while the tablets were best described via the Peppas model. Textural analysis highlighted enhanced matrix resilience and rigidity gradient (12.5%, 20 Pa) for the GCV-loaded lyomatrix compared to the pure (7%, 9.5 Pa) HEC-PAA lyomatrix. Bench-top MRI imaging was used to confirm the mechanism of GCV release behavior by monitoring the swelling and erosion rates. The swelling and erosion rate of the tablets was not sufficient to achieve rapid zero-order GCV release as with the lyomatrix. These combined results suggest that the HEC-PAA lyomatrix may be suitable for GCV intestinal targeting after oral administration.

  8. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release. (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud


    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium.

  9. CO-releasing molecule (CORM) conjugate systems. (United States)

    Kautz, Anna Christin; Kunz, Peter C; Janiak, Christoph


    The development of CORMs (CO-releasing molecules) as a prodrug for CO administration in living organisms has attracted significant attention. CORMs offer the promising possibility of a safe and controllable release of CO in low amounts triggered by light, ligands, enzymes, etc. For the targeting of specific tissues or diseases and to prevent possible side effects from metals and other residues after CO release, these CORMs are attached to biocompatible systems, like peptides, polymers, nanoparticles, dendrimers, protein cages, non-wovens, tablets, and metal-organic frameworks. We discuss in this review the known CORM carrier conjugates, in short CORM conjugates, with covalently-bound or incorporated CORMs for medicinal and therapeutic applications. Most conjugates are nontoxic, show increasing half-lives of CO release, and make use of the EPR-effect, but still show problems because of a continuous background of CO release and the absence of an on/off-switch for the CO release.

  10. Release of endogenous ascorbic acid preserves extracellular dopamine in the mammalian retina. (United States)

    Neal, M J; Cunningham, J R; Matthews, K L


    To investigate whether the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide (NO) on dopamine release from the retina is due to chemical oxidation of dopamine in the extracellular medium rather than to an inhibitory effect on dopamine release from retinal neurons. Dopamine was incubated in Krebs bicarbonate medium and its rate of chemical degradation measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of NO donors and antioxidants on dopamine were assessed by comparing dopamine degradation in the presence and absence of drug. The effects of NO donors on the K-evoked release of [3H]dopamine were measured from isolated superfused rabbit retinas. The release of ascorbic acid from the isolated rat retina and from an eyecup preparation in anesthetized rabbits was measured by HPLC. After 10 minutes' incubation in Krebs bicarbonate medium, the dopamine concentration decreased by 20%. This decline increased to 80% in the presence of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The increased rate of dopamine degradation was abolished if retina was incubated in the medium and then removed before the incubation of dopamine. The protective effect of preincubation with tissue was lost in the presence of ascorbate oxidase suggesting the release of ascorbic acid. HPLC analysis confirmed a substantial release of ascorbic acid from both rabbit and rat retinas. The K-evoked release of [3H]dopamine from the rabbit retina was inhibited by SNP. NO can rapidly, oxidize dopamine in physiological medium, but in the presence of retina, sufficient endogenous antioxidants (mainly ascorbate) are released to prevent this chemical reaction. Thus, the inhibitory action of NO on dopamine release results from an action on retinal neurons. Ascorbate release in the retina may have an important physiological role in prolonging the life of dopamine, which often has to diffuse long distances from axons in the inner plexiform layer to receptors in other retinal layers.

  11. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kile, J.P.


    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10/sup 5//well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca/sup + +/ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca/sup + +/-free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/. Both GnRH-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect /sup 45/Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE/sub 2/ and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca/sup + +/ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca/sup + +/ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca/sup + +/ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release.

  12. Long-term anti-cariogenic biofilm activity of glass ionomers related to fluoride release. (United States)

    Chau, Ngoc Phuong Thanh; Pandit, Santosh; Jung, Ji-Eun; Cai, Jian-Na; Yi, Ho-Keun; Jeon, Jae-Gyu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between anti-cariogenic biofilm activities of glass ionomers (G-Is) during the initial and second fluoride release phases and to define relationships between the anti-biofilm activities and fluoride release. Fluoride release of three commercially available G-Is in a buffer was evaluated for 770 h, and then 70-h-old Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were formed on the G-Is that had been immersed in the buffer for 0, 100, 200, or 700 h. The dry weight, bacterial cell number, water-insoluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), and accumulated fluoride concentration of the 70-h-old biofilms and fluoride release and acid production rates during biofilm formation were determined. Relationships between the experimental variables and fluoride release rate were also evaluated using linear regression analysis. In this study, fluoride release of the tested G-Is did not exhibit a biphasic pattern during biofilm formation. The release was sustained or did not rapidly decrease even over long immersion periods and was strongly correlated with an increase in accumulated fluoride concentration of the biofilms (R=0.99, R(2)=0.98) and reductions in dry weight, water-insoluble EPSs, and acid production rate of the biofilms (R=-0.99 to -0.96, R(2)=0.92-0.98). This study suggests that G-Is can effectively affect acid production, EPS formation, and accumulation of cariogenic biofilms even during the second fluoride release phase, and that the anti-cariogenic biofilm activity is strongly correlated with fluoride release, which may be enhanced by acid production of cariogenic biofilms. G-Is can affect cariogenic biofilm formation even during the second fluoride release phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling Drug Release from Polymer-Free Coronary Stents with Microporous Surfaces. (United States)

    Vo, Tuoi T N; Morgan, Sarah; McCormick, Christopher; McGinty, Sean; McKee, Sean; Meere, Martin


    Traditional coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) are made from metal and are coated with a permanent polymer film containing an anti-proliferative drug. Subsequent to stent deployment in a diseased coronary artery, the drug releases into the artery wall and helps prevent restenosis by inhibiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Although this technology has proven to be remarkably successful, there are ongoing concerns that the presence of a polymer in the artery can lead to deleterious medical complications, such as late stent thrombosis. Polymer-free DES may help overcome such shortcomings. However, the absence of a rate-controlling polymer layer makes optimisation of the drug release profile a particular challenge. The use of microporous stent surfaces to modulate the drug release rate is an approach that has recently shown particularly promising clinical results. In this study, we develop a mathematical model to describe drug release from such stents. In particular, we develop a mathematical model to describe drug release from microporous surfaces. The model predicts a two-stage release profile, with a relatively rapid initial release of most of the drug, followed by a slower release of the remaining drug. In the model, the slow release phase is accounted for by an adsorption/desorption mechanism close to the stent surface. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental release data obtained in our laboratory, and good agreement is found. The valuable insights provided by our model will serve as a useful guide for designing the enhanced polymer-free stents of the future. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotary Release Mechanism With Fusible Link (United States)

    Sevilla, Donald R.; Blomquist, Richard S.


    Rotary release mechanism includes fusible rotary link made of alloy that melts at relatively low temperature of 60 degrees C. When solid, link couples driving shaft to driven shaft. When necessary, link melted to temporarily decouple two shafts. Upon cooling below melting temperature link hardens, so it once again couples two shafts. Release mechanism extremely compact alternative to pyrotechnic release device. Basic concept applied to such other mechanisms as pin pullers, pin pushers, electrical-disconnection mechanisms, and clutches.

  15. Hybrid polymeric matrices for oral modified release of Desvenlafaxine succinate tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Samy


    Full Text Available Purpose: Desvenlafaxine succinate (DSV is a water soluble anti-depressant drug, which is rapidly absorbed after oral administration exaggerating its side effects. The current work aimed to prepare controllable release DSV matrix to reduce DSV side effects related to its initial burst. Methods: Fifteen DSV matrix formulations were prepared using different polymers, polymer/drug ratios and matrix excipients and characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, infrared (IR spectroscopy, water uptake and in vitro DSV release. The release kinetics were calculated to determine the drug release mechanism. Ex-vivo DSV absorption via rat intestinal mucosal cells and the calculation of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp were performed using everted sac technique. Results: Maltodextrin was the best matrix excipient (F7 and F10 showing acceptable decrease in the initial burst compared to the innovator. The addition of negatively charged polymers sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC or sodium alginate resulted in an interaction that was proved by DSC and IR findings. This interaction slowed DSV release. F10 showed an excellent absorption of more than 80% of DSV after 4 h and the highest similarity factor with the innovator (84.7. Conclusion: A controllable release pattern of DSV was achieved using Methocel, Maltodextrin and SCMC. The obtained results could be used as a platform to control the release of cationic water soluble drugs that suffer from side effects associated with their initial burst after oral administration.

  16. Clusters of calcium release channels harness the Ising phase transition to confine their elementary intracellular signals

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, Anna; Stern, Michael


    Intracellular Ca signals represent a universal mechanism of cell function. Messages carried by Ca are local, rapid, and powerful enough to be delivered over the thermal noise. A higher signal to noise ratio is achieved by a cooperative action of Ca release channels such as IP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors arranged in clusters or release units containing a few to several hundred release channels. The release channels synchronize their openings via Ca-induced-Ca-release, generating high-amplitude local Ca signals known as puffs in neurons or sparks in muscle cells. Despite the high release amplitude and positive feedback nature of the activation, Ca signals are strictly confined in time and space by an unexplained termination mechanism. Here we show that the collective transition of release channels from an open to a closed state is identical to the phase transition associated with the reversal of magnetic field in an Ising ferromagnet. We demonstrate this mechanism using numerical model simulations of Ca s...

  17. Development of molecularly imprinted polymer as sustain release drug carrier for propranolol HCL. (United States)

    Barde, Laxmikant N; Ghule, Mahesh M; Roy, Arghya A; Mathur, Vijay B; Shivhare, Umesh D


    Applications of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs), is rapidly increasing, especially in the drug delivery field. Molecularly imprinted polymers are the molecular traps, which can entrap the specific molecule and also control its release. Polymer complexes were prepared with and without propranolol HCl as templates, MAA (methacrylic acid) as monomer and EGDMA (ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) as crosslinker by solvent polymerization technique. Drug release pattern from these polymer complexes were compared and maximum drug release in 12 h was consider to optimize the ratio of MAA and EGDMA. Since, the maximum propranolol HCl release from polymer complex was low (62.15%) in optimized batch, inclusion complex of drug with β-cyclodextrin were prepared for the higher drug release (80.32%). The selected polymer complexes were treated with methanol for complete removal of the drug to form MIPs. These MIPs were reloaded with the drug and subjected for drug release. The release patterns from reloaded MIP's were observed to be slightly quicker than their corresponding MIP's.

  18. Hydrophobic Drug-Loaded PEGylated Magnetic Liposomes for Drug-Controlled Release (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi


    Less targeted and limited solubility of hydrophobic-based drug are one of the serious obstacles in drug delivery system. Thus, new strategies to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drug and controlled release behaviors would be developed. Herein, curcumin, a model of hydrophobic drug, has been loaded into PEGylated magnetic liposomes as a drug carrier platform for drug controlled release system. Inductive magnetic heating (hyperthermia)-stimulated drug release, in vitro cellular cytotoxicity assay of curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes and cellular internalization-induced by magnetic guidance would be investigated. The resultant of drug carriers could disperse homogeneously in aqueous solution, showing a superparamagnetic characteristic and could inductive magnetic heating with external high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). In vitro curcumin release studies confirmed that the drug carriers exhibited no significant release at 37 °C, whereas exhibited rapid releasing at 45 °C. However, it would display enormous (three times higher) curcumin releasing under the HFMF exposure, compared with that without HFMF exposure at 45 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity test shows that curcumin-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes could efficiently kill MCF-7 cells in parallel with increasing curcumin concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observed that these drug carriers could internalize efficiently into the cellular compartment of MCF-7 cells. Thus, it would be anticipated that the novel hydrophobic drug-loaded PEGylated magnetic liposomes in combination with inductive magnetic heating are promising to apply in the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy for cancer therapy.

  19. Sensitivity of Neurotransmitter Release to Radiofrequency Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craviso, Gale L; Chatterjee, Indira


    .... To this end a research effort was initiated to identify RF parameters potentially capable of selectively altering exocytosis, the process underlying neurotransmitter release and hence nervous system functioning...

  20. Environmental Treaty Status Data Set, 2012 Release (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Environmental Treaty Status Data Set, 2012 Release contains comprehensive information on country participation in multilateral environmental agreements through...

  1. Release Control of Dye from Agar Ball


    板屋, 智之; 山村, 俊貴; 唐澤, 有太朗


    Agar is a special product of Nagano prefecture. To utilize agar gel as adsorbing or releasing material of dyes or drugs, spherical agar gel “agar ball” was prepared by dropping aqueous agar solution into salad oil. And releasing behavior of a dye (rhodamine B) from agar ball was studied. The dye is released easily from agar ball, but the release can be controlled by hybiridazation of agar and galatin. In addition, it was found that agar ball could extract the dye from oil phase containing the...

  2. Ropinirole prolonged release: in advanced Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Weber, Juliane; Keating, Gillian M


    Ropinirole prolonged release is a non-ergoline dopamine receptor agonist that is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. * Once-daily ropinirole prolonged release and three-times-daily ropinirole immediate release have similar exposure over 24 hours. The prolonged-release formulation is associated with fewer fluctuations in plasma ropinirole concentrations. * Two well designed, placebo- or active comparator-controlled trials examined the efficacy of ropinirole prolonged release in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease suboptimally controlled by levodopa. In the placebo-controlled trial, 24 weeks' therapy with ropinirole prolonged release 6-24 mg once daily reduced hours of 'off' time (primary endpoint) to a significantly greater extent than placebo. In the active comparator-controlled trial, significantly more ropinirole prolonged-release recipients than ropinirole immediate-release recipients maintained a >or=20% reduction from baseline in 'off' time at week 24 (primary endpoint). *Ropinirole prolonged release 6-24 mg once daily was generally well tolerated in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease; adverse events were generally typical of non-ergoline dopamine receptor agonists.

  3. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song


    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  4. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate putamen via A1 receptors (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill


    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 µM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7 %, similar to the 54 ± 6 % decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 minutes. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. PMID:25219576

  5. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong


    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Łękawska-Andrinopoulou


    Full Text Available Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is injected further downstream and it is mixed with pectin/pectin methylesterase stream in the second mixing coil. Methanol is oxidized by alcohol oxidase releasing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is coupled to horse radish peroxidase catalyzed reaction, which gives the colored product 4-N-(p-benzoquinoneimine-antipyrine. Reaction rate is proportional to methanol concentration and it is followed using Ocean Optics USB 2000+ spectrophotometer. The analyzer is fully regulated by a lab written LabVIEW program. The detection limit was 1.47 mM with an analysis rate of 7 samples h−1. A paired t-test with results from manual method showed that the automated method results are equivalent to the manual method at the 95% confidence interval. The developed method is rapid and sustainable and it is the first application of flow analysis in pectin analysis.

  7. Effect of glass composition on the degradation properties and ion release characteristics of phosphate glass--polycaprolactone composites. (United States)

    Prabhakar, Roopa L; Brocchini, Steve; Knowles, Jonathan C


    A series of polycaprolactone and ternary-based (Na(2)O)(0.55-x)(CaO)(x)(P(2)O(5))(0.45) glass composites were created, each containing 20% volume percentage of glass with various calcium compositions. A short-term degradation study was carried out to investigate the physical and ion release behaviour of these composites, utilising analytical techniques such as dynamical mechanical analysis, and ion chromatography. All the composites experienced significant loss of weight and stiffness throughout the study, with the 24 mol% calcium composites losing the greatest amount of weight and stiffness. The pH profile of the aqueous solutions in which the composites were placed were initially acidic, but began to neutralise mid-way through the study, with the 36 mol% solution achieving the most acidic conditions. The ion release behaviour mirrored the mass loss behaviour of the glass component of the composites. The cations (sodium and calcium ions) release was comparable with the initial stages of composite mass degradation, both of which exhibited almost immediate release when placed into solution. The 24 mol% composites underwent rapid rates of cation release, while the 36 mol% experienced the slowest rates of release. By contrast, anion (phosphates and polyphosphates) release showed a dissimilar trend, with rapid release of the P(2)O(7) and P(3)O(10) occurring during the first few hours in solution, whilst the P(3)O(9) structure released steadily during the first 48 h in solution. Finally, PO(4) release was at a constant rate over the duration of the study, releasing up to 300 ppm from the 32 and 36 mol% samples by the end of 200 h. To summarise, these results show that by combining phosphate glasses with biodegradable polymer, it is possible to create composites whose rate of degradation can be controlled to meet the needs of their end application.

  8. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.


    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  9. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  10. Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chapter 5: Annex 1 - Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus (as of December 2016). Crop. Micronutrient. Country. Variety. Year of Release. Origin. Type. Baseline. (ppm). Target increment. (ppm). Increment. (ppm). % Target. Increment. (ppm). Micronutrient. Content. (ppm). 11936. Banana &. Plantain. Provitamin A.

