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Sample records for rapid bone loss

  1. Rapid cortical bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Komandah-Kosseh, Mafo; Zhang, Chiyuan A; McMahon, Donald J; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may have high rates of bone loss and fractures, but microarchitectural and biochemical mechanisms of bone loss in CKD patients have not been fully described. In this longitudinal study of 53 patients with CKD Stages 2 to 5D, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), and biochemical markers of bone metabolism to elucidate effects of CKD on the skeleton. Median follow-up was 1.5 years (range 0.9 to 4.3 years); bone changes were annualized and compared with baseline. By DXA, there were significant declines in areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip and ultradistal radius: -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 to -0.6) and -2.4% (95% CI -4.0 to -0.9), respectively. By HRpQCT at the distal radius, there were significant declines in cortical area, density, and thickness and increases in porosity: -2.9% (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2), -1.3% (95% CI -1.6 to -0.6), -2.8% (95% CI -3.6 to -1.9), and +4.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), respectively. Radius trabecular area increased significantly: +0.4% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), without significant changes in trabecular density or microarchitecture. Elevated time-averaged levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers predicted cortical deterioration. Higher levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted decreases in trabecular network heterogeneity. These data suggest that significant cortical loss occurs with CKD, which is mediated by hyperparathyroidism and elevated turnover. Future investigations are required to determine whether these cortical losses can be attenuated by treatments that reduce PTH levels and remodeling rates. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  3. Bone morphology of the femur and tibia captured by statistical shape modelling predicts rapid bone loss in acute spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Delaram; Coupaud, Sylvie A F; Purcell, Mariel; Allan, David B; Gregory, Jennifer S; Barr, Rebecca J

    2015-12-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), bone loss in the paralysed limbs progresses at variable rates. Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) in the first year range from 1% (slow) to 40% (rapid). In chronic SCI, fragility fractures commonly occur around the knee, with significant associated morbidity. Osteoporosis treatments await full evaluation in SCI, but should be initiated early and targeted towards patients exhibiting rapid bone loss. The potential to predict rapid bone loss from a single bone scan within weeks of a SCI was investigated using statistical shape modelling (SSM) of bone morphology, hypothesis: baseline bone shape predicts bone loss at 12-months post-injury at fracture-prone sites. In this retrospective cohort study 25 SCI patients (median age, 33 years) were scanned at the distal femur and proximal tibia using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography at tibia mode 3, +1 SD) was associated with 9.4% additional 12-month tibial trabecular BMD loss. Baseline bone shape determined from a single bone scan is a valid imaging biomarker for the prediction of 12-month bone loss in SCI patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Bone Loss in IBD Go Back Bone Loss in IBD Email Print + Share As many as ... halt bone loss are so important. CAUSES OF BONE LOSS IN IBD Experts point to several suspected causes ...

  5. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  6. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up bone loss. After menopause your ovaries stop producing the hormone estrogen, which helps to keep your ... you minimize and treat bone loss? Diet and lifestyle can help prevent and treat bone loss. Successful ...

  7. Bone loss, contraception and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S

    1993-04-01

    Loss of bone mass with age, is a universal phenomenon and is more pronounced in women than in men. The condition where the bone loss has proceeded to the extent that fractures occur is termed osteoporosis. As the number of elderly persons in the population increases, its magnitude is likely to increase, both in the developing and the developed countries. Bone mass increases rapidly in childhood and the adolescent years, reaching a peak in the third decade of life, and begins to decline soon thereafter. Several factors are thought to influence bone loss: these include race, diet, smoking, and physical exercise. Although the rate of bone loss accelerates in the immediate postmenopausal period, the process actually begins in the premenopausal years. By the time osteoporosis is clinically apparent and manifested by fracture, it probably cannot be reversed. The peak adult bone mass achieved, and the subsequent rate of bone loss are the major factors that determine a woman's susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis. A primary cause of bone loss after menopause is the associated decline in ovarian function. Scanty information is available on the factors that affect bone mineral density or initiate bone loss before menopause, although both estrogens and progestins have been shown to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. Available data on the relationship between steroid hormone contraceptive use and bone mass/density is limited to combined oral contraceptives and one report related to the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bone loss. For men, a drop in testosterone as they age can cause bone loss. Your ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  9. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Inflammatory signaling induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Steven R

    2015-11-01

    A broad spectrum of inflammatory disorders have the capacity to target the skeleton and to de-regulate the processes of physiological bone remodeling. This review will focus on the systemic inflammatory rheumatologic disorders, which target articular and peri-articular bone tissues. Many of these disorders also affect extra-articular tissues and organs, and in addition, have the capacity to produce systemic bone loss and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Attention will focus on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpAs), which include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis (formerly designated as Reiter's syndrome), the arthritis of inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy and psoriatic arthritis. The discussion will principally focus on RA, which is a prototypical model of an inflammatory disorder that de-regulates bone remodeling, but also will review the other forms of inflammatory joint disease to highlight the differential effects of inflammation on bone remodeling in these conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. Bone loss after liver transplantation is not prevented by cyclical etidronate, calcium and alphacalcidol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, S.C.; Oostdijk, A; vanDoormaal, JJ; Thijn, C.J.P.; Drent, Gerda; Piers, D.A.; Groen, EWJ; Meerman, Leo; Slooff, MJH; Haagsma, EB

    1996-01-01

    After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) bone mass rapidly declines and vertebral fracture rate increases. We studied bone loss and parameters of bone turnover in 53 consecutive patients. In an attempt to reduce bone loss the patients were prophylactically treated with cyclical etidronate in

  14. The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology. It is now evident that the skeletal and immune systems are functionally linked and share common cells and signaling molecules. This review discusses the signaling system of immune cells and cytokines regulating aberrant OCL differentiation and activity. The role of these cells and cytokines in the bone loss occurring in periodontal disease (PD) (chronic inflammation) and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (acute inflammation) is then described. The review finishes with an exploration of the emerging role of Notch signaling in the development of the immune cells and OCLs that are involved in osteoimmunological bone loss and the research into Notch signaling in OTM and PD.

  15. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  16. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0193 TITLE: Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of... Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Rapid bone loss is a universal accompaniment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) and leads to severe loss of bone

  17. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  18. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  19. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each day. A VLCD is only recommended for adults who are obese and need to lose weight for health reasons. These diets are often used before weight-loss surgery. You should only use a VLCD with ...

  20. Bone Metabolism in Obesity and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapses, Sue A.; Sukumar, Deeptha

    2014-01-01

    Excess body weight due to obesity has traditionally been considered to have a positive effect on bone; however, more recent findings suggest that bone quality is compromised. Both obesity and caloric restriction increase fracture risk and are regulated by endocrine factors and cytokines that have direct and indirect effects on bone and calcium absorption. Weight reduction will decrease bone mass and mineral density, but this varies by the individual’s age, gender, and adiposity. Dietary modifications, exercise, and medications have been shown to attenuate the bone loss associated with weight reduction. Future obesity and weight loss trials would benefit from assessment of key hormones, adipokine and gut peptides that regulate calcium absorption, and bone mineral density and quality by using sensitive techniques in high-risk populations. PMID:22809104

  1. Vitamin C prevents hypogonadal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, we show that the ingestion of vitamin C prevents the low-turnover bone loss following ovariectomy in mice. We show that this prevention in areal bone mineral density and micro-CT parameters results from the stimulation of bone formation, demonstrable in vivo by histomorphometry, bone marker measurements, and quantitative PCR. Notably, the reductions in the bone formation rate, plasma osteocalcin levels, and ex vivo osteoblast gene expression 8 weeks post-ovariectomy are all returned to levels of sham-operated controls. The study establishes vitamin C as a skeletal anabolic agent.

  2. Bariatric surgery, bone loss, obesity and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, M M; Sainsbury, A; Eisman, J A; Baldock, P A; Center, J R

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for severely obese patients. However, the potential long-term effects of bariatric surgical procedures on health, including bone health, are only partially understood. The goal of this review was to present data on the impact of bariatric surgery on bone metabolism and to analyse possible reasons for the loss of bone mass that frequently occurs after bariatric surgery. Such factors include nutritional deficiencies, rapid weight loss per se, effects of fat-derived adipokines and gut-derived appetite-regulatory hormones. However, the relative roles of these factors in skeletal regulation and the mechanisms by which they work are not yet fully defined. Our review was focussed on the complex relationship between body weight, fat mass and bone mass, as well as peripheral and central mediators potentially involved in the dual regulation of both energy and bone homeostasis. We also review the data on the inverse relationship between central obesity, bone marrow fat and osteoporosis. As the number of bariatric operations increases, it is imperative to recognize mechanisms responsible for bariatric surgery-induced bone loss, with careful monitoring of bone health including long-term fracture incidence in patients undergoing these procedures. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women with Bone Loss - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by decrease in bone strength due to decreased bone mass and disruption of bone microstructure and eventually increase in fracture risk. Increased bone turnover in postmenopausal period results in bone loss and osteoporosis. Aim of our study was to investigate the rate of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were included in this study. Dual energy X ray absorbtiometry( Dexa was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Serum osteocalcin and type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (Ctx levels were measured in blood. 32 postmenopausal women with bone loss were included in our study. The mean age was 61,5 ± 9,6 years, mean menopause duration 14,7± 9,5 years. The mean value of L2- L4 BMD was 0,910 ±0,143 gr/cm2 , femur neck BMD 0,734± 0,134 gr/cm2. Mean blood osteocalcin level was 23,34± 10,9 ng/ml(normal range <20, Ctx level was 0,70± 0,27 (normal range <0.75 ng/ml. There was statistically significant negative relationship between the menopause duration and serum Ctx levels (R =0,382, p<0,05. Mean serum Ctx level was 0,83 ±0,11 ng/ml in the patients whose menopause duration was less than 5 years and was 0,7 ±0,3 ng/ml in the patients whose menopause duration was more than 5 years. There was no relationship between serum osteocalcin and Ctx levels with age, body mass index(BMI, menopause duration, L2- L4 and femur neck BMD values. There was statistically significant relation between BMI(body mass index and L2 - L4 and femur neck BMD values( p < 0.05. There was no relationship between regular walking activity with BMD, serum osteocalcin and Ctx levels. In this study increased bone turnover rate in early postmenopausal period has been shown. It was known that bone loss increases due to the estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal period. Therefore, bone turnover markers of postmenopausal women should be measured in addition to bone mineral density who had bone

  4. Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice

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    Govey, Peter M.; Zhang, Yue; Donahue, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that compression loading would attenuate bone loss. Furthermore, we hypothesized that loading would upregulate donor cell presence in loaded tibias due to increased engraftment and proliferation. We lethally irradiated 16 female C57Bl/6J mice at age 16 wks with 10.75 Gy, then IV-injected 20 million GFP(+) total bone marrow cells. That same day, we initiated 3 wks compression loading (1200 cycles 5x/wk, 10 N) in the right tibia of 10 of these mice while 6 mice were irradiated, non-mechanically-loaded controls. As anticipated, before-and-after microCT scans demonstrated loss of trabecular bone (-48.2% Tb.BV/TV) and cortical thickness (-8.3%) at 3 wks following irradiation. However, loaded bones lost 31% less Tb.BV/TV and 8% less cortical thickness (both pbones also had significant increases in trabecular thickness and tissue mineral densities from baseline. Mechanical loading did not affect donor cell engraftment. Importantly, these results demonstrate that both cortical and trabecular bone exposed to high-dose therapeutic radiation remain capable of an anabolic response to mechanical loading. These findings inform our management of bone health in cases of radiation exposure. PMID:27936104

  5. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases...

  6. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  7. Women's preferences for prevention of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Liana; Constantinescu, Florina; Oberto-Medina, Mayra; Wittink, Dick R

    2005-06-01

    Despite the serious consequences of osteoporosis, few women use pharmacologic measures to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. We used an interactive computerized questionnaire to examine women's preferences for prevention of osteoporosis. We administered a choice-based conjoint analysis survey (CBCA) to consecutive early postmenopausal women in a shopping center. The questionnaire was constructed to measure preferences for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Women were also given the option of choosing "none," i.e., to defer or refuse all options. Utilities were calculated based on a Hierarchical Bayes model using Monte Carlo-Markov chain algorithms. We performed simulations based on women's values for specific treatment characteristics to estimate choice. A total of 212 women agreed to complete the survey (42% participation rate). Between 18% and 47% of the women surveyed (mean age 52+/-5 yrs) were predicted to choose once-weekly medications to prevent postmenopausal bone loss, assuming treatment confers an absolute lifetime risk reduction in fractures of at least 10%. In this CBCA survey, which derived preferences based on how women make tradeoffs between specific treatment characteristics, a significant percentage of women were willing to use once-weekly medications to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  8. Bone Loss Among Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Sharma, Anjali; Yin, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART. As bone loss and resulting increases in fracture incidence are a natural consequence of aging, there is now concern regarding the long-term consequences of HIV/ART-associated premature bone loss, given the transition of the HIV/AIDS population into an older age demographic. The development of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of bone disease within the context of HIV and ART has been an important recent step in raising awareness of the problem and the implications of bone fracture for patient health. Significant progress has also been made in recent years in dissecting the complex and multifactorial mechanisms driving bone loss in HIV/ART and the role of underlying immunological disruption in skeletal dysmorphogenesis. This review examines recent progress in the field and studies by Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)-associated investigators, inside and outside of the WIHS cohort, aimed at identifying skeletal abnormalities, quantifying facture incidence, management, and understanding underlying mechanisms in people living with HIV in the context of chronic ART.

  9. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  10. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  11. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  12. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  13. An Unusual Bone Loss Around Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Rokn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPre-implant disease is an inflammatory process, which can affect the surrounding tissues of a functional Osseointegrated implant that is usually as a result of a disequilibrium between the micro-flora and the body defense system.This case reports a 57 years old male with unusual bone loss around dental implants.This was an unusual case of peri-implantitis which occurred only in the implants on one side of the mouth although they all were unloaded implants.

  14. Zoledronate prevents lactation induced bone loss and results in additional post-lactation bone mass in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelboe, Mette Høegh; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Henriksen, Kim; Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    In rodents, lactation is associated with a considerable and very rapid bone loss, which almost completely recovers after weaning. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate Zoledronate (Zln) can inhibit lactation induced bone loss, and if Zln interferes with recovery of bone mass after lactation has ceased. Seventy-six 10-weeks-old NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Pregnant, Lactation, Lactation+Zln, Recovery, Recovery+Zln, and Virgin Control (age-matched). The lactation period was 12days, then the pups were removed, and thereafter recovery took place for 28days. Zln, 100μg/kg, was given s.c. on the day of delivery, and again 4 and 8days later. Mechanical testing, μCT, and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. At L4, lactation resulted in a substantial loss of bone strength (-55% vs. Pregnant, plactation induced loss of bone strength, BV/TV, and Tb.Th at L4. Full recovery of micro-architectural and mechanical properties was found 28days after weaning in vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the recovery group treated with Zln during the lactation period had higher BV/TV (+45%, plactation bone formation is not dependent on a preceding lactation induced bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  16. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandór, G.K.; Marcián, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  17. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  18. Rapid prototyping technology and its application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zhou, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Xiong-Sheng

    Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies. This review focuses on the basic principles and characteristics of various fabrication technologies, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and fused deposition modeling, and reviews the application of rapid prototyping techniques to scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In the near future, the use of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prepared by rapid prototyping technology might be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone defects.

  19. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul; Wysolmerski, John

    2015-08-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate.

  20. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  1. Restoring the Architecture: A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restoring the Architecture: A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone-Mineral Density and Osteoporosis. 23. The page number in the footer is not for bibliographic referencing www.tandfonline.com/oemd. 23. • Vitamin D: Vital for calcium and phosphate absorption. Speculated to exert direct effects on bone, but the relevance of.

  2. Subchondral Bone Plate Changes More Rapidly than Trabecular Bone in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder, characterised by focal loss of cartilage and increased subchondral bone remodelling at early OA stages of the disease. We have investigated the temporal and the spatial relationship between bone remodelling in subchondral bone plate (Sbp and trabecular bone (Tb in Dunkin Hartley (DH, develop OA early and the Bristol Strain 2 (BS2, control which develop OA late guinea pigs. Right tibias were dissected from six male animals of each strain, at 10, 16, 24 and 30 weeks of age. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify the growth plate thickness (GpTh, subchondral bone plate thickness (SbpTh and trabecular bone thickness (TbTh, and bone mineral density (BMD in both Sbp and Tb. The rate of change was calculated for 10–16 weeks, 16–24 weeks and 24–30 weeks. The rate of changes in Sbp and Tb thickness at the earliest time interval (10–16 weeks were significantly greater in DH guinea pigs than in the growth-matched control strain (BS2. The magnitude of these differences was greater in the medial side than the lateral side (DH: 22.7 and 14.75 µm/week, BS2: 5.63 and 6.67 µm/week, respectively. Similarly, changes in the BMD at the earliest time interval was greater in the DH strain than the BS2, again more pronounced in the disease prone medial compartment (DH: 0.0698 and 0.0372 g/cm3/week, BS2: 0.00457 and 0.00772 g/cm3/week, respectively. These changes observed preceded microscopic and cellular signs of disease as previously reported. The rapid early changes in SbpTh, TbTh, Sbp BMD and Tb BMD in the disease prone DH guinea pigs compared with the BS2 control strain suggest a link to early OA pathology. This is corroborated by the greater relative changes in subchondral bone in the medial compared with the lateral compartment.

  3. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  4. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  5. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Is there a Risk for Accelerated Osteoporosis after Return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-to to-date suggests that the rapid rate of site-specific bone loss in space, due to the unbalanced stimulation of bone resorption, may predispose crew members to irreversible changes in bone structure and microarchitecture. No analyses conducted in the postflight period to assess microarchitectural changes. There is no complete analysis of skeletal recovery in the postflight period to evaluate the structural changes that accompany increases in DXA aBMD. Postflight analyses based upon QCT scans performed on limited crew members indicate reductions in hip bone strength and incomplete recovery at 1 year. No recovery of trabecular vBMD after 1 year return (HRP IWG). Time course of bone loss in space unknown.

  6. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    C Cheriyan Kovoor; R Jayakumar; V V George; Vinod Padmanabhan; A J Guild; Sabin Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials...

  7. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  8. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  9. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...

  10. Antiepileptic drug-induced bone loss in young male patients who have seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andress, Dennis L; Ozuna, Judy; Tirschwell, David; Grande, Lucinda; Johnson, Meshell; Jacobson, Arnold F; Spain, William

    2002-05-01

    Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy is a known risk factor for bone loss and fractures. Vitamin D deficiency is frequently cited as a cause for bone loss in patients who have seizures. To determine whether men who have seizures, but who are otherwise healthy, suffer substantial bone loss in the hip while taking AEDs. We prospectively examined femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 81 consecutive men, aged between 25 and 54 years old (mean age, 45 years), who were attending an outpatient seizure clinic. Low BMD values were analyzed for known risk factors for bone loss. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were repeated in 54 patients, 12 to 29 months later (mean, 19 months), to assess the rate of change in BMD over time. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (P<.001) and time receiving AEDs (P<.003) were the 2 important risk factors associated with low femoral neck BMD. Neither vitamin D deficiency, hypogonadism, cigarette smoking, nor excess alcohol intake were associated with low BMD after correcting for age and time on AEDs. Longitudinal analysis of femoral neck BMD revealed that only those in the youngest age group (25-44 years) showed significant declines in femoral neck BMD (1.8% annualized loss; 95% confidence interval, -3.1 to -0.9; P<.003) while receiving AED therapy. There was no evidence that a specific type of AED was more causally related to bone loss in this group although most patients were taking phenytoin sodium or carbamazepine during the longitudinal assessment. Long-term AED therapy in young male patients who have seizures causes significant bone loss at the hip in the absence of vitamin D deficiency. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning of the hip is useful in identifying patients who are particularly susceptible to rapid bone loss while taking AEDs.

  11. Intra-surgical vs. radiographic bone level assessments in measuring peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Giovanni; Sato, Hirohisa; Holmes, Patrick; Turri, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy between the intra-surgical and the peri-apical radiographic measurements of bone loss at implant with peri-implantitis. A total of 46 Brånemark implants in 24 patients with diagnosis of peri-implantitis were included in the study. The amount of peri-implant bone loss occurred at those implants was measured during peri-implant surgery and compared to the radiographic bone loss measured by three independent examiners. The mean bone loss measured on radiographs underestimated the intra-surgical bone loss at the correspondent sites (0.7 mm at the mesial and 0.6 mm at the distal sites); this underestimation was found to be a consistent finding in all the three examiners. Only 21% of the radiographic measurements corresponded to the clinical bone loss assessments, while an over- and underestimation within a range of ± 1-2 mm was recorded in 57% of the cases. There was a moderate positive linear correlation between the radiographic measurements and the clinical bone loss for mesial and distal sites (r = range 0.58-0.65). The variability between the three examiners in the radiographic measurements was frequently on the range of ± 1-2 mm. The radiographic measurements of bone loss at implant affected by peri-implantitis often underestimated the clinical bone loss occurred at the implants. A difference of about ± 1-2 mm in the estimation of radiographic bone loss could be merely assigned as inter-examiner different assessments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew M; Schenker, Mara L; Ahn, Jaimo; Willett, Nick J

    2017-09-01

    Segmental bone loss remains a challenging clinical problem for orthopaedic trauma surgeons. In addition to the missing bone itself, the local tissues (soft tissue, vascular) are often highly traumatized as well, resulting in a less than ideal environment for bone regeneration. As a result, attempts at limb salvage become a highly expensive endeavor, often requiring multiple operations and necessitating the use of every available strategy (autograft, allograft, bone graft substitution, Masquelet, bone transport, etc.) to achieve bony union. A cost-sensitive, functionally appropriate, and volumetrically adequate engineered substitute would be practice-changing for orthopaedic trauma surgeons and these patients with difficult clinical problems. In tissue engineering and bone regeneration fields, numerous research efforts continue to make progress toward new therapeutic interventions for segmental bone loss, including novel biomaterial development as well as cell-based strategies. Despite an ever-evolving literature base of these new therapeutic and engineered options, there remains a disconnect with the clinical practice, with very few translating into clinical use. A symposium entitled "Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss," was presented at the 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society Conference to further explore this engineering-clinical disconnect, by surveying basic, translational, and clinical researchers along with orthopaedic surgeons and proposing ideas for pushing the bar forward in the field of segmental bone loss. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1855-1864, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The role of stromal cells in inflammatory bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, C; Pap, T; Buckley, C D; Naylor, A J

    2017-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, local and systemic bone loss and a lack of compensatory bone repair. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are the most abundant cells of the stroma and a key population in autoimmune diseases such as RA. An increasing body of evidence suggests that these cells play not only an important role in chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia, but also impact bone remodelling. Under inflammatory conditions FLS release inflammatory cytokines, regulate bone destruction and formation and communicate with immune cells to control bone homeostasis. Other stromal cells, such as osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, termed osteocytes, are also involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and are dysregulated during inflammation. This review highlights our current understanding of how stromal cells influence the balance between bone formation and bone destruction. Increasing our understanding of these processes is critical to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies with which to treat bone loss in RA. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  14. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the most evolutionary advanced hibernators, avoid significant bone loss during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Alanda R; Goodship, Allen E

    2008-02-01

    Some hibernating animals are known to reduce muscle and bone loss associated with mechanical unloading during prolonged immobilisation,compared to humans. However, here we show that wild pregnant polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are the first known animals to avoid significant bone loss altogether, despite six months of continuous hibernation. Using serum biochemical markers of bone turnover, we showed that concentrations for bone resorption are not significantly increased as a consequence of hibernation in wild polar bears. This is in sharp contrast to previous studies on other hibernating species, where for example, black bears (Ursus americanus), show a 3-4 fold increase in serum bone resorption concentrations posthibernation,and must compensate for this loss through rapid bone recovery on remobilisation, to avoid the risk of fracture. In further contrast to black bears, serum concentrations of bone formation markers were highly significantly increased in pregnant female polar bears compared to non-pregnant,thus non-hibernating females both prior to and after hibernation. However, bone formation concentrations in new mothers were significantly reduced compared to pre-hibernation concentrations. The de-coupling of bone turnover in favour of bone formation prior to hibernation, suggests that wild polar bears may posses a unique physiological mechanism for building bone in protective preparation against expected osteopenia associated with disuse,starvation, and hormonal drives to mobilise calcium for reproduction, during hibernation. Understanding this physiological mechanism could have profound implications for a natural solution for the prevention of osteoporosis in animals subjected to captivity with inadequate space for exercise,humans subjected to prolonged bed rest while recovering from illness, or astronauts exposed to antigravity during spaceflight.© 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  17. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  18. Role of Corticosteroids in Bone Loss During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  19. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  20. Fractal texture analysis of the healing process after bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Marta; Szarmach, Janusz; Oczeretko, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Radiological assessment of treatment effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in postresectal and postcystal bone loss cases, observed for one year. Group of 25 patients (17 females and 8 males) who underwent root resection with cystectomy were evaluated. The following combination therapy of intraosseous deficits was used, consisting of bone augmentation with xenogenic material together with covering regenerative membranes and tight wound closure. The bone regeneration process was estimated, comparing the images taken on the day of the surgery and 12 months later, by means of Kodak RVG 6100 digital radiography set. The interpretation of the radiovisiographic image depends on the evaluation ability of the eye looking at it, which leaves a large margin of uncertainty. So, several texture analysis techniques were developed and used sequentially on the radiographic image. For each method, the results were the mean from the 25 images. These methods compute the fractal dimension (D), each one having its own theoretic basis. We used five techniques for calculating fractal dimension: power spectral density method, triangular prism surface area method, blanket method, intensity difference scaling method and variogram analysis. Our study showed a decrease of fractal dimension during the healing process after bone loss. We also found evidence that various methods of calculating fractal dimension give different results. During the healing process after bone loss, the surfaces of radiographic images became smooth. The result obtained show that our findings may be of great importance for diagnostic purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A mechanism of bone tissue loss in monkeys (BION - 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Oganov, V. S.

    The elucidation of mechanisms of bone tissue loss under the spaceflight conditions remains an actual problem until now It was established that primary reactions to a mechanical stress evolve at the cellular level therefore the main attention of the researchers was aimed at studying bone tissue cells and their interactions With the use of electron microscopy we studied osteoblasts osteocytes osteoclasts and stromal cells in bioptats of the iliac bone crest from monkeys flown on board the satellite guillemotleft BION - 11 guillemotright during 2 weeks The flight samples were compared with the vivarium and simulation controls The functional state of cells was evaluated by the degree of development of organelles for specific biosyntheses rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgy complex nucleus state interrelation with a mineralized matrix The analysis of the obtained results and data of other authors Klein -- Nulend et al 2003 etc permits to suppose that the following sequence of cell interactions underlies the bone tissue loss during mechanical stress microgravity reaction of mechano-sensitive osteocytes to a mechanical stimulus consisting in enhancement of osteolytic processes in cells which results in a partial bone tissue loss along the local unloading Simultaneously the modulating signals are transmitted through a system of canals and processes towards active osteoblasts surface osteocytes and bone marrow stromal cells as well As a reply to a mechanical stimulus there occurs a reduction slowing down of proliferation

  2. A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick; Agarwal, Sabrina C

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course. We test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss. The suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss. We argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  4. Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, I; Torlontano, M; Carnevale, V; Guglielmi, G; Cammisa, M; Trischitta, V; Scillitani, A

    2001-11-01

    Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, 140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.

  5. Secreted Wnt Signaling Inhibitors in Disuse-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    other peripheral nerve injuries that  induce  paralysis.  Disuse  osteoporosis  is a com‐ mon sequelae of spinal cord injury (SCI) an peripheral nerve damage...AND SUBTITLE Secreted Wnt inhibitors in disuse- induced bone loss 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Alexander G. Robling, PhD...preventing paralysis- induced bone loss. In the first series, adult female mice were subjected to unilateral Botox- induced muscle paralysis of the

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  9. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  10. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  11. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  12. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rendina

    Full Text Available Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  13. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  14. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G determines osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Ulrike; Lang, Stefanie C; Pfeifle, René; Rombouts, Yoann; Frühbeißer, Sabine; Amara, Khaled; Bang, Holger; Lux, Anja; Koeleman, Carolien A; Baum, Wolfgang; Dietel, Katharina; Gröhn, Franziska; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Krönke, Gerhard; Kocijan, Roland; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Toes, René E M; Herrmann, Martin; Scherer, Hans Ulrich; Schett, Georg

    2015-03-31

    Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss.

  15. Effect of bone loss in anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984

  16. Patterns of bone loss around teeth restored with endodontic posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsamakis, S.; Timmerman, M.; van der Velden, U.; de Cleen, M.; van der Weijden, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study described the pattern of bone loss around teeth with endodontic posts in periodontitis patients, and compared it with contra-lateral teeth without posts. Material and Methods: From full-mouth radiographic surveys of 146 periodontitis patients (35 years), 194

  17. Interleukin-1 is essential for systemic inflammatory bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzer, K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Gasser, J.; Distler, J.H.; Ruiz, G.; Baum, W.; Redlich, K.; Bobacz, K.; Smolen, J.S.; Berg, W. van den; Schett, G.; Zwerina, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for systemic bone loss leading to osteoporotic fracture and substantial morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory cytokines, particularly tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL1), are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of

  18. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis ...

  19. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with ...

  20. Bone growth stimulators. New tools for treating bone loss and mending fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James F; Morley, Paul; Willick, Gordon E

    2002-01-01

    In the new millennium, humans will be traveling to Mars and eventually beyond with skeletons that respond to microgravity by self-destructing. Meanwhile in Earth's aging populations growing numbers of men and many more women are suffering from crippling bone loss. During the first decade after menopause all women suffer an accelerating loss of bone, which in some of them is severe enough to result in "spontaneous" crushing of vertebrae and fracturing of hips by ordinary body movements. This is osteoporosis, which all too often requires prolonged and expensive care, the physical and mental stress of which may even kill the patient. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is caused by the loss of estrogen. The slower development of osteoporosis in aging men is also due at least in part to a loss of the estrogen made in ever smaller amounts in bone cells from the declining level of circulating testosterone and is needed for bone maintenance as it is in women. The loss of estrogen increases the generation, longevity, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The destructive osteoclast surge can be blocked by estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as well as antiosteoclast agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin. But these agents stimulate only a limited amount of bone growth as the unaffected osteoblasts fill in the holes that were dug by the now suppressed osteoclasts. They do not stimulate osteoblasts to make bone--they are antiresorptives not bone anabolic agents. (However, certain estrogen analogs and bisphosphates may stimulate bone growth to some extent by lengthening osteoblast working lives.) To grow new bone and restore bone strength lost in space and on Earth we must know what controls bone growth and destruction. Here we discuss the newest bone controllers and how they might operate. These include leptin from adipocytes and osteoblasts and the statins that are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol and cardiovascular damage. But

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  3. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  4. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  5. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  6. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (Pbone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  8. Segmental bone loss in pediatric lower extremity fractures: indications and results of bone transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hüseyin; Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Alemdar, Celil; Şahin, İlhami; Kişin, Bülent

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the results of external bone transport, which was applied to 11 patients with traumatic bone loss who had not completed their bone development. The average age of the 9 male and 2 female patients was 10.6 (range, 8 to 16) years. Eight of the defects were located in the tibia, whereas the other 3 were in the femur. The average defect was 5.4 (range, 4.5 to 8.5) cm. External bone transport was applied in the early period in 7 patients, whereas in 4 patients it was performed due to nonunion. Bifocal osteosynthesis and single osteotomy were performed in 2 patients with type B2 nonunion. Compression to the nonunion region and lengthening in the osteotomy region were applied. In 2 patients with type B1 nonunion, and the other 9 patients who had external bone transport, the gap was eliminated by bifocal osteosynthesis, single osteotomy, and bone transport to the osteotomy line. The mean follow-up period was 21 (range, 13 to 48) months. Complete union was achieved in all patients without any bone operation or graft application. No refracture was observed after the removal of the external fixator, and the average hospitalization time was 16 (range, 7 to 65) days. The average external fixation time was 4.2 (range, 3.5 to 5.5) months, and the mean external fixator index was 0.8 months (23 d/cm). The mean bone healing time was 5.1 (range, 4.6 to 6) months. To initially consider the open fractures with true or in situ bone loss in children as "anticipated nonunion," and determine the treatment strategies regarding this fact, may prevent nonunion and shorten the healing period. Bone transport in the treatment of traumatic bone defects in children is an easy biological procedure, with lower complications but higher success ratios. Level IV-therapeutic.

  9. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  10. Pulsed focused ultrasound treatment of muscle mitigates paralysis-induced bone loss in the adjacent bone: a study in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliachik, Sandra L; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C; Bailey, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Bone loss can result from bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury or age-related hormonal changes. Current bone loss mitigation techniques include pharmaceutical interventions, exercise, pulsed ultrasound targeted to bone and whole body vibration. In this study, we attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss by applying focused ultrasound to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that uses onabotulinumtoxinA-induced paralysis, which causes rapid bone loss in 5 d. A focused 2 MHz transducer applied pulsed exposures with pulse repetition frequency mimicking that of motor neuron firing during walking (80 Hz), standing (20 Hz), or the standard pulsed ultrasound frequency used in fracture healing (1 kHz). Exposures were applied daily to calf muscle for 4 consecutive d. Trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro-computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of certain focused pulsed ultrasound parameters was able to mitigate some of the paralysis-induced bone loss. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  12. Transplanted Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Seeded onto Peptide Hydrogel Decrease Alveolar Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Tcacencu, Ion; Karlstr?m, Erik; Cedervall, Jessica; Wendel, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Alveolar bone loss can be caused by periodontitis or periodontal trauma. We have evaluated the effects of transplanted undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on alveolar bone reaction and periodontal ligament healing in an experimental periodontal wound model. The hMSCs seeded onto a self-assembling peptide hydrogel in combination with collagen sponge were implanted into the right mandible of 12 rats and followed for 1 (n=6) or 4 weeks (n=6) postoperatively. The other ...

  13. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space

  14. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.

  15. Bone mineral loss at the proximal femur in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L

    2013-09-01

    This study used quantitative computed tomography to assess changes in bone mineral at the proximal femur after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Individuals with acute SCI experienced a marked loss of bone mineral from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Targeted therapeutic interventions are thus warranted in this population. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. Some 10 to 20% of these fractures occur at the proximal femur. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, and measures of strength at the proximal femur in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography analysis was performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range, 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at the femoral neck, trochanteric, and total proximal femur regions. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, and surrogate measures of compressive and bending strength were also determined. During the acute period of SCI, subjects experienced a 2.7-3.3%/month reduction in integral BMC (p < 0.001) and a 2.5-3.1 %/month reduction in integral vBMD (p < 0.001). Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.8-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.9-4.0 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001), while the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.8-1.0 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). Changes in bone volume and cross-sectional area suggested that cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption. Declines in bone mineral were associated with a 4.9-5.9 %/month reduction in surrogate measures of strength. These data highlight the need for therapeutic interventions in this population that target both trabecular and endocortical bone mineral

  16. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  17. Bone loss and human adaptation to lunar gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T. S.; Strauss, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Long-duration space missions and establishment of permanently manned bases on the Moon and Mars are currently being planned. The weightless environment of space and the low-gravity environments of the Moon and Mars pose an unknown challenge to human habitability and survivability. Of particular concern in the medical research community today is the effect of less than Earth gravity on the human skeleton, since the limits, if any, of human endurance in low-gravity environments are unknown. This paper provides theoretical predictions on bone loss and skeletal adaptation to lunar and other nonterrestrial-gravity environments based upon the experimentally derived relationship, density approximately (mass x gravity)(exp 1/8). The predictions are compared to skeletal changes reported during bed rest, immobilization, certrifugation, and spaceflight. Countermeasures to reduce bone losses in fractional gravity are also discussed.

  18. Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L shells. The rapid loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of outer radiation belt was observed as a dip structure of the electron flux temporal profile closely related to intense EMIC waves. Our simulations further confirm that the observed EMIC waves within a quite limited longitudinal region were able to reduce the off-equatorially mirroring relativistic electron fluxes by up to 2 orders of magnitude within about 1.5 h.

  19. Protection by salidroside against bone loss via inhibition of oxidative stress and bone-resorbing mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Kang; Yang, Liu; Meng, Guo-Lin; Yuan, Zhi; Fan, Jing; Li, Dan; Chen, Jian-Zong; Shi, Tian-Yao; Hu, Hui-Min; Wei, Bo-Yuan; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss in mouse model. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, exhibits potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we used an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in MC3T3-E1 cells and a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss and the related mechanisms. We demonstrated that salidroside caused a significant (Psalidroside decreased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 induced by H(2)O(2). In vivo studies further demonstrated that salidroside supplementation for 3 months caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in blood of ovariectomized mouse (Psalidroside in alleviating bone loss was mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of bone-resorbing mediators and oxidative damage to bone-forming cells, suggesting that salidroside can be used as an effective remedy in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.

  20. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss...... intervention along with plasma measurements of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and potassium. For assessment of cardiac repolarization changes, T-wave Morphology Combination Score (MCS) and ECG intervals: RR, PR, QT, QTcF (Fridericia-corrected QT-interval), and QRS duration were derived. The participants lost......A1c (pMonitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  1. Protection by salidroside against bone loss via inhibition of oxidative stress and bone-resorbing mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kang Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss in mouse model. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, exhibits potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we used an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and a murine ovariectomized (OVX osteoporosis model to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss and the related mechanisms. We demonstrated that salidroside caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation of cell survival, alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining and activity, calcium deposition, and the transcriptional expression of Alp, Col1a1 and Osteocalcin (Ocn in the presence of H(2O(2. Moreover, salidroside decreased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL and IL-6 induced by H(2O(2. In vivo studies further demonstrated that salidroside supplementation for 3 months caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in blood of ovariectomized mouse (P<0.05, it also improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in the fourth lumbar vertebra and distal femur. Our study indicated that the protection provided by salidroside in alleviating bone loss was mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of bone-resorbing mediators and oxidative damage to bone-forming cells, suggesting that salidroside can be used as an effective remedy in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.

  2. Bone Loss in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Controlled Study - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is common in ankylosing spondylitis (AS, which is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease.The aim of this study was to assess the bone loss and the effects of disease activity on bone mineral density in patients with AS. Thirty-three (29 men ,4 women patients with AS were included in the study. All of the patients were evaluated as their age, sex, height, weight, history, physical examination, laboratory and AP-lateral thoracic and lumbar vertebrae radiographic findings. Control group was consisted of 35 (31 men 4 women age and sex-matched healthy person. Mean age and disease duration of the patient group were 43.2 ± 9.9 and 13.18 ± 10.6 years, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at lumbar spine and proximal femur regions. BMD did not show statistically significant difference at lumbar region between two groups. However BMD values were 10% lower at femur neck in patient group than controls. The rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 42.8 % at the femur neck region in the patient group and 22.8 % in the control group. BMD values at femur neck correlated with age and disease duration. There was no correlation between BMD and BASDAI and BASMI, BASFI, BASGI scores. In conclusion, bone loss is common in AS. Ligament calcification and syndesmophytes may lead to higher BMD values at lumbar region in AS .Thus proximal femur BMD is valuable in the patients with long disease duration. Disease activity has no negative effect on bone density in our study. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006;12:81-3

  3. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Todd

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an

  4. Marginal bone loss in implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Fernández-Jiménez, Andrés; O'Valle, Francisco; Silvestre, Francisco J; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Monje, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vertical and horizontal graft bone resorption (GR) in grafted maxillary sinuses and the marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants placed in the sinuses with different prosthetic connections and to determine the effect of other clinical factors on these tissue responses at 6 and 18 months postloading. A total of 254 implants were placed in 150 grafted maxillary sinuses of 101 patients (51.5% female) with mean age of 52.2 years (range, 32-82 years). GR and MBL measurements were made in implants placed with two different prosthetic connections (internal and external) at 6 and 18 months postloading. The complex samples general linear model was used to analyze the influence of patient age, gender, smoking habit, history of periodontal disease, implantation timing (simultaneous vs deferred), and prosthetic abutment length on radiographic GR and MBL values. At 18 months postloading, the MBL ranged from 0 mm to 5.89 mm; less than 1 mm was lost around 49.0% (mesial) and 44.3% (distal) of the implants, while no bone was lost around 32.9% (mesial) and 26.7% (distal). The GR was significantly affected by smoking, remnant alveolar bone height, graft length, graft height, gender, and age, and it significantly decreased over time. The MBL was influenced by the type of connection, implantation timing, and prosthetic abutment length. The MBL was greater with longer postloading interval and higher patient age and in smokers. Resorption of grafts that combine autogenous cortical bone with anorganic bovine bone is dependent on the anatomic features of the sinus and is not affected by the time elapsed after the first 6 months. The MBL in implants placed in these grafted areas is time dependent and mainly related to potentially modifiable clinical decisions and patient habits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Homeostatic Expansion of CD4+ T Cells Promotes Cortical and Trabecular Bone Loss, Whereas CD8+ T Cells Induce Trabecular Bone Loss Only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2017-11-27

    Bone loss occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but paradoxically is intensified by HIV-associated antiretroviral therapy (ART), resulting in an increased fracture incidence that is largely independent of ART regimen. Inflammation in the bone microenvironment associated with T-cell repopulation following ART initiation may explain ART-induced bone loss. Indeed, we have reported that reconstitution of CD3+ T cells in immunodeficient mice mimics ART-induced bone loss observed in humans. In this study, we quantified the relative effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets on bone. T-cell subsets in T-cell receptor β knockout mice were reconstituted by adoptive transfer with CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells subsets were reconstituted in T-cell receptor β knockout mice by adoptive transfer, and bone turnover, bone mineral density, and indices of bone structure and turnover were quantified. Repopulating CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells significantly diminished bone mineral density. However, micro-computed tomography revealed robust deterioration of trabecular bone volume by both subsets, while CD4+ T cells additionally induced cortical bone loss. CD4+ T-cell reconstitution, a key function of ART, causes significant cortical and trabecular bone loss. CD8+ T cells may further contribute to trabecular bone loss in some patients with advanced AIDS, in whom CD8+ T cells may also be depleted. Our data suggest that bone densitometry used for assessment of the condition of bone in humans may significantly underestimate trabecular bone damage sustained by ART.

  6. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    . In a number of in vitro culture systems, Dlk1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis indirectly through osteoblast-dependent increased production of proinflammatory bone-resorbing cytokines (eg, Il7, Tnfa, and Ccl3). We found that ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss was associated with increased production of Dlk1...... in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  7. Zanthoxylum piperitum reversed alveolar bone loss of periodontitis via regulation of bone remodeling-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Hye Ji; Park, Jung-Chul; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-04

    Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100). Sterilized 3-0 nylon ligature was placed into the subgingival sulcus around the both sides of mandibular first molar. After topical application of 1 and 100mg/mL ZP for 2 weeks, mandibles was removed for histology. In addition, SaOS-2 osteoblast cells were treated 1, 10 and 100μg/mL ZP for 24h to analyze the expressions of alveolar bone-related markers. Several alveolar bone resorption pits, which indicate cementum demineralization were decreased by ZP treatment. Topical ZP treatment inhibited periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, there were significant reduction of osteoclastic activities following topical ZP treatment in periodontium. The expression of RANKL was decreased in SaOS-2 osteoblast cells by treating ZP, while that of OPG was increased. ZP treatment increased the expressions of Runx2 and Osterix in SaOS-2 cells. In summary, ZP treatment inhibited alveolar bone loss as well as maintained the integrity of periodontal structures via regulation of bone remodeling. ZP may be a therapeutic target for treating periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  9. Bone Marrow Fat Changes After Gastric Bypass Surgery Are Associated With Loss of Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany Y; Schwartz, Ann V; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaipin; Black, Dennis M; Petrenko, Dimitry M; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Posselt, Andrew M; Carter, Jonathan T; Shoback, Dolores M; Schafer, Anne L

    2017-11-01

    Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Bone mineral density (BMD) in obesity effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossain, V V; Rao, D S; Carella, M J; Divine, G; Rovner, D R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that bone mineral density (BMD) is increased in obese subjects, but the effect of weight loss on BMD has not been well studied. Therefore, we evaluated BMD among 11 obese women (mean age 45.5 +/- 14.2 years) before and after weight loss achieved by ingesting an 800 calorie diet for 12 weeks. BMD measurements were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine (H:Cr), calcium:creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratios were measured as indices of bone turnover. Mean weight at baseline was 103.8 +/- 15.8 kg and decreased to 83.2 +/- 12.2 at six months and was 85.8 +/- 14.2 kg at one year. Total body, hip and lumbar spine BMD were 1.12 +/- 0.07, .87 +/- 0.11, and 1.02 +/- 0.12 gm/cm2, respectively. Total body BMD was significantly lower at 12 months compared to baseline. No significant change was observed in BMD of the lumbar spine. There was also a significant decrease in hip BMD at six months and 12 months compared to baseline. H:Cr and Ca:Cr ratios did not change over time. We conclude that weight loss achieved by VLCD is accompanied by a statistically significant change in BMD, but the BMD remained in the normal range.

  11. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Application status of rapid prototyping technology in artificial bone based on reverse engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ao; Zheng, Min; Fan, Ding

    2015-02-01

    Artificial bone replacement has made an important contribution to safeguard human health and improve the quality of life. The application requirements of rapid prototyping technology based on reverse engineering in individualized artificial bone with individual differences are particularly urgent. This paper reviewed the current research and applications of rapid prototyping and reverse engineering in artificial bone. The research developments and the outlook of bone kinematics and dynamics simulation are also introduced.

  13. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  14. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  15. Roles of cathelicidins in inflammation and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Yuko; Horibe, Kanji; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-07-01

    Body surface tissues, such as the oral cavity, contact directly with the external environment and are continuously exposed to microbial insults. Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides that are found in mammalian species. Humans and mice have only one cathelicidin. Cathelicidins are expressed in a variety of surface tissues. In addition, they are abundantly expressed in bone and bone marrow. Infectious stimuli upregulate the expression of cathelicidins, which play sentinel roles in allowing the tissues to fight against microbial challenges. Cathelicidins disrupt membranes of microorganisms and kill them. They also neutralize microbe-derived pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin. Besides their antimicrobial functions, cathelicidins can also control actions of host cells, such as chemotaxis, proliferation, and cytokine production, through binding to the receptors expressed on them. LPS and flagellin induce osteoclastogenesis and the production of cathelicidins, which can in turn inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Thus, cathelicidins contribute to maintaining microbiota-host homeostasis and promoting repair responses to inflammatory insults. In this review, we describe recent findings on the multiple roles of cathelicidins in host defense. We also discuss the significance of the human cathelicidin, LL-37, as a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in infectious diseases, such as periodontitis.

  16. Annual bone loss and success rates of dental implants based on radiographic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bone loss around dental implants is generally measured by monitoring changes in marginal bone level using radiographs. After the first year of implantation, an implant should have <0.2 mm annual loss of marginal bone level to satisfy the criteria of success. However, the process of

  17. Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Bone Loss and Effects on Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    skeletal sites. Indeed, within five years of radiation treatment at the pelvic region ( cervical , rectal or anal cancer), the risk of hip fracture ...radiation-induced effects at skeletal sites, including bone loss and increased fracture risk at the hip [2-4]. Indeed, the risk of hip fracture within...general population [5-7]. Hip fracture causes considerable morbidity and mortality to cancer patients during the course of treatment and poses a

  18. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  19. Senescent T-Cells Promote Bone Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fessler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveT-cells are critical players in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Premature senescence of lymphocytes including the accumulation of senescent CD4+ T-cells is a hallmark feature of RA. Whether T-cell senescence is associated with bone loss in RA patients is elusive so far.MethodsThis includes a prospective study of consecutive patients with RA (n = 107, patients with primary osteopenia/-porosis (n = 75, and healthy individuals (n = 38. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Flow cytometry, magnetic-associated cell sorting, and cell culture experiments were performed to analyze the pro-osteoclastic phenotype and the function of senescent CD4+CD28− T-cells.ResultsPatients with osteopenia/-porosis yielded a higher prevalence of senescent CD4+CD28− T-cells than individuals with normal BMD, in the RA, as well as in the non-RA cohort. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL was expressed at higher levels on CD4+CD28− T-cells as compared to CD28+ T-cells. Stimulation with interleukin-15 led to an up-regulation of RANKL expression, particularly on CD28− T-cells. CD4+CD28− T-cells induced osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than CD28+ T-cells.ConclusionOur data indicate that senescent T-cells promote osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than conventional CD28+ T-cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic bone loss in RA and primary osteoporosis.

  20. Senescent T-Cells Promote Bone Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Johannes; Husic, Rusmir; Schwetz, Verena; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Aberer, Felix; Fasching, Patrizia; Ficjan, Anja; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Duftner, Christina; Graninger, Winfried; Stradner, Martin Helmut; Dejaco, Christian

    2018-01-01

    T-cells are critical players in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Premature senescence of lymphocytes including the accumulation of senescent CD4 + T-cells is a hallmark feature of RA. Whether T-cell senescence is associated with bone loss in RA patients is elusive so far. This includes a prospective study of consecutive patients with RA ( n  = 107), patients with primary osteopenia/-porosis ( n  = 75), and healthy individuals ( n  = 38). Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Flow cytometry, magnetic-associated cell sorting, and cell culture experiments were performed to analyze the pro-osteoclastic phenotype and the function of senescent CD4 + CD28 - T-cells. Patients with osteopenia/-porosis yielded a higher prevalence of senescent CD4 + CD28 - T-cells than individuals with normal BMD, in the RA, as well as in the non-RA cohort. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) was expressed at higher levels on CD4 + CD28 - T-cells as compared to CD28 + T-cells. Stimulation with interleukin-15 led to an up-regulation of RANKL expression, particularly on CD28 - T-cells. CD4 + CD28 - T-cells induced osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than CD28 + T-cells. Our data indicate that senescent T-cells promote osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than conventional CD28 + T-cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic bone loss in RA and primary osteoporosis.

  1. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  3. Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, W D; Morin, S N; Majumdar, S R; Lix, L M

    2017-09-15

    In this large registry-based study, women with diabetes had marginally greater bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites, whereas obesity was not associated with greater BMD loss. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rapid BMD loss explains the increased fracture risk associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity observed in prior studies. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) which may be less protective against fracture than previously assumed. Inconsistent data suggest that rapid BMD loss may be a contributing factor. We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass index (BMI) category. Baseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (all P BMD loss was less at the lumbar spine (P = 0.017), non-significantly greater at the femoral neck (P = 0.085), and similar at the total hip (P = 0.488). When adjusted for age and BMI, diabetes was associated with slightly greater femoral neck BMD loss (- 0.0018 g/cm2/year, P = 0.012) but not at the lumbar spine or total hip. There was a strong linear effect of increasing BMI on attenuated BMI loss at the lumbar spine with negligible effects on hip BMD. Diabetes was associated with slightly greater BMD loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites. BMD loss at the lumbar spine was reduced in overweight and obese women but BMI did not significantly affect hip BMD loss.

  4. The application of rapid prototyping to improve bone reconstruction in immediate dentoalveolar restoration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Rosa, José Carlos; Fadanelli, Marcos Alexandre; Zimmerman, Diego; de Oliveira Rosa, Ariádene Cristina Pértile

    This article describes the use of rapid prototyping (RP) for diagnosis, planning, and execution of the reconstruction of hard and soft tissue in socket defects using immediate dentoalveolar restoration (IDR). In cases of tissue loss in anterior dental areas, esthetic rehabilitation poses a major challenge with respect to treatment planning with the goal of long-term tissue maintenance. The IDR technique consists of immediate reconstruction in a single procedure of bone and soft tissue around implants placed immediately after extraction, and prosthetic rehabilitation. As this procedure is immediate and flapless, the correct diagnosis of tissue loss and correct graft adaptation are mandatory. RP can increase the precision of the procedure, as demonstrated using a clinical case characterized by total loss of the buccal bone wall and gingival recession. The results were evaluated by clinical assessment, photography, radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and prototyping. The application of RP facilitated the execution of IDR as it enabled more accurate diagnosis of the socket defect and more precise adaptation of the tissue graft. A clinical study should be conducted to evaluate the effects of RP on the clinical results of the IDR technique.

  5. Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-03-01

    To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28> or =3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (< or =10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (-0.7%), (p = 0.015). In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Carrie S; Mercer, Kelly E; Alund, Alexander W; Suva, Larry J; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy protein-associated phytoestrogens such as genistein (GEN). In this study, male mice were pair-fed (PF), a control diet, an ethanol (EtOH) diet, or EtOH diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg of GEN for 8 weeks to test if GEN protects against bone loss associated with chronic drinking. Interestingly, alcohol consumption reduced cortical area and thickness and trabecular bone volume in both EtOH and EtOH/GEN groups when compared to the corresponding PF and PF/GEN controls, P bone compartment, we observed a significant increase in overall trabecular bone density in the PF/GEN group compared to the PF controls. Bone loss in the EtOH-treated mice was associated with the inhibition of osteoblastogenesis as indicated by decreased alkaline phosphatase staining in ex vivo bone marrow cultures, P bone-formation markers, osteocalcin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was also significantly up-regulated in the PF/GEN and EtOH/GEN groups compared to the PF and EtOH-treated groups. GEN supplementation also increased the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) in the PF/GEN, an increase that persisted in the EtOH/GEN-treated animals (P basal hydrogen peroxide production and RANKL mRNA expression in primary bone marrow cultures in vitro, P bone remodeling and, in the context of chronic alcohol consumption, does not protect against the oxidative stress-associated EtOH-mediated bone resorption. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  8. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  9. High-fat diet causes bone loss in young mice by promoting osteoclastogenesis through alteration of the bone marrow environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.

  10. Periodontal Disease: Linking the Primary Inflammation to Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Di Benedetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD, or periodontitis, is defined as a bacterially induced disease of the tooth-supporting (periodontal tissues. It is characterized by inflammation and bone loss; therefore understanding how they are linked would help to address the most efficacious therapeutic approach. Bacterial infection is the primary etiology but is not sufficient to induce the disease initiation or progression. Indeed, bacteria-derived factors stimulate a local inflammatory reaction and activation of the innate immune system. The innate response involves the recognition of microbial components by host cells, and this event is mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs expressed by resident cells and leukocytes. Activation of these cells leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and recruitment of phagocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immunity with Th1 Th2 Th17 Treg response and antibodies production respectively. In this inflammatory scenario, cytokines involved in bone regulation and maintenance have considerable relevance because tissue destruction is believed to be the consequence of host inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge. In the present review, we summarize host factors including cell populations, cytokines, and mechanisms involved in the destruction of the supporting tissues of the tooth and discuss treatment perspectives based on this knowledge.

  11. Bone mineral and stiffness loss at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography and finite element modeling were used to assess bone mineral and stiffness loss at the knee following acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Marked bone mineral loss was observed from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Reductions in stiffness were 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. The large majority of these fractures occur around regions of the knee. Our purpose was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, strength indices, and stiffness at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and patient-specific finite element analysis were performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, strength indices and stiffness were also determined. Bone mineral loss was similar in magnitude at the distal femur and proximal tibia. Reductions were most pronounced at epiphyseal regions, ranging from 3.0 % to 3.6 % per month for integral BMC (p < 0.001) and from 2.8 % to 3.4 % per month (p < 0.001) for integral vBMC. Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.7-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.8-5.4 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001); the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.6-0.8 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). The cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption, and reductions in strength indices and stiffness were some 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic

  12. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  13. Loss of hepatitis A virus antibodies after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, E R; de Souza, V A U F; Cakmak, S; Machado, A F; Vilas Boas, L S; Machado, C M

    2006-07-01

    Reimmunization guidelines have recommended the inactivated HAV vaccine for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients living in or traveling to areas where hepatitis A is endemic. As a shift from high to medium hepatitis A endemicity has been observed in several countries in Latin America, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis A pre-bone marrow transplant (BMT) and the loss of specific antibodies in consecutive stored serum samples from 77 BMT recipients followed up from 82 to 1530 days. The prevalence of HAV antibodies was 92.2% before BMT. As vaccine was not available in Brazil when the samples were taken, it was assumed that this prevalence reflects natural infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of becoming seronegative was 4.5% (+/-2.6%), 7.9% (+/-3.4%), 10.1% (+/-4.0%), 23.4% (+/-9.6%) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after transplant, respectively. The loss of HAV antibodies was significantly associated with longer follow-up (P=0.0015), younger age (P=0.049) and acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.035). As most reimmunization protocols start around day +365, in developing countries with similar HAV endemicity, BMT recipients should have serological screening before HAV vaccination and the inactivated vaccine should be advised to those seronegative.

  14. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W.; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus a...

  16. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    were killed 4 weeks after surgery. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), biochemical markers, and histomorphometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the male mice, there were only few effects of bgn deficiency on bone metabolism...... to biglycan deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Biglycan (bgn) is a small extracellular matrix proteoglycan enriched in skeletal tissues, and biglycan-deficient male mice have decreased trabecular bone mass and bone strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone phenotype of the biglycan...

  17. Glenoid Bone Loss in Traumatic Glenohumeral Instability in the Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry Bone; Seiter, Max; Wise, Kelsey; Wilson, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Glenoid bone loss can affect the outcome and treatment for posttraumatic recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Clinical presentation in the adolescent age group with shoulder instability and glenoid bone loss is largely unknown. On the basis of this information, we believe there will be a high incidence of glenoid bone loss in adolescent patients with recurrent glenohumeral instability. We hypothesize that high-impact injuries, sports injuries, and reductions requiring sedation will be factors associated with glenoid bone loss. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study reviewing consecutive adolescent patients (n=114) with recurrent traumatic glenohumeral instability between 2004 and 2012. Chart analysis included demographic, presenting, and radiographic data. Glenoid bone loss was interpreted from plain radiographs, computed tomography (2D and/or 3D), magnetic resonance imaging, and/or arthroscopy. We compared possible risk factors between subjects with and without glenoid bone defects using the χ test or 2 sample t tests. Glenoid bone loss was seen in 55 patients (48.2%) with 15 of these patients (27%) having critical bone loss. Forty-five percent of appreciated glenoid bone loss was not visualized on plain radiographs. The average age was 15.1 years (range, 6.5 to 18.1) with male to female ratio 3.7:1. Male sex, older age, and taller stature were all statistically associated with glenoid bone loss (P=0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Primary dislocations that occurred during sports were more likely to have glenoid bone loss (55.9% vs. 78.2%, P=0.01). The presence of an apprehension sign on physical examination was positively correlated with bone loss (P=0.008). The presence of glenoid bone loss in primary traumatic glenohumeral instability in the adolescent population is high, however, not as high as previously reported. Factors associated with glenoid bone loss include male sex, older age, taller stature, sports injuries, and the

  18. The correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory periodontitis regarding bone loss in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    We have invented a mouse model of periodontitis associated with alveolar bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide. Ovariectomized (OVX) animals are widely used as a model for osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. To define the relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis, we examined the influence of estrogen deficiency on the mouse alveolar bone mass. In OVX mice, bone loss was detected not only in the femur, but also in the alveolar bone, indicating that estrogen deficiency could induce resorption in alveolar bone. In experiments using a combination of osteoporosis and periodontitis models, OVX significantly enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the model of periodontitis. Therefore, postmenopausal osteoporosis may enhance the risk of periodontitis associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption.

  19. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  20. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  1. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of aging in vivo, leading to decreased ability to form and maintain bone homeostasis with age. In this review we summarize evidence of MSC involvement in age related bone loss and sugges...

  3. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  4. The regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin contributes to unloading-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi; Sun, Weijia; Li, Yuheng; Ling, Shukuan; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Song, Jinping; Song, Hailin; Li, Jinqiao; You, Linhao; Nie, Guangjun; Chang, Yanzhong; Li, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload inhibits osteoblast function and promotes osteoclastogenesis. Hepcidin plays an important role in this process. The changes in iron content and the regulation of hepcidin under unloading-induced bone loss remain unknown. A hindlimb suspension model was adopted to simulate unloading-induced bone loss in mice. The results showed that iron deposition in both liver and bone was markedly increased in hindlimb unloaded mice, and was accompanied by the upregulation of osteoclast activity and downregulation of osteoblast activity. The iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) reduced the iron content in bone and alleviated unloading-induced bone loss. The increased iron content in bone was mainly a result of the upregulation of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 with iron response element (DMT1+IRE), rather than changes in the iron transporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The hepcidin level in the liver was significantly higher, while the FPN1 level in the duodenum was substantially reduced. However, there were no changes in the FPN1 level in bone tissue. During hindlimb unloading, downregulation of hepcidin by siRNA increased iron uptake in bone and liver, which aggravated unloading-induced bone loss. In summary, these data show that unloading-induced bone loss was orchestrated by iron overload and coupled with the regulation of hepcidin by the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Rapid Endochondral Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    length from the tibial fusion site, and then stop which would be consistent with the resorption being associated with the lack of weight bearing load. In...Defect in the Rat Femur with Use of a Vascularized Periosteal Flap, a Biodegradable Matric, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein. J Bone Joint Surg 87-A(6

  6. Association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone loss: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Center, J R; Eisman, J A; Nguyen, T V

    2015-04-01

    Lower body fat mass is a risk factor for bone loss at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, but not in men. Body lean mass and fat mass were not associated with femoral neck bone loss in either gender. Bone density and body mass are closely associated. Whole body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) together account for approximately 95 % of body mass. Bone loss is associated with loss of body mass but which of the components of body mass (FM or LM) is related to bone loss is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to assess whether baseline FM or LM has predictive value for future relative rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes (%/year). The present population-based cohort study was part of the ongoing Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). BMD, FM, and LM were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-LUNAR Corp, Madison, WI). BMD measurements were taken in approximately every 2 years between 2000 and 2010. We only included the participants with at least two BMD measurements at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. In total, 717 individuals (204 men and 513 women) aged 50 years or older were studied. Rate of bone loss at femoral neck and lumbar spine was faster in women than in men (all P loss at lumbar spine. This magnitude of association remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for LM and/or other covariates (P = 0.03). After adjusting for covariates, variation of FM accounted for ∼1.5 % total variation in lumbar spine bone loss. However, there was no significant association between FM and change in femoral neck BMD in either men or women. Lower FM was an independent but modest risk factor for greater bone loss at the lumbar spine in women but not in men. If further studies confirm our findings, FM can help predict lumbar spine bone loss in women.

  7. Does the presence of glenoid bone loss influence coracoid bone graft osteolysis after the Latarjet procedure? A computed tomography scan study in 2 groups of patients with and without glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giovanni; de Gasperis, Nicola; Costantini, Alberto; De Vita, Andrea; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Pouliart, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Coracoid bone graft osteolysis and fibrous union are the principal causes of failure in patients treated with the Latarjet procedure. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis that coracoid bone graft osteolysis is more pronounced in cases without glenoid bone loss, which may be due to a diminished mechanotransduction effect at the bone healing site. We prospectively followed up 34 patients, treated with a mini-plate Latarjet procedure, divided into 2 groups (group A patients had glenoid bone loss >15% and group B patients had no glenoid bone loss). A computed tomography scan evaluation with 3-dimensional reconstruction was then performed on all patients to evaluate coracoid bone graft osteolysis according to our coracoid bone graft osteolysis classification. The computed tomography scan analysis showed a different distribution of osteolysis between group A and group B. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P 15%) than in those without it. Because factors of blood supply, compression, and surgical technique were the same for both groups, we believe that the mechanotransduction effect from the humeral head on the graft influences its remodeling. The results of this study suggest that the bone graft part of the Latarjet procedure plays a role in patients with significant coracoid bone loss but much less so when there is no bone loss. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pamidronate in the prevention of bone loss after liver transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Suárez, María Jesús; Suárez, Francisco; Clemente, Gerardo; García-González, Miguel; De la Mata, Manuel; Serrano, Trinidad; Casafont, Fernando; Tome, Santiago; Torne, Santiago; Barrios, Cesar; Navasa, Miquel

    2009-02-01

    Rapid bone loss and high rates of fractures occur following liver transplantation. To analyze the effect of intravenous pamidronate on bone loss after liver transplantation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. Seventy-nine patients were randomized to two groups of treatment: the pamidronate group (n = 38) was treated with 90 mg/IV of pamidronate within the first 2 weeks and at 3 months after transplantation; the placebo group (n = 41) received glucose infusions at the same time points. All patients received calcium and vitamin D. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L(2)-L(4)) and proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and also spinal X-rays were performed before, and at 6 and 12 months after liver transplantation. Biochemical and hormonal determinations were performed previous to transplantation, at 24 h before and after treatment, as well as at 6 and 12 months after liver transplantation. At 12 months after transplantation, there were significant differences in lumbar BMD changes (6 months: pamidronate 1.6% vs. placebo 0.8%, P = NS; 12 months: pamidronate 2.9% vs. placebo 1%, P < 0.05). Femoral neck BMD decreased in the pamidronate- and placebo groups during the first 6 months (6 months: pamidronate -3.1% vs. placebo -2.9%, P = NS; 12 months: pamidronate -3.2% vs. placebo -3.1%, P = NS). BMD at the trochanter remained stable in the pamidronate group, whilst a reduction was observed in the placebo group at 6 months (6 months: pamidronate -0.7% vs. placebo -3.7%, P < 0.05; 12 months: pamidronate -0.5% vs. placebo -1.2%, P = NS). Moreover, no significant differences in the incidence of fractures, serum parathyroid hormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D values between both groups were found. Pamidronate did not increase the risk of serious adverse events. The results of this study show that 90 mg of intravenous pamidronate within the first 2 weeks and at 3 months following liver transplantation preserve lumbar

  9. AICRG, Part II: Crestal bone loss associated with the Ankylos implant: loading to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Walker, Lori; DesRosiers, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The Ankylos endosseous dental implant is a new implant design that will be available in the United States in early 2004. It features an internal tapered abutment connection, a smooth polished collar without threads at the coronal part of the implant body, and a roughened surface with variable threads on the body of the implant fixture. A precise, tapered, conical abutment connection eliminates the microgap often found in 2-stage implant systems. This microgap may allow the accumulation of food debris and bacteria, as well as micromovement between the parts during clinical function, both of which can lead to a localized inflammation and crestal bone loss. The purpose of this section of the study was to assess any crestal bone loss associated with this new implant. The clinical performance of this new implant design was studied under well-controlled clinical conditions. Over 1500 implants were placed and restored. The vertical crestal bone loss was measured "directly" between the time of implant placement and uncovering, using a periodontal probe. Serial dental radiographs were taken between loading, and the 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up visits to determine "indirect" crestal bone loss within a specific period. Bone loss varied among the participating centers from less than 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm. The largest amount of bone loss occurred between the time of placement and uncovering. Following loading, the mean bone loss for all implants for a period of 3 years was about 0.2 mm/y. The extent of the crestal bone loss after loading was minimal for patients regardless of age, gender, prosthetic applications, bone density, and remote or crestal incisions, as well as for smokers or nonsmokers. Bone loss per year is well within the guidelines of 0.2 mm/y proposed by others.

  10. Twelve-Minute Daily Yoga Regimen Reverses Osteoporotic Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Rosner, Bernard; Chang, Gregory; Fishman, Loren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess the effectiveness of selected yoga postures in raising bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Ten-year study of 741 Internet-recruited volunteers comparing preyoga BMD changes with postyoga BMD changes. Outcome Measures: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric scans. Optional radiographs of hips and spine and bone quality study (7 Tesla). Results: Bone mineral density improved in spine, hips, and femur of the 227 moderately and fully compliant patients. Monthly gain in BMD was signi...

  11. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonasson G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grethe Jonasson,1,2 Marianne Rythén,2,3 1Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 2Research and Development Centre, Borås, 3Specialist Clinic for Pediatric Dentistry, Public Dental Service, Mölndal, Sweden Abstract: Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. Keywords: bone density, bone fracture, human, mandible, radiography, periodontitis

  12. T cells: unexpected players in the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and in basal bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Pacifici, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    The bone-immune interface has become a subject of intense interest in recent years. It has long been recognized that infection, inflammation, and autoimmune disorders are associated with systemic and local bone loss. Yet, it is only recently that T lymphocytes and their products have been recognized as key regulators of osteoclast formation, life span, and activity. Similarly, sex steroids and aging have been known to regulate the immune system and T cells for decades. In spite of the abundance of clinical and physiological clues, it is only in the last few years that investigators have linked immune cells to the etiology of postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis, as well as to the bone loss caused by a variety of endocrine conditions. As surprising is new evidence showing that in contrast to their bone destructive effects under certain pathological conditions, T cells are highly protective of basal bone homeostasis, through complex regulatory effects on osteoprotegerin (OPG) production by B cells, involving CD40 to CD40 Ligand (CD40L) costimulation. This article examines the experimental evidence suggesting that estrogen prevents bone loss by regulating T cell function, and that T cell costimulation with B cells is critical for OPG production and maintenance of basal bone homeostasis.

  13. Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, MJ; Karageorghis, CI

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s¼7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys’ minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not exce...

  14. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  15. Effect of occlusal wear on bone loss and Periotest value of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Gomez-Roman, G; Axmann-Krcmar, D

    2001-01-01

    Occlusal overload may contribute to the loss of osseointegration of oral implants, so some clinicians are reluctant to place implants in patients with signs of bruxism. This study evaluated the effect of occlusal wear as a probable sign of bruxism on bone loss and implant stability. The study investigated 379 patients who had worn implant-retained or implant-supported restorations for many years. Occlusal wear, patient age and gender, time of prosthetic loading, jaw, location in the dental arch, implant diameter, prosthesis construction, occlusal material, periimplantitis, and loosening of the prosthetic construction were recorded. One implant from each patient was selected for radiographic and Periotest measurements. The implant with the highest bone resorption was chosen. A forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effect of the explanatory variables on Periotest value and radiographic bone loss. The statistical models could account for part of the variation in bone loss rate and Periotest value. Some influence of time of loading, jaw, and implant diameter on bone loss or Periotest value was formally established. Occlusal wear failed to have any statistical impact on vertical annual bone loss rate or Periotest value. This study gave no indication that implants in patients with occlusal wear have an increased bone loss rate or Periotest value.

  16. Rapid prototyped porous nickel–titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Hoffmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While calcium phosphate–based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel–titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel–titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel–titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel–titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel–titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel–titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold’s pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel–titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used

  17. Bone marrow transplantation improves autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss in SH3BP2 knock-in cherubism mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Kittaka, Mizuho; Ishida, Shu; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Cherubism (OMIM#118400) is a genetic disorder in children characterized by excessive jawbone destruction with proliferation of fibro-osseous lesions containing a large number of osteoclasts. Mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for cherubism. Analysis of the knock-in (KI) mouse model of cherubism showed that homozygous cherubism mice (Sh3bp2(KI/KI)) spontaneously develop systemic autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss and that cherubism is a TNF-α-dependent hematopoietic disorder. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Bone marrow (BM) cells from wild-type (Sh3bp2(+/+)) mice were transplanted to 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with developing inflammation and to 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with established inflammation. Six-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells exhibited improved body weight loss, facial swelling, and survival rate. Inflammatory lesions in the liver and lung as well as bone loss in calvaria and mandibula were ameliorated at 10weeks after BMT compared to Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(KI/KI) BM cells. Elevation of serum TNF-α levels was not detected after BMT. BMT was effective for up to 20weeks in 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells. BMT also ameliorated the inflammation and bone loss in 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Thus our study demonstrates that BMT improves the inflammation and bone loss in cherubism mice. BMT may be effective for the treatment of cherubism patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  19. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  20. Femoral neck trabecular bone: loss with aging and role in preventing fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C David L; Mayhew, Paul M; Power, Jon; Poole, Kenneth Es; Loveridge, Nigel; Clement, John G; Burgoyne, Chris J; Reeve, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    femoral neck, the most rapid loss of trabecular bone occurred in the posterior part of this region (supero-posterior [S-P]), amounting to a 42% reduction in women (34% in men) over five decades of adult age. Because local cortical bone thickness declined comparably, age had no significant effect on the relative contributions of cortical and trabecular bone to elastic stability, and trabecular bone was calculated to contribute 40% (in men) and 43% (in women) to the S-P cortex of its overall elastic stability. Hip fracture cases had reduced elastic stability compared with age-matched controls, with a median reduction of 49% or 37%, depending on whether thickness was measured histologically or by CT (pQCT; p fracture cases and controls. The capacity of the femur to resist fracture in a sideways fall becomes compromised with normal aging because cortical thickness and trabecular BMD in the most compressed part of the femoral neck both decline substantially. This decline is relatively more rapid than that of femoral neck areal BMD. If elastic instability rather than cortical crushing initiates the fracture event, interventions that increase trabecular bone in the proximal femur have great potential to reduce fracture risk because the gradient defining the increase in elastic stability with increasing trabecular BMD is steep, and most hip fracture cases have sufficient trabecular bone for anabolic therapies to build on.