  11. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  12. Preparation and Dissolution Characteristics of Sustained Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the applicability of Eudragit to produce matrix tablet by a wet granulation technique was evaluated. The effect of various formulation variables on the release of drug from these tablets was examined. Release profiles of diltiazem hydrochloride were investigated using the rotating basket method ...

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate matrix type sustained-release (SR) tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) for prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using four polymers (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K 100, ethyl ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  15. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and Chromolaena odorata leaf residues in tropical land use ... The slowest releases, irrespective of type of leaf residue, were in Ca and Mg. The study concluded that among the planted fallows, Pueraria phaseoloides had the ...

  16. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release. (United States)


    .... Each air tight or vapor tight space, such as a paint locker, that is protected by a CO2 system must have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST...

  17. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa


    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009

  18. A practical guide to oak release. (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine


    Oregon white oak savannas and woodlands represent a biological and cultural legacy in the Pacific Northwest. Many Oregon white oak stands are deteriorating owing to invasion and eventual overtopping by Douglas-fir or other conifers. Releasing the shade-intolerant oak trees from overtopping conifers can often restore these oak stands. When planning a release operation,...

  19. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire


    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  20. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or previous...

  1. Development and Optimization of controlled drug release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation variables like type of osmotic agent (sodium chloride, mannitol, lactose), level of pore former and plasticizer and percent weight gain were found to affect the drug release from the developed formulations. The release performance of diclofenac sodium from the optimized formulations was studied over a period of ...

  2. Development of sustained release tablets containing solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier.

  3. A new gas release model for a homogeneous liquid-gas mixture flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessal, Mohand [Department of Transport and Petroleum Equipment, Faculty of Oil and Chemistry, University of Boumerde' s, Boumerde' s 35000 (Algeria)]. E-mail:; Bennacer, Rachid [Laboratoire Materiaux et Sciences des Constructions, Universite Cergy-Pontoise, Paris (France)


    The gas release phenomenon, resulting from a rapid decompression in a homogeneous gas-liquid flow is expressed by multiplying the mixture density by a degassing coefficient G {sub r}. The effect of this coefficient is calculated by using the classical conservation equations of fluid mechanics and diffusion laws. These equations are solved by an improved new two time step finite difference scheme. The method of characteristics is used at the boundaries. The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data and confirm the gas release effect on the flow parameters.

  4. Dynamic sensor deployment for the monitoring of chemical releases in urban environments (DYCE) (United States)

    Lepley, Jason J.; Lloyd, David R.; Robins, Alan; Rudd, Alison; Wilks, Ashley


    We present findings of the DYCE project, which addresses the needs of military and blue light responders to provide a rapid, reliable on-scene analysis of the dispersion of toxic airborne chemical threat agents following their release into the environment. We describe the development and experimental results for a small network of ad-hoc deployable chemical and meteorological sensors capable of identifying and locating the source of the contaminant release, as well as monitoring and estimating the dispersion characteristics of the plume. We further present deployment planning methodologies to optimize the data gathering mission given a constrained asset base.

  5. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.


    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  6. Rapid self-healing hydrogels (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni


    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  7. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen


    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  8. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas


    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  10. Rapid starting methanol reactor system (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.


    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  11. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen


    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  12. Ecological release in White Sands lizards. (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B


    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems.

  13. Calcium release from experimental dental materials. (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam


    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulin release by glucagon and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Andreu, D; Thams, P


    Secretin and glucagon potentiate glucose-induced insulin release. We have compared the effects of secretin and glucagon with that of four hybrid molecules of the two hormones on insulin release and formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. All six peptides potentiated...... the release of insulin at 10 mM D-glucose, and their effects were indistinguishable with respect to the dynamics of release, dose-response relationship, and glucose dependency. However, measurements of cAMP accumulation in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10(-4) M...... potentiating effects of secretin and glucagon on glucose-induced insulin release, their modes of action may be different....

  15. Ecological release in White Sands lizards (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B


    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  16. Rapid screening of potential metallic glasses for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.H. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.H. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, J.F. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, J.C., E-mail: [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jang, J.S.C. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Orthopedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Orthopedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    This paper presents a rapid screening process to select potential titanium and zirconium based metallic glasses (MGs) for bio-material applications. Electrochemical activity of 7 MGs including 6 bulk metallic glasses and 1 thin-film deposited MG in simulation body and human serum is first inspected. A low-voltage potential state test is also developed to simulate the cell membrane potential that the implant MGs will suffer. Results show that the MGs composed of Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} and Ta{sub 57}Zr{sub 23}Cu{sub 12}Ti{sub 8} exhibit excellent electrochemical stability in both simulation body fluid and human serum. In addition, the copper content in the MGs plays an important role on the electrochemical activity. MGs with the copper content higher than 17.5% show significant electrochemical responses. The cytotoxicity of the solid MG samples and the corrosion released ions are also evaluated by an in-vitro MTT test utilizing the murine bone marrow stem cells. Results indicate that all the solid MG samples show no acute cytotoxicity yet the corrosion released ions show significant toxicity for murine bone marrow stem cells. The rapid screening process developed in the present study suggests that the Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass has high potential for biomedical applications due to its good electrochemical stability and very low cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • A rapid electrochemical cycle screening process is proposed. • This process can select potential metallic glasses for bio-material applications. • The Ti{sub 65}Si{sub 15}Ta{sub 10}Zr{sub 10} metallic glass exhibits the best response and high potential.

  17. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent (United States)

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  18. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.


    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was

  19. Modification of concomitant drug release from oil vehicles using drug-prodrug combinations to achieve sustained balanced analgesia after joint installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Jensen, Sabrine Smedegaard; Larsen, Claus Selch


    ,N-diethyl glycolamide ester of naproxen and ropivacaine from an oil vehicle consisting of medium-chain triglycerides were investigated in vitro. The release into both phosphate buffer and 80% (v/v) synovial fluid at pH 7.4 was examined in two dialysis membrane-based release models. The ester prodrug exhibited high...... solubility in medium-chain triglyceride, a high partition coefficient and was rapidly converted to naproxen in synovial fluid. Compared to naproxen, the release of the prodrug from the oil was sustained. In synovial fluid, the reconversion to naproxen resulted in faster release compared to that observed...... using buffer. In both release models, the use of ropivacaine-prodrug combination provided concomitant release from the oil into synovial fluid with ropivacaine being released faster than naproxen. The use of lipophilic prodrugs that are converted fast to the parent drug in synovial fluid seems...

  20. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system. (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng


    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Mobilization Reveals a Highly Engraftable Hematopoietic Stem Cell. (United States)

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Singh, Pratibha; Tate, Tiffany A; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Datari, Shruti R; Fukuda, Seiji; Liu, Liqiong; Kharchenko, Peter V; Schajnovitz, Amir; Baryawno, Ninib; Mercier, Francois E; Boyer, Joseph; Gardner, Jason; Morrow, Dwight M; Scadden, David T; Pelus, Louis M


    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potential curative therapy for malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Improving the efficiency of stem cell collection and the quality of the cells acquired can broaden the donor pool and improve patient outcomes. We developed a rapid stem cell mobilization regimen utilizing a unique CXCR2 agonist, GROβ, and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. A single injection of both agents resulted in stem cell mobilization peaking within 15 min that was equivalent in magnitude to a standard multi-day regimen of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Mechanistic studies determined that rapid mobilization results from synergistic signaling on neutrophils, resulting in enhanced MMP-9 release, and unexpectedly revealed genetic polymorphisms in MMP-9 that alter activity. This mobilization regimen results in preferential trafficking of stem cells that demonstrate a higher engraftment efficiency than those mobilized by G-CSF. Our studies suggest a potential new strategy for the rapid collection of an improved hematopoietic graft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method (United States)

    Gorka, Caroline A.


    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  3. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars


    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  4. Moved by a Rapid Transit (United States)

    Bueter, C.


    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  5. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria]. (United States)

    Houzé, S


    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  6. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.


    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  7. Water boiling inside carbon nanotubes: toward efficient drug release. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    We show using molecular dynamics simulation that spatial confinement of water inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially increases its boiling temperature and that a small temperature growth above the boiling point dramatically raises the inside pressure. Capillary theory successfully predicts the boiling point elevation down to 2 nm, below which large deviations between the theory and atomistic simulation take place. Water behaves qualitatively different inside narrow CNTs, exhibiting transition into an unusual phase, where pressure is gas-like and grows linearly with temperature, while the diffusion constant is temperature-independent. Precise control over boiling by CNT diameter, together with the rapid growth of inside pressure above the boiling point, suggests a novel drug delivery protocol. Polar drug molecules are packaged inside CNTs; the latter are delivered into living tissues and heated by laser. Solvent boiling facilitates drug release.

  8. Protein release from hippocampus in vitro. (United States)

    Hesse, G W; Hofstein, R; Shashoua, V E


    Physiologically viable slices of rat hippocampus in vitro continuously release protein into the superfusion medium at a rate of about 2 micrograms/mg tissue/h. Assays of a cytoplasmic marker enzyme (lactate dehydrogenase) indicate that this material is not the result of cell lysis. Pulse-chase experiments using [3H]valine indicate that a substantial fraction of the newly synthesized proteins eventually appear in the incubation medium (18.7% +/- 3% of the total TCA precipitable radioactivity during a 6-h superfusion) and that the releasable protein pool has an apparent half-life of about 4 h. Simultaneous labeling of newly synthetized proteins with [3H]fucose and [14C]valine showed a 3-fold higher ratio of [3H]fucose to [14C]valine in the released protein fraction compared to the soluble cytoplasmic protein and to the crude membrane protein fraction, suggesting that the soluble released proteins are more highly glycosylated than the proteins retained in the tissue. Electrophoretic migration patterns on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with both labeled and unlabeled proteins show differences between the released proteins and the soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the tissue. Several molecular weights between 14 kdalton and 86 kdalton appear to be characteristic of the released protein fraction. These results suggest that a distinct group of proteins and glycoproteins exists in hippocampal tissue which is destined to be selectively released into the extracellular space.

  9. Fluid-Rock Interaction Models: Code Release and Results (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.


    Numerical models our group has developed for understanding the role of kinetic processes during fluid-rock interaction will be released free to the public. We will also present results that highlight the importance of kinetic processes. The author is preparing manuals describing the numerical methods used, as well as "how-to" guides for using the models. The release will include input files, full in-line code documentation of the FORTRAN source code, and instructions for use of model output for visualization and analysis. The aqueous phase (weathering) and supercritical (mixed-volatile metamorphic) fluid flow and reaction models for porous media will be released separately. These codes will be useful as teaching and research tools. The codes may be run on current generation personal computers. Although other codes are available for attacking some of the problems we address, unique aspects of our codes include sub-grid-scale grain models to track grain size changes, as well as dynamic porosity and permeability. Also, as the flow field can change significantly over the course of the simulation, efficient solution methods have been developed for the repeated solution of Poisson-type equations that arise from Darcy's law. These include sparse-matrix methods as well as the even more efficient spectral-transform technique. Results will be presented for kinetic control of reaction pathways and for heterogeneous media. Codes and documentation for modeling intra-grain diffusion of trace elements and isotopes, and exchange of these between grains and moving fluids will also be released. The unique aspect of this model is that it includes concurrent diffusion and grain growth or dissolution for multiple mineral types (low-diffusion regridding has been developed to deal with the moving-boundary problem at the fluid/mineral interface). Results for finite diffusion rates will be compared to batch and fractional melting models. Additional code and documentation will be released

  10. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release. (United States)

    Steyn, F J


    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  12. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.


    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  13. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  14. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release. (United States)

    De Lisle, Robert C


    Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm) of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal) and the bath (serosal) solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M) and indomethacin (10-5 M) were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in addition to chronic constipation, there is greater potential for the

  15. Dual drug release from hydrogels covalently containing polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties. (United States)

    Murata, Mari; Uchida, Yusuke; Takami, Taku; Ito, Tomoki; Anzai, Ryosuke; Sonotaki, Seiichi; Murakami, Yoshihiko


    In the present study, we designed hydrogels for dual drug release: the hydrogels that covalently contained the polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties. The hydrogels that were formed from polymeric micelles possessing a tightly packed (i.e., well-entangled) inner core exhibited a higher storage modulus than the hydrogels that were formed from the polymeric micelles possessing a loosely packed structure. Furthermore, we conducted release experiments and fluorescent observations to evaluate the profiles depicting the release of two compounds, rhodamine B and auramine O, from either polymeric micelles or hydrogels. According to our results, (1) hydrogels that covalently contains polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties successfully exhibit the independent release behaviors of the two compounds and (2) fluorescence microscopy can greatly facilitate efforts to evaluate drug release properties of materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time course of activation of calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Simon, B J; Schneider, M F


    Myoplasmic free calcium transients were measured with antipyrylazo III in voltage clamped segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers and were used to calculate the rate of release (Rrel) of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Intramembrane charge movement was measured for the same pulses in the same fibers. During a depolarizing pulse Rrel rose to an early peak and then decayed relatively rapidly but incompletely due to calcium-dependent inactivation (Schneider M.F., and B.J. Simon. 1988. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 405:727-745). Two approaches were used to determine release activation independent of the effects of inactivation: (a) a mathematical correction based on the assumption that inactivation was a process occurring in parallel with and independently of activation; (b) an experimental procedure in which release was maximally inactivated by a large short prepulse and then the remaining noninactivatable component of release was monitored during a subsequent test pulse. Both procedures gave the same time course of activation of release. Release activation paralleled the time course of intramembrane charge movement but was delayed by a few milliseconds.

  17. Testing of Nanoparticle Release from a Composite Containing Nanomaterial Using a Chamber System. (United States)

    Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Yu, Il Je


    With the rapid development of nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies in the 21 st century, interest in the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials is also increasing. Evaluating the nanomaterial release from products containing nanomaterials is a crucial step in assessing the safety of these products, and has resulted in several international efforts to develop consistent and reliable technologies for standardizing the evaluation of nanomaterial release. In this study, the release of nanomaterials from products containing nanomaterials is evaluated using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, optical particle counter, and sampling ports to collect filter samples for electron microscopy analysis. The proposed chamber system is tested using an abrasor and disc-type nanocomposite material specimens to determine whether the nanomaterial release is repeatable and consistent within an acceptable range. The test results indicate that the total number of particles in each test is within 20% from the average after several trials. The release trends are similar and they show very good repeatability. Therefore, the proposed chamber system can be effectively used for nanomaterial release testing of products containing nanomaterials.

  18. Nanostructured DPA-MPC-DPA triblock copolymer gel for controlled drug release of ketoprofen and spironolactone. (United States)

    Azmy, Bahaa; Standen, Guy; Kristova, Petra; Flint, Andrew; Lewis, Andrew L; Salvage, Jonathan P


    Uncontrolled rapid release of drugs can reduce their therapeutic efficacy and cause undesirable toxicity; however, controlled release from reservoir materials helps overcome this issue. The aims of this study were to determine the release profiles of ketoprofen and spironolactone from a pH-responsive self-assembling DPA-MPC-DPA triblock copolymer gel and elucidate underlying physiochemical properties. Drug release profiles from DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 gel (pH 7.5), over 32 h (37 °C), were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Nanoparticle size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) by pyrene fluorescence. Polymer gel viscosity was examined via rheology, nanoparticle morphology investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the gel matrix observed using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 copolymer (15% w/v) formed a free-standing gel (pH 7.5) that controlled drug release relative to free drugs. The copolymer possessed a low CMC, nanoparticle size increased with copolymer concentration, and DLS data were consistent with STEM. The gel displayed thermostable viscosity at physiological temperatures, and the gel matrix was a nanostructured aggregation of smaller nanoparticles. The DPA50 -MPC250 -DPA50 copolymer gel could be used as a drug delivery system to provide the controlled drug release of ketoprofen and spironolactone. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation (United States)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou; Xu, Yingqian


    Enteric-coated formulations can delay the release of drugs until they have passed through the stomach. However, high concentration of drugs caused by rapidly released in the small intestine leads to the intestinal damage, and frequent administration would increase the probability of missing medication and reduce the patient compliance. To solve the above-mentioned problems, aspirin-loaded enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles with core-shell structure were prepared via one-step method using coaxial electrospray in this study. Eudragit L100-55 as pH-sensitive polymer and Eudragit RS as sustained-release polymer were used for the outer coating and inner core of the nanoparticles, respectively. The maximum loading capacity of nanoparticles was 23.66 % by changing the flow rate ratio of outer/inner solutions, and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100 %. Nanoparticles with core-shell structure were observed via fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. And pH-sensitive and sustained drug release profiles were observed in the media with different pH values (1.2 and 6.8). In addition, mild cytotoxicity in vitro was detected, and the nanoparticles could be taken up by Caco-2 cells within 1.0 h in cellular uptake study. These results indicate that prepared enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles would be a more safety and effective carrier for oral drug delivery.