  1. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  3. Femoral Head Bone Loss Following Short and Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Cheng-Campbell, Margareth A.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mechanical unloading during spaceflight is known to have significant effects on the musculoskeletal system. Our ongoing studies with the mouse bone model have identified the failure of normal stem cell-based tissue regeneration, in addition to tissue degeneration, as a significant concern for long-duration spaceflight, especially in the mesenchymal and hematopoietic tissue lineages. The 30-day BionM1 and the 37-day Rodent Research 1 (RR1) missions enabled the possibility of studying these effects in long-duration microgravity experiments. We hypothesized that the inhibition of stem cell-based tissue regeneration in short-duration spaceflight would continue during long-duration spaceflight and furthermore would result in significant tissue alterations. MicroCT analysis of BionM1 femurs revealed 31 decrease in bone volume ratio, a 14 decrease in trabecular thickness, and a 20 decrease in trabecular number in the femoral head of space-flown mice. Furthermore, high-resolution MicroCT and immunohistochemical analysis of spaceflight tissues revealed a severe disruption of the epiphyseal boundary, resulting in endochondral ossification of the femoral head and perforation of articular cartilage by bone. This suggests that spaceflight in microgravity may cause rapid induction of an aging-like phenotype with signs of osteoarthritic disease in the hip joint. However, mice from RR1 exhibited significant bone loss in the femoral head but did not exhibit the severe aging and disease-like phenotype observed during BionM1. This may be due to increased physical activity in the RH hardware. Immunohistochemical analysis of the epiphyseal plate and investigation of cellular proliferation and differentiation pathways within the marrow compartment and whole bone tissue is currently being conducted to determine alterations in stem cell-based tissue regeneration between these experiments. Our results show that the observed inhibition of stem cell-based tissue regeneration

  4. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment...... with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...

  5. A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone-Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce intestinal calcium absorption, increase RANKL and. CSF-1 production,18 decrease IGF-1 production, and diminish the osteoblastic cell population.19. • Thyroid hormone: Important for cartilage formation, especially during childhood. Also bolsters bone resorption and collagenase production during adulthood.20.

  6. The effect of bone loss on rod-like and plate-like trabeculae in the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, L.J. van; Giesen, E.B.W.; Mulder, L.; Farella, M.; Eijden, T.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss may affect the structure of cancellous bone. But its effect on trabeculae with different characteristics, like rods and plates, is not accurately known. This study analyzes the effect of bone loss on individual rod-like and plate-like trabeculae. 94 specimens were obtained from mandibular

  7. Propranolol Attenuates Risperidone-Induced Trabecular Bone Loss in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; DeMambro, Victoria E; Barlow, Deborah; Olshan, David; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Houseknecht, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AA) drugs cause significant metabolic side effects, and clinical data are emerging that demonstrate increased fracture risk and bone loss after treatment with the AA, risperidone (RIS). The pharmacology underlying the adverse effects on bone is unknown. However, RIS action in the central nervous system could be responsible because the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to uncouple bone remodeling. RIS treatment in mice significantly lowered trabecular bone volume fraction (bone volume/total volume), owing to increased osteoclast-mediated erosion and reduced osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Daytime energy expenditure was also increased and was temporally associated with the plasma concentration of RIS. Even a single dose of RIS transiently elevated expression of brown adipose tissue markers of SNS activity and thermogenesis, Pgc1a and Ucp1. Rankl, an osteoclast recruitment factor regulated by the SNS, was also increased 1 hour after a single dose of RIS. Thus, we inferred that bone loss from RIS was regulated, at least in part, by the SNS. To test this, we administered RIS or vehicle to mice that were also receiving the nonselective β-blocker propranolol. Strikingly, RIS did not cause any changes in trabecular bone volume/total volume, erosion, or formation while propranolol was present. Furthermore, β2-adrenergic receptor null (Adrb2(-/-)) mice were also protected from RIS-induced bone loss. This is the first report to demonstrate SNS-mediated bone loss from any AA. Because AA medications are widely prescribed, especially to young adults, clinical studies are needed to assess whether β-blockers will prevent bone loss in this vulnerable population.

  8. Twelve-Minute Daily Yoga Regimen Reverses Osteoporotic Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Rosner, Bernard; Chang, Gregory; Fishman, Loren M

    2016-04-01

    Assess the effectiveness of selected yoga postures in raising bone mineral density (BMD). Ten-year study of 741 Internet-recruited volunteers comparing preyoga BMD changes with postyoga BMD changes. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric scans. Optional radiographs of hips and spine and bone quality study (7 Tesla). Bone mineral density improved in spine, hips, and femur of the 227 moderately and fully compliant patients. Monthly gain in BMD was significant in spine (0.0029 g/cm2, P = .005) and femur (0.00022 g/cm2, P = .053), but in 1 cohort, although mean gain in hip BMD was 50%, large individual differences raised the confidence interval and the gain was not significant for total hip (0.000357 g/cm2). No yoga-related serious injuries were imaged or reported. Bone quality appeared qualitatively improved in yoga practitioners. Yoga appears to raise BMD in the spine and the femur safely.

  9. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  10. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Hafezeqoran, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p bone loss.

  11. The clinical and radiological assessment of periodontal bone loss treatment using Emdogain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajuk, G; Pawińska, M; Kedra, B A

    2006-01-01

    ADMISSION: Emdogain is the only one biomaterial using biomicra effect which is practiced in periodontal surgery. The purpose of the study was a clinical and radiological assessment of bone loss treatment using Emdogain. There were 19 persons examined (11 women and 8 men) which have bone loss treated. Initial and monitoring examination after 10 months embraced clinical parameters such as PPD, CAL and radiological--based on intraoral x-ray pictures. Emdogain treatment was made according to surgical procedures. The research has shown reduction of the depth of periodontal pockets average about 3.4 mm and attachment connective tissue growth about 2.2 mm. Bone loss filling was on 67.1% level. Bone loss filling and growth of connective tissue attachment are in our research lower than in most of the others publications. Our observation concerned 10 months period so we should expect better effects after longer time. MOTIONS: Emdogain is safe and effective regeneration material.

  12. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atr Med J. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South. African women by means of the Hologic QDR 1000 system. A. A. Kalla, A. B. Fataar, L. Bewerunge. The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in. South African subjects, and to develop a ...

  13. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  14. Vitamin K’s role in age-related bone loss: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective role of vitamin K in age-related bone loss continues to be controversial. The results of observational analyses are inconsistent with respect to associations between vitamin K status and bone, which arguably may be related to the limitations of observational study designs and analyt...

  15. The influence of smoking on bone loss and response to nasal estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N.H.; Nielsen, T.F.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of smoking on bone during therapy with nasally administrated estradiol in sequential combination with oral progesterone in early postmenopausal women. In addition, to observe the consequences of smoking on bone in untreated women. Methods Post-hoc explorator...... estradiol to increase bone mass in early postmenopausal women. In addition, smoking may increase spontaneous bone loss in untreated women Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Objective To investigate the influence of smoking on bone during therapy with nasally administrated estradiol in sequential combination with oral progesterone in early postmenopausal women. In addition, to observe the consequences of smoking on bone in untreated women. Methods Post-hoc exploratory...... analyses of data from 270 postmenopausal women randomized to 2 years' therapy with daily nasal administration of 17-estradiol or placebo sequentially combined with oral micronized progesterone in the active groups or placebo in the placebo group. Results During treatment with nasal estradiol, the bone...

  16. Production of new 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration by rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, R; Correia, T R; Miguel, S P; de Sá, K D; Figueira, D R; Mendonça, A G; Correia, I J

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of bone disorders, whether due to trauma or pathology, has been trending upward with the aging of the worldwide population. The currently available treatments for bone injuries are rather limited, involving mainly bone grafts and implants. A particularly promising approach for bone regeneration uses rapid prototyping (RP) technologies to produce 3D scaffolds with highly controlled structure and orientation, based on computer-aided design models or medical data. Herein, tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/alginate scaffolds were produced using RP and subsequently their physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties were characterized. The results showed that 60/40 of TCP and alginate formulation was able to match the compression and present a similar Young modulus to that of trabecular bone while presenting an adequate biocompatibility. Moreover, the biomineralization ability, roughness and macro and microporosity of scaffolds allowed cell anchoring and proliferation at their surface, as well as cell migration to its interior, processes that are fundamental for osteointegration and bone regeneration.

  17. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roodabeh Koodaryan; Ali Hafezeqoran

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which ev...

  18. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Rapid Endochondral Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    osteoinductive components that could be seeded into the osteoconductive materials to generate normal bone which this study will explore. The central...without a scaffold, by using cells transduced with adenovirus vectors to express an osteoinductive factor (BMP2), which have been encapsulated in...minimally invasive percutaneous techniques and without a scaffold, by using cells transduced with adenovirus vectors to express an osteoinductive factor

  19. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Manasa G; Kour, Supinder; Piprode, Vikrant; Mittal, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Rani, Lekha; Pote, Satish T; Mishra, Gyan C; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-1β. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Bone mineral loss during pregnancy: is tennis protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Mina; Khoury, Jane; Tsang, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    Pregnancy may stress calcium economy in women through fetal calcium requirements, and increasing maternal body weight. Bone is stimulated by compression forces. Playing tennis may decrease bone resorption through intermittent mechanical loading. This study tests the thesis that maternal bone mineral changes during pregnancy in women who play tennis are less compromised compared with nontennis playing controls. This is a prospective cohort study, a pilot study of 18 healthy pregnant women: 8 tennis players and 10 controls, ages 18 to 39 years. Calcanei bone mineral density (BMD) and ultrasound (Stiffness Index (SI)) measurements, were made at 12 weeks gestation and 2 to 4 weeks postpartum. SI was also measured at 20 to 24, and 33 to 36 weeks gestation. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and covariance. Age, height, and weight at study entry were not different between tennis players and controls. At 12 weeks, BMD was higher in tennis players versus controls 0.57 +/- 0.02, 0.43 +/- 0.03 g/cm squared, (P = .003); but not postpartum. SI Z-scores fell significantly during pregnancy in both groups, but were consistently higher in tennis players. Bone measures dropped overall during pregnancy, but were significantly higher in tennis players versus controls at 12 weeks and through gestation.

  1. Mammary tumorigenesis causes bone loss and dietary selenium supplementation does not affect such bone loss in male MMTV-PyMT mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer progression is accompanied by wasting that eventually results in cachexia characterized by significant weight loss and multi-organ functional failures. Limited clinical trials indicate that bone is adversely affected by cancer-associated wasting. To determine the effects of breast cancer on...

  2. Is gene loss in pedigree dogs surprisingly rapid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John W

    2011-08-01

    Factors affecting the probabilities of gene loss are discussed, with particular attention given to population expansion, sex ratio and inbreeding. Much of the variation in gene survival probabilities among breeds can be explained by differences in expansion rate, sex ratio and family size, with little or no influence of average inbreeding and population size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  4. Three-dimensional assessment of buccal alveolar bone after rapid and slow maxillary expansion: a clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Mauricio; Andriani, Juliana da Silva Pereira; Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Locks, Arno; Correa, Marcio; Correa, Letícia Ruhland

    2013-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the immediate effects of rapid and slow maxillary expansion protocols, accomplished by Haas-type palatal expanders activated in different frequencies of activation on the positioning of the maxillary first permanent molars and on the buccal alveolar bones of these teeth with cone-beam computerized tomography. The sample consisted of 33 children (18 girls, 15 boys; mean age, 9 years) randomly distributed into 2 groups: rapid maxillary expansion (n = 17) and slow maxillary expansion (n = 16). Patients in the rapid maxillary expansion group received 2 turns of activation (0.4 mm) per day, and those in the slow maxillary expansion group received 2 turns of activation (0.4 mm) per week until 8 mm of expansion was achieved in both groups. Cone-beam computerized tomography images were taken before treatment and after stabilization of the jackscrews. Data were gathered through a standardized analysis of cone-beam computerized tomography images. Intragroup statistical analysis was accomplished with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, and intergroup statistical analysis was accomplished with analysis of variance. Linear relationships, among all variables, were determined by Spearman correlation. Both protocols caused buccal displacement of the maxillary first permanent molars, which had more bodily displacement in the slow maxillary expansion group, whereas more inclination was observed in the rapid maxillary expansion group. Vertical and horizontal bone losses were found in both groups; however, the slow maxillary expansion group had major bone loss. Periodontal modifications in both groups should be carefully considered because of the reduction of spatial resolution in the cone-beam computerized tomography examinations after stabilization of the jackscrews. Modifications in the frequency of activation of the palatal expander might influence the dental and periodontal effects of palatal expansion. Copyright © 2013

  5. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of aging...... in vivo, leading to decreased ability to form and maintain bone homeostasis with age. In this review we summarize evidence of MSC involvement in age related bone loss and suggest new emerging targets for intervention....

  6. The Look AHEAD Trial: bone loss at 4-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Edward W; Schwartz, Ann V; Anderson, Andrea M; Davis, Cralen; Johnson, Karen C; Gregg, Edward W; Bray, George A; Berkowitz, Robert; Peters, Anne L; Hodges, Amelia; Lewis, Cora; Kahn, Steven E

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. This randomized controlled trial of intensive weight loss compared an ILI with a diabetes support and education (DSE) group among 1,309 overweight or obese subjects. Bone mineral density was assessed at baseline and after 1 year and 4 years of intervention. ILI was effective in producing significant weight loss (5.3% vs. 1.8% in ILI and DSE, respectively; P < 0.01) and increased fitness (6.4% vs. -0.8%) at year 4. In men, ILI participants had a greater rate of bone loss during the first year (-1.66% vs. -0.09% per year in ILI and DSE, respectively). Differences between groups were diminished by one-half after 4 years (-0.88% vs. -0.05% per year in ILI and DSE, respectively) but remained significant (P < 0.01). The difference in rate of hip bone loss between groups over 4 years was related to increased weight loss in ILI. Among women, the rate of bone loss did not differ between ILI and DSE after 4 years. A 4-year weight loss intervention was significantly associated with a modest increase in bone loss at the hip in men but not in women. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  8. Automatic methods for alveolar bone loss degree measurement in periodontitis periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P L; Huang, P Y; Huang, P W

    2017-09-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone loss measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an automatic length-based alveolar bone loss measurement system with emphasis on a cementoenamel junction (CEJ) localization method: CEJ_LG. The bone loss measurement system first adopts the methods TSLS and ABLifBm, which we presented previously, to extract teeth contours and bone loss areas from periodontitis radiograph images. It then applies the proposed methods to locate the positions of CEJ, alveolar crest (ALC), and apex of tooth root (APEX), respectively. Finally the system computes the ratio of the distance between the positions of CEJ and ALC to the distance between the positions of CEJ and APEX as the degree of bone loss for that tooth. The method CEJ_LG first obtains the gradient of the tooth image then detects the border between the lower enamel and dentin (EDB) from the gradient image. Finally, the method identifies a point on the tooth contour that is horizontally closest to the EDB. Experimental results on 18 tooth images segmented from 12 periodontitis periapical radiographs, including 8 views of upper-jaw teeth and 10 views of lower-jaw teeth, show that 53% of the localized CEJs are within 3 pixels deviation (∼ 0.15 mm) from the positions marked by dentists and 90% have deviation less than 9 pixels (∼ 0.44 mm). For degree of alveolar bone loss, more than half of the measurements using our system have deviation less than 10% from the ground truth, and all measurements using our system are within 25% deviation from the ground truth. Our results suggest that the proposed automatic system can effectively estimate degree of horizontal alveolar bone loss in periodontitis radiograph images. We believe that our proposed system, if implemented in routine clinical practice, can serve as a valuable tool for early and accurate

  9. Diet-Induced Obesity and Its Differential Impact on Periodontal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluke, M; Gold, T; Kiefhaber, K; Al-Sahli, A; Celenti, R; Jiang, H; Cremers, S; Van Dyke, T; Schulze-Späte, U

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and impaired bone homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of specific elevated fatty acid (FA) levels on alveolar bone loss in a Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced model of periodontal disease and to analyze underlying cellular mechanisms in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts in mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided in groups and subjected to a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high-fat diet (HFD) (20% of calories from FA) or a normal caloric diet (C group) (10% of calories from FA) for 16 wk. Starting at week 10, mice were infected orally with P. gingivalis (W50) or placebo to induce alveolar bone loss. Animals were sacrificed, and percentage fat, serum inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), and bone metabolism (osteocalcin [OC], carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks [CTX], and N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen [P1NP]) markers were measured. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of elevated PA or OA levels and exposed to P. gingivalis. Animals on FA-enriched diets weighed significantly more compared with animals on a normal caloric diet (P diet rather than weight gain and obesity alone modulates bone metabolism and can therefore influence alveolar bone loss. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  10. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  11. Marrow adipogenesis and bone loss that parallels estrogen deficiency is slowed by low-intensity mechanical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, D; Frechette, D M; Adler, B J; Green, D E; Chan, M E; Rubin, C T

    2016-02-01

    Ovariectomized mice were used to assess the ability of low-intensity vibrations to protect bone microarchitecture and marrow composition. Results indicate that low-intensity vibrations (LIV), introduced 2 weeks postsurgery, slows marrow adipogenesis in OVX mice but does not restore the bone within the period studied. However, immediate application of LIV partially protects quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate consequences of estrogen depletion on bone marrow (BM) phenotype and bone microarchitecture, and effects of mechanical signals delivered as LIV on modulating these changes. LIV (0.3 g, 90 Hz) was applied to C57BL/6 mice immediately following ovariectomy or 2 weeks postestrogen withdrawal for 2 (ST-LIV) or 6 weeks (LT-LIV), respectively. Sham-operated age-matched controls (ST-AC, LT-AC) and ovariectomized controls (ST-OVX, LT-OVX) received sham LIV treatment. Bone microstructure was evaluated through μCT and BM adipogenesis through histomorphometry, serum markers, and genes expression analysis. LT-OVX increased BM adipogenesis relative to LT-AC (+136 %, p ≤ 0.05), while LT-LIV introduced for 6w suppressed this adipose encroachment (-55 %, p ≤ 0.05). In parallel with the fatty marrow, LT-OVX showed a marked loss of trabecular bone, -40 % (p ≤ 0.05) in the first 2 weeks following ovariectomy compared to LT-AC. Application of LT-LIV for 6w following this initial 2w bone loss failed to restore the lost trabeculae but did initiate an anabolic response as indicated by increased serum alkaline phosphatase (+26 %, p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, application of LIV immediately following ovariectomy was more efficacious in the protection of trabecular bone, with a +29 % (p > 0.05) greater BV/TV compared to ST-OVX at the 2w time period. LIV can mitigate adipocyte accumulation in OVX marrow and protect it by favoring osteoblastogenesis over adipogenesis. These data also emphasize the rapidity of bone loss with OVX and provide

  12. Twelve-Minute Daily Yoga Regimen Reverses Osteoporotic Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Rosner, Bernard; Chang, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the effectiveness of selected yoga postures in raising bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Ten-year study of 741 Internet-recruited volunteers comparing preyoga BMD changes with postyoga BMD changes. Outcome Measures: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric scans. Optional radiographs of hips and spine and bone quality study (7 Tesla). Results: Bone mineral density improved in spine, hips, and femur of the 227 moderately and fully compliant patients. Monthly gain in BMD was significant in spine (0.0029 g/cm2, P = .005) and femur (0.00022 g/cm2, P = .053), but in 1 cohort, although mean gain in hip BMD was 50%, large individual differences raised the confidence interval and the gain was not significant for total hip (0.000357 g/cm2). No yoga-related serious injuries were imaged or reported. Bone quality appeared qualitatively improved in yoga practitioners. Conclusion: Yoga appears to raise BMD in the spine and the femur safely. PMID:27226695

  13. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to 3 years of treatment with alendronate, 5 mg/d, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the effect of alendronate is sustained at 4 years of treatment and persists after treatment is discontinued. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: United...... alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen......-medroxyprogesterone acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  14. Prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized rats by combined treatment with risedronate and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erben, R.G.; Mosekilde, Li.; Thomsen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bisphosphonates inhibit bone loss through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. At low doses, vitamin D metabolites can prevent bone loss in models of osteopenia in rats by an antiresorptive effect, while at high doses they also stimulate osteoblast activity and show an anabolic effect...... and in combination, for the prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. One hundred ten female 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this experiment. Ninety rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX), 10 rats were sham-operated (SHAM), and 10 rats were killed at the time of surgery as a baseline...... deficiency-induced bone loss was prevented by individual prophylactic administration of risedronate or calcitriol, OVX rats treated with a combination of risedronate and calcitriol had higher bone mineral density (BMD), cancellous bone area (B.Ar), and bone strength in long bones and vertebrae compared...

  15. Extracellular ATP is a key modulator of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binderman, Itzhak; Gadban, Nasir; Yaffe, Avinoam

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2. Increased extracellular ATP (eATP) by interacting with P2×7 purinoreceptors, present on fibroblasts and osteoblasts, induces generation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) that further activates osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption and bone loss. In addition, increased eATP levels may amplify inflammation by promoting leukocyte recruitment and NALP3-inflammasome activation via P2×7. Then, the inflammatory cells secrete cytokines, interleukin IL-1, TNF and RANKL that further trigger alveolar bone resorption. Moreover, eATP can be secreted from periodontal bacteria that may further contribute to inflammation and bone loss in periodontitis. It seems therefore, that eATP is a key modulator that initiates the pathway of alveolar bone resorption and bone loss in patients with periodontal disease. In conclusion, we propose that strain release in gingival fibroblasts aligned on collagen fibers, due to activity of MMP, activates release of ATP that triggers the pathway of alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. We predict that by controlling the eATP interaction with its cellular purinoreceptors will reduce significantly bone loss in periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoring the Architecture: A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition that contributes to the risk of fracture in both women and men. The current paper will provide a rapid clinical overview of the condition and the current pharmacotherapeutic approaches applied in its treatment. We close with a summary of novel treatment strategies ...

  17. Diabetes mellitus may increase bone loss after occlusal trauma and experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Diniz, Claudia K; Corrêa, Mônica G; Casati, Marcio Z; Nociti, Francisco H; Ruiz, Karina G; Bovi Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria; Sallum, Enilson A

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can negatively influence periodontal tissues, resulting in more prevalent and severe periodontitis and impaired bone formation. Occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the supportive periodontium that results in bone loss. It can be hypothesized that DM would increase bone loss after OT, mainly when associated with periodontitis. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of DM on bone response in the furcation area of teeth subjected to OT in the presence, or absence, of experimental periodontitis (EP) in the rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: 1) group 1 (G1): DM+OT+EP (n = 8); 2) group 2 (G2): DM+OT (n = 8); 3) group 3 (G3): OT+EP (n = 8); and 4) group 4 (G4): OT (n = 8). G1 and G2 received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After 10 days, G1 and G3 were subjected to EP by ligature placement. Fifteen days after the start of EP, OT was induced by the creation of a premature contact. The animals were euthanized 35 days after DM induction. DM enhanced bone loss in the presence of OT combined with EP, but did not increase bone loss in teeth subjected to OT alone. EP caused greater bone loss when associated with OT. Within the limits of this animal study, it can be concluded that DM enhances bone loss in the presence of occlusal trauma associated with EP.

  18. Alveolar bone loss in two children with short-bowel syndrome receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K B; Holan, G; Casamassimo, P S; King, D R

    1991-04-01

    Two preschool children who were receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for short-bowel syndrome (SBS) were noted to have radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss in their primary dentition. Tooth mobility, gingival recession, and premature tooth loss were clinical findings in these children. Both had a 2-year history of recurrent infections and fluctuating serum electrolytes prior to identification of their dental problems.

  19. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  20. Composite Bone and Soft Tissue Loss Treated with Distraction Histiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    requiring removal. The first major complication included prema- ture fibular consolidation leading to syndesmosis sublux- ation during tibia...distraction. This required repeat fibular osteotomy and syndesmosis fixation. The second major complication was a scarred tibialis anterior tendon within the... deficiency after acute trauma: the role of bone transport. Orthop. Clin. North Am. 25:753– 763, 1994. 4. Watson, J. T., Anders, M., Moed, B. R. Management

  1. Hepatic Osteodystrophy: The Mechanism of Bone Loss in Hepatocellular Disease and the Effects of Pamidronate Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirlandeli, Adriano L; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Zamarioli, Ariane; Jorgetti, Vanda; Ramalho, Leandra N Z; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Volpon, Jose B; Jordão, Alceu A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Fukada, Sandra Y; de Paula, Francisco J A

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the bone phenotypes and mechanisms involved in bone disorders associated with hepatic osteodystrophy. Hepatocellular disease was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In addition, the effects of disodium pamidronate on bone tissue were evaluated. The study included 4 groups of 15 mice: a) C = mice subjected to vehicle injections; b) C+P = mice subjected to vehicle and pamidronate injections; c) CCl4+V = mice subjected to CCl4 and vehicle injections; and d) CCl4+P = mice subjected to CCl4 and pamidronate injections. CCl4 or vehicle was administered for 8 weeks, while pamidronate or vehicle was injected at the end of the fourth week. Bone histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed in tibiae, while femora were used for micro-computed tomography and gene expression. CCl4 mice exhibited decreased bone volume/trabecular volume and trabecular numbers, as well as increased trabecular separation, as determined by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography, but these changes were not detected in the group treated with pamidronate. CCl4 mice showed increased numbers of osteoclasts and resorption surface. High serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and the increased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in the bones of CCl4 mice supported the enhancement of bone resorption in these mice. Taken together, these results suggest that bone resorption is the main mechanism of bone loss in chronic hepatocellular disease in mice.

  2. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  3. Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Bone Loss in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani

    2017-10-12

    Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L2 to L4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ in inflammatory bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianlan Yang

    Full Text Available TNF-α plays a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and inflammatory bone loss. Unfortunately, treatment of RA with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (GCs also causes bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ, a mediator of GC's anti-inflammatory effect, can enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone acquisition in vivo. To investigate whether GILZ could antagonize TNF-α-induced arthritic inflammation and protect bone in mice, we generated a TNF-α-GILZ double transgenic mouse line (TNF-GILZ Tg by crossbreeding a TNF-α Tg mouse, which ubiquitously expresses human TNF-α, with a GILZ Tg mouse, which expresses mouse GILZ under the control of a 3.6kb rat type I collagen promoter fragment. Results showed that overexpression of GILZ in bone marrow mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells protected mice from TNF-α-induced inflammatory bone loss and improved bone integrity (TNF-GILZ double Tg vs. TNF-αTg, n = 12-15. However, mesenchymal cell lineage restricted GILZ expression had limited effects on TNF-α-induced arthritic inflammation as indicated by clinical scores and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  5. Detection of periodontal bone loss using cone beam CT and intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Vasconcelos, K; Evangelista, K M; Rodrigues, C D; Estrela, C; de Sousa, T O; Silva, M A G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare periapical radiographs with cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging in detecting and localizing alveolar bone loss by comparing linear measurements of the height, depth and width of the defects and identifying combined bone defects in tomographic images. The images were selected from a secondary database containing images of patients referred for periodontal evaluation. The sample consisted of 51 sites showing both horizontal and vertical bone loss, assessed by 3 trained examiners. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the imaging methods in terms of identification of the pattern of bone loss. However, there were differences between the two methods when the distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar crest (AC) was measured. When the distance between the CEJ and the deepest point and width of the defect were measured, the methods showed no statistically significant difference. In this study, 30.8% of the 39 teeth evaluated had combined bone defects. The two methods differ when detecting the height of the alveolar bone crest but present similar views of the depth and width of bone defects. CBCT was the only method that allowed for an analysis of the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces and an improved visualization of the morphology of the defect.

  6. Elevated serum soluble CD200 and CD200R as surrogate markers of bone loss under bed rest conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, O; Hughson, R L; Hart, D A; Clément, G; Frings-Meuthen, P; Linnarsson, D; Paloski, W H; Rittweger, J; Wuyts, F; Zange, J; Gorczynski, R M

    2014-03-01

    CD200 is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin family of proteins and is ubiquitously expressed on a variety of cell types. Upon interaction with its receptors (CD200Rs) expressed on myeloid-derived cells and T lymphocytes, an immunoregulatory signal is delivered to receptor-expressing cells. Previous studies have implicated a role for CD200:CD200R in the regulation of the expression of mRNA markers of osteoclastogenesis/osteoblastogenesis, following interaction of CD200 (on osteoblast precursors) with CD200R1 (on osteoclast precursors). Signaling of CD200R1 is hypothesized to attenuate osteoclastogenesis. We have investigated whether levels of soluble forms of CD200 and/or CD200R1 (sCD200, sCD200R1) are altered in volunteers undergoing 6° head down tilt bed rest to mimic conditions of microgravity known to be associated with preferential osteoclastogenesis and whether countermeasures, reported to be beneficial in attenuation of bone loss under microgravity conditions, would lead to altered sCD200 and sCD200R1 levels. Our data suggest that, as predicted, sCD200 levels fall under bed rest conditions while sCD200R1 levels rise. In subjects undergoing 30-minute per day continuous centrifugation protocols, as a countermeasure to attenuate changes which may lead to bone loss, these alterations in sCD200 and sCD200R1 levels seen under conditions of bed rest were abolished or attenuated. Our results suggest that measurement of sCD200 and/or sCD200R1 may prove a useful and rapid means of monitoring subjects at risk of bone loss and/or accessing the efficacy of treatment regimes designed to counter bone loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

  8. Effects of food groups and dietary nutrients on bone loss in elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Woo, J; Leung, J

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effects of food groups and dietary nutrients on bone loss in elderly Chinese population. Prospective cohort study. A longitudinal study started at 2001 in Hong Kong. 1225 Chinese men and 992 women aged 65 years and over in the community. Daily intake of food groups and dietary nutrients at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intake was adjusted for energy intake by residual method. Linear regression was used to examine the association of BMD change and food group or energy-adjusted nutrient intake with adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle factors, and daily energy intake (for food group only). Higher fish intake was associated with smaller bone loss in hip (B=-0.611, p=0.004) and femoral neck (B=-0.724, p=0.040) in men. None of the food groups were associated with bone loss in both measured sites in women. For men, lower intake of protein (B=-0.012, p=0.003), phosphorus (B=-0.0008, p=0.001), sodium (B=-0.0002, p=0.023) and isoflavone (B=-1.084, p=0.030) was associated with greater BMD loss in hip, whereas lower intake of protein (B=-0.018, p=0.006) and sodium (B=-0.0004, p=0.018) was associated with greater BMD loss in femoral neck. However, these significant associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy-adjusted calcium and vitamin D intakes. None of the nutrients were associated with BMD loss in both measured sites in women. Greater fish intake may help to reduce bone loss in this sample of elderly Chinese men. The significant association between various nutrients and bone loss in elderly Chinese men was likely due to the influence of dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes. The role of food groups and dietary nutrients on bone health in this sample of elderly Chinese women seems to be minimal.

  9. Local vibration enhanced the efficacy of passive exercise on mitigating bone loss in hindlimb unloading rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunfei; Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lianwen; Bi, Jingfang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yubo

    2017-08-01

    Spaceflight induced bone loss is seriously affecting astronauts. Mechanical stimulation from exercise has been shown to restrain bone resorption as well as improve bone formation. Current exercise countermeasures in space cannot prevent it completely. Active exercise may convert to passive exercise in some ways because of the loss of gravity stimulus and inertia of exercise equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive exercise or/and local vibration on counteracting the deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle and tendons in tail-suspended rats. We hypothesized that local vibration could enhance the efficacy of passive exercise on countering bone loss. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS+35 Hz vibration (TSV), TS + passive exercise (TSP), TS + passive exercise coupled with 35 Hz vibration (TSPV) and control (CON). Passive exercise or/and local vibration was performed for 21 days. On day 0 and 21, bone mineral density (BMD) was observed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trabecular microstructure was evaluated by microcomputer tomography (μCT) analysis in vivo. Mechanical properties of tibia and tendon were determined by a mechanical testing system. Soleus and bone ash weight was tested by an electronic balance. Results showed that the passive exercise could not prevent the decrease of trabecular BMD, microstructure and bone ash weight induced by TS, whereas vibration and passive exercise coupled with local vibration (PV) could. Biomechanical properties of the tibia and tendon in TSPV group significantly increased compared with TS group. In summary, PV in this study was the best method in preventing weightlessness-induced bone loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, local vibration partly enhanced the effect of passive exercise. Furthermore, this study will be useful in improving countermeasure for astronauts, but also for the

  10. Use of non-vascularized autologous fibula strut graft in the treatment of segmental bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Y Z; Garba, E S; Ogirima, M O; Dahiru, I L; Maitama, M I; Abubakar, K; Ejagwulu, F S

    2011-01-01

    Fractures resulting in segmental bone loss challenge the orthopedic surgeon. Orthopedic surgeons in developed countries have the option of choosing vascularized bone transfers, bone transport, allogenic bone grafts, bone graft substitutes and several other means to treat such conditions. In developing countries where such facilities or expertise may not be readily available, the surgeon has to rely on other techniques of treatment. Non-vascularized fibula strut graft and cancellous bone grafting provides a reliable means of treating such conditions in developing countries. Over a period of six years all patients with segmental bone loss either from trauma or oncologic resection were included in the study. Data concerning the type of wound, size of gap and skin loss at tumor or fracture were obtained from clinical examination and radiographs. Ten patients satisfied the inclusion criteria for the study. The average length of the fibula strut is 7 cm, the longest being 15 cm and the shortest 3 cm long. The average defect length was 6.5 cm. Five patients had Gustillo III B open tibial fractures. One patient had recurrent giant cell tumor of the distal radius and another had a polyostotic bone cyst of the femur, which was later confirmed to be osteosarcoma. Another had non-union of distal tibial fracture with shortening. One other patient had gunshot injury to the femur and was initially managed by skeletal traction. The tenth patient had a comminuted femoral fracture. All trauma patients had measurement of missing segment, tissue envelope assessment, neurological examination, and debridement under general anesthesia with fracture stabilization with external fixators or casts. Graft incorporation was 80% in all treated patients. Autologous free, non-vascularized fibula and cancellous graft is a useful addition to the armamentarium of orthopedic surgeon in developing countries attempting to manage segmental bone loss, whether created by trauma or excision of tumors.

  11. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  12. Targeting cellular senescence prevents age-related bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Xu, Ming; Weivoda, Megan M; Monroe, David G; Fraser, Daniel G; Onken, Jennifer L; Negley, Brittany A; Sfeir, Jad G; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Hachfeld, Christine M; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Drake, Matthew T; Pignolo, Robert J; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Tchkonia, Tamara; Oursler, Merry Jo; Kirkland, James L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-09-01

    Aging is associated with increased cellular senescence, which is hypothesized to drive the eventual development of multiple comorbidities. Here we investigate a role for senescent cells in age-related bone loss through multiple approaches. In particular, we used either genetic (i.e., the INK-ATTAC 'suicide' transgene encoding an inducible caspase 8 expressed specifically in senescent cells) or pharmacological (i.e., 'senolytic' compounds) means to eliminate senescent cells. We also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory secretome of senescent cells using a JAK inhibitor (JAKi). In aged (20- to 22-month-old) mice with established bone loss, activation of the INK-ATTAC caspase 8 in senescent cells or treatment with senolytics or the JAKi for 2-4 months resulted in higher bone mass and strength and better bone microarchitecture than in vehicle-treated mice. The beneficial effects of targeting senescent cells were due to lower bone resorption with either maintained (trabecular) or higher (cortical) bone formation as compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that senescent-cell conditioned medium impaired osteoblast mineralization and enhanced osteoclast-progenitor survival, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data establish a causal role for senescent cells in bone loss with aging, and demonstrate that targeting these cells has both anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on bone. Given that eliminating senescent cells and/or inhibiting their proinflammatory secretome also improves cardiovascular function, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces frailty, targeting this fundamental mechanism to prevent age-related bone loss suggests a novel treatment strategy not only for osteoporosis, but also for multiple age-related comorbidities.

  13. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Ladder-Climbing Training Prevents Bone Loss and Microarchitecture Deterioration in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chentao; Wang, Xudan; Han, Yanqi; Zhao, Xinjuan; Chi, Aiping; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proved to be effective in improving bone quality in both animal and human studies. However, the issue about whether resistance exercise can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of ladder-climbing training, one of the resistance exercises, on bone mechanical properties and microarchitecture in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF + sedentary (HF-S) and HF + ladder-climbing training (HF-LCT) groups. Rats in the HF-LCT group performed ladder-climbing training for 8 weeks. The results showed that ladder-climbing training significantly reduced body and fat weight, and increased muscle mass along with a trend toward enhanced muscle strength in diet-induced obese rats. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that obesity-induced bone loss and architecture deterioration were significantly mitigated by ladder-climbing training, as evidenced by increased trabecular bone mineral density, bone volume over total volume, trabecular number and thickness, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. However, neither HF diet nor ladder-climbing training had an impact on femoral biomechanical properties. Moreover, ladder-climbing training significantly increased serum adiponectin, decreased serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 levels, and downregulated myostatin (MSTN) expression in diet-induced obese rats. Taken together, ladder-climbing training prevents bone loss and microarchitecture deterioration in diet-induced obese rats through multiple mechanisms including increasing mechanical loading on bone due to improved skeletal muscle mass and strength, regulating the levels of myokines and adipokines, and suppressing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It indicates that resistance exercise may be a promising therapy for treating obesity-induced bone loss.

  15. Average annual crestal bone loss of ITI implants following the first year of loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hosseinzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long term success of dental implants directly depends on marginal bone resorption. The aim of this study was to determine the annual average bone loss on the mesial and distal aspects of implants following the first year of implantation. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytical study of patients treated with ITI (International Team of Implantology implants at the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1998-2002 (1377-81. A total of 15 patients with 41 implants were selected by convenience sampling method. The height of the alveolar bone was measured using panoramic radiography before and after loading with calipers to determine the average bone loss. Other information such as pocket depth, bleeding index, plaque index, gingival recession, was obtained by clinical examinations. The mean bone loss on the mesial & distal sides was analyzed by ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The average bone loss on the proximal sides of ITI implants obtained annually after the first year of loading was 0.084 ± 0.035 mm with slight difference on the mesial (0.092 ± 0.035 and distal (0.072 ± 0.033 sides. There was negligible difference between male and female patients. The average survival rate for thirty three months was 95.1%. CONCLUSION: The average bone loss on the mesial and distal sides of ITI implants compared with other studies was satisfactory. Survival and success rates were acceptable. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, bone resorption, survival rate, dental plaque index.

  16. Multi-factorial analysis of variables influencing the bone loss of an implant placed in the maxilla: prediction using FEA and SED bone remodeling algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Li; Lin, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shih-Hao

    2010-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions of implant position, implant-abutment connection and loading condition influencing bone loss of an implant placed in the maxilla using finite element (FE) analysis and mathematical bone remodeling theory. The maxilla section contours were acquired using CT images to construct FE models containing RS (internal retaining-screw) and the TIS (taper integrated screwed-in) implants placed in SC (along the axis of occlusal force) and RA (along the axis of residual ridge) positions. The adaptive strain energy density (SED) algorithm was combined with FE approach to study the preliminary bone remodeling around implant systems under different load conditions. The simulated results showed that the implant position obviously influenced the bone loss. An implant placed in the RA position resulted in substantially increased bone loss. Implant receiving a lateral load slightly increased bone loss compared with an axial load. The implant type did not significantly influence bone loss. It was found that buccal site suffered the most bone loss around the implant, followed by distal, lingual and mesial sites. The implant position primarily influenced bone loss and it was found most obviously at the buccal site. Implant placed along the axial load direction of a proposed prosthesis could obtain less bone loss around the implant. Attaining proper occlusal adjustments to reduce the lateral occlusal force is recommended in implant-bone-prosthesis system. Abutments of internal engagement with or without taper-fit did not affect the bone loss in the surrounding bone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  18. Effects of COLIA1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on perimenopausal bone mass, postmenopausal bone loss and fracture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Bofill, N; Husted, Camilla L.; Harsløf, Torben

    2011-01-01

    mineral density (BMD) and increased bone turnover at menopause and after 10 years of follow-up. Introduction We wanted to investigate whether the -1997G/T, -1663indelT and +1245G/T polymorphisms in the COLIA1 gene are associated with perimenopausal bone mass, early postmenopausal bone loss and interact......Summary One thousand seven hundred seventeen perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study were genotyped for the -1997G/T, -1663indelT and +1245G/T polymorphisms in the COLIA1 gen. We found that the -1997T allele and a haplotype containing it were associated with reduced bone...... after 10 years although statistical significance was lost. Haplotype 3 (-1997T-1663ins+1245G) was associated with lower bone mass and higher levels of bone turnover. Compared with haplotype 1, haplotype 3 carriers had lower BMDat the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip by 0.016±0.007 g/cm2, 0...

  19. CCR2 elimination in mice results in larger and stronger tibial bones but bone loss is not attenuated following ovariectomy or muscle denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Tara L; Novotny, Susan A; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Lowe, Dawn A; Warren, Gordon L

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss due to age and disuse contributes to osteoporosis and increases fracture risk. It has been hypothesized that such bone loss can be attenuated by modulation of the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and/or its ligands. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of genetic elimination of CCR2 on cortical and trabecular bones in the mouse tibia and how bone loss was impacted following disuse and estrogen loss. Female CCR2 knockout (CCR2(-/-)) and wildtype mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or denervation of musculature adjacent to the tibia (DEN) to induce bone loss. Cortical and trabecular structural properties as well as mechanical properties (i.e., strength) of tibial bones were measured. Compared to wildtype mice, CCR2(-/-) mice had tibiae that were up to 9% larger and stronger; these differences could be explained mainly by the 17% greater body mass (P bone loss per se. These findings indicate that while CCR2(-/-) mice do have larger and stronger bones than do wildtype mice, there is minimal evidence that CCR2 elimination provides protection against bone loss during disuse and estrogen loss.

  20. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with changes in the composition of oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Saraiva, Adriana Machado; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Madeira, Mila Fernandes Moreira; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Souza, Danielle Glória; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are chronic inflammatory disorders that cause bone loss. PD tends to be more prevalent and severe in RA patients. Previous experimental studies demonstrated that RA triggers alveolar bone loss similarly to PD. The aim of this study was to investigate if arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with modification in the oral microbiota. Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was employed to analyze forty oral bacterial species in 3 groups of C57BL/6 mice: control (n = 12; without any challenge); Y4 (n = 8; received oral inoculation of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans strain FDC Y4) and AIA group (n = 12; chronic antigen-induced arthritis). The results showed that AIA and Y4 group exhibited similar patterns of bone loss. The AIA group exhibited higher counts of most bacterial species analyzed with predominance of Gram-negative species similarly to infection-induced PD. Prevotella nigrescens and Treponema denticola were detected only in the Y4 group whereas Campylobacter showae, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis were only found in the AIA group. Counts of Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas Noxia and Veillonella parvula were greater in the AIA group whereas Actinomyces viscosus and Neisseira mucosa were in large proportion in Y4 group. In conclusion, AIA is associated with changes in the composition of the oral microbiota, which might account for the alveolar bone loss observed in AIA mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  3. Marginal bone loss around tilted implants in comparison to straight implants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to compare the amount of marginal bone loss around tilted and straight implants. As the secondary aim, the incidence of biomechanic complications was compared. An electronic literature search from five databases, for the years 2000 to 2011, and a hand search in implant-related journals were conducted. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported marginal bone loss in tilted and straight implants at 12-months follow-up or longer were included. Mean marginal bone loss and the number of implants that were available for analysis were extracted from original articles for meta-analyses. Eight (six prospective and two retrospective) studies were included. One-year data were available in seven articles, which included 1,015 (451 tilted) implants. Three articles provided 3- to 5-year data from 302 (164 tilted) implants. No significant difference in weighted mean marginal bone loss was found between the tilted and straight implants in the short and medium terms. Three articles reported the incidence of biomechanic complications. There was not enough information to make a comparison. This meta-analysis failed to support the hypothesis that tilted implants that were splinted for the support of fixed prostheses had more marginal bone loss. Additionally, there was not enough evidence to claim a higher incidence of biomechanic complications in tilted implants. However, due to the nature of the study design of the included articles, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of this review.

  4. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia [Fleury Medicina e Saude and Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim [Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brown, Eduardo [Grupo Fleury Medicina Diagnostica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  5. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana dos Reis Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP. For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL. Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  6. The Effect ofCalendula officinalison Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana Dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A C; Carneiro, Virgínia C; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  7. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P.; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Carneiro, Virgínia C.; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway. PMID:28701962

  8. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pperiodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  9. Low-intensity ultrasound stimulation prevents osteoporotic bone loss in young adult ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohyung; Ko, Chang-Yong; Seo, Dong Hyun; Woo, Dae Gon; Kim, Jin Man; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Kim, Han Sung

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass, increased bone fragility, and a greater risk for bone fracture. Currently, pharmacological intervention can generally aid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, but these therapies are often accompanied by undesirable side effects. Therefore, alternative therapies that minimize side effects are necessary. Biophysical stimuli, especially low-intensity ultrasound stimulation (LIUS), may be potential alternatives to drug-based therapies for osteoporosis. Hence, we sought to address whether LIUS therapy can effectively prevent or treat osteoporotic bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. LIUS (1.5 MHz frequency, 1.0 kHz pulse repetition on frequency, 30 mW/cm(2) intensity, 200 µs pulse length) was applied to right tibiae of eight 14-week-old ovariectomized virgin ICR female mice for 20 min per day, 5 days per week, over a 6-week period. Changes in 3D structural bone characteristics were detected using in vivo micro-computed tomography. Left tibiae served as controls. Structural characteristics including bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular number, trabecular bone pattern factor, and mean polar moment inertia were significantly enhanced 6 weeks after LIUS compared to the control, nonstimulated group (p < 0.05). In particular, the bone volume/tissue volume in the region exposed directly to LIUS was significantly higher in the treated group (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that new bone formation may be activated or that bone structure may be maintained by LIUS, and that LIUS may be effective for preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  11. Eldecalcitol, an Active Vitamin D3Derivative, Prevents Trabecular Bone Loss and Bone Fragility in Type I Diabetic Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsuru; Sakai, Sadaoki; Yogo, Kenji; Marumo, Keishi; Endo, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to adversely affect the bones and be associated with increased fracture risk. We examined whether eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D 3 derivative, could inhibit the diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. ELD (10, 20, or 40 ng/kg), alfacalcidol (ALF; 25, 50, or 100 ng/kg), or vehicle was administered 5 times per week for 12 weeks from 1 week after diabetes induction. Normal control rats received the vehicle. Bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical strength of the lumbar spine and femur were measured, and bone histomorphometry was performed. Content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the femoral shaft was also determined. In diabetic rats, serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration was lower and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) tended to be higher than in normal rats. Areal BMD and maximum load of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral shaft were lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. All doses of ELD and the highest dose of ALF reduced urinary DPD excretion, but had no effect on serum OC. The 20 and 40 ng/kg doses of ELD prevented decreases in BMD and the highest dose of ELD prevented the reduction in maximum load of the lumbar vertebrae, while ALF did not change these parameters. ELD and ALF did not affect areal BMD or biomechanical strength of the femoral shaft. In diabetic rats, bone volume and trabecular thickness in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae decreased and trabecular separation increased compared to normal rats. ELD and ALF prevented diabetes-induced deterioration of trabecular microstructure. AGE content in the femoral cortical bone increased in the diabetic rats, and ELD and ALF did not change AGE content compared to the diabetic rats. These results indicated that ELD suppressed bone resorption and prevented trabecular bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microstructure, resulting in prevention of reduction in biomechanical

  12. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-11-04

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  13. Dietary phosphorus exacerbates bone loss induced by cadmium in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalian, Neema; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Soung, Do Y; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-12-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss can be exacerbated by environmental contaminants, including the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). We hypothesized that incorporating phosphorus (P) into the diet would lead to the chelation of Cd into P, preventing its absorption and subsequent bone loss. To test this hypothesis, we used ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to examine the deleterious effects of Cd on bone with and without added P. Fifty 3-month-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five treatment groups (n = 10 per group) for 3 months as follows: (1) control; (2) 50 ppm Cd; (3) 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P; (4) 200 ppm Cd; and (5) 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P. Cd plus P caused a significant loss of whole body (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.001) and femoral (P = 0.0005 and P < 0.001) bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content, respectively, and a loss of fourth lumbar vertebra BMD and bone mineral content (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Nonetheless, 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P had the most deleterious effects on whole body and femoral BMD. For femoral neck microstructural properties, 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused an increase in trabecular separation, whereas 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused a decrease in bone volume-to-total volume ratio, a decrease in trabecular number, and an increase in trabecular separation and structural model index. Our findings indicate that Cd exposure, along with high intake of P, may be a public health hazard with respect to bone health.

  14. Metformin for Rapidly Maturing Girls with Central Adiposity: Less Liver Fat and Slower Bone Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; García Beltrán, Cristina; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2017-11-07

    Girls with low-birth weight (LBW) and postnatal weight catch-up tend to develop visceral and hepatic fat excess, which may be accompanied by an upregulated adrenarche with precocious pubarche (PP) and by a rapidly progressive puberty with early menarche and shorter stature. A pilot study suggested that metformin treatment for 4 years reduces central adiposity in LBW-PP girls and normalizes puberty and adult height. In this cohort, we studied the relationship between metformin treatment, bone maturation, and body composition. Longitudinal hand X-rays (0-4 years, analyzed by BoneXpert) were available from 34 LBW-PP girls (89% of the original cohort; n = 17 untreated, n = 17 metformin-treated; age at the start of treatment 8 years) along with body composition (0-4 years, by DXA), hepatic fat, and abdominally subcutaneous and visceral fat (posttreatment, by MRI). The tempo of bone aging was accelerated in untreated girls (≈16% faster vs. chronological aging) and normal in metformin-treated girls (≈20% slower vs. untreated girls). Metformin-treated girls gained more height per bone-age year and had less visceral and hepatic fat. The tempo of bone maturation was associated (R = 0.55; p fat. Metformin treatment in rapidly maturing girls with central adiposity normalized bone maturation. This normalization was accompanied by less central fat and was related closely to hepatic fat. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  16. Laser acupuncture and prevention of bone loss in tail-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Liu, Mu-Qing; Man, Hau-Cheung; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Mu, Jia-Ji; Li, Yong-Zhi; Feng, Jin-Sheng; Shi, San-Qiang; Zhang, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Skeletal unloading during spaceflight results in bone loss. This study investigated whether laser acupuncture could be an effective countermeasure to prevent unloading-induced bone loss in rats. There were 18 rats that were randomly assigned into three groups: a control group, a tail-suspended group (TS), and a tail-suspended with laser acupuncture treatment group (TSA). The rats in the TSA group were treated with laser acupuncture at the KI1 (Yong Quan) and ST36 (Zu San Li) acupoints of the left leg for 3 min per day. Bone mineral density (BMD), biomechanical properties, and histomorphometry of both tibiae were determined after the animals were euthanized at the end of week 4. Compared with the control group, BMD in the TS group significantly decreased by 12.3% in cortical bone and 15.1% in cancellous bone, whereas BMD in the TSA group decreased by only 3.1% in cortical bone and 9.0% in cancellous bone. The hardness of cortical bone dropped 44.1% in the TS group and 22.3% in the TSA group compared with the control group. The histomorphometry data were in accordance with BMD measurements. Although acupuncture treatment was applied only to the left side, we observed similar changes between the measurements of both the left and right tibiae. Laser acupuncture on KI1 and ST36 can inhibit bone loss in rats subjected to unloading. The fact that similar changes between the right and left sides when only the left limbs were treated suggests that the preventive effect of laser acupuncture occurs via a systemic regulation.

  17. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  18. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model. PMID:23024690

  19. Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability With Combined Bone Loss: Treatment and Results With the Modified Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin S; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Cote, Mark P; Edgar, Cory M; Arciero, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent anterior glenohumeral dislocation in the setting of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion is high. The Latarjet procedure has been well described for restoring glenohumeral stability in patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. However, the treatment for patients with combined humeral head and mild (Latarjet for patients with combined humeral and glenoid defects and compares the results for patients with ≤25% glenoid bone loss versus patients with >25% glenoid bone loss. The hypothesis was that the 2 groups would have equivalent subjective outcomes and recurrence rates. Cohort Study; Level of evidence, 3. Modified Latarjet was performed in 40 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability, engaging Hill-Sachs by examination confirmed with arthroscopy, and ≤25% anterior glenoid bone loss (group A). A second group of 12 patients were identified to have >25% glenoid bone loss with an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (group B). The mean follow-up time was 3.5 years. All patients were assessed for their risk of recurrence using the Instability Severity Index score and Beighton score and had preoperative 3-dimensional imaging to assess humeral and glenoid bone loss. Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), recurrence rate, radiographs, range of motion, and dynamometer strength were used to assess outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed. Glenoid bone loss averaged 15% in group A compared with 34% in group B. Both groups had comparable WOSI scores (356 vs 475; P = .311). In multivariate analysis, the number of previous surgeries and Beighton score were directly correlated with WOSI score in Latarjet patients. The SANE score was better in group A (86 vs 77; P = .02). Group B experienced more loss of external rotation (9.2° vs 15.8°; P = .0001) and weaker thumbs-down abduction and external rotation strength (P .999) were similar for both groups. The complication rate was 25% for both groups. The modified

  20. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  1. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  2. Kit (W-sh) Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2017-10-14

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit (W) /Kit (W-v) /J (W/W (v) ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit (W-sh) /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W (sh) /W (sh) ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W (v) and W (sh) /W (sh) mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W (v) mice. In contrast, W (sh) /W (sh) cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W (sh) /W (sh) mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W (sh) mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W (sh) /W (sh) mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  3. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the administration of Cistanches Herba extract to ovariectomized rats reverses bone loss and prevents osteoporosis.

  4. Cordycepin Prevents Bone Loss through Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging ROS Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Dou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin was previously reported to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, the potential role of cordycepin in bone metabolism and cell biology of osteoclasts remains unclear. In our study, we focused on the in vitro effects of cordycepin on osteoclastogenesis and its in vivo effects in ovariectomized (OVX mice. Osteoclast differentiation, formation and fusion were evaluated by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP stain, focal adhesion stain and fusion assay, respectively. Osteoclastic bone resorption was evaluated by pit formation assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and removal were detected by the ROS assay. OVX mice were orally administered with 10 mg/kg of cordycepin daily for four weeks. In vitro results revealed that cordycepin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, formation, fusion and bone resorption activity. We further proved that cordycepin treatments scavenged the generation of ROS, upregulated interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8 and suppressed the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 during osteoclastogenesis. In vivo results indicated cordycepin prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture, and restores bone mineralization in OVX mice. Our observations strongly suggested that cordycepin is an efficient osteoclast inhibitor and hold potential therapeutic value in preventing bone loss among postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

  5. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  6. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, J.; van Ooij, C. P.; van den Akker, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    22 edentulous women, 11 with and 11 without signs of metabolic bone loss were treated by a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. Longitudinal studies showed a higher rate of resorption in women with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  7. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Mandibular ridge augmentation by combined sandwich-visor osteotomy and resorption related to metabolic bone state. A 5-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; van den Akker, H. P.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.; van Ooij, C. P.

    1987-01-01

    92 patients, 31 with and 61 without signs of metabolic bone loss, were treated with a combined sandwich-visor osteotomy. A 5-year follow-up showed a significantly higher rate of resorption in patients with radiographic signs of metabolic bone loss. The analysis was based upon lateral cephalometry

  8. Advances in measurements of periodontal bone and attachment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, M K; Reddy, M S

    2000-01-01

    Periodontal probing and measurements using intraoral radiographs are widely utilized clinical techniques to measure attachment and bone levels, respectively. Determination of progressive disease, healing, or regeneration in clinical studies may require maximal sensitivity and attention to measurement error in order to assure that changes detected by new methodology are accurate. Both types of methods are susceptible to errors due to resolution, repeatability, and accuracy of the technique. While both probing and radiographic methods are useful in clinical trials they vary widely with respect to these errors. For example, manual probing is repeatable to within 1 mm better than 90% of the time, and state-of-the-art radiographic methods, such as digital subtraction radiography, can detect as little as 1 mg of bony change.

  9. Comparison between inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Scaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in digital imaging technology in dentistry have provided an alternative to film-based radiography and have given new options to detect periodontal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to compare inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements. Thirty-five film-based periapical radiographs of patients suffering from moderate to advanced untreated periodontal bone loss associated to lower premolar and molars was selected from the department files, with 40 bone loss areas. The film-based radiographs were digitized with a flatbed scanner with a transparency and radiograph adapter used for transilluminating the radiograph imaging. Digitization was performed at 600 dpi and in gray scale. The images were digitized using Image Tool software by applying image inversion, that is, transformation of radiopaque structures into radiolucent structures and vice-versa. The digital data were saved as JPEG files. The images were displayed on a 15-inch and 24-bit video monitor under reduced room lighting. One calibrated examiner performed all radiographic measurements, three times, from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss, in both types of image (inverted and unprocessed. Brightness and contrast were adjusted according to the examiner's individual demand. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to compare the measurements from both types of images. The means of radiographic measurements, in mm, for inverted and unprocessed digitized imaging were 6.4485 and 6.3790, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was significant (0.99 The inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic images were reliable and there was no difference in the diagnostic accuracy between these images regarding periodontal bone loss measurements.

  10. Use of 3D MR reconstructions in the evaluation of glenoid bone loss: a clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Beltran, Luis S.; Yemin, Avner; Recht, Michael P. [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Strauss, Eric; Meislin, Robert; Jazrawi, Laith [NYU Langone Medical Center, Center for Musculoskeletal Care, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the ability of 3D MR shoulder reconstructions to accurately quantify glenoid bone loss in the clinical setting using findings at the time of arthroscopy as the gold standard. Retrospective review of patients with MR shoulder studies that included 3D MR reconstructions (3D MR) produced using an axial Dixon 3D-T1W-FLASH sequence at our institution was conducted with the following inclusion criteria: history of anterior shoulder dislocation, arthroscopy (OR) performed within 6 months of the MRI, and an estimate of glenoid bone loss made in the OR using the bare-spot method. Two musculoskeletal radiologists produced estimates of bone loss along the glenoid width, measured in mm and %, on 3D MR using the best-fit circle method, which were then compared to the OR measurements. There were a total of 15 patients (13 men, two women; mean age, 28, range, 19-51 years). There was no significant difference, on average, between the MRI (mean 3.4 mm/12.6 %; range, 0-30 %) and OR (mean, 12.7 %; range, 0-30 %) measurements of glenoid bone loss (p = 0.767). A 95 % confidence interval for the mean absolute error extended from 0.45-2.21 %, implying that, when averaged over all patients, the true mean absolute error of the MRI measurements relative to the OR measurements is expected to be less than 2.21 %. Inter-reader agreement between the two readers had an IC of 0.92 and CC of 0.90 in terms of percentage of bone loss. 3D MR reconstructions of the shoulder can be used to accurately measure glenoid bone loss. (orig.)

  11. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  12. Effect of venlafaxine on bone loss associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Lívia MS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigated the effects of venlafaxine, an antidepressant drug with immunoregulatory properties on the inflammatory response and bone loss associated with experimental periodontal disease (EPD. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were subjected to a ligature placement around the second upper left molar. The treated groups received orally venlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/kg one hour before the experimental periodontal disease induction and daily for 10 days. Vehicle-treated experimental periodontal disease and a sham-operated (SO controls were included. Bone loss was analyzed morphometrically and histopathological analysis was based on cell influx, alveolar bone, and cementum integrity. Lipid peroxidation quantification and immunohistochemistry to TNF-α and iNOS were performed. Results Experimental periodontal disease rats showed an intense bone loss compared to SO ones (SO = 1.61 ± 1.36; EPD = 4.47 ± 1.98 mm, p Conclusion The increased bone loss associated with high dose venlafaxine may possibly be a result of synaptic inhibition of serotonin uptake.

  13. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  14. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1990-01-01

    in the ITI site (anteriorly), the premolar region just behind the fixtures, and the standard site of the mandible for obtaining reference values of the age-related MBC loss. The increased function of the mandible after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation that minimizes, or in some......Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...... cases may counteract, the physiologic age-related BMC loss leading to osteoporosis....

  15. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect...... progressively over 2 years. After year 1, BMD changes were similar in the immediate and deferred groups. No clinical, HIV-related, or ART characteristic predicted greater BMD loss in either group. All HIV treatment guidelines now recommend ART initiation at HIV diagnosis because of the reduced risk of serious...

  16. Influence of weight and weight change on bone loss in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen M; New, Susan A; Campbell, Marion K; Reid, David M

    2005-02-01

    Weight is recognized as an important factor in determining an individual's risk of osteoporosis. However, little is known about whether weight or weight change influences bone loss around the time of the menopause, and the relationship with energy intake and physical activity level remains largely undefined. Healthy premenopausal women (1,064 selected from a random population of 5,119 women aged 45-54 years at baseline) each had bone mineral density (BMD), weight and height measurements, and completed a food frequency and physical activity questionnaire. Of the original participants, 907 women (85.2%) returned 6.3 +/- 0.6 years later for repeat BMD measurements, and 896 women completed the questionnaires. Bone loss at the hip (FN) and spine (LS) occurred before the menopause. Weight change rather than weight was associated with FN BMD loss (r=0.102, p=0.002), but weight at follow-up was associated with LS BMD change (r=0.105, p=0.002). Although an increase in physical activity level (PAL) appeared to be beneficial for FN BMD in women who were heavy weight gainers, PAL was associated with increased LS BMD loss in women who lost weight. For current HRT users, neither weight nor weight change was associated with change in BMD. Postmenopausal women not taking HRT should be made aware that low body weight or losing weight during this particularly vulnerable period may worsen bone loss.

  17. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  18. Loss of Insulin Receptor in Osteoprogenitor Cells Impairs Structural Strength of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Thrailkill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D is associated with decreased bone mineral density, a deficit in bone structure, and subsequently an increased risk of fragility fracture. These clinical observations, paralleled by animal models of T1D, suggest that the insulinopenia of T1D has a deleterious effect on bone. To further examine the action of insulin signaling on bone development, we generated mice with an osteoprogenitor-selective (osterix-Cre ablation of the insulin receptor (IR, designated OIRKO. OIRKO mice exhibited an 80% decrease in IR in osteoblasts. Prenatal elimination of IR did not affect fetal survival or gross morphology. However, loss of IR in mouse osteoblasts resulted in a postnatal growth-constricted phenotype. By 10–12 weeks of age, femurs of OIRKO mice were more slender, with a thinner diaphyseal cortex and, consequently, a decrease in whole bone strength when subjected to bending. In male mice alone, decreased metaphyseal trabecular bone, with thinner and more rodlike trabeculae, was also observed. OIRKO mice did not, however, exhibit abnormal glucose tolerance. The skeletal phenotype of the OIRKO mouse appeared more severe than that of previously reported bone-specific IR knockdown models, and confirms that insulin receptor expression in osteoblasts is critically important for proper bone development and maintenance of structural integrity.

  19. Management of bone loss in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepa, M; Vaz, C

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, but despite survival rates improvement, it is still the second major cause of cancer related death. In postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER) dependent breast cancer, hormone therapy is an option, either by direct inhibition of ER using tamoxifen or by aromatase inhibition, resulting in decreased estrogen production. In this paper these two endocrine therapy approaches are compared in terms of their impact on bone health. Guidance for the prevention of bone loss and occurrence of fractures in postmenopausal women receiving AIs is also proposed. Despite intervention strategies to maintain bone health in AI-treated patients are not well established, recommendations by international societies to identify women with high risk of fracture and advice on the preventive anti-fracture therapy are exposed. Finally, available therapeutic options for management of bone loss in patients receiving AIs are presented. The search strategy for this literature review was conducted by using the key words "aromatase inhibitor*" and "bone loss" OR "aromatase inhibitor*" and "osteoporosis" in the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Nowadays, hormone-responsive breast cancer in postmenopausal women is preferably being treated with AIs instead of tamoxifen, due to clear benefits in disease-free survival and reduced recurrence. AIs have an advantageous side effect profile compared to tamoxifen, however all AIs have detrimental long-term effects on bone, due to nearly complete depletion of estrogens, resulting in increased bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Current recommendations state that all women treated with AIs should be evaluated for their fracture risk prior to initiation of AI-treatment, taking in consideration individual bone mineral density and several risk factors. The thresholds to introduce preventive therapy and drugs proposed differ among the available recommendations. Lifestyle modifications and adequate

  20. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Ameliorates Bone Loss in Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Cao, Jay J; Lu, Yuanqing; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Brantly, Mark; Holliday, L Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at menopause. Therefore, anti-inflammatory strategies hold a great potential for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of gene therapy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT), a multifunctional protein that has anti-inflammatory property, on bone loss in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model. Adult ovariectomized (OVX) mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with hAAT (protein therapy), rAAV8-CB-hAAT (gene therapy), or phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Age-matched and sham-operated animals were used as controls. Eight weeks after the treatment, animals were sacrificed and bone-related biomarkers and vertebral bone structure were evaluated. Results showed that hAAT gene therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6 level and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) gene expression in bone. Importantly, hAAT gene therapy increased bone volume/total volume and decreased structure model index (SMI) compared to PBS injection in OVX mice. These results demonstrate that hAAT gene therapy by rAAV vector efficiently mitigates bone loss possibly through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and RANK gene expression. Considering the safety profile of hAAT and rAAV vector in humans, our results provide a new alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis on inflammatory bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joanna Trycia M; Sousa, Luzia Hermínia Teixeira; Lisboa, Mario Roberto Pontes; Furlaneto, Flávia A C; do Val, Danielle Rocha; Marques, Mirna; Vasconcelos, Hellíada C; de Melo, Iracema Matos; Leitão, Renata; Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Goes, Paula

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis (CLO) on alveolar bone loss (ABL) in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ABL by ligature with nylon thread around the second upper left molar. The contralateral hemimaxillae were used as control. Rats received saline solution (SAL) or CLO (10, 30, or 90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. The maxillae were removed and prepared for macroscopic, radiographic, micro-tomographic, histopathologic, histometric analysis, and immunohistochemical localization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The gingival tissues were used to quantify the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations by ELISA. Blood samples were collected for leukogram and to evaluate the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity and serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST/ALT). The bone loss induced by 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, reduced levels of BALP, leukocyte infiltration, increased MPO activity, gingival concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β, and RANKL while reduced OPG immunoexpressions in the periodontal tissue and leukocytosis. Of the CLO, 90 mg/kg reduced bone loss, neutrophilia, the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and RANKL expression, while it increased OPG immunopositive cells and BALP serum levels, when compared to SAL. CLO did not affect either kidney or liver function, indicated by serum AST/ALT levels. The present data suggests that CLO reduced inflammatory bone resorption in experimental periodontitis, which may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory properties and its effects on bone metabolism. CLO can be a potential therapeutical adjuvant in the treatment of periodontitis.

  2. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    support to this hypothesis by analyzing the changes in prevalence of BRC canopies during the progress of the remodeling cycle in a cohort of healthy individuals and in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), and by relating these changes in prevalence with the extent of bone forming surfaces...

  4. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandts, C.A.; Klaasen, R.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.; Gerlag, D.M.; van Eck-Smit, B.L.; Tak, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of anti-TNFalpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: /B> 50 patients with active RA (DAS28 >/= 3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously / 2 weeks) were

  5. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    , calculated from sequential digital elevation models, contributes about 16 mm of the observed uplift, with an additional 5 mm from volume loss of Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. The remaining uplift signal is attributed to significant melt-induced ice volume loss from the ice sheet margin along the southeast coast......The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of zoledronic acid and amifostine on radiation induced bone loss in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sueum; Kang, Sohi; Moon, Cahng Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeungeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham control and three irradiated groups (3 Gy, gamma ray). The irradiated mice were treated for 12 weeks with vehicle, amifostine (intraperitoneal injection), or ZA (subcutaneous injection). Grip strength, uterus weight, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of ZA (100 μg·kg{sup -1}·week{sup -1}) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, and cortical bone volume, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. The administration of ZA for 12 weeks lowered serum ALP and TRAP levels in irradiated mice, suggesting that ZA can reduce the bone turnover rate in mice. No differences were apparent between the amifostine-treated group and the irradiation control group. The results indicate that ZA can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.

  7. Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dehao; Lin, Zilin; Meng, Qingyi; Wang, Kun; Wu, Jiajia; Yan, Hongda

    2017-08-15

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo severe loss of bone mineral below the level of lesion, and data on available treatment options after SCI is scarce. The aim of this work was to investigate the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabis, on sublesional bone loss in a rat model of SCI. The adult male rats were exposed to surgical transection of the cord and treated with CBD for consecutive 14 days. It was found that CBD treatment elevated the serum levels of osteocalcin, reduced the serum levels of collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and enhanced bone mineral density of tibiae and femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, and reduced trabecular separation in proximal tibiae, and increased ultimate compressive load, stiffness, and energy to max force of femoral diaphysis. Treatment of SCI rats with CBD upregulated mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin and downregulated mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in femurs. Furthermore, treatment of SCI rats with CBD enhanced mRNA expression of wnt3a, Lrp5 and ctnnb1 in femurs. In conclusion, CBD administration attenuated SCI-induced sublesional cancellous bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A hypomagnetic field aggravates bone loss induced by hindlimb unloading in rat femurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    Full Text Available A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field--it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption.