  20. Both synthesis and reuptake are critical for replenishing the releasable serotonin pool in Drosophila (United States)

    Borue, Xenia; Condron, Barry; Venton, B. Jill


    The two main sources of serotonin available for release are expected to be newly synthesized serotonin and serotonin recycled after reuptake by the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, their relative importance for maintaining release and the time course of regulation are unknown. We studied serotonin signaling in the ventral nerve cord of the larval Drosophila central nervous system. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at implanted microelectrodes was used to detect serotonin elicited by channelrhodopsin2-mediated depolarization. The effects of reuptake were probed by incubating in cocaine, which is selective for the serotonin transporter in Drosophila. p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase2, was used to investigate the effects of synthesis. Stimulations were repeated at various intervals to assess the time course of recovery of the releasable pool. Reuptake is important for the rapid replenishment of the releasable pool, on the 1 minute time scale. Synthesis is critical to the longer-term replenishment (10 min) of the releasable pool, especially when reuptake is also inhibited. Concurrent synthesis and reuptake inhibition decreased both serotonin tissue content measured by immunohistochemistry (by 50%) and the initial amount of evoked serotonin (by 65%). Decreases in evoked serotonin are rescued by inhibiting action potential propagation with tetrodotoxin, implicating endogenous activity in the depletion. These results show synthesis is necessary to replenish part of the releasable serotonin pool that is depleted after reuptake inhibition, suggesting that regulation of synthesis may modulate the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20070864

  1. Fabrication of controlled-release budesonide tablets via desktop (FDM) 3D printing. (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Chang, Hanah; Sedough, Daniel; Hatton, Grace B; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W


    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of using fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) technology with hot melt extrusion (HME) and fluid bed coating to fabricate modified-release budesonide dosage forms. Budesonide was sucessfully loaded into polyvinyl alcohol filaments using HME. The filaments were engineered into capsule-shaped tablets (caplets) containing 9mg budesonide using a FDM 3D printer; the caplets were then overcoated with a layer of enteric polymer. The final printed formulation was tested in a dynamic dissolution bicarbonate buffer system, and two commercial budesonide products, Cortiment® (Uceris®) and Entocort®, were also investigated for comparison. Budesonide release from the Entocort® formulation was rapid in conditions of the upper small intestine while release from the Cortiment® product was more delayed and very slow. In contrast, the new 3D printed caplet formulation started to release in the mid-small intestine but release then continued in a sustained manner throughout the distal intestine and colon. This work has demonstrated the potential of combining FDM 3DP with established pharmaceutical processes, including HME and film coating, to fabricate modified release oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Microfluidic synthesis of microfibers for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the fabrication of alginate microfibers using a modular microfluidic system for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. A novel two-dimensional fluid-focusing technique with multi-inlets and junctions was used to spatiotemporally control the continuous laminar flow of alginate solutions. The diameter of the manufactured microfibers, which ranged from 211 µm to 364 µm, could be well controlled by changing the flow rate of the continuous phase. While the model drug, diclofenac, was encapsulated into microfibers, the drug release profile exhibited the characteristic of a proper and steady release. Furthermore, the diclofenac release kinetics from the magnetic iron oxide-loaded microfibers could be controlled externally, allowing for a rapid drug release by applying a magnetic force. In addition, the successful culture of glioblastoma multiforme cells in the microfibers demonstrated a good structural integrity and environment to grow cells that could be applied in drug screening for targeting cancer cells. The proposed microfluidic system has the advantages of ease of fabrication, simplicity, and a fast and low-cost process that is capable of generating functional microfibers with the potential for biomedical applications, such as drug controlled release and cell culture.

  3. Tyrosine 402 Phosphorylation of Pyk2 Is Involved in Ionomycin-Induced Neurotransmitter Release (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yun; Mou, Zheng; Chu, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaoyu; He, Wenbin; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuhe; Takahashi, Masami; Chen, Naihong


    Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and phosphorylation of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), in clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells, whereas introduction of Pyk2 siRNA dramatically suppressed ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release. Further study indicated that Tyr-402 (Y402) in Pyk2, instead of other tyrosine sites, underwent rapid phosphorylation after ionomycin induction in 1 min to 2 min. We demonstrated that the mutant of Pyk2 Y402 could abolish ionomycin-induced dopamine (DA) release by transfecting cells with recombinant Pyk2 and its mutants (Y402F, Y579F, Y580F, and Y881F). In addition, Src inhibition could prolong phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402 and increase DA release. These findings suggested that Pyk2 was involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation of Y402. PMID:24718602

  4. Microfluidic synthesis of microfibers for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong; Hsu, Hsiang-Chen; Liao, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Chia-Wen


    This study demonstrated the fabrication of alginate microfibers using a modular microfluidic system for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. A novel two-dimensional fluid-focusing technique with multi-inlets and junctions was used to spatiotemporally control the continuous laminar flow of alginate solutions. The diameter of the manufactured microfibers, which ranged from 211 µm to 364 µm, could be well controlled by changing the flow rate of the continuous phase. While the model drug, diclofenac, was encapsulated into microfibers, the drug release profile exhibited the characteristic of a proper and steady release. Furthermore, the diclofenac release kinetics from the magnetic iron oxide-loaded microfibers could be controlled externally, allowing for a rapid drug release by applying a magnetic force. In addition, the successful culture of glioblastoma multiforme cells in the microfibers demonstrated a good structural integrity and environment to grow cells that could be applied in drug screening for targeting cancer cells. The proposed microfluidic system has the advantages of ease of fabrication, simplicity, and a fast and low-cost process that is capable of generating functional microfibers with the potential for biomedical applications, such as drug controlled release and cell culture.

  5. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.


    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  6. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens


    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  7. SNARE proteins synaptobrevin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin are involved in rapid and slow endocytosis at synapses (United States)

    Xu, Jianhua; Luo, Fujun; Zhang, Zhen; Xue, Lei; Wu, Xinsheng; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang


    Rapid endocytosis, which takes only a few seconds, is widely observed in secretory cells. Although it is more efficient in recycling vesicles than slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis, its underlying mechanism, thought to be clathrin-independent, is largely unclear. Here we reported that cleavage of three SNARE proteins essential for exocytosis, including synaptobrevin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin, inhibited rapid endocytosis at the calyx of Held nerve terminal, suggesting the involvement of three SNARE proteins in rapid endocytosis. These SNARE proteins were also involved in slow endocytosis. In addition, SNAP-25 and syntaxin facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, likely via their roles in endocytosis and/or exocytosis. We concluded that both rapid and slow endocytosis share the involvement of SNARE proteins. The dual role of three SNARE proteins in exo- and endocytosis suggests that SNARE proteins may be molecular substrates contributing to the exo-endocytosis coupling, which maintains exocytosis in secretory cells. PMID:23643538

  8. The Effect of Hatchery Release Strategy on Marine Migratory Behaviour and Apparent Survival of Seymour River Steelhead Smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (United States)

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W.; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen


    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006–2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007–2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead. PMID:21468320

  9. Palaeoceanography: methane release in the Early Jurassic period. (United States)

    Wignall, Paul B; McArthur, John M; Little, Crispin T S; Hallam, Anthony


    Dramatic global warming, triggered by release of methane from clathrates, has been postulated to have occurred during the early Toarcian age in the Early Jurassic period. Kemp et al. claim that this methane was released at three points, as recorded by three sharp excursions of delta13C(org) of up to 3 per thousand magnitude. But they discount another explanation for the excursions: namely that some, perhaps all, of the rapid excursions could be a local signature of a euxinic basin caused by recycling of isotopically light carbon from the lower water column. This idea has been proposed previously (see ref. 3, for example) and is supported by the lack evidence for negative delta13C excursions in coeval belemnite rostra. Kemp et al. dismiss this alternative, claiming that each abrupt shift would have required the recycling of about double the amount of organic carbon that is currently present in the modern ocean; however, their measurements are not from an ocean but from a restricted, epicontinental seaway and so would not require whole-ocean mixing to achieve the excursions.

  10. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.


    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  11. Time course of activation of calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle.


    Simon, B J; Schneider, M F


    Myoplasmic free calcium transients were measured with antipyrylazo III in voltage clamped segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers and were used to calculate the rate of release (Rrel) of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Intramembrane charge movement was measured for the same pulses in the same fibers. During a depolarizing pulse Rrel rose to an early peak and then decayed relatively rapidly but incompletely due to calcium-dependent inactivation (Schneider M.F., and B.J. Simon. 1988. J...

  12. Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Localization of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor: Mechanistic Implications for Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Woon Yu


    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor, but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders.

  13. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations


    Paknahad, Maryam; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Mortazavi, Ghazal; Haghani, Masoud


    Background Dental amalgam is composed?of approximately?50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations. Methods Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non...

  14. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release is a composite index for 171 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  15. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  16. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release is a composite index for 157 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  17. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation. (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann


    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  18. Emergency Response to Gold King Mine Release (United States)

    Description of August 5, 2015 release of contaminated waters from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek and the Animas River, and the resulting emergency response remediation efforts, including monitoring of affected waterways.

  19. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  20. Coherently Controlled Release of Drugs in Ophthalmology (United States)

    Buckup, Tiago; Möhring, Jens; Settels, Volker; Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheo; Hampp, Norbert; Motzkus, Marcus

    The photocleavage of a coumarin derivative dimer is a promising mechanism for laser controlled drug release in medical applications. We investigate the efficiency of the twophoton induced cleavage in open- and closed-loop control schemes.

  1. EPA Releases Neonicotinoid Assessments for Public Comment (United States)

    Release of preliminary ecological and human health risk assessments for the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, and a preliminary ecological risk assessment for imidacloprid, assessing risks to birds,mammals, non-target

  2. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte


    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...... blown with CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245fa revealed that most of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded....... The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Microballoons is a potential suitable delivery system for sustained release of metformin hydrochloride with improved bioavailability when compared with conventional dosage forms of the drug. Keywords: Gastroretentive drug delivery system (GDDS), Solvent evaporation and diffusion method, Higuchi, ...

  4. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer. (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang


    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  5. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.


    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center TMC to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that uses this technology to improve tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions to the

  6. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Final Report (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin Brian; Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gaither, Frank; Juro, Greg


    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows that may be subject to constraints that create localized demand/capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool, based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and departure

  7. Depolarization by K*O+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in gabaergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of gaba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, Bo; Hansen, G.H.; Schousboe, Arne


    Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures......Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures...

  8. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per


    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...... following the use of an Apple laptop computer (4). To estimate nickel release from Apple laptop computers, we investigated a random sample of 20 devices....

  9. Drug Release from Ordered Mesoporous Silicas


    Doadrio Villarejo, Antonio Luis; Salinas Sánchez, Antonio J.; Sánchez-Montero, José M.; Vallet Regí, María


    The state-of-the-art in the investigation of drugs release from Silica-based ordered Mesoporous Materials (SMMs) is reviewed. First, the SMM systems used like host matrixes are described. Then, the model drugs studied until now, including their pharmacological action, structure and the mesoporous matrix employed for each drug, are comprehensively listed. Next, the factors influencing the release of drugs from SMMs and the strategies used to control the drug delivery, specially the chemical fu...

  10. Release of Chromium from Orthopaedic Arthroplasties


    Afolaranmi, G.A.; Tettey, J; Meek, R. M. D; Grant, M. H.


    Many orthopaedic implants are composed of alloys containing chromium. Of particular relevance is the increasing number of Cobalt Chromium bearing arthroplasies being inserted into young patients with osteoarthritis. Such implants will release chromium ions. These patients will be exposed to the released chromium for over 50 years in some cases. The subsequent chromium ion metabolism and redistribution in fluid and tissue compartments is complex. In addition, the potential biological effects o...

  11. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight. (United States)

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D


    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.


    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  13. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  14. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  15. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.


    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  16. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  17. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik


    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  18. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz


    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  19. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.

  20. Effects of heparin on platelet aggregation and release and thromboxane A2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Smith, J.B.; Chuang, H.Y.; Mason, R.G.


    Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However, in the presence of heparin, the same concentration of arachidonic acid caused aggregation. Examination of PRP for the presence of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by use of a bioassay revealed that heparin also stimulated release of TxA2. This finding indicated that platelets released more TxA2 when they were challenged by low concentrations of arachidonic acid in the presence of heparin than in its absence. Platelets were labeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid and /sup 14/C-serotonin, and attempts were made to determine whether heparin stimulated the platelet release reaction first with subsequent increased production of TxA2, or alternatively, whether heparin stimulated TxA2 production first with subsequent enhancement of the release reaction. In view of the demonstrated simultaneous release of /sup 14/C-serotonin and /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid metabolites, it appeared that either release of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H occurs concurrently or, even if one of these events is dependent on the other, both events take place in rapid succession. Timed sequential studies revealed that in the presence of arachidonic acid, the addition of heparin hastened the apparently simultaneous release of both /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H.

  1. Starch-free grewia gum matrices: Compaction, swelling, erosion and drug release behaviour. (United States)

    Nep, E I; Asare-Addo, K; Ghori, M U; Conway, B R; Smith, A M


    Polysaccharides are suitable for application as hydrophilic matrices because of their ability to hydrate and swell upon contact with fluids, forming a gel layer which controls drug release. When extracted from plants, polysaccharides often contain significant quantities of starch that impacts upon their functional properties. This study aimed to evaluate differences in swelling, erosion and drug release from matrix tablets prepared from grewia gum (GG) and starch-free grewia gum (GDS) extracted from the stems of Grewia mollis. HPMC was used as a control polymer with theophylline as a model drug. Swelling, erosion, and in-vitro release were performed in deionized water, pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 media. The Vergnaud and Krosmeyer-Peppas model were used for swelling and drug release kinetics, respectively. However, linear regression technique was used to determine the erosion rate. GDS compacts were significantly harder than the native GG and HPMC compacts. GDS matrices exhibited the fastest erosion and drug release in deionised water and phosphate buffer compared with the GG and HPMC. At pH 1.2, GDS exhibited greater swelling than erosion, and drug release was similar to GG and HPMC. This highlights the potential of GDS as a matrix for controlled release similar to HPMC and GG at pH 1.2 but with a more rapid release at pH 6.8. GDS may have wider application in reinforcing compacts with relatively low mechanical strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of drug release from silica-gelatin aerogel-Relationship between matrix structure and release kinetics. (United States)

    Veres, Péter; Kéri, Mónika; Bányai, István; Lázár, István; Fábián, István; Domingo, Concepción; Kalmár, József


    Specific features of a silica-gelatin aerogel (3 wt.% gelatin content) in relation to drug delivery has been studied. It was confirmed that the release of both ibuprofen (IBU) and ketoprofen (KET) is about tenfold faster from loaded silica-gelatin aerogel than from pure silica aerogel, although the two matrices are structurally very similar. The main goal of the study was to understand the mechanistic background of the striking difference between the delivery properties of these closely related porous materials. Hydrated and dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel has been characterized by NMR cryoporometry, diffusiometry and relaxometry. The pore structure of the silica aerogel remains intact when it disintegrates in water. In contrast, dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel develops a strong hydration sphere, which reshapes the pore walls and deforms the pore structure. The drug release kinetics was studied on a few minutes time scale with 1s time resolution. Simultaneous evaluation of all relevant kinetic and structural information confirmed that strong hydration of the silica-gelatin skeleton facilitates the rapid desorption and dissolution of the drugs from the loaded aerogel. Such a driving force is not operative in pure silica aerogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Wound Healing: Histological Analyses and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Matsumoto, MD


    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF using gelatin sheet is effective for promoting wound healing. Such therapeutic strategy was considered to offer several clinical advantages including rapid healing and reduction of the dressing change with less patient discomfort.

  4. Naproxen release from sustained release matrix system and effect of cellulose derivatives. (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Khan; Rehman, Nisar Ur; Mohsin, Sabeeh


    The present study was conducted to investigate the low viscosity grades of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) in sustaining the release of water insoluble drug, naproxen from the matrix tablets. Both HPMC and EC were incorporated in the matrix system separately or in combinations by wet granulation technique. In vitro dissolution studies indicated that EC significantly reduced the rate of drug release compared to HPMC in 12 hour testing time. But, no significant difference was observed in the release profiles of matrix tablets made by higher percentages of EC. The tablets prepared with various combinations of HPMC and EC also failed to produce produce the desired release profiles. However, comparatively linear and desirable sustained release was obtained from EC-based matrix tablets prepared by slightly modifying the granulation method. Moreover, two different compression forces used in tableting had no remarkable effect on the release profile of naproxen.

  5. Orchestrating End-User Perspectives in the Software Release Process: An Integrated Release Management Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cleveland


    Full Text Available Software bugs discovered by end-users are inevitable consequences of a vendor’s lack of testing. While they frequently result in costly system failures, one way to detect and prevent them is to engage the customer in acceptance testing during the release process. Yet, there is a considerable lack of empirical studies examining release management from end-users’ perspective. To address this gap, we propose and empirically test a release framework that positions the customer release manager in the center of the release process. Using a participatory action research strategy, a twenty-seven-month study was conducted to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the framework through seven major and 39 minor releases.

  6. Analytical solution of diffusion model for nutrient release from controlled release fertilizer (United States)

    Ameenuddin Irfan, Sayed; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar


    An analytical method has been developed to solve the initial value problem which arises from Fick’s diffusion equation encountered in the modelling of the Controlled Release Fertilizers. The proposed analytical solution is developed using the modified Adomian decomposition method. This method does not require the discretization method, reliability and efficiency of this method is more and it also reduces the calculation time. The model has predicted the effect of granule radius and diffusion coefficient on the nutrient release and total release time of Controlled Release Fertilizer. Model has predicted that increase in the radius of granule reduces the release and vice versa in case of diffusion coefficient. Detailed understanding of these parameters helps in improved designing of Controlled Release Fertilizer.

  7. Activity-Dependent Adenosine Release May Be Linked to Activation of Na+-K+ ATPase: An In Vitro Rat Study (United States)

    Sims, Robert Edward; Dale, Nicholas


    In the brain, extracellular adenosine increases as a result of neuronal activity. The mechanisms by which this occurs are only incompletely understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the Na+ influxes associated with neuronal signalling activate the Na+-K+ ATPase which, by consuming ATP, generates intracellular adenosine that is then released via transporters. By measuring adenosine release directly with microelectrode biosensors, we have demonstrated that AMPA-receptor evoked adenosine release in basal forebrain and cortex depends on extracellular Na+. We have simultaneously imaged intracellular Na+ and measured adenosine release. The accumulation of intracellular Na+ during AMPA receptor activation preceded adenosine release by some 90 s. By removing extracellular Ca2+, and thus preventing indiscriminate neuronal activation, we used ouabain to test the role of the Na+-K+ ATPase in the release of adenosine. Under conditions which caused a Na+ influx, brief applications of ouabain increased the accumulation of intracellular Na+ but conversely rapidly reduced extracellular adenosine levels. In addition, ouabain greatly reduced the amount of adenosine released during application of AMPA. Our data therefore suggest that activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase is directly linked to the efflux of adenosine and could provide a universal mechanism that couples adenosine release to neuronal activity. The Na+-K+ ATPase-dependent adenosine efflux is likely to provide adenosine-mediated activity-dependent negative feedback that will be important in many diverse functional contexts including the regulation of sleep. PMID:24489921

  8. Leucocyte esterase in the rapid diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E G


    Septic arthritis may affect any age group but is more common in the paediatric population. Infection is generally bacterial in nature. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, as delayed treatment is associated with lifelong joint dysfunction. A clinical history and application of Kocher\\'s criteria may indicate that there is a septic arthritis. However, definitive diagnosis is made on culture of septic synovial fluid. The culture process can take over 24h for the initial culture to yield bacterial colonies. Leucocyte esterase is released by leucocytes at the site of an infection. We hypothesise that leucocyte esterase can be utilized in the rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis and shorten the time to decisive treatment whilst simultaneously decreasing unnecessary treatment of non-septic joints.

  9. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Kassamakov, Ivan; Ehlers, Henrik


    /and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) adhere to each other. This is crucial in order to have predetermined drug release profiles. We also demonstrate non-invasive measurement of a polymer structure in a microfluidic channel. It shown that traceable interferometric 3D microscopy is a viable technique......The developments in printing technologies allow fabrication of micron-size nano-layered delivery systems to personal specifications. In this study we fabricated layered polymer structures for drug-delivery into a microfluidic channel and aimed to interferometrically assure their topography...... and adherence to each other. We present a scanning white light interferometer (SWLI) method for quantitative assurance of the topography of the embedded structure. We determined rapidly in non-destructive manner the thickness and roughness of the structures and whether the printed layers containing polymers or...

  10. Field study of the long-term release of block copolymers from fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, A.; Hvilsted, Søren


    The addition of block copolymers (i.e. oils) is a common technique to enhance the biofouling-resistance properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based fouling-release coatings. These copolymers diffuse from the bulk to the surface of the coating, thus modifying the properties of the surface an...... fouling-release coatings. Finally, the potential of long-term field-studies is discussed, as compared to short-term laboratory experiments usually performed within fouling-release coatings studies....

  11. Development of enteric coated sustained release minitablets containing mesalamine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Dayse Fernanda de; Goebel, Karin; Andreazza, Itamar Francisco


    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a multiparticulate modified release system, composed of minitablets with a sustained release matrix system coated with a pH-dependent release polymer...

  12. Composition and method for storing and releasing hydrogen (United States)

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Ott, Kevin C.; Burrell, Anthony K.


    A chemical system for storing and releasing hydrogen utilizes an endothermic reaction that releases hydrogen coupled to an exothermic reaction to drive the process thermodynamically, or an exothermic reaction that releases hydrogen coupled to an endothermic reaction.

  13. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))


    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  14. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part I. Method description. (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik


    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  15. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Sklet, Snorre [Department of Production and Quality Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail:; Vinnem, Jan Erik [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway)


    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  16. NMR cryoporometry characterisation studies of the relation between drug release profile and pore structural evolution of polymeric nanoparticles. (United States)

    Gopinathan, Navin; Yang, Bin; Lowe, John P; Edler, Karen J; Rigby, Sean P


    PLGA/PLA polymeric nanoparticles could potentially enhance the effectiveness of convective delivery of drugs, such as carboplatin, to the brain, by enabling a more sustained dosage over a longer time than otherwise possible. However, the link between the controlled release nanoparticle synthesis route, and the subsequent drug release profile obtained, is not well-understood, which hinders design of synthesis routes and availability of suitable nanoparticles. In particular, despite pore structure evolution often forming a key aspect of past theories of the physical mechanism by which a particular drug release profile is obtained, these theories have not been independently tested and validated against pore structural information. Such validation is required for intelligent synthesis design, and NMR cryoporometry can supply the requisite information. Unlike conventional pore characterisation techniques, NMR cryoporometry permits the investigation of porous particles in the wet state. NMR cryoporometry has thus enabled the detailed study of the evolving, nanoscale structure of nanoparticles during drug release, and thus related pore structure to drug release profile in a way not done previously for nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with different types of carboplatin drug release profiles were compared, including burst release, and various forms of delayed release. ESEM and TEM images of these nanoparticles also provided supporting data showing the rapid initial evolution of some nanoparticles. Different stages, within a complex, varying drug release profile, were found to be associated with particular types of changes in the nanostructure which could be distinguished by NMR. For a core-coat nanoparticle formulation, the development of smaller nanopores, following an extended induction period with no structural change, was associated with the onset of substantial drug release. This information could be used to independently validate the rationale for a particular synthesis

  17. The control of phosphate ion release from ion permeable microcapsules formulated into rosin varnish and resin glaze. (United States)

    Falbo, Michelle M; Elassal, Phillip; Greving, Theresa A; McHale, William A; Latta, Mark A; Gross, Stephen M


    The occurrence of recurrent caries at the interface of dental materials and the enamel surface is an important performance issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the most effective way to control the release rate of bioavailable phosphate ions contained in aqueous solutions within ion permeable microcapsules formulated into rosin based varnishes and resin based sealants, in order to promote remineralization. Microcapsules that contained aqueous solutions of K2HPO4 with concentrations from 0.8 to 7.4M were prepared. 3-50w/w% of microcapsules were loaded into both rosin and resin based dental formulations. The effect of initial salt solution concentration inside the microcapsules and weight percent loading of the microcapsules on release rate were contrasted. The effect of microcapsule loading was found to be highly dependent on the continuous phase. In rosin, 3-15w/w% loading resulted in rapid release of ions. Higher weight percent loadings were initially slower but resulted in sustained release of ions. In resin, 3-15w/w% formulations slowly released ions for at least 300 days, while higher loading formulations released an initial burst of ions. Initial salt solution concentration contained inside the microcapsule affected ion release rate. Initial rate of ion release was greatest at a concentration that was less than the maximum concentration studied in both continuous phases. Phosphate ion release can be controlled from resin or rosin based dental material by adjusting initial salt solution concentration in microcapsules or percent loading of microcapsules. The potential for burst release from a varnish or slow, sustained release from a sealant has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In rats, oral oleoyl-DHEA is rapidly hydrolysed and converted to DHEA-sulphate


    Serrano, Marta; Grasa, Maria del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià


    Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) released by adrenal glands may be converted to androgens and estrogens mainly in the gonadal, adipose, mammary, hepatic and nervous tissue. DHEA is also a key neurosteroid and has antiglucocorticoid activity. DHEA has been used for the treatment of a number of diseases, including obesity; its pharmacological effects depend on large oral doses, which effect rapidly wanes in part because of its short half-life in plasma. Since steroid hormone esters cir...

  19. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin


    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  20. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowrey, Justin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prichard, Andrew W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression

  1. [Release of toxic agents from ceramic utensils]. (United States)

    Herrmann, H J


    Under the influence of acidic agents, ceramic glazes and decorations for ceramics may release certain toxicants, especially lead and cadmium. Both elements are essential constituents of ceramic colours and glazes; their release to acidic foods is technologically unavoidable, but it may be minimized by the utilization of appropriate decoration agents and techniques. In most industrial countries, the release of toxicants from utensils is severely limited, the maximum permissible values and the methods of test and analysis being in part very different and not always in agreement with the demands and conditions of practice. The problems related to the release of toxicants from ceramic utensils are treated from the aspects of ceramics, test techniques, analytics, toxicology and food law, with special regard to the necessity for a well-balanced compromise between the justified hygienic demands of health protection and the actual technological possibilities. The endeavours of the ceramic industry of the GDF to produce ceramic utensils releasing as little toxicants as possible are outlined.

  2. Correcting residual deformity following clubfoot releases. (United States)

    Kuo, Ken N; Smith, Peter A


    There are many possible pitfalls of clubfoot releases and it is important to recognize the problems and provide proper timely treatment. Late residual deformity following clubfoot releases include: dynamic or stiff supination and forefoot adduction deformities, intoeing gait, overcorrection, rotatory dorsal subluxation of the navicular, vascular insult to the talus with collapse, and dorsal bunion. We reviewed 134 clubfeet in 95 children who had primary clubfoot releases between 1988 and 1991. In general, the patients who underwent surgery before 6 months of age had poorer results compared with older children. Twenty-one feet (15.7%) underwent additional procedures. The most common additional procedure was split anterior tibial tendon transfer. Not all patients with residual deformities underwent additional procedures. In treating recurrent and residual deformity following a clubfoot surgery, it is most important to keep function in mind. From this series of patients treated with comprehensive clubfoot release, we have identified the most common residual deformities encountered after the initial release and effective surgical treatment when necessary. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten


    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: PMID:26613410

  4. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.


    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  5. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope


    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  6. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes in gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.

  7. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  8. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc


    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  9. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft


    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  10. Estimation of the release profiles of multi-unit dose tablets of theophylline from the release profiles of their components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhumwangho, M.U; Okor, R.S


    Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the drug release profile of a multi-unit dose form consisting of fast and slow release components can be predicted from the release profiles...

  11. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department


    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  12. Effects of physicochemical properties of salting-out layer components on drug release. (United States)

    Tasaki, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Takayuki; Maeda, Atsushi; Katsuma, Masataka; Sako, Kazuhiro


    A "Salting-out Taste-masking System" generates a long lag time for numbness and bitterness masking, with subsequent immediate drug release to exert pharmacological effects. In this study, the effects of physicochemical properties of salting-out agents and water-soluble polymers in the salting-out layer on the dissolution behaviors of acetaminophen were investigated and predominant factors for lag time generation (Lag time index, hereafter LI) and subsequent drug release (Rapid release index, hereafter RI) were discussed. Each prepared formulation showed a different dissolution profile of acetaminophen with a lag time and subsequent immediate release. Significant correlations between both LI and RI and DeltaCST (the salting-out power of salting-out agents) (r(2)=0.90, 0.67, respectively) and between both LI and RI and CST(1) (the sensitivity of water-soluble polymers to a salting-out effect) (r(2)=0.98, 0.71, respectively) were shown. These results suggest that the components showing a strong salting-out effect inside the beads lead to extended lag times and slow drug releases after the lag times. Results further suggest the use of CST(1) to evaluate suitable combinations of salting-out agents and water-soluble polymers in this system.

  13. Reduction of calcium release site models via fast/slow analysis and iterative aggregation/disaggregation. (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Kemper, Peter; Smith, Gregory D


    Mathematical models of calcium release sites derived from Markov chain models of intracellular calcium channels exhibit collective gating reminiscent of the experimentally observed phenomenon of calcium puffs and sparks. Such models often take the form of stochastic automata networks in which the transition probabilities of each channel depend on the local calcium concentration and thus the state of the other channels. In order to overcome the state-space explosion that occurs in such compositionally defined calcium release site models, we have implemented several automated procedures for model reduction using fast/slow analysis. After categorizing rate constants in the single channel model as either fast or slow, groups of states in the expanded release site model that are connected by fast transitions are lumped, and transition rates between reduced states are chosen consistent with the conditional probability distribution among states within each group. For small problems these conditional probability distributions can be numerically calculated from the full model without approximation. For large problems the conditional probability distributions can be approximated without the construction of the full model by assuming rapid mixing of states connected by fast transitions. Alternatively, iterative aggregation/disaggregation may be employed to obtain reduced calcium release site models in a memory-efficient fashion. Benchmarking of several different iterative aggregation/disaggregation-based fast/slow reduction schemes establishes the effectiveness of automated calcium release site reduction utilizing the Koury-McAllister-Stewart method.

  14. Sustained-releasing hollow microparticles with dual-anticancer drugs elicit greater shrinkage of tumor spheroids. (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Choo, Chee Chong; Tan, Nguan Soon; Loo, Say Chye Joachim


    Polymeric particulate delivery systems are vastly explored for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. However, the preparation of polymeric particulate systems with the capability of providing sustained release of two or more drugs is still a challenge. Herein, poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid, 50:50) hollow microparticles co-loaded with doxorubicin and paclitaxel were developed through double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Hollow microparticles were formed through the addition of an osmolyte into the fabrication process. The benefits of hollow over solid microparticles were found to be higher encapsulation efficiency and a more rapid drug release rate. Further modification of the hollow microparticles was accomplished through the introduction of methyl-β-cyclodextrin. With this, a higher encapsulation efficiency of both drugs and an enhanced cumulative release were achieved. Spheroid study further demonstrated that the controlled release of the drugs from the methyl-β-cyclodextrin -loaded hollow microparticles exhibited enhanced tumor regressions of MCF-7 tumor spheroids. Such hollow dual-drug-loaded hollow microparticles with sustained releasing capabilities may have a potential for future applications in cancer therapy.

  15. Outpatient Percutaneous Release of Trigger Finger: A Cost Effective and Safe Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marij Z


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trigger finger is a common cause of pain and disability of the hand. Percutaneous release results in earlier functional recovery and patient satisfaction. This is a rapid and cost-effective method which saves a surgical procedure and results in better functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted on fifty-two fingers and thumbs in 52 patients treated from 1st July 2014 till 31st December 2014, in the Orthopaedic Section, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All the baseline characteristics of the patients, like demographics, symptoms, Quinell's criteria and functional outcome were recorded. The patients were treated at our hospital with trigger finger, managed with percutaneous release using an 18 gauge needle and followed up for a minimum period of three months. The follow-up information included range of motion scoring, patient satisfaction and overall outcome of the procedure in terms of patient acceptance. The data was analyzed to determine the functional outcome at three months. RESULTS: There was complete release of A1 pulleys in 52 out of 52 digits (100% in the patients undergoing percutaneous release and significant patient satisfaction. No recurrence was observed. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous release of trigger finger with needle was not only associated with excellent functional outcome and recovery in terms of patient satisfaction and range of finger motion three months post-procedure but also was found to be cost effective.

  16. Turbid releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, following rainfall-runoff events of September 2013 (United States)

    Wildman, Richard A.; Vernieu, William


    Glen Canyon Dam is a large dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. In September 2013, it released turbid water following intense thunderstorms in the surrounding area. Turbidity was >15 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for multiple days and >30 NTU at its peak. These unprecedented turbid releases impaired downstream fishing activity and motivated a rapid-response field excursion. At 5 locations upstream from the dam, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and turbidity were measured in vertical profiles. Local streamflow and rainfall records were retrieved, and turbidity and specific conductance data in dam releases were evaluated. Profiling was conducted to determine possible sources of turbidity from 3 tributaries nearest the dam, Navajo, Antelope, and Wahweap creeks, which entered Lake Powell as interflows during this study. We discuss 4 key conditions that must have been met for tributaries to influence turbidity of dam releases: tributary flows must have reached the dam, tributary flows must have been laden with sediment, inflow currents must have been near the depth of dam withdrawals, and the settling velocity of particles must have been slow. We isolate 2 key uncertainties that reservoir managers should resolve in future similar studies: the reach of tributary water into the reservoir thalweg and the distribution of particle size of suspended sediment. These uncertainties leave the source of the turbidity ambiguous, although an important role for Wahweap Creek is possible. The unique combination of limnological factors we describe implies that turbid releases at Glen Canyon Dam will continue to be rare.