  9. Management of bone loss in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Cepa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, but despite survival rates improvement, it is still the second major cause of cancer related death. In postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER dependent breast cancer, hormone therapy is an option, either by direct inhibition of ER using tamoxifen or by aromatase inhibition, resulting in decreased estrogen production. In this paper these two endocrine therapy approaches are compared in terms of their impact on bone health. Guidance for the prevention of bone loss and occurrence of fractures in postmenopausal women receiving AIs is also proposed. Despite intervention strategies to maintain bone health in AI-treated patients are not well established, recommendations by international societies to identify women with high risk of fracture and advice on the preventive anti-fracture therapy are exposed. Finally, available therapeutic options for management of bone loss in patients receiving AIs are presented. The search strategy for this literature review was conducted by using the key words “aromatase inhibitor*” and “bone loss” OR “aromatase inhibitor*” and “osteoporosis” in the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Nowadays, hormone-responsive breast cancer in postmenopausal women is preferably being treated with AIs instead of tamoxifen, due to clear benefits in disease-free survival and reduced recurrence. AIs have an advantageous side effect profile compared to tamoxifen, however all AIs have detrimental long-term effects on bone, due to nearly complete depletion of estrogens, resulting in increased bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Current recommendations state that all women treated with AIs should be evaluated for their fracture risk prior to initiation of AI-treatment, taking in consideration individual bone mineral density and several risk factors. The thresholds to introduce preventive therapy and drugs proposed differ among the available recommendations

  10. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  11. [Prevalence of bone loss in adult celiac disease and associated factors: a control case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Ben Youssef, Hedi; Safer, Leila; Fadoua, Hassine; Zrour, Saoussen; Bejia, Ismail; Touzi, Mongi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Saffar, Hammouda; Bergaoui, Naceur

    2012-02-01

    Bone loss in celiac disease (CD) is important and is associated to increased risk of fractures. The determining factors of this Bone loss and the osteoporosis fracture during this disease remain still unknown. The bone remodeling parameters seem to play it an important role. Through a transverse study including 30 patients with adult CD and 30 witnesses, we estimated bone mineral density (BMD) profile of these patients and determined associated factors to the bone loss. Patients and witnesses benefited from an BMD measure, serum calcium and phosphore, alkaline phosphatasis, parathormone and hydroxyvitamin D dosage, bone remodeling parameters containing the osteocalcin, Propeptide N-terminal of the type I procollagen, BTélopeptide C-terminal ( B-CTX) of the type I procollagen I (bloody and urine CrossLaps). The patients benefited from a malabsorption bilan, a radiological examination of spine and an evaluation of the adhesion to the regime without gluten with a histological control. Our population consists of 3 men (10 %) and 27 women (90 %) with an average age of 30.4 years (19-50 years). The average delay of the diagnosis of the MC is of 46.7 months. The alkaline phosphatases, the P1NP and the bloody crossLaps were more raised at the patient's with regard to the witnesses with respectively p=0.038, p=0.041 and p=0.021. The parathormone was also more raised at the patients but without significant difference 67.8 vs 53.8 ng / l. The DMO is low at 21 patients (70 %) versus 2 witnesses only (6.6 %), with an osteoporosis in 3 patients (10 %) and an osteopenia in 18 patients (60 %). Factors associated to the BMD decline are low body mass index, nulliparity, diagnostic delay > to 2 years, the malabsorption syndrome, exaggerated intraepithelial lymphocytosis at the time of the histological control, an increase of bone remodeling parameters notably the alkaline phosphatasis, osteocalcin and bloody CrossLaps. While the BMD is more raised at the patient's having followed

  12. Imaging methods for quantifying glenoid and Hill-Sachs bone loss in traumatic instability of the shoulder: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliken, David J; Bornes, Troy D; Bouliane, Martin J; Sheps, David M; Beaupre, Lauren A

    2015-07-18

    Glenohumeral instability is a common problem following traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Two major risk factors of recurrent instability are glenoid and Hill-Sachs bone loss. Higher failure rates of arthroscopic Bankart repairs are associated with larger degrees of bone loss; therefore it is important to accurately and reliably quantify glenohumeral bone loss pre-operatively. This may be done with radiography, CT, or MRI; however no gold standard modality or method has been determined. A scoping review of the literature was performed to identify imaging methods for quantifying glenohumeral bone loss. The scoping review was systematic in approach using a comprehensive search strategy and standardized study selection and evaluation. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Initial selection included articles from January 2000 until July 2013, and was based on the review of titles and abstracts. Articles were carried forward if either reviewer thought that the study was appropriate. Final study selection was based on full text review based on pre-specified criteria. Consensus was reached for final article inclusion through discussion amongst the investigators. One reviewer extracted data while a second reviewer independently assessed data extraction for discrepancies. Forty-one studies evaluating glenoid and/or Hill-Sachs bone loss were included: 32 studies evaluated glenoid bone loss while 11 studies evaluated humeral head bone loss. Radiography was useful as a screening tool but not to quantify glenoid bone loss. CT was most accurate but necessitates radiation exposure. The Pico Method and Glenoid Index method were the most accurate and reliable methods for quantifying glenoid bone loss, particularly when using three-dimensional CT (3DCT). Radiography and CT have been used to quantify Hill-Sachs bone loss, but have not been studied as extensively as glenoid bone loss. Radiography can be used for screening patients for significant glenoid

  13. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p < 0.01). Bone resorptive activity was elevated in the jockey group as indicated by significantly higher urinary NTx/creatinine (76.94 ± 29.52 vs. 55.9 ± 13.9 nmol mmol(-1), p < 0.01), resulting in a significantly negative uncoupling index between bone resorption and formation. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly higher in jockeys (41.21 ± 9.77 vs. 28.24 ± 9.98 nmol L(-1), p < 0.01) with a lower percentage of bioavailable testosterone (48.89 ± 7.38 vs. 59.18 ± 6.74 %, p < 0.01). SHBG and insulin-like growth factor-1 were independent predictors of total body and femoral neck BMD, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  14. Bone density of the midpalatal suture 7 months after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Silvia; Hothan, Thorsten; Hietschold, Volker; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried; Tausche, Eve

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze changes in bone density of the midpalatal suture after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) with the bone-borne Dresden Distractor (DD; ITU, Dresden, Germany) via computed tomography (CT) and to compare of preoperative surgical findings with a control group. Sixteen adult patients (mean age 24.5 years) underwent axial CT scans before and 7 months after SARPE. CT image fusion was performed for the midpalatal suture bone. Sixty-six controls (mean age 25.7 years) served for comparing age-related bone density. Bone structure and density were assessed in the coronal plane at the anterior, median, and posterior levels. Highest density was found in the posterior part (1046 Hounsfield units [HU]) before expansion. Seven months after SARPE, bone density was 48% (anterior), 53% (median), and 75% (posterior) compared with preoperative values. The control group showed fairly equal Hounsfield units (889 HU to 900 HU) in all parts. Seven months after SARPE, the midpalatal suture's density achieves just one half to three quarters of the pretreatment values. To maintain the resistance against forces from the unsplit posterior part, the retention time should be lengthened. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Complex ankle arthrodesis with step-cut osteotomy in Charcot arthropathy with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sean; Ballal, Moez; Pillai, Anand

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of a complex limb salvage ankle arthrodesis in a patient with Charcot arthropathy. A step-cut osteotomy was performed in order to tackle the issues of anterior tibial bone loss; worsening leg length discrepancy; soft tissue contraction; joint instability and high risk of non-union. The construct formed by the step-cut allowed for the preservation of good bone stock; avoidance of further limb shortening; increased torsional stability and increased surface area for bony union. This resulted in a patient with a stable, plantigrade foot appropriate for footwear. We use this case to highlight this technique as an option in the operative management of complex ankle fusions with sagittal or coronal plane deformity with bone loss and subluxation of the ankle joint. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Age Using Alveolar Bone Loss: Forensic and Anthropological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruquet, Michel; Saliba-Serre, Bérengère; Tardivo, Delphine; Foti, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a new odontological methodological approach based on radiographic for age estimation. The study was comprised of 397 participants aged between 9 and 87 years. A clinical examination and a radiographic assessment of alveolar bone loss were performed. Direct measures of alveolar bone level were recorded using CT scans. A medical examination report was attached to the investigation file. Because of the link between alveolar bone loss and age, a model was proposed to enable simple, reliable, and quick age estimation. This work added new arguments for age estimation. This study aimed to develop a simple, standardized, and reproducible technique for age estimation of adults of actual populations in forensic medicine and ancient populations in funeral anthropology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Repair of peri-implant bone loss after occlusal adjustment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merin, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    Peri-implantitis generally is attributed to a bacterial challenge, with occlusion being a modifying factor. The author presents a case of peri-implant marginal bone loss that was treated successfully with only occlusal adjustment. A 63-year-old female patient with a history of bruxism reported for a yearly periodontal examination 38 months after restoration of an implant in the tooth no. 30 position. A radiograph indicated that this implant had significant peri-implant bone loss. The evaluation showed very heavy occlusion on the implant restoration, and the author performed an occlusal adjustment. A radiograph obtained five months later showed significant repair of the lost alveolar bone. Patients with dental implants require periodic examination and maintenance therapy to prevent peri-implantitis. The examination should include a periodontal, prosthetic, radiographic and occlusal evaluation.

  19. Attenuation of postmenopausal bone loss in patients with transient hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Yuuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Yabuta, Tomonori; Kihara, Minoru; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro

    2013-12-01

    Increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in patients with postsurgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism may attenuate the high-turnover bone loss in postmenopausal women. We reported previously that patients who had transient hypoparathyroidism postoperatively were at subclinical hypoparathyroid (hP) status even 5 years after surgery. We hypothesized that patients with transient hypoparathyroidism (ThP) may have altered BMD. A total of 140 women who underwent total thyroidectomy had BMD measurements of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and radius 3 years after surgery. At surgery, 99 patients were ≥50 years and 41 were 0 were significantly associated only with the presence of ThP postoperatively. In the patients attenuation of the high-turnover bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  20. Dental Implant Thread Design and the Consequences on Long-Term Marginal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormianer, Zeev; Matalon, Shlomo; Block, Jonathan; Kohen, Jerry

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the implant macrostructure effect on marginal bone loss using 3 dental implant thread designs with differences in thread pitch, lead, and helix angle. All implants used were sourced from the same company and had the same microstructured surface. This is a nonrandomized, retrospective, double-blind study. Data were collected by an independent Tel Aviv University group from a general practitioner's private practice patient records. In total, 1361 implants met the inclusion criteria representing the 3 types of implants macrostructure. Overall survival rate was 96.3% with 50 implants failing (3.7%) out of a total of 1361 implants. Survival rates for the 3 groups were: group A 96.6%, group B 95.9%, and in group C 100%. Average bone loss for groups A, B, and C were 2.02 (±1.70) mm, 2.10 (±1.73) mm, and 1.90 (±1.40) mm, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed that less bone loss occurred in group A compared with group B (P = 0.036). Favorable long-term bone loss results were found in implants with a larger pitch, deeper apical threads, and a narrower implant core. One-piece V-thread design implants demonstrated 100% survival rate.

  1. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  2. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  3. Stemmed femoral knee prostheses: effects of prosthetic design and fixation on bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenthe, G.H. van; Willems, P.C.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Huiskes, R.

    2002-01-01

    Although the revision rates for modern knee prostheses have decreased drastically, the total number of revisions a year is increasing because many more primary knee replacements are being done. At the time of revision, bone loss is common, which compromises prosthetic stability. To improve

  4. Suppression of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the molecular mechanisms through which chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces osteopenia and osteoporosis are largely unknown, potential treatments for prevention of alcohol-induced bone loss remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, chronic ethanol (EtOH) treatment leads to...

  5. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss,

  6. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  7. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  8. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Yokota, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Hayashi, Naoki; Usui, Michihiko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Mimura, Toshihide; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Araki, Nobuo; Fukuda, Toru; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suda, Tatsuo; Takeda, Shu; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) targeting the brain, is a common medication for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, a recent clinical study found that administration of this agent is associated with lower risk of hip fracture independently of falling, suggesting its direct effect on bone tissues as well. AChE has been reported to be involved in osteoblast function, but the role of AChE on osteoclastogenesis still remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of AChE and donepezil on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Cell-based assays were conducted using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The effect of donepezil was also determined in vivo using a mouse model of RANKL-induced bone loss. Recombinant AChE in BMMs cultured with RANKL further promoted RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast differentiation. RANKL also upregulated AChE expression in BMMs. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AChE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed gene expression specific for osteoclasts. AChE upregulated expression of RANK, the receptor of RANKL, in BMMs. Donepezil decreased cathepsin K expression in BMMs and the resorptive function of osteoclasts on dentine slices. Donepezil decreased RANK expression in BMMs, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of c-Fos and upregulation of Id2. Moreover, administration of donepezil prevented RANKL-induced bone loss in vivo, which was associated with the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts. AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  9. A rapid procedure for routine double staining of cartilage and bone in fetal and adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, C A; Trammell, C

    1981-09-01

    A simple, rapid procedure for dual staining of cartilage and bone in rodents, particularly in late gestation, has been developed for routine use. The procedure involves rapid, complete skinning of fresh eviscerated specimens following a 30 sec immersion in a 70 C water bath. The unfixed specimen is stained in a mixture of 0.14% Alcian blue and 0.12% alizarin red S in ethanol and glacial acetic acid. Specimens are then macerated in 2% KOH, cleared and hardened in 1:1 glycerin and distilled water, and stored in pure glycerin. Rapid staining of cartilage only is done in a mixture of 0.08% Alcian blue, glacial acetic acid, and ethanol, with subsequent maceration, clearing, and hardening as in the double staining procedure. Rapid staining of bone only, concurrent with maceration of soft tissue, can be done by placing fresh, unskinned specimens in a diluted mixture of alizarin red S in 2% KOH, with subsequent clearing and hardening in 1:1 distilled water and glycerin. Good quality fetal specimens can be prepared for examination by any of these procedures in a minimum of 11/2-2 days as compared to a minimum of 4-5 days for other procedures. Double stained specimens can be examined for abnormalities of the cartilage as well as bone.

  10. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  11. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  12. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  13. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Implementation of Rapid Prototyping Tools for Power Loss and Cost Minimization of DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta V. Kulkarni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power loss and cost models of power electronic converters based on converter ratings and datasheet information are presented. These models aid in creating rapid prototypes which facilitate the component selection process. Through rapid prototyping, users can estimate power loss and cost which are essential in design decisions. The proposed approach treats main power electronic components of a converter as building blocks that can be arranged to obtain multiple topologies to facilitate rapid prototyping. In order to get system-level power loss and cost models, two processes are implemented. The first process automatically provides minimum power loss or cost estimates and identifies components for specific applications and ratings; the second process estimates power losses and costs of each component of interest as well as the whole system. Two examples are used to illustrate the proposed approaches—boost and buck converters in continuous conduction mode. Achieved cost and loss estimates are over 93% accurate when compared to measured losses and real cost data. This research presents derivations of the proposed models, experimental validation of the models and demonstration of a user friendly interface that integrates all the models. Tools presented in this paper are expected to be very useful for practicing engineers, designers, and researchers, and are flexible and adaptable with changing or new technologies and varying component prices.

  15. Rapid weight loss in the context of Ramadan observance: recommendations for judokas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, A; Chtourou, H; Briki, W; Tabben, M; Chaouachi, A; Souissi, N; Shephard, R J; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    Judo is a weight-classified combat sport, and many athletes seek to compete at the lightest possible weight category to gain an advantage from competing against shorter/smaller, and supposedly weaker opponents. To achieve a desired weight, most judokas opt for rapid weight loss techniques. Short-duration maximal efforts are not greatly affected by "making weight", but prolonged and/or repeated exercise is significantly impaired. Negative effects on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, and cognitive function are also reported. Moreover, rapid weight loss reduces maximal cardiac output and glycogen stores, and impairs thermo-regulation. Limited empirical data suggest that Ramadan reduces judokas' performance, and this is likely to be exacerbated by attempts at rapid weight loss. Weight reduction during Ramadan tends to be counterproductive, and judokas who aim for a lower weight category are advised to attempt any desired reduction of body mass during the weeks leading up to Ramadan, rather than during the holy month.

  16. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  17. Loss of bone strength in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is characterized by a high bone turnover and is mainly osteoclast-driven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Thiele, Sylvia; Fert, Ingrid; Araujo, Luiza M; Layh-Schmitt, Gerlinde; Colbert, Robert A; Hofbauer, Christine; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Bürki, Alexander; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Pietschmann, Peter; Taurog, Joel D; Breban, Maxime; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2015-06-01

    Although osteopenia is frequent in spondyloarthritis (SpA), the underlying cellular mechanisms and association with other symptoms are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize bone loss during disease progression, determine cellular alterations, and assess the contribution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Bones of 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old non-transgenic, disease-free HLA-B7 and disease-associated HLA-B27 transgenic rats were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, μCT, and nanoindentation. Cellular characteristics were determined by histomorphometry and ex vivo cultures. The impact of IBD was determined using [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats, which develop arthritis and spondylitis, but not IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats continuously lost bone mass with increasing age and had impaired bone material properties, leading to a 3-fold decrease in bone strength at 12 months of age. Bone turnover was increased in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, as evidenced by a 3-fold increase in bone formation and a 6-fold increase in bone resorption parameters. Enhanced osteoclastic markers were associated with a larger number of precursors in the bone marrow and a stronger osteoclastogenic response to RANKL or TNFα. Further, IBD-free [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats also displayed decreased total and trabecular bone density. HLA-B27 transgenic rats lose an increasing amount of bone density and strength with progressing age, which is primarily mediated via increased bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption. Moreover, IBD and bone loss seem to be independent features of SpA in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD loss in endocrinopathies [Graves′ disease (GD, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH, hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO, andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126 were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (79.59% compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001. The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (59.26% compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67% and HypoH (54.55% compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting.

  19. Validity of arthroscopic measurement of glenoid bone loss using the bare spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Takeda, Koji Fujii, Tomoya Takasago, Toshiyuki Iwame Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Komatsushima, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to test the validity of using the bare spot method to quantify glenoid bone loss arthroscopically in patients with shoulder instability. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with no evidence of instability (18 males, nine females; mean age 59.1 years were evaluated arthroscopically to assess whether the bare spot is consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid. Another 40 patients with glenohumeral anterior instability who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (30 males, ten females; mean age 25.9 years were evaluated for glenoid bone loss with preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and arthroscopic examination. In patients without instability, the distances from the bare spot of the inferior glenoid to the anterior (Da and posterior (Dp glenoid rim were measured arthroscopically. In patients with instability, we compared the percentage glenoid bone loss calculated using CT versus arthroscopic measurements. Results: Among patients without instability, the bare spot could not be identified in three of 27 patients. Da (9.5±1.2 mm was smaller than Dp (10.1±1.5 mm, but it was not significantly different. However, only 55% of glenoids showed less than 1 mm of difference between Da and Dp, and 18% showed more than 2 mm difference in length. The bare spot could not be identified in five of 40 patients with instability. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant (P<0.001 and strong (R2=0.63 correlation in percentage glenoid bone loss between the 3D-CT and arthroscopy method measurements. However, in ten shoulders (29%, the difference in percentage glenoid bone loss between 3D-CT and arthroscopic measurements was greater than 5%. Conclusion: The bare spot was not consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid

  20. Loss of the PGE2 receptor EP1 enhances bone acquisition, which protects against age and ovariectomy-induced impairments in bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minjie; Feigenson, Marina; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M; Jonason, Jennifer H; Loiselle, Alayna E; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-03-01

    PGE2 exerts anabolic and catabolic effects on bone through the discrete actions of four prostanoid receptors (EP1-4). We have previously demonstrated that loss EP1 accelerates fracture repair by enhancing bone formation. In the present study we defined the role of EP1 in bone maintenance and homeostasis during aging and in response to ovariectomy. The femur and L4 vertebrae of wild type (WT) and EP1(-/-) mice were examined at 2-months, 6-months, and 1-year of age, and in WT and EP1(-/-) mice following ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. Bone volume fraction, trabecular architecture and mechanical properties were maintained during aging in EP1(-/-) mice to a greater degree than age-matched WT mice. Moreover, significant increases in bone formation rate (BFR) (+60%) and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (+50%) were observed in EP1(-/-), relative to WT, while no change in osteoclast number and osteoclast surface were observed. Following OVX, loss of EP1 was protective against bone loss in both femur and L4 vertebrae, with increased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (+32% in femur) and max load at failure (+10% in femur) relative to WT OVX, likely resulting from the increased bone formation rate that was observed in these mice. Taken together these studies identify inhibition of EP1 as a potential therapeutic approach to suppress bone loss in aged or post-menopausal patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crestal bone loss of standard implant versus platform switch implant design using minimal invasive technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim M. Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the type of abutment/implant connection on the marginal bone loss around dental implant. The present study was conducted on eleven patients, six males and five females with age range from 26 to 45 years. Twenty consecutive dental implants were inserted for implant – supported restoration in the maxillary premolar area. The diameter and length of dental implants of all subjects were the same in groups, 3.7 mm diameter and 11.5 mm length. At the time of prosthetic rehabilitation, 3.8 mm abutments were connected to the all inserted dental implants. Periodontal assessment (probing depth, bleeding index, plaque index was performed 1, 3, 6, 12, months after implant insertion. Radiographic assessment of marginal bone was performed immediately at the time of implant insertion (baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between the control group and the test group as regard the total mean of marginal bone loss. In conclusion, platform-switching concept seems to have a role in minimizing the marginal bone loss around dental implant.

  2. Facial nerve problems and hearing loss in patients with temporal bone fractures: demographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiser, Sertac; Hidir, Yusuf; Gonul, Engin

    2008-12-01

    The incidence of temporal bone fractures have increased in recent decades together with the increasing traffic and population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cause, treatment methods, radiologic, and intraoperative findings in patients with temporal bone fractures. Thirty-five patients with temporal bone fracture who have been followed between 1992 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Computerized tomography and audiometric tests were obtained. Electrophysiological evaluation of the facial nerve in patients with traumatic facial paralysis was carried by serial electromyogram (EMG). House-Brackmann grading system was used to evaluate the function of the facial nerve. Twenty-three patients underwent operation for facial paralysis or hearing loss. Results of medical and surgical therapy were documented. Traffic crash was the most common cause (54%). Eighteen (51.4%) of patients had conductive hearing loss, 6 (17.14%) of the patients had sensorineural hearing loss, and 11 (31.42%) had normal hearing. Transient or persistent facial paralysis was detected in 24 of 35 patients (68.57%). Nineteen patients underwent partial or total facial decompression. Preoperative EMG of the majority of the operated patients revealed total axonal degeneration. The most common affected area of the facial nerve by trauma was the vertical segment (31.58%). House-Brackmann 1 and 2 grade was achieved in majority of the patients. Fourteen ossicular abnormalities were detected in 10 patients, and the abnormality was usually related to the incus. More than 10 dB air-bone gap closure was achieved in six of eight patients (75%). Traffic crashes continue to be the main cause of temporal bone fractures. Facial paralysis caused by temporal bone trauma can be satisfactorily treated by decompression. EMG, clinical grading, and onset of the paralysis are important guides for the surgery. Restoration of the hearing can be achieved in majority of patients.

  3. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Mila F M; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Werneck, Silvia M C; Corrêa, Jôice D; Soriani, Frederico M; Garlet, Gustavo P; Souza, Daniele G; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, Tarcilia A; Perretti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of melanocortin in Aa-induced PD. Mice were orally infected with Aa and treated with the melanocortin analog DTrp8-γMSH or vehicle daily for 30 d. Then, periodontal tissue was collected and analyzed. Aa-infected mice treated with DTrp8-γMSH presented decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower degree of neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium than vehicle-treated animals; these actions were associated with reduced periodontal levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A. In vitro experiments with cells differentiated into osteoclasts showed that osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were attenuated after treatment with DTrp8-γMSH. Thus, melanocortin agonism could represent an innovative way to tame overexuberant inflammation and, at the same time, preserve bone physiology, as seen after Aa infection.-Madeira, M. F. M., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Montero-Melendez, T., Werneck, S. M. C., Corrêa, J. D., Soriani, F. M., Garlet, G. P., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Silva, T. A., Perretti, M. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection. © FASEB.

  4. Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E; Eiken, Ola; Miklavcic, Lucijan; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2007-02-01

    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  5. Pivotal role of NOD2 in inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiping; Zelkha, Sami; Zelka, Sami; Burkatovskaya, Marina; Gupte, Rohit; Leeman, Susan E; Amar, Salomon

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) signaling in atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss using an Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model based on the proposed role of NOD2 in inflammation. NOD2(-/-)ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) mice fed a standard chow diet were given an oral gavage of Porphyromonas gingivalis for 15 wk. NOD2(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited significant increases in inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and the heart compared with ApoE(-/-) mice. In contrast, ApoE(-/-) mice injected i.p. with Muramyl DiPeptide (MDP) to stimulate NOD2 and given an oral gavage of P. gingivalis displayed a reduction of serum inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus compared with ApoE(-/-) mice orally challenged but injected with saline. A reduction in body weight gain was observed in ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MDP compared with ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet but injected with saline. MDP treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated with P. gingivalis increased mRNA expressions of NOD2, Toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and receptor-interacting protein-2 but reduced the expressions of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-β, NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3, and TNF-α protein levels compared with saline control, highlighting pathways involved in MDP antiinflammatory effects. MDP activation of NOD2 should be considered in the treatment of inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis, periodontal bone loss ,and possibly, diet-induced weight gain.

  6. Bone loss and fractures in multiple sclerosis: focus on epidemiologic and physiopathological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yannis DionyssiotisRehabilitation Department, Physical and Social Rehabilitation Center, Amyntæo, Florina, GreeceAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS affects the central nervous system leading to disability and is complicated by bone loss and fractures. Despite the acceptance of osteoporosis and fractures as two major public health problems, in people with MS the mechanisms have not been investigated adequately. Physicians and patients usually focus on the major cause of disability and neglect the multiple risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures in this specific population. This review updates the epidemiology and physiopathological mechanisms in MS.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bone, fractures, osteoporosis, osteopenia

  7. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss...... in the mononuclear reversal cells colonising the surfaces. In conclusion, glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep induced a significant bone loss, caused by an arrest of the reversal phase, resulting in an uncoupling of the bone formation and resorption during the reversal phase, as recently demonstrated....... Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7months. At 7months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed...

  8. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking....... In this study, we aimed to: 1) establish reference values for normal hand bone mass (bone mineral density measured by digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD)); and 2) examine whether HBL is normalised in rheumatoid arthritis patients during treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFI). METHODS......: DXR-BMD was measured from hand x-rays in a reference cohort (1485 men/2541 women) without arthritis randomly selected from an urban Danish population. Sex- and age-related HBL/year was estimated. DXR-BMD was measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 350: at start of TNFI, and ~2 years after TNFI...

  9. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... = 1609). The 2-year data from the placebo group were used (n = 417). Percentage of body fat, BMI, and body weight were correlated with baseline BMD (r = -0. 13 to -0.43, p bone loss (r = -0.14 to -0.19, p ... to 12% lower BMD at baseline and a more than 2-fold higher 2-year bone loss as compared with women in the highest tertiles (p

  10. Methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibits ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirke, Sarika S; Jadhav, Sanket R; Jagtap, Aarti G

    2008-11-01

    Several animal and clinical studies have shown that phytoestrogens, plant-derived estrogenic compounds, can be useful in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing plants are currently under active investigation for their role in estrogen-related disorders. The present study deals with anti-osteoporotic evaluation of phytoestrogen-rich plant Cuminum cyminum, commonly known as cumin. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and randomly assigned to 3 groups (10 rats/group). Additional 10 animals were sham operated. OVX and sham control groups were orally administered with vehicle while the other two OVX groups were administered 0.15 mg/kg estradiol and 1 g/kg of methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum fruits (MCC) in two divided doses for 10 weeks. At the end of the study blood, bones and uteri of the animals were collected. Serum was evaluated for calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and tartarate resistant acid phosphatase. Bone density, ash density, mineral content and mechanical strength of bones were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of bones (tibia) was performed. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukeys multiple comparison test. MCC (1 g/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced urinary calcium excretion and significantly increased calcium content and mechanical strength of bones in comparison to OVX control. It showed greater bone and ash densities and improved microarchitecture of bones in SEM analysis. Unlike estradiol it did not affect body weight gain and weight of atrophic uterus in OVX animals. MCC prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats with no anabolic effect on atrophic uterus. The osteoprotective effect was comparable with estradiol.

  11. The Effects of Weight Loss on Relative Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kara C.; Fisher, Gordon; Roy, Jane L.; Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Heavier individuals have higher bone mineral density (BMD) than individuals of lower body weight, but it is unclear whether BMD changes in proportion to body weight during weight loss. This study compared BMD relative to body weight following a ~6 months weight loss program and a one year weight maintenance phase in premenopausal women and determined whether African American (AA) and European-American (EA) women’s BMD respond similarly during weight loss. Premenopausal women (n=115, 34 ± 5 yrs.) were evaluated in an overweight state (BMI between 27–30 kg/m2), following an 800 kcal/day diet/exercise program designed to reduce BMI BMD relative to body weight (Z-scores) increased after weight loss, but decreased during the one year weight maintenance phase. All one year follow up BMD Z-scores were increased (except L1) compared to baseline measurements (P BMD at all sites (P<0.05) compared to EAs, but no time by race interactions were evident during weight loss (except in L3). These results may indicate that weight loss is safe with regard to bone health for overweight premenopausal women. PMID:23404937

  12. Protease inhibitor-associated bone mineral density loss is related to hypothyroidism and related bone turnover acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinai, Ei; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Mizushima, Daisuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Aoki, Takahiro; Genka, Ikumi; Teruya, Katsuji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured. The rate of hypothyroidism in PI-users [32/117 (27%)] was double that in non-PI users [8/67 (12%), p = 0.016] and was significantly associated with PI use in multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.358-95.17, p = 0.025]. Spine BMD was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than euthyroid, for both total population (-1.37 vs. -1.00, p = 0.041) and PI users (-1.56 vs. -1.13, p = 0.029). Multivariate regression analysis identified inverse correlation between hypothyroidism and spine BMD [estimate -0.437, 95% CI -0.858 to -0.024, p = 0.042]. OC, DPD and u-NTx were significantly higher in PI users than in non-PI users (p = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). PI use is associated with hypothyroidism as well as bone turnover acceleration, which worsens PI-associated BMD loss. In PI-treated patients, thyroid function tests are warranted to prevent further progression of PI-associated BMD loss. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.

    2011-01-01

    studied the phenotype of telomerase-deficient mice (Terc(-/-)).Terc(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months of follow-up revealed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanning and by micro-computed tomography (mu CT). Bone...... of a large number of proinflammatory genes involved in osteoclast (OC) differentiation. Consistently, serum obtained from Terc(-/-) mice enhanced OC formation of wild-type bone marrow cultures. Our data demonstrate two mechanisms for age-related bone loss caused by telomerase deficiency: intrinsic...... osteoblastic defects and creation of a proinflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Thus telonnerization of MSCs may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. (C) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  14. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  15. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, P...Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  16. Osteoprotegerin is an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Shane A; Morony, Sean E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Simske, Steven J; Stodieck, Louis S; Warmington, Kelly S; Livingston, Eric W; Lacey, David L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss associated with microgravity exposure poses a significant barrier to long-duration spaceflight. Osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc) is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor that causes sustained inhibition of bone resorption after a single subcutaneous injection. We tested the ability of OPG-Fc to preserve bone mass during 12 days of spaceflight (SF). 64-day-old female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group) were injected subcutaneously with OPG-Fc (20mg/kg) or an inert vehicle (VEH), 24h prior to launch. Ground control (GC) mice (VEH or OPG-Fc) were maintained under environmental conditions that mimicked those in the space shuttle middeck. Age-matched baseline (BL) controls were sacrificed at launch. GC/VEH, but not SF/VEH mice, gained tibia BMD and trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) during the mission (P<0.05 vs. BL). SF/VEH mice had lower BV/TV vs. GC/VEH mice, while SF/OPG-Fc mice had greater BV/TV than SF/VEH or GC/VEH. SF reduced femur elastic and maximum strength in VEH mice, with OPG-Fc increasing elastic strength in SF mice. Serum TRAP5b was elevated in SF/VEH mice vs. GC/VEH mice. Conversely, SF/OPG-Fc mice had lower TRAP5b levels, suggesting that OPG-Fc preserved bone during spaceflight via inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Decreased bone formation also contributed to the observed osteopenia, based on the reduced femur periosteal bone formation rate and serum osteocalcin level. Overall, these observations suggest that the beneficial effects of OPG-Fc during SF are primarily due to dramatic and sustained suppression of bone resorption. In growing mice, this effect appears to compensate for the SF-related inhibition of bone formation, while preventing any SF-related increase in bone resorption. We have demonstrated that the young mouse is an appropriate new model for SF-induced osteopenia, and that a single pre-flight treatment with OPG-Fc can effectively prevent the deleterious effects of SF on mouse bone. Copyright

  17. Type 1 Interferons Suppress Accelerated Osteoclastogenesis and Prevent Loss of Bone Mass During Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Pneumocystis Lung Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Michelle; Gauss, Katherine; Ran, Yanchao; Searles, Steve; Taylor, David; Meissner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection causes loss of CD4+ T cells and type 1 interferon (IFN)–producing and IFN-responsive dendritic cells, resulting in immunodeficiencies and susceptibility to opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis. Osteoporosis and bone marrow failure are additional unexplained complications in HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS, respectively. We recently demonstrated that mice that lack lymphocytes and IFN a/b receptor (IFrag−/−) develop bone marrow failure after Pneumocystis lung infection, whereas lymphocyte-deficient, IFN α/β receptor–competent mice (RAG−/−) had normal hematopoiesis. Interestingly, infected IFrag−/− mice also exhibited bone fragility, suggesting loss of bone mass. We quantified bone changes and evaluated the potential connection between progressing bone fragility and bone marrow failure after Pneumocystis lung infection in IFrag−/− mice. We found that Pneumocystis infection accelerated osteoclastogenesis as bone marrow failure progressed. This finding was consistent with induction of osteoclastogenic factors, including receptor-activated nuclear factor-κB ligand and the proapoptotic factor tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand, in conjunction with their shared decoy receptor osteoprotegerin, in the bone marrow of infected IFrag−/− mice. Deregulation of this axis has also been observed in HIV-positive individuals. Biphosphonate treatment of IFrag−/− mice prevented bone loss and protected loss of hematopoietic precursor cells that maintained activity in vitro but did not prevent loss of mature neutrophils. Together, these data show that bone loss and bone marrow failure are partially linked, which suggests that the deregulation of the receptor-activated nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin/tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand axis may connect the two phenotypes in our model. PMID:22626807

  18. Combined Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein and Silicon on Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of concomitant supplementation of genistein and silicon on bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers in ovariectomized rat. Three-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then the OVX rats were randomly divided into four groups: OVX-GEN, OVX-Si, OVX-GEN-Si, and OVX. Genistein and silicon supplementation was started immediately after OVX and continued for 10 weeks. In the OVX-GEN group, 5 mg genistein per gram body weight was injected subcutaneously. The OVX-Si group was given soluble silicon daily in demineralized water (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The OVX-GEN-Si group was given subcutaneous injections of 5 mg genistein per gram body weight, at the same time, given soluble silicon daily (Si 20 mg/kg body weight/day). The results showed that the genistein supplementation in the OVX rats significantly prevented the loss of uterus weight; however, the silicon supplementation showed no effect on the uterus weight loss. The lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased after OVX surgery; however, this decrease was inhibited by the genistein and/or silicon, and the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur was the highest in the OVX-GEN-Si-treated group. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the supplementation of genistein and/or silicon restored bone volume and trabecular thickness of femoral trabecular bone in the OVX group. Besides, the treatment with genistein and silicon for 10 weeks increased the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in the OVX rats; serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the OVX-GEN-Si group were higher than those in the OVX-GEN and OVX-Si group (P bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

  19. α₂-Antiplasmin is involved in bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Akihito; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Akagi, Masao; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. α2-Antiplasmin (α2-AP) is the primary inhibitor of plasmin in the fibrinolytic system, but is known to have activities beyond fibrinolysis. However, its role in bone metabolism and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains unknown. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of α2-AP deficiency on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss by using wild-type and α2-AP-deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that α2-AP deficiency blunted OVX-induced trabecular bone loss in mice. Moreover, α2-AP deficiency significantly blunted serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and interleukin (IL)-1β elevated by OVX. α2-AP treatment elevated the levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in RAW 264.7 cells, although it suppressed osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. α2-AP treatment activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells, and these MAP kinase inhibitors antagonized the levels of IL-1β mRNA elevated by α2-AP. The data demonstrate that α2-AP is linked to bone loss due to OVX, through a mechanism that depends in part on the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in monocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Piperine inhibit inflammation, alveolar bone loss and collagen fibers breakdown in a rat periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Huihui, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Piperine exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, and has a long history of medicinal use. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of piperine on inflammation, alveolar bone and collagen fibers in experimental periodontitis. We evaluated the related expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-13 to enhance insight into these effects. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each: control group, periodontitis group, periodontitis plus 50 mg/kg piperine group and periodontitis plus 100 mg/kg piperine group. Histopathologic changes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alveolar bone loss and trabecula microstructures were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Changes in collagen fibers were assessed by picrosirius red staining. Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-8 and MMP-13. Piperine clearly inhibited alveolar bone loss and reformed trabecula microstructures in a dose-dependent manner. Histological staining showed that piperine significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammation in soft tissues. Both doses of piperine limited the fractions of degraded areas in collagen fibers. Piperine (100 mg/kg) significantly downregulated the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13 in periodontitis, but not that of TNF-α. Piperine displays significantly protective effects on inflammation, alveolar bone loss, bone microstructures and collagen fiber degradation in experimental periodontitis. The effects may be ascribed to its inhibitory activity on the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impact of marked weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on bone mineral density and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about the impact of bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent weight loss on bone are limited. The objective of the present study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone remodeling metabolites and hormones that influence bone trophism in premenopausal women submitted to BS 9.8 months, on average, before the study (OGg, N = 16. The data were compared to those obtained for women of normal weight (CG, N = 11 and for obese women (OG, N = 12. Eight patients in each group were monitored for one year, with the determination of BMD, of serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and osteocalcin, and of urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline. The biochemical determinations were repeated every three months in the longitudinal study and BMD was measured at the end of the study. Parathyroid hormone levels were similar in the three groups. IGF-I levels (CG = 332 ± 62 vs OG = 230 ± 37 vs OGg = 128 ± 19 ng/mL were significantly lower in the operated patients compared to the non-operated obese women. Only OGg patients presented a significant fall in BMD of 6.2% at L1-L4, of 10.2% in the femoral neck, and of 5.1% in the forearm. These results suggest that the weight loss induced by BS is associated with a significant loss of bone mass even at sites that are not influenced by weight overload, with hormonal factors such as IGF-I being associated with this process.

  2. An Increase in Forearm Cortical Bone Size After Menopause May Influence the Estimated Bone Mineral Loss--A 28-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Svejme, Ola; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-01-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is the most common estimate of bone mass, incorporated in the World Health Organization definition of osteoporosis. However, aBMD depends on not only the amount of mineral but also the bone size. The estimated postmenopausal decline in aBMD could because of this be influenced by changes in bone size.We measured bone mineral content (BMC; mg), aBMD (mg/cm2), and bone width (mm) by single-photon absorptiometry at the cortical site of the forearm in a population-based sample of 105 Caucasian women. We conducted 12 measurements during a 28-yr period from mean 5 yr (range: 2-9) before menopause to mean 24 yr (range: 18-28) after menopause. We calculated individual slopes for changes in the periods before menopause, 0-bone width 0.4% (-1.2, 1.9), 0.7% (0.5, 0.9), 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4), and 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4). BMC loss was similar in all periods, whereas the increase in bone width was higher in the first postmenopausal period than in the second (p=0.003) and the third (p=0.01) postmenopausal periods. Menopause is followed by a transient increase in forearm bone size that will influence the by aBMD estimated cortical loss in bone minerals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Dietary Supplement Attenuates Radiation-Induced Osteoclastogenic and Oxidative Stress-Related Responses and Protects Adult Mice from Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Tahimic, Candice; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Shahnazari, Mohammed; Halloran, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Our central hypothesis is that oxidative stress plays a key role in cell dysfunction and progressive bone loss caused by radiation exposure during spaceflight. In animal studies, excess free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. We previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation rapidly increases expression levels of pro-osteoclastogenic and oxidative stress-related genes in bone and marrow, followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. To screen various antioxidants for radioprotective effects on bone, 4 month old, male C57Bl6/J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable alpha-lipoic acid, or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs total body radiation and one day later marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Of the candidates tested, DP was most effective in reducing bone resorption-related gene expression. Microcomputed tomography revealed that DP also prevented the radiation-induced deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture, as indicated by percent bone volume, trabecular spacing and trabecular number. DP had similar protective effects on skeletal structure after sequential exposure to protons (0.5 Gy, 150MeV/n) and 56Fe 0.5Gy, 600 MeV/n). When cultured ex vivo under osteogenic conditions, bone marrow-derived cells from DP-fed animals exhibited increased colony numbers compared to control diet-fed animals. These findings suggest that DP exerted pro-osteogenic effects apart from previously identified anti-resorptive actions, which may contribute to radioprotection of skeletal tissue. In conclusion, a diet enriched in certain types of antioxidants and polyphenols such as DP may be useful as an intervention to protect tissues from degenerative effects of ionizing radiation.