  17. Mapping Natech risk due to earthquakes using RAPID-N (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth


    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations are an emerging risk with possibly serious consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires or explosions. For the reduction of Natech risk, one of the highest priority needs is the identification of Natech-prone areas and the systematic assessment of Natech risks. With hardly any Natech risk maps existing within the EU the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed a Natech risk analysis and mapping tool called RAPID-N, that estimates the overall risk of natural-hazard impact to industrial installations and its possible consequences. The results are presented as risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, RAPID-N focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. The RAPID-N methodology is based on the estimation of on-site natural hazard parameters, use of fragility curves to determine damage probabilities of plant units for various damage states, and the calculation of spatial extent, severity, and probability of Natech events potentially triggered by the natural hazard. The methodology was implemented as a web-based risk assessment and mapping software tool which allows easy data entry, rapid local or regional risk assessment and mapping. RAPID-N features an innovative property estimation framework to calculate on-site natural hazard parameters, industrial plant and plant unit characteristics, and hazardous substance properties. Custom damage states and fragility curves can be defined for different types of plant units. Conditional relationships can be specified between damage states and Natech risk states, which describe probable Natech event scenarios. Natech consequences are assessed using a custom implementation of U.S. EPA's Risk Management

  18. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Weihong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  19. Drug release from ordered mesoporous silicas. (United States)

    Doadrio, Antonio L; Salinas, Antonio J; Sánchez-Montero, José M; Vallet-Regí, M


    The state-of-the-art in the investigation of drugs release from Silica-based ordered Mesoporous Materials (SMMs) is reviewed. First, the SMM systems used like host matrixes are described. Then, the model drugs studied until now, including their pharmacological action, structure and the mesoporous matrix employed for each drug, are comprehensively listed. Next, the factors influencing the release of drugs from SMMs and the strategies used to control the drug delivery, specially the chemical functionalization of the silica surface, are discussed. In addition, how all these factors were gathered in a kinetic equation that describes the drug release from the mesoporous matrixes is explained. The new application of molecular modeling and docking in the investigation of the drug delivery mechanisms from SMMs is also presented. Finally, the new approaches under investigation in this field are mentioned including the design of smart stimuli-responsive materials and other recent proposals for a future investigation.

  20. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  1. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.


    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site`s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980`s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility.

  2. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.


    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  3. NPK Fertilizer with Slow Release Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhira Izzatur Silmi


    Full Text Available Fly ash is the solid of the remaining coal combustion carried along with the exhaust gas and captured by the air controller. Fluids in fly ash are Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2, and SO3 which are similar to zeolites. So that fly ash can be used as a substitute for zeolite for various carrier of fertilizer. The result of slow release test is known that N element has higher release level. The NPK fertilizer activity test of Fly Ash Slow Release was done on chilli plant with parameter of variation of fertilizer composition and plant height. Based on research result, fly ash-TSP 2: 1 fertilizer has the best result.

  4. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.


    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  5. Fatigue Countermeasures for Rapid Deployment: Operation Pegasus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Jon


    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) and melatonin (MLT) on sleep and daytime vigilance and SRC or MLT as chronobiotics after a 7-time zone eastbound flight...

  6. Controlled release formulations of metribuzin: release kinetics in water and soil. (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Nisar, Keyath; Shakil, N A; Walia, Suresh; Parsad, Rajender


    Controlled release (CR) formulations of metribuzin in Polyvinyl chloride [(PVC) (emulsion)], carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), and carboxy methyl cellulose-kaolinite composite (CMC-KAO), are reported. Kinetics of its release in water and soil was studied in comparison with the commercial formulation (75 DF). Metribuzin from the commercial formulation became non-detectable after 35 days whereas it attained maxima between 35-49 days and became non-detectable after 63 days in the developed products. Amongst the CR formulations, the release in both water and soil was the fastest in CMC and slowest in PVC. The CMC-KAO composite reduced the rate of release as compared to CMC alone. The diffusion exponent (n value) of metribuzin in water and soil ranged from 0.515 to 0.745 and 0.662 to 1.296, respectively in the various formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with half release time (t(1/2)) from different controlled release matrices of 12.98 to 47.63 days in water and 16.90 to 51.79 days in soil. It was 3.25 and 4.66 days, respectively in the commercial formulation. The period of optimum availability of metribuzin in water and soil from controlled released formulations ranged from 15.09 to 31.68 and 17.99 to 34.72 days as against 5.03 and 8.80 days in the commercial formulation.

  7. Rapidly dissolvable microneedle patches for transdermal delivery of exenatide. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuangzhi; Luo, Huafei; Lu, Wangding; Luan, Hansen; Wu, Yubo; Luo, Jing; Wang, Youjie; Pi, Jiaxin; Lim, Chee Yen; Wang, Hao


    To assess the feasibility of transdermal delivery of exenatide (EXT) using low-molecular-weight sodium hyaluronate (HA) dissolving microneedles (MNs) patches for type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy. Micromold casting method was used to fabricate EXT-loaded dissolving MNs. The characteristics of prepared MNs including mechanical strength, in vitro/in vivo insertion capacity, dissolution profile and storage stability were then investigated. Finally, the in vivo pharmacokinetics and hypoglycemic effects were compared with traditional subcutaneous (SC) injection. EXT-loaded dissolving MNs made of HA possessed sufficient mechanical strength and the strength could be weakened as the water content increases. The EXT preserved its pharmacological activity during fabrication and one-month storage. With the aid of spring-operated applicator, dissolving MNs could be readily penetrated into the skin in vitro/in vivo, and then rapidly dissolved to release encapsulated drug within 2 min. Additionally, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) determinations showed that skin's barrier properties disrupted by MNs recovered within 10-12 h. Transdermal pharmacokinetics and antidiabetic effects studies demonstrated that fabricated EXT MNs induced comparable efficacy to SC injection. Our rapidly dissolving MNs patch appears to an excellent, painless alternative to conventional SC injection of EXT, and this minimally invasive device might also be suitable for other biotherapeutics.

  8. Release-Modulated Antioxidant Activity of a Composite Curcumin-Chitosan Polymer. (United States)

    O'Toole, Martin G; Soucy, Patricia A; Chauhan, Rajat; Raju, Mandapati V Ramakrishnam; Patel, Dhruvina N; Nunn, Betty M; Keynton, Megan A; Ehringer, William D; Nantz, Michael H; Keynton, Robert S; Gobin, Andrea S


    Curcumin is known to have immense therapeutic potential but is hindered by poor solubility and rapid degradation in solution. To overcome these shortcomings, curcumin has been conjugated to chitosan through a pendant glutaric anhydride linker using amide bond coupling chemistry. The hybrid polymer has been characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, and infrared spectroscopies as well as zeta potential measurements and SEM imaging. The conjugation reactivity was confirmed through gel permeation chromatography and quantification of unconjugated curcumin. An analogous reaction of curcumin with glucosamine, a small molecule analogue for chitosan, was performed and the purified product characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-visible, fluorescence, and infrared spectroscopies. Conjugation of curcumin to chitosan has greatly improved curcumin aqueous solubility and stability, with no significant curcumin degradation detected after one month in solution. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of curcumin are minimally perturbed (λmax shifts of 2 and 5 nm, respectively) by the conjugation reaction. This conjugation strategy required use of one out of two curcumin phenols (one of the main antioxidant functional groups) for covalent linkage to chitosan, thus temporarily attenuating its antioxidant capacity. Hydrolysis-based release of curcumin from the polymer, however, is accompanied by full restoration of curcumin's antioxidant potential. Antioxidant assays show that curcumin radical scavenging potential is reduced by 40% after conjugation, but that full antioxidant potential is restored upon hydrolytic release from chitosan. Release studies show that curcumin is released over 19 days from the polymer and maintains a concentration of 0.23 ± 0.12 μM curcumin/mg polymer/mL solution based on 1% curcumin loading on the polymer. Release studies in the presence of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme with known phenolic esterase activity, show no significant difference from

  9. ATP release and Ca2+ signalling by human bronchial epithelial cells following Alternaria aeroallergen exposure. (United States)

    O'Grady, Scott M; Patil, Nandadavi; Melkamu, Tamene; Maniak, Peter J; Lancto, Cheryl; Kita, Hirohito


      Exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from normal and asthmatic subjects to extracts from Alternaria alternata evoked a rapid and sustained release of ATP with greater efficacy observed in epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Previously, Alternaria allergens were shown to produce a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) that was dependent on the coordinated activation of specific purinergic receptor (P2Y2 and P2X7) subtypes. In the present study, pretreatment with a cell-permeable Ca2+-chelating compound (BAPTA-AM) significantly inhibited ATP release, indicating dependency on [Ca2+]i. Alternaria-evoked ATP release exhibited a greater peak response and a slightly lower EC50 value in cells obtained from asthmatic donors compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from Alternaria treatment was greater in cells from asthmatic patients compared to normal subjects. The vesicle transport inhibitor brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM significantly blocked Alternaria-stimulated incorporation of fluorescent lipid (FM1-43)-labelled vesicles into the plasma membrane and ATP release. In addition, inhibiting uptake of ATP into exocytotic vesicles with bafilomycin also reduced ATP release comparable to the effects of brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM. These results indicate that an important mechanism for Alternaria-induced ATP release is Ca2+ dependent and involves exocytosis of ATP. Serine and cysteine protease inhibitors also reduced Alternaria-induced ATP release; however, the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i typically observed following Alternaria exposure appeared to be independent of protease-activated receptor (PAR2) stimulation.

  10. Effects of cyclic changes in pH and salinity on metals release from sediments. (United States)

    Hong, Yong Seok; Kinney, Kerry A; Reible, Danny D


    The effects of dynamic changes in pH and salinity on metal speciation and release are investigated with sediments posed in a simulated estuarine environment. The release of Zn, Cd, Mn, and Fe was studied using sediment from the Anacostia River (Washington, DC, USA) spiked with freshly precipitated amorphous cadmium sulfide to increase Cd content. The sediment was exposed to salt water (high pH, ionic strength) and freshwater (neutral pH, minimal ionic strength) continuously and alternately (to mimic tidal changes) in small microcosms over 100 d. At the conclusion of the experiments, the vertical profiles of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) as well as porewater metals and anion concentrations were characterized. Acid volatile sulfide oxidation at the sediment surface led to a commensurate increase in dissolved metal species and metal release that was strongly dependent on the changes in the overlying water characteristics. Total Cd release was substantially higher during exposure to salt water, although, as a result of complexation, predicted dissolved Cd(2+) concentration in the overlying water was higher during exposure to freshwater. Total Zn release was little changed during exposure to salt water and freshwater, although the predicted dissolved Zn(2+) concentration was much higher during freshwater exposures. No significant iron was released because of the rapid oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) in aerobic surficial sediments and overlying water. The present study suggests that cyclic changes in pH and salinity in the overlying water can dramatically influence metal release from estuarine sediments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. 3D Printing of Medicines: Engineering Novel Oral Devices with Unique Design and Drug Release Characteristics. (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Telford, Richard; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W


    Three dimensional printing (3D printing) was used to fabricate novel oral drug delivery devices with specialized design configurations. Each device was loaded with multiple actives, with the intent of applying this process to the production of personalized medicines tailored at the point of dispensing or use. A filament extruder was used to obtain drug-loaded--paracetamol (acetaminophen) or caffeine--filaments of poly(vinyl alcohol) with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modeling 3D printing. A multinozzle 3D printer enabled fabrication of capsule-shaped solid devices containing the drug with different internal structures. The design configurations included a multilayer device, with each layer containing drug, whose identity was different to the drug in the adjacent layers, and a two-compartment device comprising a caplet embedded within a larger caplet (DuoCaplet), with each compartment containing a different drug. Raman spectroscopy was used to collect 2-dimensional hyper spectral arrays across the entire surface of the devices. Processing of the arrays using direct classical least-squares component matching to produce false color representations of distribution of the drugs was used. This clearly showed a definitive separation between the drug layers of paracetamol and caffeine. Drug release tests in biorelevant bicarbonate media showed unique drug release profiles dependent on the macrostructure of the devices. In the case of the multilayer devices, release of both paracetamol and caffeine was simultaneous and independent of drug solubility. With the DuoCaplet design, it was possible to engineer either rapid drug release or delayed release by selecting the site of incorporation of the drug in the device; the lag-time for release from the internal compartment was dependent on the characteristics of the external layer. The study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate multiple-drug containing devices with specialized design

  12. Temperature dependence of fission product release rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L.; McGown, M.E.; Reynolds, A.B.


    Fission product fractional release rates, K, used in the Albrecht-Wild model and measured at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Oak Ridge National Laboratory can be fitted well by a single straight line for each fission product over the entire temperature range of the data when in K is plotted as a function of 1/T. Past applications of the Albrecht-Wild model have used plots of ln K versus T, which required three fits over the temperature range. Thus it is suggested that fractional release rates be represented by the Arrhenius form, K = K /SUB o/ exp(-Q/RT).

  13. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.


    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at

  14. Myofascial release of carpal tunnel syndrome. (United States)

    Sucher, B M


    Current treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome may be ineffective or associated with complications or recurrence. In the case reported here, a myofascial release by the physician combined with the patient's self-stretch reduced pain and numbness and improved electromyographic results. The manipulative approach releases the transverse carpal ligament,-and "opens" or dilates the canal. The patient stretches the wrist, digits, and thumb, including myofascial components. An aggressive, conservative approach lessens the need for surgery in mild to moderate cases. Studies with magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful to document canal size before and after treatment.

  15. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter


    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  16. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  17. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) resins are extensively used as binder in fouling-release coatings due to the low critical surface energy and low elastic modulus of PDMS. These properties result in poor adhesion of the fouling organisms, which are therefore detached by hydrodynamic forces during...... navigation [1,2,3]. Other compounds are usually mixed together with the binder (e.g. silica and pigments) in order to improve the mechanical, thixotropic and visual properties of the coatings. It has ben shown, however, that these ingredients have a negative effect on the fouling-release properties...

  18. Mechanisms of renin release from juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Salomonsson, Max; Sellerup Persson, Anja


    In microdissected, nonperfused afferent arterioles changes in intravascular pressure did not affect renin secretion. On the contrary, renin release from isolated afferent arterioles perfused in a free-flow system has been reported to be sensitive to simultaneous changes in luminal pressure and flow....... Hence local blood flow may be involved in the baroreceptor control of renin release. If flow is sensed, the sensor is likely to be located near the endothelial cell layer, where ion channels have been shown to be influenced by variations in shear stress....

  19. Bacteria‐Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen‐Chi; Tolker‐Nielsen, Tim


    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  20. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  1. Non-quantal acetylcholine release at mouse neuromuscular junction: effects of elevated quantal release and aconitine. (United States)

    Yu, S P; Van der Kloot, W


    The rate of non-quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release was estimated at the mouse neuromuscular junction by observing the effect of (+)-tubocurarine on endplate membrane potential or current in preparations pretreated with an irreversible anti-acetylcholinesterase (anti-AChE). Voltage clamping was an effective method for measuring non-quantal release. Non-quantal release was markedly inhibited by 10 microM aconitine. Non-quantal release was not significantly increased by 10 microM dihyroouabain (DHO). (It has been reported that ouabain increases the leak). Non-quantal release was roughly doubled following exposure to hypertonic solution or to elevated K(+)-solution. This is in accord with the hypothesis that the leak is by way of ACh transporters incorporated into the terminal membrane following exocytosis, but other interpretations remain to be tested.

  2. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay (United States)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  3. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.


    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B


    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu


    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  6. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.