  4. Pyogenic granuloma associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhrugesh J Panseriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A diverse group of the pathologic process can produce the enlargement of soft tissues in the oral cavity and often present a diagnostic challenge. This soft tissue enlargement may represent a variation of the normal anatomic structure, inflammatory reaction, cyst, neoplasm, and developmental anomalies. A group of reactive hyperplasias, which develop in response to chronic recurring tissue injury that stimulates an excessive tissue repair response. The pyogenic granuloma (PG is a reactive enlargement that is an inflammatory response to local irritation such as calculus, a fractured tooth, rough dental restoration, and foreign materials or hormonal (pregnancy tumor and rarely associated with bone loss. This paper presents a rare case of PG associated with periodontal abscess and bone loss in a 30-year-old male.

  5. Managing femoral bone loss in revision total hip replacement: fluted tapered modular stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, M B; Paprosky, W G

    2013-11-01

    If a surgeon is faced with altered lesser trochanter anatomy when revising the femoral component in revision total hip replacement, a peri-prosthetic fracture, or Paprosky type IIIb or type IV femoral bone loss, a modular tapered stem offers the advantages of accurately controlling femoral version and length. The splines of the taper allow rotational control, and improve the fit in femoral canals with diaphyseal bone loss. In general, two centimetres of diaphyseal contact is all that is needed to gain stability with modular tapered stems. By allowing the proximal body trial to rotate on a well-fixed distal segment during trial reduction, appropriate anteversion can be obtained in order to improve intra-operative stability, and decrease the dislocation risk. However, modular stems should not be used for all femoral revisions, as implant fracture and corrosion at modular junctions can still occur.

  6. Bone Loss in the Acute Stage Following Burn Injury - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Leblebici

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a bone loss occurs during acute period following burn injury or not, and to investigate the effects of various parameters on it. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 19 patients, ages between 20 and 50, who had a burn injury with more than %20 of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA. We recorded the patients’ burn cause, localization, percantage, ambulation and functional status. At the end of the first month, we measured bone mıneral densıty of total L1-L4 vertebrae, left distal forearm, left total femur, in all patients. A Z score less than –1 was accepted to be the indicator of bone loss. Results: The mean age of the patients (14 male and 5 female was 33.09±11.61. We found a Z score less then -1 in 68.4% of left distal forearm, 21.1% of left total femur and 36.8% of total L1-L4 vertabrae measurements. There were no significant correlations between TBSA, Functional Ambulatıon Scale and Functional Independence Measure, and Z scores. Conclusion: There is a reduction in Bone Mineral Density in patıents wıth moderate/severe burn ınjuries in the acute period which is not correlated wıth neither TBSA nor functional status. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:33-6

  7. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  8. Epidemiologic Analyses of Risk Factors for Bone Loss and Recovery Related to Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean; Amin, Shreyasee

    2010-01-01

    AIM 1: To investigate the risk of microgravity exposure on long-term changes in bone health and fracture risk. compare data from crew members ("observed") with what would be "expected" from Rochester Bone Health Study. AIM 2: To provide a summary of current evidence available on potential risk factors for bone loss, recovery & fracture following long-duration space flight. integrative review of all data pre, in-, and post-flight across disciplines (cardiovascular, nutrition, muscle, etc.) and their relation to bone loss and recovery

  9. Trabecular Bone Loss at a Distant Skeletal Site Following Noninvasive Knee Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Blaine A.; Emami, Armaun J.; Fyhrie, David P.; Satkunananthan, Patrick B.; Hardisty, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries can have systemic consequences, as the early inflammatory response after trauma can lead to tissue destruction at sites not affected by the initial injury. This systemic catabolism may occur in the skeleton following traumatic injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. However, bone loss following injury at distant, unrelated skeletal sites has not yet been established. In the current study, we utilized a mouse knee injury model to determine whether acute kn...

  10. Severe Bone Loss induced by Orthodontic Elastic Separator: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    A E Vishwanath; B K Sharmada; Sandesh S Pai; Nandini Nelvigi

    2013-01-01

    A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progressed to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After 1 year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination, the patient had gingival inflammation...

  11. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  12. Resveratrol as anti-aging therapy for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Isabel F; Tamimi, Faleh; Eimar, Hazem; Barralet, Jake; Torres, Jesús; Blanco, Luis; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen, can act as an anti-aging therapy to resist age-related changes of several body tissues. However, the anti-aging effects of resveratrol on bone have been poorly investigated in this natural aging population. Accordingly, this study was design to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on bone mass and biomechanical properties in old rat femora. Twenty 22-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two randomly assigned groups (n=10). The first group was treated for 10 weeks with resveratrol (10 mg/kg per day) and the second group was left untreated (control). Rat femora were collected. Bone mass and bone microestructure were investigated by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Biomechanical properties were determined by a three-point bending test. Plasma levels of CTX (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and osteocalcin were also determined. Statistical analyses were performed by a Student two-tailed unpaired t-test. In all experiments, a value of panti-aging therapy to resist age-induced bone loss.

  13. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  15. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Wei, E-mail: weiming@xiyi.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Lu, Gan, E-mail: leonming99@163.com [Department of Gynecology of Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an, 710068 (China); Xin, Sha, E-mail: 248967979@qq.com [Institute of Orthopedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Huanyu, Lu, E-mail: 2366927258@qq.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Yinghao, Jiang, E-mail: jiangyh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Xiaoying, Lei, E-mail: leixiaoy@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Chengming, Xu, E-mail: chengmingxu@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Banjun, Ruan, E-mail: running@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wang, E-mail: wanglifw@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  16. Longitudinal study of dental caries, tooth mortality and interproximal bone loss in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    2001-02-01

    The investigation focused on longitudinal changes of oral health in a group of adults with intellectual disability. A number of 124 individuals, aged 21-40 yr in 1990, were followed during 8.5 yr. The incidence and prevalence of caries, incidence of tooth mortality, and interproximal bone loss were registered from clinical examinations and bite-wing radiographs. The subjects visited the dental clinic for preventive dental care on average every third month during the period. The caries incidence was low, on average 0.51 new lesions per yr. Persons with mild intellectual disability experienced more caries than other subjects. During the 8.5 yr, the subjects had lost on average 1.82 teeth, with periodontitis dominating as the reason for tooth mortality. Individuals who cooperated poorly with dental treatment had lost the most teeth. The average annual bone loss in all subjects was 0.03 mm. Subjects with Down syndrome had a higher bone loss compared to those with other diagnoses of intellectual disability. Thus, the major part of the persons with intellectual disability showed satisfactory oral health. However, subjects with poor ability to cooperate with dental treatment and subjects with Down syndrome showed an increased risk for impaired oral health.

  17. Boric acid inhibits alveolar bone loss in rats by affecting RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, M; Hatipoğlu, M; Köseoğlu, S; Esen, H H; Kelebek, S

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic boric acid on the levels of expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on histopathologic and histometric changes in a rat periodontitis model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: nonligated (NL); ligature only (LO); and ligature plus treatment with boric acid (BA) (3 mg/kg per day for 11 d). A 4/0 silk suture was placed in a subgingival position around the mandibular right first molars; after 11 d the rats were killed, and alveolar bone loss in the first molars was histometrically determined. Periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically to assess the differences among the study groups. RANKL and OPG were detected immunohistochemically. Alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the LO group than in the BA and NL groups (p boric acid may reduce alveolar bone loss by affecting the RANKL/OPG balance in periodontal disease in rats. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Animal Models of Bone Loss in Inflammatory Arthritis: from Cytokines in the Bench to Novel Treatments for Bone Loss in the Bedside—a Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Alves (Celso Henrique); E. Farrell (Eric); M. Vis (M.); E.M. Colin (Edgar); E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThroughout life, bone is continuously remodelled. Bone is formed by osteoblasts, from mesenchymal origin, while osteoclasts induce bone resorption. This process is tightly regulated. During inflammation, several growth factors and cytokines are increased inducing osteoclast

  19. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... activity at the time of investigation. By contrast, BMDARM was decreased in patients with active disease. BMD in any of the three measured locations was not directly correlated to duration of the disease. However, the bone mass in the appendicular skeleton was already decreased within the first two years...... to clinical improvement, which may counteract the expected negative effect of these drugs on bone in rheumatoid arthritis....

  20. Reconstruction of Frontal Bone With Custom-Made Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Vinícius Gabriel Barros; Mendonça, Diego Santiago de; Bezerra, Ariel Valente; Silva, Leonardo de Freitas; Pontes, Rafael Figueirêdo; Melo, Carlos Vinícius Mota de; Mello, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter

    2016-06-01

    Frontal bone fracture treatment is still an issue of research in craniofacial surgery and neurosurgery. The aims of the treatment are to reduce the complication risks and to keep the aesthetic of the face. Before the management of this fracture type, it is necessary to consider the permanence or not of the frontal sinus function. Rapid prototyping has been an aid tool on planning and simulation of the surgical procedure, improving the diagnostic quality and the implant manufacture, beyond reducing the operative time. Among the used materials on treatment of these fractures, titanium mesh shows large versatility and ease of handling. Poly(methyl methacrylate) has been used in defects of partial thickness or irregularities on cranial surface. The aim of this study is to report a case of a patient presenting sequelae of large fracture of anterior wall of frontal bone, treated by a titanium mesh associated with the customized poly(methyl methacrylate) implant from the rapid prototyping. It could be concluded that the use of this technique showed itself effective on patient treatment, and rapid prototyping demonstrated being a valuable tool showing predictable and satisfactory results.

  1. Hwangryun-Haedok-Tang Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Suppresses Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Shuk Shim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT is the common recipe in traditional Asian medicine, and microbial fermentation is used for the conventional methods for processing traditional medicine. We investigated the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol fraction of HRT (HRT-BU and fHRT (fHRT-BU on the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were evaluated by real-time QPCR. The activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. The marker compounds of HRT-BU and fHRT-BU were analyzed by HPLC. The inhibitory effect of HRT or fHRT on ovariectomy-induced bone loss were evaluated using OVX rats with orally administered HRT, fHRT (300, 1000 mg/kg, or its vehicle for 12 weeks. fHRT-BU significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and phosphorylation of p38, IKKα/β, and NF-κBp65 compared to HRT-BU. In addition, fHRT-BU also significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nfκb2, TNF-α, NFATc1, TRAP, ATPv0d2, and cathepsin K. Furthermore, administration of fHRT had a greater effect on the increase of BMD, and greater improved bone microstructure of the femora than that of HRT in ovariectomy rats. This study demonstrated that bacterial fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial effects on bone disease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  2. Hesperidin prevents androgen deficiency-induced bone loss in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hiroshige; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Akiyama, Satoko; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Uehara, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether hesperidin inhibits bone loss in androgen-deficient male mice. Male ddY mice aged 7 weeks underwent either a sham operation or orchidectomy (ORX) and were divided into five groups: a sham-operated group fed a control diet (Sham) based on AIN-93G formulation with corn oil instead of soy bean oil, an ORX group fed the control diet (ORX), a group fed the control diet containing 0.5% hesperidin (ORX + H), a group fed the control diet containing 0.7% α-glucosylhesperidin (ORX + αG), and a group fed the control diet containing 0.013% simvastatin (ORX + St). Four weeks after intervention, ORX mice showed a striking decrease in seminal vesicle weight, which was not affected by the administration of hesperidin, α-glucosylhesperidin, or simvastatin. Femoral BMD was significantly reduced by ORX, and bone loss was inhibited by the administration of hesperidin, α-glucosylhesperidin or simvastatin. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the bone volume and trabecular thickness were significantly lower, and the osteoclast number was higher in the distal femoral cancellous bone in the ORX group than in the Sham group, and these were normalized in the ORX + H, ORX + αG and ORX + St groups. These results indicate that hesperidin inhibited bone resorption and hyperlipidemia, in ORX mice, and the preventive effect was stronger than that observed in ovariectomized mice in our previous study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Metaphyseal and Diaphyseal Bone Loss in the Tibia Following Transient Muscle Paralysis are Spatiotemporally Distinct Resorption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausk, Brandon J.; Huber, Philippe; Srinivasan, Sundar; Bain, Steven D.; Kwon, Ronald Y.; McNamara, Erin A.; Poliachik, Sandra L.; Sybrowsky, Christian L.; Gross, Ted S.

    2013-01-01

    When the skeleton is catabolically challenged, there is great variability in the timing and extent of bone resorption observed at cancellous and cortical bone sites. It remains unclear whether this resorptive heterogeneity, which is often evident within a single bone, arises from increased permissiveness of specific sites to bone resorption or localized resorptive events of varied robustness. To explore this question, we used the mouse model of calf paralysis induced bone loss, which results in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption of different timing and magnitude. Given this phenotypic pattern of resorption, we hypothesized that bone loss in the proximal tibia metaphysis and diaphysis occurs through resorption events that are spatially and temporally distinct. To test this hypothesis, we undertook three complimentary in vivo/μCT imaging studies. Specifically, we defined spatiotemporal variations in endocortical bone resorption during the 3 weeks following calf paralysis, applied a novel image registration approach to determine the location where bone resorption initiates within the proximal tibia metaphysis, and explored the role of varied basal osteoclast activity on the magnitude of bone loss initiation in the metaphysis using μCT based bone resorption parameters. A differential response of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption was observed throughout each study. Acute endocortical bone loss following muscle paralysis occurred almost exclusively within the metaphyseal compartment (96.5% of total endocortical bone loss within 6 days). Using our trabecular image registration approach, we further resolved the initiation of metaphyseal bone loss to a focused region of significant basal osteoclast function (0.03 mm3) adjacent to the growth plate. This correlative observation of paralysis induced bone loss mediated by basal growth plate cell dynamics was supported by the acute metaphyseal osteoclastic response of 5-wk vs. 13- month-old mice. Specifically

  4. Quantitative Computerized Assessment of the Degree of Acetabular Bone Deficiency: Total radial Acetabular Bone Loss (TrABL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Gelaude

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantitative, computerized, and, therefore, highly objective method is presented to assess the degree of total radical acetabular bone loss. The method, which is abbreviated to “TrABL”, makes use of advanced 3D CT-based image processing and effective 3D anatomical reconstruction methodology. The output data consist of a ratio and a graph, which can both be used for direct comparison between specimens. A first dataset of twelve highly deficient hemipelves, mainly Paprosky types IIIB, is used as illustration. Although generalization of the findings will require further investigation on a larger population, it can be assumed that the presented method has the potential to facilitate the preoperative use of existing classifications and related decision schemes for treatment selection in complex revision cases.

  5. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C-L; Yeh, J K; Cao, J J; Tatum, O L; Dagda, R Y; Wang, J-S

    2010-11-01

    Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation plus alphacalcidol administration increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a significant role of GTP plus alphacalcidol in bone health of patients with chronic inflammation. Studies have suggested that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol are promising dietary supplements for preventing bone loss in women. However, the mechanism(s) related to the possible osteo-protective role of GTP plus D(3) in chronic inflammation-induced bone loss is not well understood. This study evaluated bioavailability, efficacy, and related mechanisms of GTP in combination with alphacalcidol in conserving bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 12-week study of 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) × 2 (no alphacalcidol vs. 0.05 μg/kg alphacalcidol, 5×/week) factorial design in lipopolysaccharide-administered female rats was performed. In addition, a group receiving placebo administration was used to compare with a group receiving lipopolysaccharide administration only to evaluate the effect of lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide administration resulted in lower values for bone mass, but higher values for serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. GTP supplementation increased urinary epigallocatechin and epicatechin concentrations. Both GTP supplementation and alphacalcidol administration resulted in a significant increase in bone mass, but a significant decrease in serum TRAP levels, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. A synergistic effect of GTP and alphacalcidol was observed in these parameters. Neither GTP nor alphacalcidol affected femoral bone area or serum osteocalcin. We

  6. Influence of microgap location and configuration on radiographic bone loss in nonsubmerged implants: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Dietmar; Nagata, Maria Jose Hitomi; Leite, Christiane Mota; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Nascimento; Bosco, Alvaro Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The implant-abutment connection (microgap) influences the peri-implant bone morphology. However, it is unclear if different microgap configurations additionally modify bone reactions. This preliminary study aimed to radiographically monitor peri-implant bone levels in two different microgap configurations during 3 months of nonsubmerged healing. Six dogs received two implants with internal Morse taper connection (INT group) on one side of the mandible and two implants with external-hex connection (EXT group) on the other side. One implant on each side was positioned at bone level (equicrestal); the second implant was inserted 1.5 mm below the bone crest (subcrestal). Healing abutments were attached directly after implant insertion, and the implants were maintained for 3 months without prosthetic loading. At implant placement and 1, 2, and 3 months, standardized radiographs were taken to monitor peri-implant bone levels. All implants osseointegrated. A total bone loss of 0.48 ± 0.66 mm was measured in the equicrestal INT group, 0.69 ± 0.43 mm in the equicrestal EXT group, 0.79 ± 0.93 mm in the subcrestal INT group, and 1.56 ± 0.53 mm in the subcrestal EXT group (P > .05, paired t tests). Within the four groups, bone loss over time became significantly greater in the EXT groups than in the INT groups. The greatest bone loss was noted in the subcrestal EXT group. Within the limits of this animal study, it seems that even without prosthetic loading, different microgap configurations exhibit different patterns of bone loss during nonsubmerged healing. Subcrestal positioning of an external butt joint microgap may lead to faster radiographic bone loss.

  7. Polycythemia is associated with bone loss and reduced osteoblast activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidou, P R; Casu, C; Yang, Z; Crielaard, B; Shim, J H; Rivella, S; Vogiatzi, M G

    2016-04-01

    Increased fragility has been described in humans with polycythemia vera (PV). Herein, we describe an osteoporotic phenotype associated with decreased osteoblast activity in a mouse model of PV and another mouse of polycythemia and elevated circulating erythropoietin (EPO). Our results are important for patients with PV or those treated with recombinant EPO (rEPO). PV and other myeloproliferative syndromes have been recently associated with an increased risk for fractures. However, the presence of osteoporosis in these patients has not been well documented. EPO, a hormone primarily known to stimulate erythropoiesis, has been shown recently to regulate bone homeostasis in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the bone phenotype of a mouse model of PV and compare it to that of animals with polycythemia caused by elevated circulating EPO. Bone mass and remodeling were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The JAK2(V617F) knock-in mouse, a model of human PV, manifests polycythemia and low circulating EPO levels. Results from this mouse were compared to wild type (wt) controls and the tg6 transgenic mouse that shows polycythemia caused by increased constitutive expression of EPO. Compared to wt, both JAK2(V617F) and tg6 mice had a decrease in trabecular bone mass. Tg6 mice showed an additional modest decrease in cortical thickness and cortical bone volume per tissue volume (P Polycythemia caused by chronically elevated circulating EPO also results in bone loss, and implications on patients treated with rEPO should be evaluated.

  8. High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Javoroski, S.; Saha, P. K.; Liang, G.; Li, C.; Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Summary People with spinal cord injury (SCI) lose bone and muscle integrity after their injury. Early doses of stress, applied through electrically induced muscle contractions, preserved bone density at high-risk sites. Appropriately prescribed stress early after the injury may be an important consideration to prevent bone loss after SCI. Introduction Skeletal muscle force can deliver high compressive loads to bones of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effective osteogenic dose of load for the distal femur, a chief site of fracture, is unknown. The purpose of this study is to compare three doses of bone compressive loads at the distal femur in individuals with complete SCI who receive a novel stand training intervention. Methods Seven participants performed unilateral quadriceps stimulation in supported stance [150% body weight (BW) compressive load—“High Dose” while opposite leg received 40% BW—“Low Dose”]. Five participants stood passively without applying quadriceps electrical stimulation to either leg (40% BW load—“Low Dose”). Fifteen participants performed no standing (0% BW load—“Untrained”) and 14 individuals without SCI provided normative data. Participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) assessment between one and six times over a 3-year training protocol. Results BMD for the High Dose group significantly exceeded BMD for both the Low Dose and the Untrained groups (p0.05), indicating that BMD for participants performing passive stance did not differ from individuals who performed no standing. High-resolution CT imaging of one High Dose participant revealed 86% higher BMD and 67% higher trabecular width in the High Dose limb. Conclusion Over 3 years of training, 150% BW compressive load in upright stance significantly attenuated BMD decline when compared to passive standing or to no standing. High-resolution CT indicated that trabecular architecture was preserved by the 150% BW dose of load. PMID:22187008

  9. Effects of electromagnetic fields on bone loss in hyperthyroidism rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoxu; Zhang, Yingchi; Fu, Tao; Liu, Yang; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Dongming; Zhao, Wenchun; Song, Mingyu; Tang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Optimal therapeutics for hyperthyroidism-induced osteoporosis are still lacking. As a noninvasive treatment, electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been proven to be effective for treating osteoporosis in non-hyperthyroidism conditions. We herein systematically evaluated the reduced effects of EMF on osteoporosis in a hyperthyroidism rat model. With the use of Helmholtz coils and an EMF stimulator, 15 Hz/1 mT EMF was generated. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four different groups: control, levothyroxine treated (L-T4), EMF exposure + levothyroxine (EMF + L-T4), and EMF exposure without levothyroxine administration (EMF). All rats were treated with L-T4 (100 mg/day) except those in control and EMF groups. After 12 weeks, the results obtained from bone mineral density analyses and bone mechanical measurements showed significant differences between L-T4 and EMF + L-T4 groups. Micro CT and bone histomorphometric analyses indicated that trabecular bone mass and architecture in distal femur and proximal tibia were augmented and restored partially in EMF + L-T4 group. In addition, bone thyroid hormone receptors (THR) expression of hyperthyroidism rats was attenuated in EMF + L-T4 group, compared to control group, which was not observed in L-T4 group. According to these results, we concluded that 15 Hz/1 mT EMF significantly inhibited bone loss and micro architecture deterioration in hyperthyroidism rats, which might occur due to reduced THR expression caused by EMF exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:137-150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Amphibian skull evolution: the developmental and functional context of simplification, bone loss and heterotopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R

    2014-12-01

    Despite their divergent morphology, extant and extinct amphibians share numerous features in the timing and spatial patterning of dermal skull elements. Here, I show how the study of these features leads to a deeper understanding of morphological evolution. Batrachians (salamanders and frogs) have simplified skulls, with dermal bones appearing rudimentary compared with fossil tetrapods, and open cheeks resulting from the absence of other bones. The batrachian skull bones may be derived from those of temnospondyls by truncation of the developmental trajectory. The squamosal, quadratojugal, parietal, prefrontal, parasphenoid, palatine, and pterygoid form rudimentary versions of their homologs in temnospondyls. In addition, failure to ossify and early fusion of bone primordia both result in the absence of further bones that were consistently present in Paleozoic tetrapods. Here, I propose a new hypothesis explaining the observed patterns of bone loss and emargination in a functional context. The starting observation is that jaw-closing muscles are arranged in a different way than in ancestors from the earliest ontogenetic stage onwards, with muscles attaching to the dorsal side of the frontal, parietal, and squamosal. The postparietal and supratemporal start to ossify in a similar way as in branchiosaurids, but are fused to neighboring elements to form continuous attachment areas for the internal adductor. The postfrontal, postorbital, and jugal fail to ossify, as their position is inconsistent with the novel arrangement of adductor muscles. Thus, rearrangement of adductors forms the common theme behind cranial simplification, driven by an evolutionary flattening of the skull in the batrachian stem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Albuminuria and Rapid Loss of GFR and Risk of New Hip and Pelvic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peggy; Clase, Catherine M.; Mente, Andrew; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Sleight, Peter; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The microvascular circulation plays an important role in bone health. This study examines whether albuminuria, a marker of renal microvascular disease, is associated with incident hip and pelvic fractures. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study reanalyzed data from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial/Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease trials, which examined the impact of renin angiotensin system blockade on cardiovascular outcomes (n=28,601). Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio≥30 mg/g (n=4597). Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of albuminuria with fracture risk adjusted for known risk factors for fractures, estimated GFR, and rapid decline in estimated GFR (≥5%/yr). Results There were 276 hip and pelvic fractures during a mean of 4.6 years of follow-up. Participants with baseline albuminuria had a significantly increased risk of fracture compared with participants without albuminuria (unadjusted hazard ratio=1.62 [1.22, 2.15], PAlbuminuria, especially macroalbuminuria, and rapid decline of estimated GFR predict hip and pelvic fractures. These findings support a theoretical model of a relationship between underlying causes of microalbuminuria and bone disease. PMID:23184565

  12. Synergistic Effect of Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D on Chronic Inflammation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study demonstrated a bone-protective role of green tea polyphenols (GTPs), extracted from green tea, in chronic inflammation-induced bone loss of female rats through reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. This study further examines effects of GTPs in conjunction with vitamin D (...

  13. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation in the drinking water plus alphacalcidol administration resulted in increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation sugges...

  14. Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

  15. A Radiographic Comparison of Progressive and Conventional Loading on Crestal Bone Loss and Density in Single Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sorouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crestal bone loss is a biologic complication in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of progressive and conventional loading on crestal bone height and bone density around single osseointegrated implants in posterior maxilla by a longitudinal radiographic assessment technique.Materials and methods: Twenty micro thread implants were placed in 10 patients (two implants per patient. One of the two implants of each patient was assigned to progressive and the other to conventional loading groups. Eight weeks after surgery, conventional implants were restored with a metal ceramic crown and progressive group underwent a progressive loading protocol. The progressive loading group takes different temporary acrylic crowns at 2, 4 and 6 months. After eight months, acrylic crowns were replaced with metal ceramic crown. Computer radiography of both progressive and conventional implants was taken at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Image analysis was performed to measure height of crestal bone loss and bone density.Results: The mean values of crestal bone loss at month 12 were 0.11 (0.19 mm for progressively and 0.36 (0.36 mm for conventionally loaded implants, with a statistically significant difference (P 0.05.Conclusion: Progressive group showed less crestal bone loss in single osseointegrated implant than conventional group. Bone density around progressively loaded implants showed increase in crestal, middle and apica

  16. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons During a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on 1 May 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L > 4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolutions and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L > 4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate shows strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The improved temporal and spatial resolutions of electron precipitation rates provided by multiple low-altitude observations can resolve fast-varying electron loss during rapid electron dropouts (over a few hours), which occur too fast for a single low-altitude satellite. The capability of estimating the fast-varying electron lifetimes during rapid dropout events is an important step in improving radiation belt model accuracy.

  17. Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael J; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2008-07-01

    We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s = 7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys' minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not excessively restricting their weight and felt healthy), and their relaxed weight (when there were no forthcoming light rides or no rides at all). It was hypothesized that when riding at minimal weight, jockeys would record a more negative mood profile compared with scores recorded at optimal or relaxed weights. The same trend was expected for eating attitudes. These hypotheses were supported as jockeys reported significantly more negative mood profiles and eating attitudes at minimal weight. The EAT-26 scores indicated the presence of disordered attitudes towards eating at this weight. These results suggest that jockeys' endeavours to reach the minimum weight limit stipulated by governing bodies are likely to jeopardize their psychological well-being. Dialogue surrounding the appropriateness of current weight regulations is therefore encouraged.

  18. Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased, but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group. These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.

  19. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  20. Bone-anchored hearing aids in conductive and mixed hearing losses: why do patients reject them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Richard T K; Dhillon, Baljeet; Siau, Derrick; Green, Kevin M J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake rate and the reasons for their rejection by patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. A retrospective review was performed of 113 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss referred to the Greater Manchester bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) programme between September 2008 and August 2011. 98 (86.7 %) patients were deemed audiologically suitable for BAHA implantation. Of these, 38 (38.8 %) had BAHA implanted; 60 (61.2 %) patients declined. Of those who declined, 27 (45 %) cited anxiety over surgery, 18 (30 %) cited cosmetic reasons, 16 (26.7 %) perceived limited benefit from the device and six (10 %) preferred conventional hearing aids. Our study highlights a 38.8 % BAHA uptake rate in audiologically suitable patients. The main reasons cited for rejection of BAHA were anxiety over surgery and cosmetic concerns. It is important that clinicians address these early during consultation with prospective BAHA recipients and avoid rushing to implant these patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.

  1. Beverage-specific alcohol intake and bone loss in older men and women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Winzenberg, T; Quinn, S; Giles, G; Jones, G

    2011-04-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between moderate alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to describe the associations between total and beverage-specific alcohol intake and bone loss in older men and women. A total of 862 randomly selected subjects (mean age 63 years, range 51-81, 51% men) were studied at baseline and 2 years later. BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Beverage specific and total alcohol intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Falls risk was determined using the short form Physiological Profile Assessment. Incident fractures were ascertained by questionnaire. Total alcohol intake in men positively predicted change in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip (β=0.008% and 0.006% per year per gram, Pbeer drinking (low alcohol) in women (β=0.034 g/cm(2) per category, P=0.002). Change in lumbar spine BMD was positively associated with the frequency of red wine drinking in men (β=0.08% per year per class, P=0.046). Neither beverage-specific nor total alcohol intake was associated with falls risk or fracture. Alcohol intake especially red wine might prevent bone loss in older men but not women, whereas low-alcohol beer may be protective in women and spirits/liquor may be deleterious in men. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

  2. Staged Surgery for Severe Soft Tissue and Bone Loss of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Chan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A 20- year-old female student was involved in a motor vehicle accident. She sustained a severe friction injury to the left knee that resulted in considerable soft tissue and bone loss. There was also damage to the knee extensor mechanism, tibialis anterior muscle, femoral trochlea, the anterior half of the tibial plateau extending distally to the proximal tibia and skin. However, there was no crushing of the limb or resultant neurovascular deficit but cancellous bone and the remainder of the joint were exposed. Repeated surgical debridement was performed and was followed by covering of the soft tissue using a latissimus dorsi free flap and skin grafts. The bony defect was reconstituted with antibiotic bone cement to prevent flap adherence and shrinkage, enhance stability and prevent fracture. The cement was later removed at the time of arthrodesis at which time an ipsilateral double barrel vascularised fibular graft supplemented with autogenously cancellous bone and a ring fixator was used. Computer tomography confirmed union at three months post procedure. The fixator was then removed and a tibialis posterior transfer was performed.

  3. Weight-loss-associated changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after partial weight regain with or without aerobic exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, P S; Rector, R S; Linden, M A; Warner, S O; Dellsperger, K C; Chockalingam, A; Whaley-Connell, A T; Liu, Y; Thomas, T R

    2012-05-01

    Moderate, long-term weight loss results in the loss of bone mass in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, whether these changes persist during weight maintenance or regain remains to be determined. Overweight or obese (body mass index: 25.8-42.5 kg/m(2)) women (n=40) with at least two risk factors for the metabolic syndrome participated in this 12-month study that examined the effects of prescribed weight loss and regain, with or without exercise, on bone turnover and on bone mineral density (BMD) in a subset of participants (n=24). During the first 6 month, participants lost ≈ 10% of their initial body weight via energy restriction and supervised aerobic exercise. Following weight loss, participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a no exercise treatment for the regain (+50% of weight lost) phase. A one-way (time) repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance (RMANOVA) tested the effects of weight loss on BMD and bone turnover, and a two-way RMANOVA (time, exercise) was used to examine the effects of exercise during weight regain. Hip (P=0.007) and lumbar spine (P=0.05) BMD decreased with weight loss, and remained reduced after weight regain with or without exercise. Likewise, the weight-loss-associated increases in osteocalcin (Pexercise. The results of the present study, which is the first to examine changes in bone mass and turnover during carefully controlled weight regain, suggest that weight-loss-induced perturbations in bone mass and turnover persist after partial weight regain, regardless of whether regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise was continued.

  4. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  5. Accuracy of extraoral bite-wing radiography in detecting proximal caries and crestal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micah; Dadul, Tenzin; Langlais, Robert; Russell, David; Ahmad, Mansur

    2018-01-01

    Extraoral bite-wing (EB) radiography is an imaging technology used in dentistry. The authors conducted an in vivo study comparing the accuracy of intraoral bitewing (IB) radiographs and EB radiographs for proximal caries and bone loss diagnosis. The authors recruited 116 patients who received IB radiographs to receive EB radiographs. The 5 calibrated authors made a consensus radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries and crestal bone loss. For this study, they assumed IB radiographs as the criterion standard. Next, they obtained EB radiographs for the 116 patients and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive rates against each patient's IB radiograph. The patients' EB radiographs revealed a significantly greater number of caries and crestal bone loss findings compared with their IB radiographs. The EB radiographs had a high to excellent sensitivity and moderate to low specificity of caries and crestal bone loss findings, respectively. Considering IB radiographs to be the criterion standard, the false-positive rate for EB radiographs was moderate for caries and high for bone loss diagnosis. The EB radiographs, which generate fewer images of overlapping proximal surfaces, have the advantage of detecting more carious lesions and bone loss findings than the IB radiographs do, but with the disadvantage of more false-positive diagnoses. Further research is needed to evaluate if the false-positive findings represent true carious lesions and bone loss. EB radiography is a promising technology, which has several advantages over traditional IB radiography. Clinicians should be aware of false-positive diagnosis of caries and bone loss with EB radiography. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid-prototype endoprosthesis for palliative reconstruction of an upper extremity after resection of bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Arpornchayanon, Olarn; Leerapun, Taninit; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Vatanapatimakul, Natapoom

    2015-03-01

    To present a rapid-prototype (RP) endoprosthesis replacement after tumor resection in patients with bone metastasis of the upper extremity. The short-term complications and functional outcomes were evaluated as well as the survival of patients and endoprosthesis. Bone metastasis patients who required bone resection and endoprosthesis replacement were enrolled and consented before operation. Custom-made endoprosthesis was fabricated from polymethyl methacrylate assisted by RP technology. After surgery was performed, patients were followed up daily until discharge and monthly until 6 months postoperatively for immediate post-operative complications and for signs of endoprosthesis failure. The functional outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperatively by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score (MTSS) and the Mankin score. Thereafter, patients' survival and arm condition were monitored every 3 months. Sixteen cases participated on this study. There were nine proximal-, four total- and two distal humerus, and one proximal ulna replacement. The median follow-up period was 486 days. The mean MTSS was 55 % and the Mankin score was good in 64 % and fair in 36 % of the patients. Glenohumeral subluxation was observed in 23 % of the patients; however, a stable shoulder was achieved in all cases. There were no prosthesis failure or systemic breakage. An RP endoprosthesis may have significant advantages when the entire humerus needs to be replaced, or periarticular sites are involved. This technique offers custom-made endoprosthesis with enough durability, and in a relatively short production time at reasonable costs which are suitable for palliative reconstruction.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanorods for Rapid Formation of Bone-Like Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Tran Thanh; Nga, Nguyen Kim; Giang, Luu Truong; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Phan Nguyen Minh; Binh, Bui Thi Thanh

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an excellent biomaterial for bone repair and regeneration. The biological functions of HAp particles, such as biomineralization, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation, can be enhanced when their size is reduced to the nanoscale. In this work, HAp nanoparticles were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). These particles were also characterized, and their size controlled by modifying the CTAB concentration and hydrothermal duration. The results show that most HAp nanoparticles were rod-like in shape, exhibiting the most uniform and smallest size (mean diameter and length of 39 nm and 125 nm, respectively) at optimal conditions of 0.64 g CTAB and hydrothermal duration of 12 h. Moreover, good biomineralization capability of the HAp nanorods was confirmed through in vitro tests in simulated body fluid. A bone-like mineral layer of synthesized HAp nanorods formed rapidly after 7 days. This study shows that highly bioactive HAp nanorods can be easily prepared by the hydrothermal method, being a potential nanomaterial for bone regeneration.