    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  7. Gastrointestinal release behaviour of modified-release drug products: dynamic dissolution testing of mesalazine formulations. (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Hatton, Grace B; Merchant, Hamid A; Basit, Abdul W


    The aminosalicylate mesalazine (mesalamine) forms the mainstay of treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC), a disease for which many commercial modified-release products have been developed with the aim of providing targeted gastrointestinal release. The release profiles of five of these commercial formulations were evaluated in bicarbonate buffer using a novel dissolution model that mimics the dynamic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Monolithic and multi-particulate mesalazine formulations with pH-dependent and/or independent release mechanisms were evaluated (Asacol(®) 800, Octasa(®), Mezavant(®) XL, Salofalk(®), Pentasa(®)), and each of the products displayed a distinctive dissolution profile. The dissolution results for Mezavant(®) XL (Lialda(®)) (lag time 290 min) demonstrated good correlation with previously reported in vivo disintegration times assessed by gamma-scintigraphy in humans. Octasa(®) showed a similar lag time to Mezavant(®) XL. Drug release from Asacol(®) 800 (Asacol(®) HD) showed a wide standard deviation, reflecting the great variability in vivo. Salofalk(®) displayed both delayed release and extended release characteristics. Pentasa(®) released more than 50% of its drug load in the stomach compartment of the model, which is attributed to the absence of a gastro-resistant coating in this product. The new dissolution method provided a realistic and discriminative in vitro assessment of mesalazine release from different formulations. These results demonstrate that this strategy can be used to predict intestinal release behaviour, and potentially aid the rational design of products developed to target different sites of the gut. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enhancement of wound closure by modifying dual release patterns of stromal-derived cell factor-1 and a macrophage recruitment agent from gelatin hydrogels. (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko


    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the release patterns of stromal derived factor (SDF)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate agonist (SEW2871), used as MSC and macrophage recruitment agents, on the wound closure of diabetic mouse skin defects. To achieve different release patterns, hydrogels were prepared using two types of gelatin with isoelectric points (IEP) of 5 and 9, into which SDF-1 and SEW2871 were then incorporated in various combinations. When the hydrogels incorporating SDF-1 and SEW2871 were applied into wound defects of diabetic mice, the number of MSCs and macrophages recruited to the defects and the levels of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines were found to be dependent on the release profiles of SDF-1 and SEW2871. Of particular interest was the case of a rapid release of SDF-1 combined with a controlled release of SEW2871. This resulted in a higher number of M2 macrophages and gene expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines 3 days after implantation and faster wound closure than when pairing the controlled release of SDF-1 with a rapid release of SEW2871. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that different release patterns of SDF-1 and SEW2871 can enhance the in vivo recruitment of MSCs and macrophages, and can promote skin wound closure through the modulation of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Improved small molecule drug release from in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds incorporating poly(β-amino ester) and hydroxyapatite microparticles (United States)

    Fisher, Paul D.; Palomino, Pablo; Milbrandt, Todd A.; Hilt, J. Zach; Puleo, David A.


    In situ forming implants are an attractive choice for controlled drug release into a fixed location. Currently, rapidly solidifying solvent exchange systems suffer from a high initial burst, and sustained release behavior is tied to polymer precipitation and degradation rate. The present studies investigated addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and drug-loaded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) microparticles to in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–based systems to prolong release and reduce burst. PBAEs were synthesized, imbibed with simvastatin (osteogenic) or clodronate (anti-resorptive), and then ground into microparticles. Microparticles were mixed with or without HA into a PLGA solution, and the mixture was injected into buffer, leading to precipitation and creating solid scaffolds with embedded HA and PBAE microparticles. Simvastatin release was prolonged through 30 days, and burst release was reduced from 81% to 39% when loaded into PBAE microparticles. Clodronate burst was reduced from 49% to 32% after addition of HA filler, but release kinetics were unaffected after loading into PBAE microparticles. Scaffold dry mass remained unchanged through day 15, with a pronounced increase in degradation rate after day 30, while wet scaffolds experienced a mass increase through day 25 due to swelling. Porosity and pore size changed throughout degradation, likely due to a combination of swelling and degradation. The system offers improved release kinetics, multiple release profiles, and rapid solidification compared to traditional in situ forming implants. PMID:24903524

  10. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology. (United States)

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A


    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  11. Drug-coated microneedles for rapid and painless local anesthesia. (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Yeu-Chun


    This study showed that drug-coated PLLA (Poly (L-lactide)) microneedle arrays can induce rapid and painless local anesthesia. Microneedle arrays were fabricated using a micro-molding technique, and the needle tips were coated with 290.6 ± 45.9 μg of lidocaine, the most widely used local anesthetic worldwide. A dip-coating device was newly designed for the coating step using an optimized coating formulation. Lidocaine coated on the arrays was released rapidly into PBS within 2 min, and its stability in storage lasted 3 weeks at 4, 25, and 37°C. Furthermore, the microneedle arrays showed consistent in vitro skin penetration and delivered 200.8 ± 43.9, 224.2 ± 39.3, and 244.1 ± 19.6 μg of lidocaine into the skin 1, 2, and 5 min after application with a high delivery efficiency of 69, 77, and 84%. Compared to a commercially available topical anesthetic EMLA® cream, a 22.0, 13.6, and 14.0-fold higher amount of lidocaine was delivered into the skin. Note, in vitro skin permeation of Lidocaine was also notably enhanced by a 2-min-application of the lidocaine-coated microneedle arrays. Altogether, these results suggest that the biocompatible lidocaine-coated PLLA microneedle arrays could provide significantly rapid local anesthesia in a painless manner without any of the issues from topical applications or hypodermic injections of local anesthetics.

  12. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part II: Results from a case study. (United States)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje


    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  13. Calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle fibers. (United States)

    Simon, B J; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F


    The steady-state calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied in voltage-clamped, cut segments of frog skeletal muscle fibers containing two calcium indicators, fura-2 and anti-pyrylazo III (AP III). Fura-2 fluorescence was used to monitor resting calcium and relatively small calcium transients during small depolarizations. AP III absorbance signals were used to monitor larger calcium transients during larger depolarizations. The rate of release (Rrel) of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum was calculated from the calcium transients. The equilibrium calcium dependence of inactivation of calcium release was determined using 200-ms prepulses of various amplitudes to elevate [Ca2+] to various steady levels. Each prepulse was followed by a constant test pulse. The suppression of peak Rrel during the test pulse provided a measure of the extent of inactivation of release at the end of the prepulse. The [Ca2+] dependence of inactivation indicated that binding of more than one calcium ion was required to inactivate each release channel. Half-maximal inactivation was produced at a [Ca2+] of approximately 0.3 microM. Variation of the prepulse duration and amplitude showed that the suppression of peak release was consistent with calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release but not with calcium depletion. The same calcium dependence of inactivation was obtained using different amplitude test pulses to determine the degree of inactivation. Prepulses that produced near maximal inactivation of release during the following test pulse produced no suppression of intramembrane charge movement during the test pulse, indicating that inactivation occurred at a step beyond the voltage sensor for calcium release. Three alternative set of properties that were assumed for the rapidly equilibrating calcium-binding sites intrinsic to the fibers gave somewhat different Rrel records, but gave very similar calcium dependence of

  14. Formulation and in vitro, in vivo evaluation of effervescent floating sustained-release imatinib mesylate tablet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kadivar

    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets.Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, with Sodium alginate (SA and Carbomer 934P (CP as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2 at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted.Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec. Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent concentration of plasma up to 24 hours

  15. Formulation and in vitro, in vivo evaluation of effervescent floating sustained-release imatinib mesylate tablet. (United States)

    Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Sabeti, Bahareh; Chung, Lip Yong; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim


    Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets. Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), with Sodium alginate (SA) and Carbomer 934P (CP) as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec) in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted. Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec). Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent concentration of plasma up to 24 hours. In conclusion

  16. Effect of drug-polymer interaction on the release characteristics of methacrylic acid copolymer microcapsules containing theophylline. (United States)

    Hsiue, G H; Liao, C M; Lin, S Y


    Theophylline anhydrate microcapsules with different amounts of MA/MMA copolymer (Eudragit L) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Qualitative as well as quantitative investigation of the drug-polymer interaction by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with a curve fitting program was undertaken. The release mechanisms of theophylline in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 media were also studied to elucidate the effect of drug-polymer interaction on the release characteristics of microcapsules. Direct evidence for a hydrogen bonding interaction between theophylline and Eudragit L in microcapsules was obtained. Moreover, the fraction of hydrogen bonded theophylline increased with the increase of Eudragit L. The dissolution of theophylline from microcapsules exhibited an enteric-coated release property. The drug release mechanism was found to fit the Higuchi matrix model in the simulated gastric acid condition, but drug release was much more rapid in the pH 6.8 buffer solution. The drug release rate decreased as the composition of theophylline increased, and it was proportional to the fraction of hydrogen bonded theophylline. These results suggest that the increased fraction of hydrogen bonded theophylline in microencapsulation might improve the mixing and dispersibility of theophylline in the Eudragit L matrix, thus resulting in the increase of the release rate of theophylline from microcapsules.

  17. Beta-tricalcium phosphate particles as a controlled release carrier of osteogenic proteins for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Hou, Yaping; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Min


    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been widely used as bone substitutes and delivery carriers of osteogenic proteins. However, low protein carrying capacity and agent burst release profiles of β-TCP limit their usage. This study investigates strategies to enhance protein carrying capacity of β-TCP particles with reduced initial burst by surface etching in citric acid solution or by creating apatite coatings with the simulate body fluid immersion approach. The release kinetics of protein from the modified β-TCP particles was investigated using Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1), a novel osteogenic protein, as a model protein. Although chemical etching treatments reduced the initial burst release of protein from the particles, a rapid burst release was observed with high protein dose. In contrast, the burst release of protein was significantly reduced by the apatite coating and a high protein dose was successfully delivered over a prolonged period from the apatite-coated particles. Protein release was further modulated by simultaneously delivering proteins from two different substrates: acid-etched and apatite-coated particles. The bioactivity of the protein was preserved during the loading procedure onto the particles. In addition, protein-loaded particles maintained biological activity in the lyophilized state over 4 weeks. These findings suggest that the protein carrying capacity of β-TCP can be modulated by surface modification, which has a potential for use as a protein carrier with controlled release. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bunched release of gases from oxide targets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L; Evensen, A H M; Jonsson, O C; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Tengblad, O; Barker, J; Drumm, P V; Hagebø, E; Hoff, P; Steffensen, K


    Targets made out of oxides of the alkaline earth metals have been shown at ISOLDE to be among the fastest targets for production of radioactive beams of the rare gas elements. In addition oxide target materials release nitrogen and seem to be the only ones which may release the element carbon due to its oxidation to the high temperature stable CO gas. Thick targets of MgO and CaO have been studied in connection with their use at the 1GeV pulsed proton beam from the PS-BOOSTER synchrotron. It is shown that the 2.4$\\mu$s short proton pulse causes a pronounced bunched release with short delay of these elements which gives rise to 100-200 ms wide pulses of radioactive ion beams. Pulse shapes and overall yields of ion beams of He, Ne and Ar isotopes are studied as function of temperature and proton pulse intensity. For carbon and nitrogen also the release as function of the observed ionic species C$^+$, CO$^+$, N$^+$ and N$_2^+$ is discussed.

  19. Release of "Bella" white bean cultivar (United States)

    "Bella" Reg. No. GP-___, PI ______) is a multiple disease resistant white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar, adapted to the humid tropics that was developed and released cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. The breeding objective was to...

  20. 77 FR 67733 - Release of Waybill Data (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from Neville Peterson LLP on behalf of Trinity Industries, Inc. (WB605-9-- 11/02/12) for...

  1. 77 FR 551 - Release of Waybill Data (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from Neville Peterson LLP on behalf of Trinity Industries, Inc. (WB605-8-12/ 20/11) for permission...

  2. Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to design nano-antibiotic to enhance their release from biomaterial agents. Cefotaxime was used as a model antibiotic substance in this carrier system. These nanoparticles were preformulated using different concentrations of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly (vinyl alcohol) as coating material ...

  3. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  4. Trismus release in oral cancer patients. (United States)

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Lee, Jing-Wei


    Trismus is a common problem among oral cancer patients. This report aimed to study the inciting factors of trismus and to find out the rationale of trismus release. Between 1996 and 2008, 61 oral cancer patients with retrievable records of interincisor distance (IID) were analyzed by retrospective chart review. The IID decreased from 31.4 (12.4) to 24.9 (12.0) mm in 36 patients undergoing cancer ablation only (P = 0.001). Other variables prompting trismus include buccal cancer (P = 0.017), radiotherapy (P = 0.008), and recurrence (P = 0.001). In contrast, the IID improved from 11.7 (7.1) to 22.7 (11.9) mm in 25 patients receiving cancer ablative and trismus releasing surgeries (P = 0.000). The improvement fared better in individuals with IID less than 15 mm than the others (P = 0.037). In conclusion, involvement of buccal region, ablative surgery, radiotherapy, and recurrence are provocative factors of trismus. Patients with IID less than 15 mm will benefit from releasing surgery significantly. Others may better be handled with conservative managements firstly, and enrolled as candidates of surgical release only until the patients entertained a 28-month period of disease-free interval, by which time the risk of recurrence would be markedly reduced.

  5. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.


    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  6. Released Time Religious Education: A Primer (United States)

    Butterfield, Rex M.


    Released time religious education has a long history in the United States, but not all programs have been successful, and others have not even been legal! In this article, the legal history and cases involving religious education are explored with particular emphasis on the three prong Lemon test (named for one of the litigants). Practical…

  7. Enhancement of griseofulvin release from liquisolid compacts. (United States)

    Hentzschel, C M; Alnaief, M; Smirnova, I; Sakmann, A; Leopold, C S


    The potential of hydrophilic aerogel formulations and liquisolid systems to improve the release of poorly soluble drugs was investigated using griseofulvin as model drug. The in vitro release rates of this drug formulated as directly compressed tablets containing crystalline griseofulvin were compared to aerogel tablets with the drug adsorbed onto hydrophilic silica aerogel and to liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved or suspended in PEG 300. Furthermore, the commonly used carrier and coating materials in liquisolid systems Avicel® and Aerosil® were replaced by Neusilin®, an amorphous magnesium aluminometasilicate with an extremely high specific surface area of 339 m²/g to improve the liquisolid approach. Both the liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved in PEG 300 and the aerogel tablets showed a considerably faster drug release than the directly compressed tablets. With liquisolid compacts containing the drug suspended in PEG 300, the release rate increased with rising fraction of dissolved drug in the liquid portion. It could be shown that Neusilin® with its sevenfold higher liquid adsorption capacity than the commonly used Avicel® and Aerosil® allows the production of liquisolid formulations with lower tablet weights. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release of acyclovir. (United States)

    Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Gago-Guillan, Manuel; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier; Veiga, María Dolores


    Mucoadhesive chitosan (CS) and/or hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) tablets for gastric drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV) have been developed in order to improve the ACV oral bioavailability. Swelling, bioadhesive and dissolution studies were carried out in two acidic media (pH 1.5 and 4) in order to determine the tablets behaviour in both fed and fasted states. All the designed tablets showed good mucoadhesive properties on gastric mucosa due to the presence of CS and/or HPMC. In vitro dissolution of ACV from tablets was influenced by the swelling behaviour of each polymer. All data release of the studied tablets fitted to Hopfenberg model, which describes drug release from tablets displaying heterogeneous erosion. HPMC and CS/HPMC tablets revealed a sustained release for 24 h, but a complete dissolution of the tablets was not produced at this time. On the contrary, tablets which contained only CS as polymer were able to release the total amount of ACV for 4 h, due to the CS imbibition and erosion processes in pH 1.5 medium. These results allowed us to conclude that CS is the excipient to be chosen to obtain gastroretentive formulations, due to its demonstrated gastric compatibility.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    their tendency to undergo electrochemical corrosion while in contact with physiological fluids. The electrochemical reaction resulting to the release of metal ions is coupled with a corresponding reduction reaction of constituents in the aqueous environment to maintain charge neutrality [3]. The oral cavity is warm and damp, ...

  10. released in ethiopia from 1949 to 1987

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 19, 1994 ... to control weeds. Adequate levels of nutrients were also suppfied. Significant differences were' observed am0ng cultivars for all crop parameters studied. .... Origin, selecfion site, and year of release of 13 bread wheat culfivars included in the yield study ... incorporated as urea and triple superphosphaœ,.

  11. Studies on renin release in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O


    1) Measurements of renin secretion from single arterioles at time intervals down to 20 seconds showed that the renin secretion is episodic, the amount of renin released during each episode corresponding to the estimated content of one secretory granule. 2) A decrease in osmolality elicits episodi...

  12. Release Properties of Paracetamol Granulationa Formulated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various granulations of paracetamol were prepared with TCG at the concentrations of 0.5 – 4% w/w. Similar formulations were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, SCMC and acacia gums as standards. In each case the release properties of the drug were studied in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 N NaOH. Generally ...

  13. Modelling biocide release based on coating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Baukh, V.


    Growth of micro-organisms on coated substrates is a common problem, since it reduces the performance of materials, in terms of durability as well as aesthetics. In order to prevent microbial growth biocides are frequently added to coatings. Unfortunately, early release of these biocides reduces the

  14. Pan-STARRS Data Release 2 (United States)

    Flewelling, Heather


    On December 19, 2016, Pan-STARRS released the stacked images, mean attributes catalogs, and static sky catalogs for the 3pi survey, in 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y), covering 3/4 of the sky, everything north of -30 in declination. This set of data is called Data Release 1 (DR1), and it is available to all at It contains more than 10 billion objects, 3 billion of those objects have stack photometry. We give an update on the progress of the forthcoming Data Release (DR2) database, which will provide time domain catalogs and single exposures for the 3pi survey. This includes 3pi data taken between 2010 and 2014, covering approximately 60 epochs per patch of sky, and includes measurements detected in the single exposures as well as forced photometry measurements (photometry measured on single exposures using the positions from sources detected in the stacks). We also provide informations on futures releases (DR3 and beyond), which will contain the rest of the 3pi database (specifically, the data products related to difference imaging), as well as the data products for the Medium Deep (MD) survey.