  8. Effects of boric acid on experimental periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirer, Serhat; Kara, M Isa; Erciyas, Kamile; Ozdemir, Hakan; Ozer, Hatice; Ay, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the histopathologic and morphometric effects of systemic boric acid in a rat periodontitis model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: non-ligated (NL), ligature only (LO), and ligature and treated with boric acid (BA) (3mg/kg per day for 11 days). A 4/0 silk suture was placed in a subgingival position around the mandibular first molars; after 11 days the rats were sacrificed, and changes in alveolar bone levels were measured clinically and tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences amongst the study groups. The ratio of presence of inflammatory cell infiltration (ICI) and osteoclast number in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and BA groups (pboric acid reduced periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss in periodontal disease in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  10. Initial Crestal Bone Loss After Implant Placement with Flapped or Flapless Surgery-A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Frank-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some initial loss of bone around dental implants is generally expected. There is reason to believe that reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap promotes crestal bone loss in the initial phase after an implant has been inserted. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of flapless implant insertion on initial bone loss with that of conventional placement after elevation of a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighty patients were randomly assigned either to the flapless group (test) or to the group with a full-thickness flap (control). In total, 195 implants were included in the study: 95 of these were inserted flapless (test group), and 100 were inserted by raising a mucoperiosteal flap (control group). Healing occurred unsubmerged for both groups. To assess changes in the peri-implant bone level, the height of the mesial and distal peri-implant bone was measured on digitally calibrated radiographs taken at the time of implant placement and 12 months afterward. After 1 year, a mean cumulative crestal bone loss of 0.24 ± 0.62 mm was measured. A mean bone loss of 0.55 ± 0.57 mm was found in the group with the mucoperiosteal flap, while a slight mean gain in bone height of 0.09 ± 0.49 mm was found in the test group, a statistically significant difference (P Flapless implant insertion caused less peri-implant bone loss than implant insertion with flap preparation. Therefore, the flapless procedure represents a protective and promising method in implant surgery.

  11. Progressive femoral cortical and cancellous bone density loss after uncemented tapered-design stem fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tobias E; Haeberle, Lothar; Mueller, Lars P; Kress, Alexander; Voelk, Michael; Pfander, David; Forst, Raimund; Schmidt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Aseptic implant loosening and periprosthetic bone loss are major problems after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We present an in vivo method of computed tomography (CT) assisted osteodensitometry after THA that differentiates between cortical and cancellous bone density (BD) and area around the femoral component. Method Cortical and cancellous periprosthetic femoral BD (mg CaHA/mL), area (mm2) and contact area between the prothesis and cortical bone were determined prospectively in 31 patients 10 days, 1 year, and 6 years after uncemented THA (mean age at implantation: 55 years) using CT-osteodensitometry. Results 6 years postoperatively, cancellous BD had decreased by as much as 41% and cortical BD by up to 27% at the metaphyseal portion of the femur; this decrease was progressive between the 1-year and 6-year examinations. Mild cortical hypertrophy was observed along the entire length of the diaphysis. No statistically significant changes in cortical BD were observed along the diaphysis of the stem. Interpretation Periprosthetic CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the technical ability to discriminate between cortical and cancellous bone structures with respect to strain-adapted remodeling. Continuous loss of cortical and cancellous BD at the femoral metaphysis, a homeostatic cortical strain configuration, and mild cortical hypertrophy along the diaphysis suggest a diaphyseal fixation of the implanted stem. CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the potential to become an effective instrument for quality control in THA by means of in vivo determination of periprosthetic BD, which may be a causal factor in implant loosening after THA. PMID:20180716

  12. Puerarin decreases bone loss and collagen destruction in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin, the most abundant isoflavonoid in kudzu root, shows various bioactivities, including bone-sparing, anti-inflammatory and antiproteinase properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of puerarin in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Rat models of periodontitis were developed by bilaterally placing ligatures around the first mandibular molars. Puerarin was administrated daily by gavage at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, starting a day before the placement of ligatures. Rats were humanely killed 7 d after the induction of periodontitis. Micro-computed tomography and sirius red staining were used to evaluate alveolar bone loss and collagen destruction, respectively. Histomorphometrical analysis was used to assess the inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were used to detect receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin expressions, and osteoclast activity in the gingiva and alveolar bone. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the gingiva were assessed by Western blot. Puerarin at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss compared with the vehicle group. Collagen destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly less in the puerarin-treated group (200 mg/kg) compared with that of the vehicle group. Puerarin (200 mg/kg) also reduced the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin and osteoclast activity. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin (200 mg/kg) inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65, which is associated with lower IL-1β and TNF-α production, and reduced the glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, which is associated with lower

  13. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  14. Arthroscopic Bankart repair and subscapularis augmentation: an alternative technique treating anterior shoulder instability with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiotti, Marco; Russo, Raffaele; Zanini, Antonio; Schröter, Steffen; Massoni, Carlo; Bianchedi, Diana

    2016-06-01

    This study presents the preliminary results of a new arthroscopic technique consisting of the association of 2 procedures, capsulolabral repair and subscapularis augmentation tenodesis, in the treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability with both glenoid bone loss and a Hill-Sachs lesion. Eighty-nine patients engaged in sports were enrolled in this retrospective case-series study with 2 to 5 years' follow-up. All patients underwent a computed tomography scan to assess the percentage of glenoid bone loss by the Pico method. A prior stabilization procedure had failed in 20 patients, who were then segregated into a different group. Visual analog scale (VAS), Rowe, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were used to assess the results. Only 3 of 89 patients had a post-traumatic redislocation. The mean length of follow-up was 31.5 months (range, 25-60 months). The VAS, Rowe, and ASES scores showed significant improvements: The VAS score decreased from a mean of 3.1 to 0.5 (P = .0157), the Rowe score increased from 58.9 to 94.1 (P = .0215), and the ASES score increased from 68.5 to 95.5 (P = .0197). The mean deficit of external rotation was 6° with the arm at the side of the trunk, and the mean deficit was 3° with the arm in 90° of abduction. The described procedure is a reproducible and effective technique used to restore joint stability in patients engaged in sports who have incurred anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation associated with glenoid bone loss (<25%) and a Hill-Sachs lesion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  16. β2-Adrenergic signal transduction plays a detrimental role in subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joint in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Li, Qi-hong; Ren, Gao-tong; Zhao, Chang-ming; Liu, Yun-dong; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-qing

    2015-07-29

    The present study tested whether activation of the sympathetic tone by aberrant joint loading elicits abnormal subchondral bone remodeling in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Abnormal dental occlusion was created in experimental rats, which were then intraperitoneally injected by saline, propranolol or isoproterenol. The norepinephrine contents, distribution of sympathetic nerve fibers, expression of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and remodeling parameters in the condylar subchondral bone were investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from condylar subchondral bones were harvested for comparison of their β-ARs, pro-osteoclastic gene expressions and pro-osteoclastic function. Increases in norepinephrine level, sympathetic nerve fiber distribution and β2-AR expression were observed in the condylar subchondral bone of experimental rats, together with subchondral bone loss and increased osteoclast activity. β-antagonist (propranolol) suppressed subchondral bone loss and osteoclast hyperfunction while β-agonist (isoproterenol) exacerbated those responses. MSCs from experimental condylar subchondral bone expressed higher levels of β2-AR and RANKL; norepinephrine stimulation further increased their RANKL expression and pro-osteoclastic function. These effects were blocked by inhibition of β2-AR or the PKA pathway. RANKL expression by MSCs decreased after propranolol administration and increased after isoproterenol administration. It is concluded that β2-AR signal-mediated subchondral bone loss in TMJ osteoarthritisis associated with increased RANKL secretion by MSCs.

  17. Bone-anchored hearing devices in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss: a patient-carer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Rupan; Doshi, Jayesh; Child, Anne; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; McDermott, Ann-Louise

    2013-09-01

    We sought to determine the outcome of implantation of a bone-anchored hearing device in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A retrospective case note analysis was used in a tertiary referral pediatric hospital to study 17 consecutive cases of pediatric patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing device between 2005 and 2010. The average age of the patients at the time of bone-anchored hearing device fitting was 10 years 6 months (range, 6 years 3 months to 16 years). Qualitative subjective outcome measures demonstrated benefit. The vast majority of patients reported improved social and physical functioning and improved quality of life. All 17 patients are currently using their bone-anchored hearing device on a daily basis after a follow-up of 6 months. This study has shown improved quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss after implantation of their bone-anchored hearing device. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in health status reported by children and/or carers. Bone-anchored hearing devices have an important role in the management of children with symptomatic unilateral hearing loss. Perhaps earlier consideration of a bone-anchored hearing device would be appropriate in selected cases.

  18. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  19. Effect of a low-level laser on bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepera, Fernanda; Torres, Fernando C; Scanavini, Marco A; Paranhos, Luiz R; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Cardoso, Mauricio A; Siqueira, Danieli C R; Siqueira, Danilo F

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of a low-level laser on bone regeneration in rapid maxillary expansion procedures. Twenty-seven children, aged 8 to 12 years, took part in the experiment, with a mean age of 10.2 years, divided into 2 groups: the laser group (n = 14), in which rapid maxillary expansion was performed in conjunction with laser use, and the no-laser group (n = 13), with rapid maxillary expansion only. The activation protocol of the expansion screw was 1 full turn on the first day and a half turn daily until achieving overcorrection. The laser type used was a laser diode (TWIN Laser; MMOptics, São Carlos, Brazil), according to the following protocol: 780 nm wavelength, 40 mW power, and 10 J/cm(2) density at 10 points located around the midpalatal suture. The application stages were 1 (days 1-5 of activation), 2 (at screw locking, on 3 consecutive days), 3, 4, and 5 (7, 14, and 21 days after stage 2). Occlusal radiographs of the maxilla were taken with the aid of an aluminum scale ruler as a densitometry reference at different times: T1 (initial), T2 (day of locking), T3 (3-5 days after T2), T4 (30 days after T3), and T5 (60 days after T4). The radiographs were digitized and submitted to imaging software (Image Tool; UTHSCSA, San Antonio, Tex) to measure the optic density of the previously selected areas. To perform the statistical test, analysis of covariance was used, with the time for the evaluated stage as the covariable. In all tests, a significance level of 5% (P maxillary expansion, provided efficient opening of the midpalatal suture and influenced the bone regeneration process of the suture, accelerating healing. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid and repeated limb loss in a clade of scincid lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Michael SY

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian scincid clade Lerista provides perhaps the best available model for studying limb reduction in squamates (lizards and snakes, comprising more than 75 species displaying a remarkable variety of digit configurations, from pentadactyl to entirely limbless conditions. We investigated the pattern and rate of limb reduction and loss in Lerista, employing a comprehensive phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences for a nuclear intron and six mitochondrial genes. Results The inferred phylogeny reveals extraordinary evolutionary mutability of limb morphology in Lerista. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate at least ten independent reductions in the number of digits from a pentadactyl condition, with a further seven reductions proceeding independently from a tetradactyl condition derived from one of these reductions. Four independent losses of all digits are inferred, three from pentadactyl or tetradactyl conditions. These conclusions are not substantially affected by uncertainty in assumed rates of character state transition or the phylogeny. An estimated age of 13.4 million years for Lerista entails that limb reduction has occurred not only repeatedly, but also very rapidly. At the highest rate, complete loss of digits from a pentadactyl condition is estimated to have occurred within 3.6 million years. Conclusion The exceptionally high frequency and rate of limb reduction inferred for Lerista emphasise the potential for rapid and substantial alteration of body form in squamates. An absence of compelling evidence for reversals of digit loss contrasts with a recent proposal that digits have been regained in some species of the gymnophthalmid clade Bachia, possibly reflecting an influence of differing environmental and genetic contexts on the evolution of limb morphology in these clades. Future study of the genetic, developmental, and ecological bases of limb reduction and loss in Lerista promises the elucidation of

  1. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2017-04-01

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day -1 and 471 ± 124 g・day -1 , respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg -1 ) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg -1 ). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  2. Soy isoflavones avert chronic inflammation-induced bone loss and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot Stan A

    2007-09-01

    metaphysis and down-regulated by IF. Conclusion These results suggest IF may attenuate the negative effects of chronic inflammation on bone and cardiovascular health. Additional research is warranted to examine the anti-inflammatory properties of the soy isoflavones and the mechanisms underlying their prevention of chronic inflammation-induced bone loss.

  3. On the possibility and predictability of rapid Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathiany, Sebastian; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Raedel, Gaby; Brovkin, Victor; van der Bolt, Bregje; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert; Williamson, Mark; Lenton, Tim

    2016-04-01

    We examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea-ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Using two column models and nine Earth System Models, we investigate how rapid such Arctic winter sea-ice loss can be, and whether an abrupt ice loss can be predicted from observed trends in variance or autocorrelation. Such statistical indicators have been proposed as early warning signals of abrupt shifts that are caused by positive feedbacks. We show that in comprehensive climate models, the loss of winter sea-ice area is faster than the preceding loss of summer sea-ice area for the same rate of warming. In two of the models, several million km2 of winter sea ice are lost within only one decade. Their behaviour resembles the catastrophic winter ice loss in a column model where the stable ice-covered state suddenly disappears at a bifurcation point, implying an irreversible and abrupt shift to the ice-free solution. However, we argue that winter sea-ice loss in comprehensive models is reversible and not associated with the existence of multiple steady states. The large sensitivity of winter sea-ice area in complex models is caused by the asymmetry between melting and freezing: An ice-free summer requires the complete melt of even the thickest sea ice, which is why the perennial ice coverage decreases only gradually as more and more of the thinner ice melts away. In winter, however, sea-ice areal coverage remains high as long as sea ice still forms, and then drops to zero wherever the ocean warms sufficiently to no longer form ice during winter. As this mechanism occurs in every model we analyse and is independent of any specific parameterisation, it is likely to be relevant in the real world. We also find that expected trends in variance and autocorrelation of sea-ice area and thickness are not specific to the existence or the mechanism of abrupt ice loss. For example, natural fluctuations of ice volume

  4. Use of basic biological information for rapid prediction of the response of species to habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Philip A R; Curtis, Odette E

    2009-02-01

    Much research has focused on identifying traits that can act as useful indicators of how habitat loss affects the extinction risk of species, and the results are mixed. We developed 2 simple, rapid-assessment models of the susceptibility of species to habitat loss. We based both on an index of range size, but one also incorporated an index of body mass and the other an index combining habitat and dietary specialization. We applied the models to samples of birds (Accipitridae and Bucerotidae) and to the lemurs of Madagascar and compared the models' classifications of risk with the IUCN's global threat status of each species. The model derived from ecological attributes was much more robust than the one derived from body mass. Ecological attributes identified threatened birds and lemurs with an average of 80% accuracy and endangered and critically endangered species with 100% accuracy and identified some species not currently listed as threatened that almost certainly warrant conservation consideration. Appropriate analysis of even fairly crude biological information can help raise early-warning flags to the relative susceptibilities of species to habitat loss and thus provide a useful and rapid technique for highlighting potential species-level conservation issues. Advantages of this approach to classifying risk include flexibility in the specialization parameters used as well as its applicability at a range of spatial scales.

  5. Absence of ERRα in Female Mice Confers Resistance to Bone Loss Induced by Age or Estrogen-Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, Bénédicte; Monfoulet, Laurent; Dine, Julien; Macari, Claire; Espallergues, Julie; Horard, Béatrice; Giguère, Vincent; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Chassande, Olivier; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background ERRα is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which acts as a transcription factor and is involved in various metabolic processes. ERRα is also highly expressed in ossification zones during mouse development as well as in human bones and cell lines. Previous data have shown that this receptor up-modulates the expression of osteopontin, which acts as an inhibitor of bone mineralization and whose absence results in resistance to ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Altogether this suggests that ERRα may negatively regulate bone mass and could impact on bone fragility that occurs in the absence of estrogens. Methods/Principal Findings In this report, we have determined the in vivo effect of ERRα on bone, using knock-out mice. Relative to wild type animals, female ERRαKO bones do not age and are resistant to bone loss induced by estrogen-withdrawal. Strikingly male ERRαKO mice are indistinguishable from their wild type counterparts, both at the unchallenged or gonadectomized state. Using primary cell cultures originating from ERRαKO bone marrow, we also show that ERRα acts as an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation. Conclusion/Significance Down-regulating ERRα could thus be beneficial against osteoporosis. PMID:19936213

  6. Raloxifene preserves phenytoin and sodium valproate induced bone loss by modulating serum estradiol and TGF-β3 content in bone of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Md Jamir; Radhakrishna, K V; Sharma, Abhay; Vohora, Divya

    2014-10-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced adverse consequences on bone are now well recognized. Despite this, there is limited data on the effect of anti-osteoporotic therapies on AEDs-induced bone loss. We hypothesize that estrogen deprivation following phenytoin (PHT) and sodium valproate (SVP) therapy could lead to adverse bony effects. Both PHT and SVP inhibit human aromatase enzyme and stimulate microsomal catabolism of oestrogens. Estrogen deficiency states are known to reduce the deposition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β3), a bone matrix protein, having anti-osteoclastic property. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with calcium and vitamin D3 (CVD) supplementation, on PHT and SVP-induced alterations in bone in mice and to unravel the role of estradiol and TGF-β3 in mediation of bony effects by either AEDs or raloxifene. Further, the effect of raloxifene on seizures and on the antiepileptic efficacy of PHT and SVP was investigated. Swiss strains of female mice were treated with PHT (35 mg/kg, p.o.) and SVP (300 mg/kg, p.o.) for 120 days to induce bone loss as evidenced by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone turnover markers (BTMs) in lumbar bones (alkaline phosphatase, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase, hydroxyproline) and urine (calcium). The bone loss was accompanied by reduced serum estradiol levels and bone TGF-β3 content. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with raloxifene ameliorated bony alterations and was more effective than CVD. It also significantly restored estradiol and TGF-β3 levels. Deprived estrogen levels (that in turn reduced lumbar TGF-β3 content) following PHT and SVP, thus, might represent one of the various mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone loss. Raloxifene preserved the bony changes without interfering with antiepileptic efficacy of these drugs, and hence raloxifene could be a potential therapeutic option in the management of

  7. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  8. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic diagnosis of early bone loss and density variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Over the past two decades, osteoporosis has been recognized among the most serious public health problems. Fortunately with the growing awareness of osteoporosis, new treatments have been developed for the prevention of fracture. At the same time, there is a rapid improvement in diagnostic methods. In this study biomedical photoacoustics (PA) is applied to the analysis of bone mineral concentration. The PA signal depends on optical as well as mechanical properties of the object and therefore has the potential to provide higher sensitivity to density variations compared with standard diagnostic methods, like ultrasound. A laser source with 800 nm wavelength and different ultrasonic transducers with resonance frequencies in the range 1 to 5 MHz were employed. The CW or frequency-domain (FD) PA radar method was utilized with linear frequency modulation chirps to provide temporal gating control over the transmitted signal and higher sensitivity in the detected signal. The laser intensity was set below the safety standards for skin exposure. The preliminary studies showed adequate optical absorption by cortical bone to generate measurable PA signals and the transmission of laser light through this layer. Experiments are focused on detection and evaluation of PA signals from in-vitro animal cortical bones with and without a trabecular sublayer. The trabecular layer is then diluted by chemical etching and differences in the PA signals are discussed.

  9. The look AHEAD trial: bone loss at four-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized controlled...

  10. [Hip revision arthroplasty in massive bone loss of acetabulum with the use of reinforcement ring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Tomasz; Kmieć, Krzysztof; Pogonowicz, Ewa; Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Kozłowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of results after acetabular revision arthtoplasty with the use of reinforcement ring ReconShell (BBrown - Aesculap) and homogenous bone grafts. There were 49 patients in the study (42 women and 7 men) in the age from 30 to 88 years. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 48 months. Before operation the mean Harris hip score was 31.14 and at last follow-up 71.64 points. Aseptic loosening of reconstruction ring was found in 3 patients. During next revision good integration of bone grafts, that were implanted into acetabulum at previous operation was found. In one hip revision of loose polietylen cup was performed. Three patient had early dislocation of hip endoprothesis, that were treated successfully in abduction casts. Next 2 patients had re-revision performed for recurrent dislocations. One patient had implants removal for septic loosening. Prolonged wound healing was noticed in 5 patients. Two patients had temporary and one permanent common peroneal nerve palsy. Two patients had temporary femoral nerve palsy. The use of reconstruction rings in massive bone loss of the acetabulum after cup loosening gives satisfactory clinical results. After the procedure patients have stabile joint that allows for weight bearing. Despite relatively high number of complications (most of which are temporary) this procedure is worth recommending.

  11. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  12. Pycnogenol(®) treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol(®) on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol(®) by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol(®) (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention.

  13. [Bone loss treatment, pseudoarthrosis, arthrodesis and benign tumors using xenoimplant: clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Del Castillo, José Fernando; Valdés-Gutiérrez, Gustavo Adolfo; Elizondo-Vázquez, Francisco; Pérez-Ortiz, Omar; Piña Barba, María Cristina; León-Mancilla, Benjamín Herminio

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss as a result of arthrodesis, pseudarthrosis, benign tumors and bone defects was treated using a xenoimplant (Nukbone). The effectiveness of the material was evaluated through a longitudinal and observational study at the Hospital Regional "General Ignacio Zaragoza" (HRGIZ) ISSSTE. The Mexican xenoimplant is a patent of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Fifty two patients were considered regardless of age or gender. Of these patients, 28 were male and 24 female. Average age of the patients was 47.7 years (9-84 years). Twenty eight patients had arthrodesis, 16 were treated with pseudarthrosis, three patients had benign tumors and five patients presented bone defects, which were implanted with Nukbone at the site and was the correct treatment for the problem. The xenoimplant is fully integrated during a period of 3-18 months, depending on the size of the pathology and the region where it was placed. Fracture healing was evaluated radiographically according to the classification of Montoya. No patient had clinical signs of rejection. In Mexico, bony xenoimplants (osseous) have been used, all of foreign origin due to the high degree of technological dependence in this country. In this study we describe the use, for the first time, of a Mexican xenoimplant with a patent from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The Mexican xenoimplant is biocompatible and can be adapted to treat pathologies where bony (osseous) material is needed.

  14. Increased periodontal bone loss in temporarily B lymphocyte-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Fiehn, N E

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T-lym......-lymphocyte deficiency did not interfere with the development of periodontal disease in this model, whereas a temporary and moderate reduction in B-lymphocyte numbers seemed to predispose for aggravation of periodontal bone loss.......In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T...... had significantly less periodontal bone support than controls. Anti-mu treated inoculated rats had significantly less periodontal bone support than nude and normal rats, whereas no difference was found between normal, nude, and thymus-grafted rats. It is concluded that permanent T...

  15. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  16. Low doses of estradiol in combination with gestodene to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, N H; Byrjalsen, I; Hassager, C; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    2000-09-01

    Our purpose was to study combinations of estradiol and gestodene for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. We randomly assigned 278 healthy, early postmenopausal women to receive either 2 mg 17beta-estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 2/25s), 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg gestodene (group 2/50s), 1 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 1/25s), 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 25 mg gestodene (group 1/25c), or placebo. After 3 years the changes in bone mineral density of the spine were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, 7. 41% +/- 0.72%; group 2/50s, 8.53% +/- 0.90%; group 1.25s, 6.67% +/- 0.88%; group 1/25c, 4.44% +/- 0.59%; and placebo group, -2.03% +/- 0. 64%. The changes in bone mineral density were mirrored in the biochemical bone markers. The average responses for the urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen corrected for creatinine excretion were as follows (mean of baseline +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -68.8% +/- 0.03%; group 2/50s, -72.8% +/- 0.02%; group 1/25s, -60.7% +/- 0.03%; group 1/25c, -52.28% +/- 0.04%; and placebo group, 6.5% +/- 0.09%. Beneficial lipid effects were found in all active groups. The decreases in low-density lipoprotein were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -13.7% +/- 3.0%; group 2/50s, -14.6% +/- 3.2%; group 1/25s, -9.28% +/- 2.2%; group 1/25c, -9.92% +/- 2.4%; and placebo group, 1.53% +/- 1.9%. These results demonstrate that estradiol therapy with 1 mg estradiol is fully protective against early postmenopausal bone loss.

  17. Aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes rapid loss of diversity in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley; Gupta, Shashank; Guo, Haidan; Fraser, Claire; Bishai, William

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important human pathogen, and yet diagnosis remains challenging. Little research has focused on the impact of M. tuberculosis on the gut microbiota, despite the significant immunological and homeostatic functions of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the effect of M. tuberculosis infection on the gut microbiota, we followed mice from M. tuberculosis aerosol infection until death, using 16S rRNA sequencing. We saw a rapid change in the gut microbiota in response to infection, with all mice showing a loss and then recovery of microbial community diversity, and found that pre-infection samples clustered separately from post-infection samples, using ecological beta-diversity measures. The effect on the fecal microbiota was observed as rapidly as six days following lung infection. Analysis of additional mice infected by a different M. tuberculosis strain corroborated these results, together demonstrating that the mouse gut microbiota significantly changes with M. tuberculosis infection.

  18. PTH1-34 Alleviates Radiotherapy-induced Local Bone Loss by Improving Osteoblast and Osteocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Tribble, Mary Beth; Zhu, Ji; Altman, Allison R.; Tseng, Weiju; Zhang, Yejia; Akintoye, Sunday O.; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Cancer radiotherapy is often complicated by a spectrum of changes in the neighboring bone from mild osteopenia to osteoradionecrosis. We previously reported that parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1–34), an anabolic agent for osteoporosis, reversed bone structural deterioration caused by multiple microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans in adolescent rats. To simulate clinical radiotherapy for cancer patients and to search for remedies, we focally irradiated the tibial metaphyseal region of adult rats with a newly available small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) and treated these rats with intermittent injections of PTH1–34. Using a unique 3D image registration method that we recently developed, we traced the local changes of the same trabecular bone before and after treatments, and observed that, while radiation caused a loss of small trabecular elements leading to significant decreases in bone mass and strength, PTH1–34 preserved all trabecular elements in irradiated bone with remarkable increases in bone mass and strength. Histomorphometry demonstrated that SARRP radiation severely reduced osteoblast number and activity, which were impressively reversed by PTH treatment. In contrast, suppressing bone resorption by alendronate failed to rescue radiation-induced bone loss and to block the rescue effect of PTH1–34. Furthermore, histological analyses revealed that PTH1–34 protected osteoblasts and osteocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis and attenuated radiation-induced bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, our data strongly support a robust radioprotective effect of PTH on trabecular bone integrity through preserving bone formation and shed light on further investigations of an anabolic therapy for radiation-induced bone damage. PMID:24998454

  19. Rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute loss of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Bariş; Calişkan, Mine; Tatli, Burak; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral

    2011-12-01

    A 10-year-old male presented with vision loss and behavioral changes. He had midpoint pupils with no reaction to light and normal funduscopic examination. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cortical lesions at parieto-occipital lobes. Elevated measles antibody titers in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite oral inosiplex and supportive care, patient developed generalized seizures with frequent myoclonic jerks and rapidly progressed into coma. Cortical blindness in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be an early indicator for fulminant course.

  20. Practical guidance for the management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, P; Body, J-J; Aapro, M S; Brufsky, A; Coleman, R E; Guise, T; Lipton, A; Tubiana-Hulin, M

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that women with breast cancer are at increased risk of fracture compared with their age-matched peers. Current treatment guidelines are inadequate for averting fractures in osteopenic women, especially those receiving aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Therefore, we sought to identify clinically relevant risk factors for fracture that can be used to assess overall fracture risk and to provide practical guidance for preventing and treating bone loss in women with breast cancer receiving AI therapy. Systematic review of pertinent information from published literature and meeting abstracts through December 2007 was carried out to identify factors contributing to fracture risk in women with breast cancer. An evidence-based medicine approach was used to select risk factors that can be used to determine when to initiate bisphosphonate treatment of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL). Fracture risk factors were chosen from large, well-designed, controlled, population-based trials in postmenopausal women. Evidence from multiple prospective clinical trials in women with breast cancer was used to validate AI therapy as a fracture risk factor. Overall, eight fracture risk factors were validated in women with breast cancer: AI therapy, T-score 65 years, low body mass index (BMI 6 months, and smoking. Treatment recommendations were derived from randomized clinical trials. The authors recommend the following for preventing and treating AIBL in women with breast cancer. All patients initiating AI therapy should receive calcium and vitamin D supplements. Any patient initiating or receiving AI therapy with a T-score >/=-2.0 and no additional risk factors should be monitored every 1-2 years for change in risk status and bone mineral density (BMD). Any patient initiating or receiving AI therapy with a T-score 65 years, low BMI (6 months, and smoking-should receive bisphosphonate therapy. BMD should be monitored every 2 years, and treatment should

  1. Severe Bone Loss induced by Orthodontic Elastic Separator: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progressed to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After 1 year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination, the patient had gingival inflammation, associated with a deep pocket and severe mobility (grade III in relation to the same teeth. Radiographic examination of an orthopantomogram and intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR revealed a chronic periodontal abscess with severe necrosis of the periodontal ligament and severe alveolar bone loss. A radiopaque mass on the distal surface below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ was also observed. The patient was referred to the department of periodontics for assessment and appropriate treatment. On curettage, it was found that there was orthodontic elastic separator which was displaced subgingivally.

  2. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D Alan; Proctor, Charles D; Richard, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in morbidly obese patients, with the reported prevalence ranging from 12-78%. There is increasing recognition of the need to diagnose and treat/manage OSA both preoperatively and postoperatively. Nasal CPAP is the preferred treatment of OSA; however, weight loss is associated with a reduction in required pressures. We evaluated the CPAP pressure requirements in a group of patients undergoing rapid weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 15 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA before surgery were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had demonstrated compliance on home CPAP therapy, were minimally 3 months post-surgery and had follow-up reports that their CPAP was less effective. We obtained data on age, sex, weight, BMI, and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Optimal CPAP pressure was obtained initially through attended in-laboratory complex polysomnography. Follow-up CPAP pressure was obtained using an auto-titrating PAP device at home. These data were used to evaluate the pressure changes that accompanied weight loss. This group of patients had lost an average of 44.5 +/- 19.4 kg. Four patients had achieved their goal weight. Their starting CPAP pressures averaged 11 +/- 3.0 cm H2O, with a range of 7-18 cm H2O. Follow-up CPAP pressures averaged 9 +/- 2.7 cm H2O, with a range of 4-12 cm H2O, representing an overall reduction of 18%. The subgroup of patients who had achieved goal weight had a pressure reduction of 22% (9 +/- 2.0 to 7 +/- 1.0 cm H2O). CPAP pressure requirements change considerably in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Auto-titrating PAP devices have promise for facilitating the management of CPAP therapy during this time. Consideration should also be given to the use of autotitrating PAP units as the treatment of choice in these patients.

  3. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on  Methotrexate Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice M C; Shandala, Tetyana; Soo, Pei Pei; Su, Yu-Wen; King, Tristan J; Chen, Ke-Ming; Howe, Peter R; Xian, Cory J

    2017-03-09

    Intensive cancer chemotherapy is known to cause bone defects, which currently lack treatments. This study investigated the effects of polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in preventing bone defects in rats caused by methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite in childhood oncology. Young rats received five daily MTX injections at 0.75 mg/kg/day. RES was orally gavaged daily for seven days prior to, and during, five-day MTX administration. MTX reduced growth plate thickness, primary spongiosa height, trabecular bone volume, increased marrow adipocyte density, and increased mRNA expression of the osteogenic, adipogenic, and osteoclastogenic factors in the tibial bone. RES at 10 mg/kg was found not to affect bone health in normal rats, but to aggravate the bone damage in MTX-treated rats. However, RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg preserved the growth plate, primary spongiosa, bone volume, and lowered the adipocyte density. It maintained expression of genes involved in osteogenesis and decreased expression of adipogenic and osteoclastogenic factors. RES suppressed osteoclast formation ex vivo of bone marrow cells from the treated rats. These data suggest that MTX can enhance osteoclast and adipocyte formation and cause bone loss, and that RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg may potentially prevent these bone defects.

  4. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dried Plum Protects From Radiation-Induced Bone Loss by Attenuating Pro-Osteoclastic and Oxidative Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Future space explorations beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure plays a major role in progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Our long-term goals are to define the mechanisms and risk of bone loss in the spaceflight environment and to facilitate the development of effective countermeasures. We had previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation correlates with an acute increase in the expression of pro-osteoclastic and oxidative stress genes in bone during the early response to radiation followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. We then conducted systematic screening for potential countermeasures against bone loss where we tested the ability of various antioxidants to mitigate the radiation-induced increase in expression of these markers. For the screen, 16-week old C57Bl6J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable DHLA or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs radiation and one day later, marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Among the candidate countermeasures tested, DP was most effective in reducing the expression of genes associated with bone loss. Furthermore, analysis of skeletal structure by microcomputed tomography (microCT) revealed that DP also prevents the radiation-induced deterioration in skeletal microarchitecture as indicated by parameters such as percent bone volume (BVTV), trabecular spacing and trabecular number. We also found that DP has similar protective effects on skeletal structure in a follow-up study using 1 Gy of

  6. Alendronate as an Effective Treatment for Bone Loss and Vascular Calcification in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Okamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplant recipients develop secondary osteoporosis induced by immunosuppressive medication, with a high risk of fracture, and abdominal aortic calcification (AC is a known predictor of cardiovascular mortality. In this study of 12 stable kidney recipients, we estimated the preventive effect of bisphosphonate treatment on bone loss and progression of AC. We randomly divided the subjects into a treatment group with alendronate (group A: 5 subjects and a control group (group C: 7 subjects. Group A patients received 35 mg/week of alendronate over 24 months, while group C patients were not administered with any bisphosphonates. Two major endpoints were established: (1 the time-dependent change in bone mineral density (BMD estimated with DEXA and (2 progression of abdominal AC, calculated twice as an index (ACI using computed tomography data. Over the 2-year study period, group A patients showed significantly increased BMD of 1.86 ± 0.85% (P=0.015 versus baseline, and almost complete inhibition of ACI progression (38.2 ± 24.2% to 39.6 ± 24.3%, but group C patients showed a decrease in BMD decline with bone loss and progression of ACI (32.8 ± 25.0% to 37.8 ± 29.2%, P=0.061. In conclusion, alendronate therapy was an effective treatment in kidney transplant recipients for secondary osteoporosis and vascular calcification as ectopic calcification. This clinical trial is registered with number JMA-IIA00155 of JMACCT CTR.

  7. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  8. Different rates of forearm bone loss in healthy women with early or late menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Zangari, M; Bottega, F; Peccolo, F; Galuppo, P; Nardi, A; Ziliotto, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether healthy women with early or late menopause have different rates of age- and menopause-related bone loss, and whether premature menopause really represents a risk factor for osteopenia. Healthy women aged from 27 to 84 years (n = 2204), with no history of fractures, were divided into two groups according to their age at menopause (AAM): group A with AAM or = 50 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the distal non-dominant forearm by single-photon absorptiometry. Group B had a significantly lower average BMD than group A (group A, 0.430 +/- 0.074 g/cm2; group B, 0.419 +/- 0.081; p = 0.003); however, the average age of group A was significantly lower, and weight and height were significantly higher. When women older than 50 years of age were divided into five age-matched subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in women with AAM < or = 43 years up to 60 years; after that age this difference disappeared and, in the oldest subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in group B than in group A. Independent variables such as age, AAM and body mass index (BMI) explain about 30% of the variation of BMD, using a multiple linear regression analysis. In both groups age and BMI weighted more than AAM in determining BMD. When BMD was plotted versus either chronological age or years since menopause, women with late menopause showed a significantly faster bone loss than those with early menopause.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Crestal bone loss around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D

    2016-05-01

    To my knowledge, there is no systematic review of crestal bone loss (CBL) around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The addressed focused question was, "Does crestal and subcrestal placement of dental implants influence crestal bone levels?" Databases were searched from 1986 through October 2015 using different combinations of the following keywords: crestal, sub-crestal, bone loss, dental implant, submerged, and nonsubmerged. Reference lists of potentially relevant original and review articles were hand-searched to identify any further studies. Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, studies on platform-switched implants, and studies published in languages other than English were excluded. In total, 13 studies (6 human and 7 animal), which were performed at universities, were included. In the human studies, the number of participants ranged from 8 to 84 individuals. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 5 years. CBL at the test sites ranged from 0.17 mm to 0.9 mm and at control sites from 0.02 mm to 1.4 mm. Five human studies reported no significant difference in CBL around implants placed at the test and control sites. All animal studies were performed in dogs with a mean age ranging from 1 to approximately 2 years. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 6 months. Four animal studies reported no significant difference in CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged implants. No significant difference in CBL was found around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed loss of hearing after hearing preservation cochlear implantation: Human temporal bone pathology and implications for etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Rosowski, John J; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J; Nadol, Joseph B

    2016-03-01

    After initially successful preservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation, some patients experience subsequent delayed hearing loss. The etiology of such delayed hearing loss is unknown. Human temporal bone pathology is critically important in investigating the etiology, and directing future efforts to maximize long term hearing preservation in cochlear implant patients. Here we present the temporal bone pathology from a patient implanted during life with an Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid S8 implant, with initially preserved residual hearing and subsequent hearing loss. Both temporal bones were removed for histologic processing and evaluated. Complete clinical and audiologic records were available. He had bilateral symmetric high frequency severe to profound hearing loss prior to implantation. Since he was implanted unilaterally, the unimplanted ear was presumed to be representative of the pre-implantation pathology related to his hearing loss. The implanted and contralateral unimplanted temporal bones both showed complete degeneration of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the basal half of the cochleae, and only mild patchy loss of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the apical half. The total spiral ganglion neuron counts were similar in both ears: 15,138 (56% of normal for age) in the unimplanted right ear and 13,722 (51% of normal for age) in the implanted left ear. In the basal turn of the implanted left cochlea, loose fibrous tissue and new bone formation filled the scala tympani, and part of the scala vestibuli. Delayed loss of initially preserved hearing after cochlear implantation was not explained by additional post-implantation degeneration of hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons in this patient. Decreased compliance at the round window and increased damping in the scala tympani due to intracochlear fibrosis and new bone formation might explain part of the post-implantation hearing loss. Reduction of the inflammatory and immune response to

  11. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuehua, E-mail: yuesjtu@126.com; Zheng, Xinfeng, E-mail: zxf272@126.com; Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@126.com; Jiang, Shengdan, E-mail: jiangsd@126.com; Jiang, Leisheng, E-mail: leisheng_jiang@126.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss.