  15. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.


    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

  16. Tubulobulbar complex: Cytoskeletal remodeling to release spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Rahul D


    Full Text Available Abstract Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs are actin-based structures that help establish close contact between Sertoli–Sertoli cells or Sertoli–mature germ cells (spermatids in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. They are actin-rich push-through devices that eliminate excess spermatid cytoplasm and prepare mature spermatids for release into the tubular lumen. Just prior to spermiation, the elongated spermatid interacts with the Sertoli cell via an extensive structure comprising various adhesion molecules called the apical ectoplasmic specialization which is partially replaced by the apical TBC, on the concave surface of the spermatid head. The sperm release process involves extensive restructuring, namely the disassembly and reassembly of junctions at the Sertoli–spermatid interface in the seminiferous epithelium. Based on the presence of different classes of molecules in the TBCs or the defects observed in the absence of TBCs, the main functions attributed to TBCs are elimination of excess spermatid cytoplasm, endocytosis and recycling of junctional molecules, shaping of the spermatid acrosome, and forming transient anchoring devices for mature spermatids before they are released. This review summarizes the recent findings that focus on the role of TBCs in cell cytoskeleton restructuring during sperm release in the testes and the molecular mechanism involved.

  17. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho


    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  18. Physical and Release Properties of Metronidazole Suppositories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: A study was made of the effects of some bases and adjuvants on the physical and release properties of metronidazole suppositories with a view to providing more information for the optimization of the rectal formulation of metronidazole. Method: Suppositories (1g) containing 200mg of metronidazole each were ...

  19. Design of protein-releasing chitosan channels. (United States)

    Kim, Howard; Tator, Charles H; Shoichet, Molly S


    After traumatic injury to the spinal cord, the neural tissue degenerates, resulting in lost function below the site of injury. Promoting axonal regeneration after injury remains a challenge; however, guidance channels have demonstrated some success when combined with cellular and protein therapies. One of the limitations of current guidance channels is the inability to deliver therapeutically relevant molecules in situ, within the guidance channel, to enhance regeneration. In an effort to provide a system for local and sustained drug release, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres were embedded into chitosan guidance channels by a novel spin-coating technique. The method was designed to create guidance channels with the appropriate dimensions for implantation into the spinal cord, with special attention paid to the wall thickness. The release and bioactivity of a model protein, alkaline phosphatase, was followed from the channels and compared to those from free-floating microspheres over a 90-day period. Since chitosan formulations often require the use of acidic solutions, careful attention was paid to redesign the process to minimize exposure of PLGA microspheres to acid. This was achieved as demonstrated by release and bioactivity data where alkaline phosphatase released from chitosan/microsphere channels followed a profile and bioactivity similar to those of free floating microspheres.

  20. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Liem


    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors, self-efficacy (personal factors, and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have largely been based on general delinquents serving relatively short prison terms. This study aims to shed light on the influence of social, personal, and institutional factors on post-release success versus failure among paroled lifers. We conducted in-depth life-history interviews with 64 individuals who had served a life sentence, who were either re-incarcerated for another crime or parole violation, or were currently out on parole. The role of social factors in desistance among long-term incarcerated offenders was minimal. Rather, self-efficacy appeared to be a key element in post-release success. These findings suggest that research based on short-term incarcerated offenders cannot be directly translated to long-term incarcerated offenders. This group does not experience the same traditional turning points, such as establishing family ties and employment. Accordingly, long-term prisoners may go through a different process post-release that determines their success versus failure compared to general delinquents who serve shorter sentences.

  1. Release Kids to the Right People. (United States)

    DeLoria, David P.


    To ensure that children are released to the right people during the school day, Livonia Primary School (New York) devised a student identification card for parents. Parents can give the card or identification number to a friend, relative, or baby-sitter picking up a child--an improved security arrangement. (MLH)

  2. Horizant: gabapentin enacarbil extended-release tablets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... enacarbil extended-release tablets for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RLS in adults. Gabapentin enacarbil is not recommended for patients required to sleep during the daytime and remain awake at night. Efficacy. Gabapentin enacarbil efficacy was established in two 12-week clinical studies in adults diagnosed with RLS using the International Restless ...

  3. Functional heterogeneity at dopamine release sites. (United States)

    Daniel, James A; Galbraith, Sally; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Abdipranoto, Andrea; Vissel, Bryce


    Although drugs used to treat several neurological diseases are presumed to target synapses that secrete dopamine (DA), relatively little is known about synaptic vesicle (SV) release mechanisms at single DA synapses. We found that the relative probability of release (Pr) varied between individual DA synapses. Furthermore, DA terminals generally exhibited lower Pr than glutamatergic hippocampal (Hpc) terminals, suggesting that DA release is less reliable than the release of glutamate. Our mathematical model of fluorescence loss shows that Pr is regulated by two independent and heterogeneous elements. First, the size of the recycling SV pool regulates Pr. Second, Pr is also independently regulated by additional factors, which are reflected in the time constant of FM 1-43 destaining, tau. We found that the observed difference in Pr between Hpc and DA neurons results because the recycling SV pool is smaller in DA neurons than in Hpc neurons. However, tau does not vary between these two neuron populations. We also identified a population of functional nonsynaptic boutons in DA axons, which are not associated with a postsynaptic element and which are not functionally different from boutons that formed conventional synapses. Our work provides a new approach to the study of SV exocytosis in DA neurons and shows that synaptic terminals of DA neurons are functionally heterogeneous and differ from excitatory terminals in terms of Pr.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation...

  5. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.F.M.; Keuten, M.G.A.; Daanen, H.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Dijk, H.


    The amount of pollutants brought into the swimming pool water by swimmers is called anthropogenic pollutant release. The continual pollutant release is the amount of pollutants which is released during the submerged swimming period. The actual level of the continual pollutant release has not been

  6. 14 CFR 125.359 - Flight release under VFR. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release under VFR. 125.359 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.359 Flight release under VFR. No person may release an airplane for VFR operation unless the ceiling and...

  7. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens. (United States)

    Hoorfar, J


    As food safety management further develops, microbiological testing will continue to play an important role in assessing whether Food Safety Objectives are achieved. However, traditional microbiological culture-based methods are limited, particularly in their ability to provide timely data. The present review discusses the reasons for the increasing interest in rapid methods, current developments in the field, the research needs, and the future trends. The advent of biotechnology has introduced new technologies that led to the emergence of rapid diagnostic methods and altered food testing practices. Rapid methods are comprised of many different detection technologies, including specialized enzyme substrates, antibodies and DNA, ranging from simple differential plating media to the use of sophisticated instruments. The use of non-invasive sampling techniques for live animals especially came into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses of rapid methods is for fast screening of large number of samples, where most of them are expected to be test-negative, leading to faster product release for sale. This has been the main strength of rapid methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Enrichment PCR, where a primary culture broth is tested in PCR, is the most common approach in rapid testing. Recent reports show that it is possible both to enrich a sample and enumerate by pathogen-specific real-time PCR, if the enrichment time is short. This can be especially useful in situations where food producers ask for the level of pathogen in a contaminated product. Another key issue is automation, where the key drivers are miniaturization and multiple testing, which mean that not only one instrument is flexible

  8. Neutrophil Integrins and Matrix Ligands and NET Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Reichner


    Full Text Available Neutrophils are motile and responsive to tissue injury and infection. As neutrophils emigrate from the bloodstream and migrate towards a site of affliction, they encounter the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM and thereby engage integrins. Our laboratory studies the neutrophilic response to the fungal pathogen Candida albicans either in the filamentous state of the microbe or to the purified pathogen-associated molecular pattern, β-glucan. We have gained an appreciation for the role of integrins in regulating the neutrophil anti-Candida response and how the presence or absence of ECM can drive experimental outcome. The β2 integrin CR3 (Complement Receptor 3; αMβ2; Mac-1; CD11b/CD18 plays an important role in fungal recognition by its ability to bind β-glucan at a unique lectin-like domain. The presence of ECM differentially regulates essential neutrophil anti-fungal functions including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, homotypic aggregation, and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis. We have shown that NET release to C. albicans hyphae or immobilized β-glucan occurs rapidly and without the requirement for respiratory burst on ECM. This is in contrast to the more frequently reported mechanisms of NETosis to other pathogens without the context of ECM which occur after a prolonged lag period and require respiratory burst. As expected for an ECM-dependent phenotype, NETosis and other neutrophil functions are dependent on specific β1 integrins. The focus of this review is the role of ECM ligation by neutrophil integrins as it pertains to host defense functions with an emphasis on lessons we have learned studying the anti-Candida response of human neutrophils.

  9. Formulation optimization study for an immediate-release tablet. (United States)

    Kyriacos, Soula; Dimassi, Hani


    A simple method based on statistical analysis was used to optimize an immediate-release tablet formulation that includes a water soluble drug. The objective of this study was to optimize different factors to develop a tablet formulation that has good tablet characteristics (hardness of 85 to 90 Newtons), disintegration time between 3 to 6 minutes, and friability of less than 1%. The critical formulation/process factors were the type and concentration of microcrystalline cellulose, the ratio of lactose to microcrystalline cellulose, the concentration of croscarmellose, and the the compression force. A two-step approach was implemented. First an optimization study was performed to determine the type of microcrystalline cellulose and its ratio to lactose. Subsequently, a final optimization formulation study was performed based on the results obtained in the preliminary study. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 15 (Statistical Software for Social Sciences). The differences in means between the formulation and the targeted product were tested using the independent t-test. The optimization study gave the following results: croscarmellose 1%, anhydrous lactose: Avicel PH-302 at a ratio of 3 to 1, magnesium stearate 0.25% compressed into tablets at a pressure of 2.5 tons. A high P value reflected no statistical difference with the reference product. A final formulation was scaled up to 52 tablets and product quality was confirmed. The new formulation was successfully developed using a simple two-step approach. The results of the study in terms of disintegration, hardness, and friability showed no statistically significant defference between the new and the targeted formulation. Statistical analysis provides a systemic approach and allows a rapid and effective way to compound an immediate-release tablet for a water-soluble drug.

  10. Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphoprotein Phosphatases, and Microparticle Release in Vascular Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Abbasian, Nima; Burton, James O; Herbert, Karl E; Tregunna, Barbara-Emily; Brown, Jeremy R; Ghaderi-Najafabadi, Maryam; Brunskill, Nigel J; Goodall, Alison H; Bevington, Alan


    Hyperphosphatemia in patients with advanced CKD is thought to be an important contributor to cardiovascular risk, in part because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi). Such patients also have an elevated circulating concentration of procoagulant endothelial microparticles (MPs), leading to a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to acute occlusive events. We hypothesized that hyperphosphatemia leads to MP formation from ECs through an elevation of intracellular Pi concentration, which directly inhibits phosphoprotein phosphatases, triggering a global increase in phosphorylation and cytoskeletal changes. In cultured human ECs (EAhy926), incubation with elevated extracellular Pi (2.5 mM) led to a rise in intracellular Pi concentration within 90 minutes. This was mediated by PiT1/slc20a1 Pi transporters and led to global accumulation of tyrosine- and serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins, a marked increase in cellular Tropomyosin-3, plasma membrane blebbing, and release of 0.1- to 1-μm-diameter MPs. The effect of Pi was independent of oxidative stress or apoptosis. Similarly, global inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatases with orthovanadate or fluoride yielded a global protein phosphorylation response and rapid release of MPs. The Pi-induced MPs expressed VE-cadherin and superficial phosphatidylserine, and in a thrombin generation assay, they displayed significantly more procoagulant activity than particles derived from cells incubated in medium with a physiologic level of Pi (1 mM). These data show a mechanism of Pi-induced cellular stress and signaling, which may be widely applicable in mammalian cells, and in ECs, it provides a novel pathologic link between hyperphosphatemia, generation of MPs, and thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. [Harmful impact of biological agents released at metalworking]. (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Kozajda, Anna; Zielińska-Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena


    In metalworking, the temperature of the cutting edge can reach 700 degrees C, which can adversely affect either the surface of the metal processed or the cutting edge itself. To reduce the heat and friction, the metalworking fluids and coolants are used. The most common are the oil-in-water emulsions, which are a mixture of concentrated mineral oils, different additives, and water. The presence of water and organic substrates generates conditions for microbial growth. Bacterial endotoxins can also be frequently detected in metalworking fluids. Rapid rotation of the metalworking tools makes various biological agents to be released as droplet bioaerosols that can be inhaled by the workers, thus producing adverse health effects, mainly on the respiratory system. More than 130 species of bacteria (including pathogens), moulds and yeasts have so far been found in the metalworking fluids and coolants. This paper summarizes the outcomes of projects on the impact of biological agents present in metalworking fluids. Exposure to oil mist, bacteria and endotoxins as well as the variety of health effects resulting from that exposure have been discussed. The findings indicate that the most frequent symptoms reported by the workers include cough with phlegm, wheezing breath, chest tightness and throat irritation. The most common among the diagnosed diseases are chronic allergic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and acute respiratory dysfunction indicated by decreased FEV1 values. The main skin diseases include oil acne, bacterial infections, dermatomycosis and allergic reactions. The review made the authors conclude that the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents released with coolants during metalworking has not been well recognized in Poland.

  12. Critical role of peripheral drug actions in experience-dependent changes in nucleus accumbens glutamate release induced by intravenous cocaine (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.


    Recent studies reveal that cocaine experience results in persistent neuroadaptive changes within glutamate (Glu) synapses in brain areas associated with drug reward. However, it remains unclear whether cocaine affects Glu release in drug-naive animals and how it is altered by drug experience. By using high-speed amperometry with enzyme-based and enzyme-free biosensors in freely moving rats, we show that an initial intravenous cocaine injection at a low self-administering dose (1 mg/kg) induces rapid, small and transient Glu release in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc), which with subsequent injections rapidly becomes a much stronger, two-component increase. Using cocaine-methiodide, cocaine’s analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, we confirm that the initial cocaine-induced Glu release in the NAc has a peripheral neural origin. Unlike cocaine, Glu responses induced by cocaine-methiodide rapidly habituate following repeated exposure. However, after cocaine experience this drug induces cocaine-like Glu responses. Hence, the interoceptive actions of cocaine, which essentially precede its direct actions in the brain, play a critical role in experience-dependent alterations in Glu release, cocaine-induced neural sensitization and may contribute to cocaine addiction. PMID:24111505

  13. [Preparation and release behaviour of mesoporous silica/ethylcellulose sustained-release mini-matrix]. (United States)

    Wu, Qiao-li; Quan, Gui-lan; Hong, Yu; Wu, Lin-na; Zeng, You-mei; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuan-bin


    Hot-melt extrusion was applied to prepare mesoporous silica/ethylcellulose mini-matrix for sustained release, and fenofibrate was used as a model drug, ethylcellulose and xanthan gum were chosen as sustained-release agent and releasing moderator, respectively. This novel matrix obtained the controlled release ability by combining mesoporous silica drug delivery system and hot-melt extrusion technology. And mesoporous silica particle (SBA-15) was chosen as drug carrier to increase the dissolution rate of fenofibrate in this martix. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, small angle X-ray powder diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption were introduced to determine the particle morphology, particle size and pore structure of the synthesized SBA-15. The results showed that SBA-15 had a very high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, a narrow pore size distribution, large pore volume and a ordered two-dimensional hexagonal structure of p6mm symmetry. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction results demonstrated that fenofibrate dispersed in an amorphous state inside the pores of the mesoporous silica which contributed to the improvement in the dissolution rate. The drug release of mini-matrices was influenced by ethylcellulose viscosity grades and xanthan gum concentration, which increased with the increasing of xanthan gum concentration and decreasing of ethylcellulose viscosity. Mini-matrix containing 22% xanthan gum exhibited a good sustained release performance, and the drug release behavior followed the first-order kinetics.

  14. Design, in vitro release characterization and pharmacokinetics of novel controlled release pellets containing levodropropizine. (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Piao, Yong-Nan; Choi, Jae-Seung; Liu, Yan; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao


    This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40 °C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F = 95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.