  12. Effects of functional electrical stimulation cycling exercise on bone mineral density loss in the early stages of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chan, Wing P; Peng, Chih-Wei; Shen, Li-Kuo; Chen, Jia-Jin J; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether bone mineral density loss after spinal cord injury can be attenuated by an early intervention with functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises (FESCE) and to ascertain whether the effect persists after FESCE is discontinued. A prospective study. Twenty-four individuals with spinal cord injury, 26-52 days after spinal cord injury, were divided into FESCE or control groups. FESCE was applied in the initial 3 months and then suspended in the subsequent 3 months. Bone mineral density in the femoral neck and distal femur was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before training, immediately after the initial 3 months of training, and at the end of the subsequent 3 months. The bone mineral density decrease rate in the distal femur in the FESCE group was significantly less than that in the control group during the initial 3 months. However, there was no significant difference in the subsequent 3 months. FESCE in the early stages of spinal cord injury can partly attenuate bone mineral density loss in the distal femur. However, bone mineral density loss in the distal femur cannot be ameliorated completely by FESCE. In addition, the effect on the attenuation of bone loss in the distal femur faded once FESCE was discontinued.

  13. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, B Alper; Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    Purpose . To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods . The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD) at 3 years of follow-up. Results . Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group). The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm) than in the M group (1.38 mm) at 3 years ( p bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  14. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group. The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm than in the M group (1.38 mm at 3 years (p<0.01. A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  15. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  16. Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses and time of deboning on weight loss and technological quality of pork semimembranosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, Vladimir M; Petrović, Ljiljana S; Džinić, Natalija R

    2008-12-01

    The effect of rapid air chilling of carcasses in the first 3 h of chilling at -31°C (then at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) and the possibility of earlier deboning (8 h post-mortem) after rapid air chilling, compared to conventional air chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24 h post-mortem) on weight loss and technological quality (pH value, tenderness, drip loss, cooking loss and colour - L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values) of pork M. semimembranosus was investigated. Under the rapid chilling conditions, weight loss was 0.8% at 8 h post-mortem and increased to 1.4% at 24 h post-mortem when weight loss was 2.0% under conventional chilling. Carcasses that were rapid chilled had significantly lower (Pchill treatment (32.7, 24.2, 19.1 and 5.1°C, respectively). Rapid chilling reduced significantly (Pchill treatment (5.88). Compared to conventional chilling, in M. semimembranosus deboned in different time post-mortem, rapid chilling had a positive significant effect on drip loss (Pchilling i.e. rapid chilling and earlier deboning had neither positive nor negative significant effects (P>0.05) on other investigated technological quality parameters of M. semimembranosus (tenderness, a(∗) value and b(∗) value) compared to conventional chilling.

  17. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  18. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    . There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p bone density or loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family......Interleukin (IL)-1 is a potent inducer of bone resorption, and an increased secretion of the IL-1 agonists IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta relative to the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) has been proposed as a mechanism leading to post-menopausal osteoporosis. T-lymphocytes are capable of secreting bone...

  19. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  20. Overexpression of Dentin matrix protein 1 in Nestin+cells causes bone loss in mouse long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Weng, Yuteng; Sun, Yao

    2017-08-19

    The well-known matrix protein Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is expressed by osteoblasts and osteocytes in bone, and it controls bone mineralization. Recently, it has been found that DMP1 is also expressed in other cell types, such as chondrocytes. Nestin + cells are one important type of progenitor cell in bone marrow and are associated with bone remodeling. In our preliminary experiment, DMP1 could also be detected in Nestin + cells in bone marrow. This study was designed to explore the effect on bone of DMP1 in Nestin + cells. A transgenic mouse model with DMP1 expression driven by the Nestin promoter was generated. In vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that overexpression of DMP1 in Nestin + cells could limit the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs, subsequently leading to decreased bone mass. Lower expression of bone matrix protein and a lower bone deposition rate were also observed. Meanwhile, overexpression of DMP1 in Nestin + cells had no influence on osteoclast activity. These data indicate that DMP1 plays negative roles in differentiation of Nestin + cells and bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone Turnover Markers After Sleep Restriction and Circadian Disruption: A Mechanism for Sleep-Related Bone Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine M; Shea, Steven A; Wolfe, Pamela; Cain, Sean W; Munch, Mirjam; Vujovic, Nina; Czeisler, Charles A; Buxton, Orfeu M; Orwoll, Eric S

    2017-10-01

    Sleep abnormalities are associated with low bone mineral density. Underlying mechanisms are unknown. Investigate the impact of sleep restriction with circadian disruption on bone biomarkers. Intervention study. Four bone biomarkers [C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) = bone resorption, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) = bone formation, sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor 23 = osteocyte function] were measured in bihourly serum samples over 24 hours at baseline and after ∼3 weeks of sleep restriction (5.6 hours sleep/24 hours) with concurrent circadian disruption (recurring 28-hour "day" in dim light) in 10 men (age groups: 20 to 27 years, n = 6; 55 to 65 years, n = 4). The effects of sleep/circadian disruption and age on bone biomarker levels were evaluated using maximum likelihood estimation in a mixed model for repeated measures. P1NP levels were lower after intervention compared with baseline (P sleep restriction can lead to an uncoupling of bone turnover wherein bone formation is decreased but bone resorption is unchanged. Circadian disruption and sleep restriction may be most detrimental to bone in early adulthood.

  2. Loss of bone strength in response to exercise-induced weight loss in obese postmenopausal women: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, K L; Gozansky, W S; Sherk, V D; Swibas, T A; Wolfe, P; Scherzinger, A; Stamm, E; Kohrt, W M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise-induced weight loss (WL) can lead to decreased areal bone mineral density (aBMD). It is unknown whether this translates into decreased volumetric BMD (vBMD) or bone strength. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether exercise-induced WL results in decreased vBMD and bone strength in postmenopausal women. Fourteen subjects participated in a 4-month endurance exercise WL intervention. A weight stable (WS) control group (n=10) was followed for 4 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured by DXA. Femoral neck vBMD and estimates of bone strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (SM)) were measured by quantitative CT. Women were 54.6±2.4 years, BMI 32.1±5.9 kg/m(2) and 54.4±2.9 years, BMI 27.9±3.6 kg/m(2) in the WL and WS groups, respectively. The WL group lost 3.0±2.6 kg which was predominately fat mass. There was a significant decrease in SMmax. Changes in CSMImax and total hip aBMD were not significant. Total hip vBMD did not decrease significantly in response to WL. There were no significant changes in the WS group. WL may lead to decreased bone strength before changes in BMD are detected. Further studies are needed to determine whether bone-targeted exercise can preserve bone strength during WL.

  3. Does Diet-Induced Weight Loss Lead to Bone Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Shapses, Sue A; Nguyen, Tuan V; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Diet-induced weight loss has been suggested to be harmful to bone health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (using a random-effects model) to quantify the effect of diet-induced weight loss on bone. We included 41 publications involving overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults who followed a dietary weight-loss intervention. The primary outcomes examined were changes from baseline in total hip, lumbar spine, and total body bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes were markers of bone turnover. Diet-induced weight loss was associated with significant decreases of 0.010 to 0.015 g/cm(2) in total hip BMD for interventions of 6, 12, or 24 (but not 3) months' duration (95% confidence intervals [CIs], -0.014 to -0.005, -0.021 to -0.008, and -0.024 to -0.000 g/cm(2), at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively). There was, however, no statistically significant effect of diet-induced weight loss on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD for interventions of 3 to 24 months' duration, except for a significant decrease in total body BMD (-0.011 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.018 to -0.003 g/cm(2)) after 6 months. Although no statistically significant changes occurred in serum concentrations of N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), interventions of 2 or 3 months in duration (but not of 6, 12, or 24 months' duration) induced significant increases in serum concentrations of osteocalcin (0.26 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.39 nmol/L), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (4.72 nmol/L; 95% CI, 2.12 to 7.30 nmol/L) or N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) (3.70 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.90 to 6.50 nmol/L bone collagen equivalents [BCEs]), indicating an early effect of diet-induced weight loss to promote bone breakdown. These data show that in overweight and obese individuals, a single diet-induced weight-loss intervention induces a small decrease in total hip BMD, but not lumbar spine

  4. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  5. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    increases in bone mineral density. Alendronate did not increase bone mineral density of the forearm, but it slowed the loss. The responses to estrogen-progestin were 1 to 2 percentage points greater than those to the 5-mg dose of alendronate. Alendronate was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar...... to that of placebo or estrogen-progestin. CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age to nearly the same extent as estrogen-progestin.......BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  6. The effects in humans of rapid loss of body mass on a boxing-related task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Harrison, J H; McManus, P

    2000-09-01

    The physiological effects of strategies for a rapid loss of body mass immediately before weighing-in for competition in weight-governed sports are unclear. This study examined the effects of a 3%-4% loss in body mass on a boxing-related task. Seven novice amateur boxers completed three 3 min rounds of simulated boxing on a prototype boxing ergometer in an euhydrated state (E-trial) and after exercise-induced thermal dehydration (D-trial). All subjects lost body mass following dehydration-mean body mass fell 3.8 (SD +/- 0.3)% [77.3 (SD +/- 11.3) to 74.4 (SD +/- 10.7) kg, PPV) were inconsistent. Four subjects suffered reductions in PV between 15% and 30%, one subject maintained his E-trial value and two recorded an increase. The D-trial mean PV value was 8.0 (SD +/- 17.2)% lower but this fall was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Analysis of D-trial boxing performance showed one subject maintained his performance over the two trials and a second improved 17.8%. A two-way ANOVA (condition x time) with repeated measures on both factors showed no significant main effect differences for condition (F1,6 = 3.93 P>0.05), time (F1.83,48 = 1.12, P>0.05) or interaction between them (F1.93,48, P>0.05). Furthermore, neither heart rate nor blood lactate responses in the boxing task differed between trials. These data were affected by the small sample. Power and effect size analysis using eta(2) procedure and removing the outlier data produced a mean fall in boxing performance of 26.8%. However, some subjects appeared able to resist the deleterious effects of a rapid loss of body mass prior to competition and further research is needed to explain the mechanisms under-pinning this ability.

  7. Metastasis to Bone in Human Cancer Is Associated with Loss of Occludin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tracey A; Jordan, Nicola; Davies, Eleri L; Jiang, Wen G

    2016-03-01

    Occludin is an integral membrane protein localised at tight junctions (TJ). There is no consensus regarding its paramount role in TJ. In previous work we showed that occludin is aberrantly expressed in both human breast tissues and cancer cell lines. This study demonstrates a link to bone metastasis in human cancer. Primary breast tumours (n=124) and matched normal tissues (n=30) were processed for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis. A hammerhead ribozyme was constructed to create occludin knockdown cell lines, MDA-MB-231(ΔOcc) and PC-3(ΔOcc). The effect of human bone matrix extract (BME) was investigated using cell growth and electric cell impedance sensing (ECIS) technology to measure changes in attachment/migration. Trans-epithelial resistance (TER) was measured for assessing changes in TJ function. Cells used were MDA-MB-231, PC-3, CORL-23, SKMES-1 and A-549 human cancer cell lines. Tumours from patients with bone metastasis had significantly lower occludin expression compared to those remaining alive/well (60.7±21 vs. 331±98, respectively, p=0.008). This was striking in ductal carcinomas, where patients alive/well had significantly higher occludin expression compared to those with bone metastasis (391±12.5 vs. 67.9±28, respectively, p=0.0014). ECIS demonstrated that MDA-MB-231(ΔOcc) showed reduced attachment to 5% BME compared to controls (84% vs. 100%) that prevented closure of wounded cell layers. Moreover, these cells had reduced growth on BME. In addition, BME changed the TER of a number of human cell lines and was able to effect changes in the growth of MDA-MB-241 and PC-3 cells, with greater effect on knockdown cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that occludin expression has a clear relationship with bone metastasis in human cancer. The discrepancy between this and the in vitro data indicating a reduction in migration/growth rate of occludin knockdown indicates that loss of occludin leads to complex changes in human

  8. Kinematic Analysis of the Effect of Rapid Weight Loss by Sauna on Elite Wrestlers’ Single Leg Takedown Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Moghaddami; ZinnurGerek; Ali Karimiasl; HabibNozohouri

    2015-01-01

    Rapid weight loss and weight cutting are two widely used methods to reach competition weight; Sauna and dehydration as well as sweating through physical activity are very common. Many athletes with specific weight classifications such as wrestling, judo, and weight lifting want to participate in competitions 6-8 % below their normal weight. The aim of this study was to present an example of the quantitative contribution of modern sport biomechanics. The results showed that rapid weight loss c...

  9. Lactobacillus fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of Hwangryun-haedok-tang in an ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Kwang Jin; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Han Sung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-05-16

    Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory-related diseases in Asia. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of HRT and its fermented product (fHRT) on the receptor activator for the nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and postmenopausal bone loss using an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was employed to evaluate osteoclast formation. mRNA level of transcription factor and protein levels of signaling molecules were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Effect of HRT or fHRT on OVX-induced bone loss was evaluated using OVX rats orally administered HRT, or fHRT with 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Micro-CT analysis of femora was performed to analyze bone parameter. HRT or fHRT treatment significantly decreased TRAP activity and the number of TRAP positive multinuclear cells on osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, these inhibitory effects of HRT were enhanced by fermentation. Furthermore, fHRT significantly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, which leads to down-regulation of NFATc1-regulated mRNA expressions such as TRAP, the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(0) domain, and cathepsin K. Administration of fHRT significantly inhibited the decrease of bone mineral density, and improved bone parameter of femora more than that of HRT and vehicle in OVX rats. This study demonstrated that lactic bacterial fermentation fortifies the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial potential on osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  10. Prolactin expression in the cochlea of aged BALB/c mice is gender biased and correlates to loss of bone mineral density and hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Marano

    Full Text Available Prolactin is a versatile hormone with over 300 known functions and predominantly expressed in the pituitary. However, its expression has additionally been found in a number of extrapituitary organs. Recently, we described the expression of prolactin in the inner ear of mice, where it was correlated to age. Previous research has shown prolactin to be linked to abnormal bone metabolism and hearing loss due to changes in morphology of the bony otic capsule. Here we further investigated the relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism. BALB/c mice were tested for hearing using ABR at 6 and 12 months of age. Bone mineral density of the cochlea was evaluated using microCT scanning. Prolactin expression was calculated using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of the key regulators of bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand were also determined. We found that prolactin expression was exclusive to the female mice. This also correlated to a greater threshold shift in hearing for the females between 6 and 12 months of age. Analyses of the cochlea also show that the bone mineral density was lower in females compared to males. However, no gender differences in expression of osteoprotegerin or receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand could be found. Further analysis of cochlea histological sections revealed larger ostocyte lacunae in the females. These results provide a possible mechanism for an age related hearing loss sub-type that is associated with gender and provides clues as to how this gender bias in hearing loss develops. In addition, it has the potential to lead to treatment for this specific type of hearing loss.

  11. Self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, H; Reader, R; Murphy, S; Khaw, K T

    1995-05-01

    It has been reported that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have a higher than expected number of dentures and fewer teeth than women without osteoporosis. The relationship between self-reported tooth loss and bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine in 608 men and 874 women, aged 65-76 years, was examined in a cross-sectional study. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-four per cent of men and 27% of women had no natural teeth. There was a consistent decrease in BMD with increasing numbers of teeth lost in men. This relationship was independent of age, body mass index and smoking habit (trochanter r = -0.14, p < 0.0005; Ward's triangle r = -0.1, p < 0.005; and lumbar spine r = -0.07, p < 0.05) with between 5% and 9% difference in mean BMD at various sites between men who had all their teeth and men who had no teeth. There was no significant association between self-reported tooth loss and BMD in women. Tooth loss is associated with lower BMD in men; this relationship is less consistent in women.

  12. Cytokines and Bone Loss in a 5-Year Longitudinal Study—Hormone Replacement Therapy Suppresses Serum Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor and Increases Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Bonnevie-Nielsen, V.; Ebbesen, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 may play a central role in the acceleration of postmenopausal bone loss, but observational studies have led to contradictory results. Estrogen-dependent changes in the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra...... observed in the control group. IL-1ra was inversely correlated with bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.29; p bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.26; p ....05). High IL-6 levels were associated with slower bone loss (spine r = 0.31, p bone loss at the femoral neck (r = -0.29; p bone loss in the spine (r = -0...

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with post-menopausal bone loss and vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Jørgensen, Niklas; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Skarratt, Kristen K

    2012-01-01

    fracture incidence was documented at 10 years. We found that the rate of bone loss was clearly associated with the Arg307Gln amino acid substitution such that individuals heterozygous for this polymorphism had a 40% increased rate of bone loss. Furthermore, individuals carrying the Ile568Asn variant allele...... had increased bone loss. In contrast, the Gln460Arg polymorphism was associated with protection against bone loss. The Ala348Thr polymorphism was associated with a lower vertebral fracture incidence 10 years after menopause. Finally, we developed a risk model, which integrated P2RX7 genotypes. Using...... this model, we found a clear association between the low-risk (high-P2X7 function) alleles and low rate of bone loss. Conversely, high-risk (reduced P2X7 function) alleles were associated with a high rate of bone loss. In conclusion, an association was demonstrated between variants that reduce P2X7 receptor...

  14. [Secondary osteoporosis or secondary contributors to bone loss in fracture. Effects of oxidative stress on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Recent years, many reports showed that patients with diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerotic diseases and life style diseases have a higher fracture risk, and one of the reasons about it is an oxidative stress on bone metabolism. Oxidative stress, which is induced by life style diseases, aging and menopause, increases active oxygen production and fracture risk by affecting bone metabolism related cells and bone matrix proteins. Since there are few treatments against oxidative stress, so it is important to search further therapeutic agents. This report gives an outline of the effect of oxidative stress on bone metabolism in some conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerotic diseases, chronic kidney diseases and menopause.

  15. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Increased EPO Levels Are Associated With Bone Loss in Mice Lacking PHD2 in EPO-Producing Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Franke, Kristin; Murray, Marta; Singh, Rashim Pal; Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Platzbecker, Uwe; Gassmann, Max; Socolovsky, Merav; Neumann, Drorit; Gabet, Yankel; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Wielockx, Ben

    2016-10-01

    The main oxygen sensor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) is a critical regulator of tissue homeostasis during erythropoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, and wound healing. Recent studies point toward a role for the PHD2-erythropoietin (EPO) axis in the modulation of bone remodeling, even though the studies produced conflicting results. Here, we used a number of mouse strains deficient of PHD2 in different cell types to address the role of PHD2 and its downstream targets HIF-1α and HIF-2α in bone remodeling. Mice deficient for PHD2 in several cell lineages, including EPO-producing cells, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic cells (CD68:cre-PHD2 f/f ) displayed a severe reduction of bone density at the distal femur as well as the vertebral body due to impaired bone formation but not bone resorption. Importantly, using osteoblast-specific (Osx:cre-PHD2 f/f ) and osteoclast-specific PHD2 knock-out mice (Vav:cre- PHD2 f/f ), we show that this effect is independent of the loss of PHD2 in osteoblast and osteoclasts. Using different in vivo and in vitro approaches, we show here that this bone phenotype, including the suppression of bone formation, is directly linked to the stabilization of the α-subunit of HIF-2, and possibly to the subsequent moderate induction of serum EPO, which directly influenced the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast progenitors resulting in lower bone density. Taken together, our data identify the PHD2:HIF-2α:EPO axis as a so far unknown regulator of osteohematology by controlling bone homeostasis. Further, these data suggest that patients treated with PHD inhibitors or EPO should be monitored with respect to their bone status. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Radiographic Evaluation of Crestal Bone Loss Around Dental Implants in Maxilla and Mandible: One Year Prospective Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajanović, Muhamed; Hamzić, Adis; Redžepagić, Sead; Kamber-Ćesir, Alma; Tosum, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze the amount of maxillary and mandibular crestal bone loss around Bredent Sky Blue type of implants of different dimensions one year after implantation. Materials and Methods 36 implants of diameter 3.5 x 10 mm were inserted in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible. 52 implants of diameter 4.0 x 8 mm were inserted in the maxilla, and 61 in the mandible (two-stage implant surgery). Results No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side of the maxilla and between the right and left side of the mandible at the implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla and anterior mandible and posterior mandible at implant sites regarding distal and mesial bone losses as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA). PMID:27688395

  18. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High fat diet attenuates hyperglycemia, body composition changes, and bone loss in male streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Adriana Lelis; DeMambro, Victoria E; Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Motyl, Katherine J

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing and alarming prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type I diabetic patients (T1DM), particularly in adolescence. In general, low bone mass, higher fracture risk, and increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) are features of diabetic osteopathy in insulin-deficient subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with normal or high bone mass, a greater risk of peripheral fractures, and no change in MAT. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of weight gain on bone turnover in insulin-deficient mice. We evaluated the impact of a 6-week high-fat (HFD) rich in medium chain fatty acids or low-fat diet (LFD) on bone mass and MAT in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model using male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age. Dietary intervention was initiated after diabetes confirmation. At the endpoint, lower non-fasting glucose levels were observed in diabetic mice fed with high fat diet compared to diabetic mice fed the low fat diet (STZ-LFD). Compared to euglycemic controls, the STZ-LFD had marked polydipsia and polyphagia, as well as reduced lean mass, fat mass, and bone parameters. Interestingly, STZ-HFD mice had higher bone mass, namely less cortical bone loss and more trabecular bone than STZ-LFD. Thus, we found that a HFD, rich in medium chain fatty acids, protects against bone loss in a T1DM mouse model. Whether this may also translate to T1DM patients who are overweight or obese in respect to maintenance of bone mass remains to be determined through longitudinal studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. WIse-2005: Combined Aerobic and Resistive Exercise May Help Mitigate Bone Loss During 60-D Simulated Microgravity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Trappe, S. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise can attenuate bone loss associated with disuse during bed rest (BR), an analog of space flight. Previous studies have examined the efficacy of aerobic or resistive exercise countermeasures, but not in combination. We sought to determine the effect of a combined resistive and aerobic exercise regimen on bone metabolism during BR. After a 20-d ambulatory adaptation to confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-d head-down-tilt BR. Control subjects (CN, n=8) performed no countermeasures. Exercise subjects, (EX, n=8) participated in exercise alternating daily between supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and resistive fly-wheel exercise (6-d wk(sup -1)). In the last week of BR, bone resorption was greater (p less than 79 plus or minus 44%, mean plus or minus SD) and EX groups (64 50%). N-telopeptide also increased (CN: 51 plus or minus 34%; EX: 43 plus or minus 56%). However, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, tended to be higher in EX (26 plus or minus 18%) than in CN (8 plus or minus 33%) groups. The combination of resistive and aerobic exercise does not prevent bone resorption, but may promote formation, potentially mitigating the net bone loss associated with simulated microgravity. This study was supported by CNES, CSA, ESA, NASA, and NASA grant NNJ04HF71G to ARH. MEDES (French Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology) organized the study.

  1. Role of IL-17A signalling in psoriasis and associated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçkan, Özge; Wagner, Erwin F

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a physiological reaction to tissue injury, pathogen invasion and a natural response to various stress stimuli. Innate and adaptive immune cells are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation to suppress or promote inflammation. The recruitment and activation of immune cells is modulated by cytokines and chemokines, which are regulated by transcription factors, such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NF-kB, NFATs and STATs. Moreover, it is now appreciated that chronic inflammation can lead to systemic effects affecting the whole organism by mechanisms which are not well understood.Here we review our recent data obtained from the analyses of psoriasis patient samples as well as from AP-1 (Fos/Jun)-dependent, genetically engineered mouse models. The deletion of two AP-1 factors JunB and c-Jun in an inducible manner in adult mice, specifically in Keratin-5 expressing tissues, leads to a psoriasis-like disease. Importantly, the epidermal proteome of the mutant mice is comparable to psoriasis patient samples. Our analyses revealed that the activation of S100A8/A9-dependent C3 complement as well as a miR-21-dependent TIMP-3/TACE pathway leading to TNF-α shedding, are causally involved in disease development.Epidermal deletion of only JunB in mice leads to chronic skin inflammation with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and multi-organ involvement. Our recent findings show that chronic skin inflammation induces bone loss through systemic elevated IL-17A signalling. This novel mechanism involves inhibition of osteoblast-mediated bone formation by reduced Wnt signalling with no effect on RANKL-dependent osteoclastic bone resorption. These data have important translational implications; blocking of IL-17A signalling, which is already approved for the treatment of psoriasis, should also be considered to prevent the adverse skeletal consequences of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  2. Regional bone loss following femoral neck fracture: A comparison between cemented and cementless hemiarthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Dinko; Punda, Marija; Daraboš, Nikica; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav; Bakota, Bore; Matejčić, Aljoša

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomised study was to measure and evaluate regional bone mineral changes and clinical results following the use of cemented and cementless hemiarthroplasty (HA) for treatment of femoral neck fracture in elderly patients. The study comprised 60 patients, 30 with cemented HA (group A) and 30 with cementless HA (group B). All patients underwent osteodensitometry of the contralateral hip, lumbar spine and bilateral distal femur. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was scheduled at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used for functional assessment. Overall mortality rate was 20.3% within 1 year after surgery. There were no significant differences in morbidity, mortality and hospital stay between the two groups of patients. The implantation of cemented prosthesis took statistically significantly longer than that of cementless prosthesis (79.03±3.59 vs 68.02±5.97min; p=0.00). Functional score in patients treated with cemented HA was significantly higher compared with those with cementless HA. There was a trend of less intensive reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) in regions of interest of the lumbar spine and ipsilateral distal femur in patients with cemented HA (group A), whereas bone loss was less pronounced for the contralateral hip and distal femur in patients treated with cementless HA (group B). Management of displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with cemented and cementless HA provides a comparable outcome with regard to morbidity and mortality; however, functional outcome of patients treated with cementless HA tends to be lower. There is less intensive BMD reduction in lumbar spine and ipsilateral distal femur in patients treated with cemented HA, whereas BMD reduction in patients treated with cementless HA is more likely to be less intensive in contralateral hip and distal femur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Vu, B Q; Lai, T Q; Nguyen, N D; Nguyen, T V

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vegan diet on bone loss has not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between veganism and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The study was designed as a prospective longitudinal investigation with 210 women, including 105 vegans and 105 omnivores. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 2008 and 2010 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR4500). The incidence of vertebral fracture was ascertained by X-ray report. Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were measured by Roche Elecsys assays. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Among the 210 women who initially participated in the study in 2008, 181 women had completed the study and 29 women were lost to follow-up. The rate of loss in FN BMD was -1.91±3.45%/year in omnivores and -0.86±3.81%/year (P=0.08) in vegans. Lower body weight, higher intakes of animal protein and lipid, and corticosteroid use were associated with greater rate of bone loss. The 2-year incidence of fracture was 5.7% (n=5/88) in vegans, which was not significantly different from omnivores (5.4%, n=6/93). There were no significant differences in βCTX and PINP between vegans and omnivores. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in vegans was higher than in omnivores (73% versus 46%; P=0.0003). Vegan diet did not have adverse effect on bone loss and fracture. Corticosteroid use and high intakes of animal protein and animal lipid were negatively associated with bone loss.

  4. Comparison of peri-implant bone loss between conventional drilling with irrigation versus low-speed drilling without irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, H; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Aloy-Prosper, A; Sanchis-Gonzalez, J-C; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2017-11-01

    To compare the technique of high speed drilling with irrigation and low speed drilling without irrigation in order to evaluate the success rate and peri-implant bone loss at 12 months of follow-up. A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was carried out in patients requiring dental implants to rehabilitate their unitary edentulism. Patients were recruited from the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Valencia (Spain) between September 2014 and August 2015. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to two groups: group A (high-speed drilling with irrigation) and group B (low-speed drilling without irrigation). The success rate and peri-implant bone loss were recorded at 12 months of follow-up. Twenty-five patients (9 men and 16 women) with 30 implants were enrolled in the study: 15 implants in group A and 15 implants in group B. The mean bone loss of the implants in group A and group B was 0.83 ± 0.73 mm and 0.62 ± 0.70 mm, respectively (p> 0.05). In the maxilla, the bone loss was 1.04 ± 0.63 mm in group A and 0.71 ± 0.36 mm in group B (p> 0.05), while bone loss in the mandible was 0.59 ± 0.80 mm in group A and 0.69 ± 0.77 mm in group B (p> 0.05). The implant success rate at 12 months was 93.3% in group A and 100% in group B. Within the limitations of the study, the low-speed drilling technique presented peri-implant bone loss outcomes similar to those of the conventional drilling technique at 12 months of follow-up.

  5. Immediate loading of implants in the maxilla: survival and bone loss after at least 2 years in function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Stijn; Collaert, Bruno; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    To compare survival and peri-implant bone loss around immediately loaded surface-enhanced implants in the maxilla supporting single crowns (SCs), fixed partial dentures (FPDs), and fixed full-arch dentures (FFDs). The study included all subjects referred for implant treatment in the maxilla followed by immediate loading between November 2004 and 2007 with at least 2 years of follow-up. Smokers were excluded. Implant survival and bone loss were assessed by a calibrated external examiner who compared digital periapical radiographs taken during recall visits with baseline radiographs (day of loading = day after implant placement). An implant was considered successful when bone loss did not exceed 1 mm. Survival of implants supporting SCs, FPDs, and FFDs was compared using the log-rank test. A linear mixed-effect model analysis was used to evaluate bone loss because of clustering of implants in patients. Three hundred six implants were placed in 55 patients (31 women, 24 men; mean age, 57.5 ± 11.4 years; range, 19 to 77 years) and followed for a mean of 35 ± 10.2 months (range, 24 to 58 months). One implant failed, resulting in an overall survival rate of 99.7% on the implant level and 98.2% on the patient level. No statistically significant differences were observed in the survival rates for SCs (100%), FPDs (98%), and FFDs (100%). The overall mean bone loss was 0.27 ± 0.37 mm (range, 0.00 to 2.55 mm) and was not influenced by the prosthetic reconstruction. Immediate loading of fluoride-modified implants in the maxilla is a predictable and reliable treatment option with high survival rates and limited peri-implant bone loss after 2 years. No statistically significant differences were found between implants supporting SCs, FPDs, and FFDs.

  6. Rapid Diversity Loss of Competing Animal Species in Well-Connected Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schippers

    Full Text Available Population viability of a single species, when evaluated with metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools, always increases when the connectivity of the landscape increases. However, when interactions between species are taken into account, results can differ. We explore this issue using a stochastic spatially explicit meta-community model with 21 competing species in five different competitive settings: (1 weak, coexisting competition, (2 neutral competition, (3 strong, excluding competition, (4 hierarchical competition and (5 random species competition. The species compete in randomly generated landscapes with various fragmentation levels. With this model we study species loss over time. Simulation results show that overall diversity, the species richness in the entire landscape, decreases slowly in fragmented landscapes whereas in well-connected landscapes rapid species losses occur. These results are robust with respect to changing competitive settings, species parameters and spatial configurations. They indicate that optimal landscape configuration for species conservation differs between metapopulation approaches, modelling species separately and meta-community approaches allowing species interactions. The mechanism behind this is that species in well-connected landscapes rapidly outcompete each other. Species that become abundant, by chance or by their completive strength, send out large amounts of dispersers that colonize and take over other patches that are occupied by species that are less abundant. This mechanism causes rapid species loss. In fragmented landscapes the colonization rate is lower, and it is difficult for a new species to establish in an already occupied patch. So, here dominant species cannot easily take over patches occupied by other species and higher diversity is maintained for a longer time. These results suggest that fragmented landscapes have benefits for species conservation previously unrecognized by the

  7. Evolutionary medicine and bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases--A theory of inflammation-related osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pacifici, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bone loss is typical in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, and others. It is also typical in transplantation-related inflammation and during the process of aging. While we recognized that bone loss is tightly linked to immune system activation or inflamm-aging in the form of acute, chronic active, or chronic smoldering inflammation, bone loss is typically discussed to be an "accident of inflammation." Extensive literature search in PubMed central. Using elements of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation of homeostasis and immune function, we work out that bone waste is an adaptive, evolutionarily positively selected program that is absolutely necessary during acute inflammation. However, when acute inflammation enters a chronic state due to the inability to terminate inflammation (e.g., in autoimmunity or in continuous immunity against microbes), the acute program of bone loss is a misguided adaptive program. The article highlights the complexity of interwoven pathways of osteopenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin treatment induces loss of bone marrow adipocytes and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Mark W; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Choi, Yang-Ho; Pennington, Catherine; Hartzell, Diane; Baile, Clifton A

    2005-06-01

    Normal mice and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were treated with leptin to study effects on osteogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow. Leptin treatment significantly decreased bone marrow adipocyte size and number in ob/ob mice while increasing bone formation, BMC, and BMD. The results suggest that, in leptin-sensitive animals, the reduction in marrow adipocytes has positive effects on bone formation. Adipocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts have leptin receptors, and leptin can also affect bone metabolism indirectly through its receptors in the hypothalamus. We examined the effects of leptin treatment on bone formation, BMD, and marrow adipocyte population in normal mice and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. At the age of 15 weeks, mice were implanted with Alzet osmotic pumps for subcutaneous delivery of treatment solutions (saline, 2.5 microg leptin/day, or 10 microg leptin/day) for 14 days at a delivery rate of 0.25 microl/h. Bone formation was assessed using fluorochrome labels, cell populations were quantified using histomorphometry, and bone densitometry was measured using DXA. We also used a Luminex Beadlyte assay system to quantify cell survival markers in bone marrow samples. Results indicate that both doses of leptin decreased the number of marrow adipocytes in ob/ob mice by >20% (p adipocyte number with leptin treatment is accompanied by an increase in concentration of the apoptosis marker caspase-3 in bone marrow adipocytes and hematopoietic cells. Both leptin doses also significantly (p 30% compared with PBS-treated ob/ob mice. Leptin treatment increased whole body BMC by >30% in the ob/ob mice receiving the highest leptin dose. Leptin treatment provided no increase in bone formation, BMC, or BMD in normal, leptin-replete mice.

  9. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    Pediatrics, Pediatrics- Nutrition , Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA 5Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of...undergoing differentiation (Fig. 7A–F). DISCUSSION Heterotopic ossification is a disorder involving rapid bone formation within muscle, tendon , and

  10. Rapid Maxillary Expansion After Alveolar Bone Grafting With rhBMP-2 in UCLP Evaluated by Means of CBCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garib, D.; Miranda, F.; Sathler, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Aiello, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) after alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in complete unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) without damage to the grafted area. SETTING: Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC), University of Sao

  11. A potential kidney-bone axis involved in the rapid minute-to-minute regulation of plasma Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anders; Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the regulation of mineral homeostasis and function of the skeleton as buffer for Calcium and Phosphate has regained new interest with introduction of the syndrome "Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder"(CKD-MBD). The very rapid minute-to-minute regulation of p...

  12. Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism associated with progressive cortical bone loss – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R