  15. Sperm release strategies in marine broadcast spawners: the costs of releasing sperm quickly. (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Bolton, Toby F


    When under competition for fertilisations, males are thought to increase their reproductive success by releasing as many sperm as possible into the reproductive arena and in many species, this prediction holds. For marine invertebrates, which utilise the ancestral strategy of broadcast spawning eggs and sperm, however, it appears that males tend to release their sperm more slowly than females release their eggs. Marine invertebrate eggs typically have a relatively slow permanent block to polyspermy (whereby eggs become impermeable to further sperm attachment), and for several minutes after fertilisation, sperm can continue to attach to a fertilised egg. We hypothesised that releasing sperm slowly minimises the 'wastage' of sperm on already fertilised eggs. We simulated different sperm release rates in a flume using the broadcast spawning polychaete, Galeolaria caespitosa. Sperm release rates strongly affected overall fertilisation success: higher release rates resulted in lower fertilisation rates. Laboratory studies confirmed that the 'permanent' block to polyspermy in G. caespitosa took less than a minute to form but this lag was sufficient to result in some sperm wastage. Thus upstream, fertilised eggs that have not formed a permanent block to polyspermy can remove sperm from the pool that would otherwise fertilise downstream sibling eggs. We suggest that while electrical blocks to polyspermy evolved in response to excess sperm, permanent blocks to polyspermy could have evolved in response to sperm limitation (insufficient sperm).

  16. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias


    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  17. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia


    Elliot, James Robertson


    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  18. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007. (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M


    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  19. Molecular mechanisms for synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G


    Most neuronal communication relies upon the synchronous release of neurotransmitters, which occurs through synaptic vesicle exocytosis triggered by action potential invasion of a presynaptic bouton. However, neurotransmitters are also released asynchronously with a longer, variable delay following an action potential or spontaneously in the absence of action potentials. A compelling body of research has identified roles and mechanisms for synchronous release, but asynchronous release and spontaneous release are less well understood. In this review, we analyze how the mechanisms of the three release modes overlap and what molecular pathways underlie asynchronous and spontaneous release. We conclude that the modes of release have key fusion processes in common but may differ in the source of and necessity for Ca(2+) to trigger release and in the identity of the Ca(2+) sensor for release.

  20. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A


    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  1. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration. (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L


    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  2. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead


    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  3. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms. (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul


    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Single-Layer Ternary Chalcogenide Nanosheet as a Fluorescence-Based "Capture-Release" Biomolecular Nanosensor. (United States)

    Kenry; Geldert, Alisha; Lai, Zhuangchai; Huang, Ying; Yu, Peng; Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Hua; Lim, Chwee Teck


    The novel application of two-dimensional (2D) single-layer ternary chalcogenide nanosheets as "capture-release" fluorescence-based biomolecular nanosensors is demonstrated. Fluorescently labeled biomolecular probe is first captured by the ultrathin Ta2 NiS5 nanosheets and then released upon adding analyte containing a target biomolecule due to the higher probe-target affinity. Here, the authors use a nucleic acid probe for the model target biomolecule Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, which is an important malarial biomarker. The ultrathin Ta2 NiS5 nanosheet serves as a highly efficient fluorescence quencher and the nanosensor developed from the nanosheet is highly sensitive and specific toward the target biomolecule. Apart from the specificity toward the target biomolecule in homogeneous solutions, the developed nanosensor is capable of detecting and differentiating the target in heterogeneous solutions consisting of either a mixture of biomolecules or serum, with exceptional specificity. The simplicity of the "capture-release" method, by eliminating the need for preincubation of the probe with the test sample, may facilitate further development of portable and rapid biosensors. The authors anticipate that this ternary chalcogenide nanosheet-based biomolecular nanosensor will be useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of a wide range of chemical and biological species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite (United States)

    Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.


    Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 μM As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

  6. A scoping review of rapid review methods. (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E


    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  7. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)


    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  8. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics. (United States)

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M


    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  9. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship. (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie


    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  10. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  11. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  12. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  13. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods. (United States)


    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  14. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  15. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.


    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  16. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A


    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  17. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  18. Blockade of the growth hormone (GH) receptor unmasks rapid GH-releasing peptide-6-mediated tissue-specific insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); L.J. Hofland (Leo); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); M. Bidlingmaier (Martin); C.J. Strasburger; J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)


    textabstractThe roles of GH and its receptor (GHR) in metabolic control are not yet fully understood. We studied the roles of GH and the GHR using the GHR antagonist pegvisomant for metabolic control of healthy nonobese men in fasting and nonfasting conditions. Ten

  19. Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Results in Rapid Interleukin-1β Release and Macrophage Transepithelial Migration (United States)

    Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten


    Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1β abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1β processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1β processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage. PMID:22778093

  20. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer


    Ding, H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Li, W. H.; Zheng, X. Z.; Wang, M. K.; Tang, L. N.; Chen, D. L.


    A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF) was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient ...

  1. GH does not modulate the early fasting-induced release of free fatty acids in mice. (United States)

    Steyn, F J; Leong, J W; Huang, L; Tan, H Y; Xie, T Y; Nelson, C; Waters, M J; Veldhuis, J D; Epelbaum, J; Chen, C


    Fasting results in the mobilization of adipose stores and the elevation of levels of free fatty acids (FFA). In humans, this process is driven by a release in GH. Little is known regarding the role of GH in modulating this process during early stages of fasting in the mouse. Confirmation of the role of GH in modulating FFA release in the fasting mouse is of particular importance given the frequent use of mouse models to study metabolic mechanisms. Here, we correlate the initial release of FFA throughout fasting in mice with pulsatile GH secretion. Observations illustrate the rapid release of FFA in response to food withdrawal. This does not correlate with a rise in GH secretion. Rather, we observed a striking loss in pulsatile secretion of GH throughout the first 6 h of fasting, suggesting that GH does not modulate the initial release of FFA in the mouse in response to fasting. This was confirmed in GH receptor knockout mice, in which we observed a robust fasting-induced rise in FFA. We further illustrate the dynamic relationship between the orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones ghrelin and leptin during fasting in the mouse. Our findings show an initial suppression of leptin and the eventual rise in circulating levels of acyl-ghrelin with fasting. However, altered acyl-ghrelin and leptin secretion occurs well after the rise in FFA and the suppression of GH secretion. Consequently, we conclude that although acyl-ghrelin and leptin may modulate the physiological response to drive food intake, these changes do not contribute to the initial loss of pulsatile GH secretion. Rather, it appears that the suppression of GH secretion in fasting may occur in response to an elevation in fasting levels of FFA or physiological stress. Observations highlight a divergent role for GH in modulating FFA release between man and mouse.

  2. Redox controls on arsenic enrichment and release from aquifer sediments in central Yangtze River Basin (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael V.; Guo, Xinxin; Gan, Yiqun; Benner, Shawn G.; Griffin, Aron M.; Gorski, Christopher A.; Wang, Yanxin; Fendorf, Scott


    More than 100 million people in Asia are presently exposed to groundwater with arsenic (As) concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization standard of 10 μg L-1. Arsenic contaminated groundwater within basins of the central portion of the Yangtze River has recently been reported, but the processes controlling arsenic concentrations have yet to be resolved. We examined the hydrologic and geochemical factors controlling arsenic within the Jianghan Plain, an inland sedimentary basin of the Yangtze River, where arsenic concentrations exhibit strong seasonal variability driven by surface and groundwater mixing (Schaefer et al., 2016). Hydrologic fluctuations alter redox conditions in the aquifer, leading to oscillations between arsenic/iron reduction and oxidation. Here we investigate the depth-distribution of solid and aqueous phase iron and arsenic species and, through a series of laboratory manipulations, constrain the biogeochemical processes controlling seasonal changes in groundwater arsenic concentrations. In sediment incubations from ∼20 m below the surface, where solid-phase arsenic concentrations exceed 100 mg kg-1, both unamended and glucose-amended sediment samples result in arsenic release to the aqueous phase. In situ carbon was capable of promoting As release in the sediment. In contrast, sediment batch incubations from other depths resulted in limited As release. Solid phase arsenic in the enriched zone was relatively oxidized but may become reduced over short time periods. In sediments below the As-enriched zone, glucose amendment resulted in arsenic reduction, but arsenic release to the aqueous phase was restricted by the subsequent formation of arsenic sulfide minerals. Buried sedimentary arsenic coupled with anaerobic microbial respiration of subsurface organic carbon within the Jianghan Plain aquifer leads to rapid release of As to groundwater. Arsenic release from sediments at ∼20 m depth is sufficient to explain arsenic concentrations

  3. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos


    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  4. Multifunctional implant coatings providing possibilities for fast antibiotics loading with subsequent slow release. (United States)

    Brohede, Ulrika; Forsgren, Johan; Roos, Stefan; Mihranyan, Albert; Engqvist, Håkan; Strømme, Maria


    The possibility to fast-load biomimetic hydroxyapatite coatings on surgical implant with the antibiotics Amoxicillin, Gentamicin sulfate, Tobramycin and Cephalothin has been investigated in order to develop a multifunctional implant device offering sustained local anti-bacterial treatment and giving the surgeon the possibility to choose which antibiotics to incorporate in the implant at the site of surgery. Physical vapor deposition was used to coat titanium surfaces with an adhesion enhancing gradient layer of titanium oxide having an amorphous oxygen poor composition at the interface and a crystalline bioactive anatase TiO(2) composition at the surface. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was biomimetically grown on the bioactive TiO(2) to serve as a combined bone in-growth promoter and drug delivery vehicle. The coating was characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antibiotics were loaded into the HA coatings via soaking and the subsequent release and antibacterial effect were analyzed using UV spectroscopy and examination of inhibition zones in a Staphylococcus aureus containing agar. It was found that a short drug loading time of 15 min ensured antibacterial effects after 24 h for all antibiotics under study. It was further found that the release processes of Cephalothin and Amoxicillin consisted of an initial rapid drug release that varied unpredictably in amount followed by a reproducible and sustained release process with a release rate independent of the drug loading times under study. Thus, implants that have been fast-loaded with drugs could be stored for ~10 min in a simulated body fluid after loading to ensure reproducibility in the subsequent release process. Calculated release rates and measurements of drug amounts remaining in the samples after 22 h of release indicated that a therapeutically relevant dose could be achieved close to the implant surface for about 2 days. Concluding

  5. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  6. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong


    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  7. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew


    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  8. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades. (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael


    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meltable magnetic biocomposites for controlled release (United States)

    Müller, R.; Zhou, M.; Dellith, A.; Liebert, T.; Heinze, T.


    New biocompatible composites with adjustable melting point in the range of 30-140 °C, consisting of magnetite nanoparticles embedded into a matrix of meltable dextran fatty acid ester are presented which can be softened under an induced alternating magnetic field (AMF). The chosen thermoplastic magnetic composites have a melting range close to human body temperature and can be easily shaped into disk or coating film under melting. The composite disks were loaded with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model protein. Controlled release of the protein was realized with high frequent alternating magnetic field of 20 kA/m at 400 kHz. These results showed that under an AMF the release of GFP from magnetic composite was accelerated compared to the control sample without exposure to AMF. Furthermore a texturing of particles in the polymer matrix by a static magnetic field was investigated.

  10. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.


    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  11. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala


    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  12. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Renato [Department of Environmental Engineering, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Avenida Tres de Marco, no 511, CEP 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Biotechnology, University of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie [Department of Environmental Engineering, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Avenida Tres de Marco, no 511, CEP 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira [Department of Biotechnology, University of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Avenida Tres de Marco, no 511, CEP 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Dias Filho, Newton L. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Avenida Tres de Marco, no 511, CEP 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lima, Renata [Department of Biotechnology, University of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Avenida Tres de Marco, no 511, CEP 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 {+-} 0.74 {mu}m and 5.63 {+-} 0.68 {mu}m, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  13. Release of toxic microvesicles by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.


    Nowotny, A; Behling, U H; Hammond, B.; Lai, C H; Listgarten, M; Pham, P H; Sanavi, F


    Oral isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (strain Y4) release spherical microvesicles in large numbers during normal growth. The biological activities of these products were studied, and it was estimated that approximately 1/10 of their dry weight was made up of heat- and proteolysis-resistant endotoxin. The chicken embryo lethality and bone-resorbing activity of the microvesicles were heat stable but proteolysis sensitive. Other laboratories have reported the presence of a heat- ...

  14. EIA new releases, November--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Thus publication contains information compiled by the Energy information administration (EIA) on the following topics: heating fuel supplies; alternative fuel vehicles; natural gas production; clean air laws and coal transportation; EIA`s world Wide Web Site; EIA`s CD-ROM; Press Releases; Microfiched products; electronic publishing; new reports; machine-readable files; how to order EIA publications; and Energy Data Information Contracts.

  15. Thermal-induced force release in oxyhemoglobin


    S. G. Gevorkian; Allahverdyan, A.E.; Gevorgyan, D. S.; Chin-Kun Hu


    Oxygen is released to living tissues via conformational changes of hemoglobin from R-state (oxyhemoglobin) to T-state (desoxyhemoglobin). The detailed mechanism of this process is not yet fully understood. We have carried out micromechanical experiments on oxyhemoglobin crystals to determine the behavior of the Young?s modulus and the internal friction for temperatures between 20??C and 70??C. We have found that around 49??C oxyhemoglobin crystal samples undergo a sudden and strong increase o...

  16. Release of hyaluronate from eukaryotic cells.


    Prehm, P


    The mechanism of hyaluronate shedding from eukaryotic cell lines was analysed. All cell lines shed identical sizes of hyaluronate as were retained on the surface. They differed in the amount of hyaluronate synthesized and in the proportions of hyaluronate which were released and retained. A method was developed which could discriminate between shedding due to intramolecular degradation and that due to dissociation as intact macromolecules. This method was applied to B6 and SV3T3 cells in orde...

  17. Herwig++ 2.5 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C.A.; Siodmok, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)


    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.5) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: new next-to-leading order matrix elements, including weak boson pair production; a colour reconnection model; diffractive processes; additional models of physics beyond the Standard Model; new leading-order matrix elements for hadron-hadron and lepton-lepton collisions as well as photon-initiated processes. (orig.)

  18. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Andreopoulos, C. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Athar, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Bodek, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Christy, E. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coopersmith, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dennis, S. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept .of Physics; Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gallagher, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Geary, N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Golan, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hatcher, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hoshina, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics. Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center; Liu, J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mahn, K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Marshall, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nirkko, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics. Lab. for High Energy Physics (LHEP); Nowak, J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Perdue, G. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarba, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  19. Quantifying dispersal of european culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae vectors between farms using a novel mark-release-recapture technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kirkeby

    Full Text Available Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC as marking agent without anaesthesia. Using a plate scanner, this detection technique can be used to analyse thousands of individual Culicoides specimens per day at a reasonable cost. We marked and released an estimated 853 specimens of the Pulicaris group and 607 specimens of the Obsoletus group on a cattle farm in Denmark. An estimated 9,090 (8,918-9,260 Obsoletus group specimens and 14,272 (14,194-14,448 Pulicaris group specimens were captured in the surroundings and subsequently analysed. Two (0.3% Obsoletus group specimens and 28 (4.6% Pulicaris group specimens were recaptured. The two recaptured Obsoletus group specimens were caught at the release point on the night following release. Eight (29% of the recaptured Pulicaris group specimens were caught at a pig farm 1,750 m upwind from the release point. Five of these were recaptured on the night following release and the three other were recaptured on the second night after release. This is the first time that movement of Culicoides vectors between farms in Europe has been directly quantified. The findings suggest an extensive and rapid exchange of disease vectors between farms. Rapid movement of vectors between neighboring farms may explain the the high rate of spatial spread of Schmallenberg and bluetongue virus (BTV in northern Europe.

  20. The role of a detailed aqueous phase source release model in the LANL Area G performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Hollis, D.; Longmire, P.; Springer, E.; Birdsell, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shuman, R. [Rogers Engineering Associates, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The Performance Assessment for the LANL Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility, Area G, is on-going. A detailed review of the inventory data base records and the existing models for source release led to the development of a new modeling capability to describe the liquid phase aqueous transport from the waste package volumes. Inventory is sorted into four release form categories and screened in a comparison of leachate concentrations to the drinking water limit. Percolation through the disposal unit is prescribed in an independent surface water balance model incorporating site rainfall statistics. Waste package types and the disposal unit matrix have independently specified solubility limits and solid-liquid phase partition coefficients, or Kd values. Analytic solutions for inventory limited release of each nuclide in each of the four different waste package release forms are computed. Isotopic contributions are summed over elements to limit the waste package liquid phase concentrations to the elemental solubility limits. Time dependent releases from the waste packages for each nuclide which may be inventory or solubility limited are specified as model output which is provided as the source term to the unsaturated transport model. The waste package efflux is distributed over the 2-D unsaturated zone model grid points corresponding to the cross-sections for 5 representative disposal units within the mesa top. Results show the Area G release is dominated by the inventory in the rapid release waste form (Kd = 0), which percolates from the waste packages over 5--100 years and from the disposal unit over 50--1,000 years. Nuclides in waste package categories with larger Kd values are released proportionately slower. U and Th are the main nuclides of concern released as solubility limited nuclides from the historical inventory at Area G.