WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid bactericidal activity

  1. [Antimicrobial and rapid bactericidal activities of sitafloxacin and other agents against Streptococcus pyogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Eiko; Okumura, Ryo; Chiba, Megumi; Hoshino, Kazuki; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin against Japanese clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes by broth microdilution susceptibility testing and time-kill studies to elucidate its eradication potential against S. pyogenes. One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of S. pyogenes isolated from pharynx were tested to sitafloxacin and seven other agents in the susceptibility testing. The time-kill studies were conducted with five strains, one of which was resistant to clarithromycin, one resistant to levofloxacin and one type strain of S. pyogenes. In the time-kill studies, sitafloxacin, garenoxacin, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were assessed at static concentrations of their respective peak concentrations in plasma (C(max)) when administered as oral single doses for adult patients with S. pyogenes infections. We found the rank order of antimicrobial activity against S. pyogenes isolates was: cefcapene (MIC90, 0.015 microg/mL) > amoxicillin (0.03 microg/mL) > sitafloxacin (0.12 microg/mL) > garenoxacin (0.25 microg/mL) > levofloxacin (4 microg/mL) > minocycline (16 microg/mL). Macrolide-resistant isolates accounted for 72 (60.5%), resulting in clarithromycin and azithromycin MIC90s of > 32 and > 128 microg/mL, respectively. Sitafloxacin exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity (> or = log reduction from the initial inoculum) within 2h against all tested strains, including even one levofloxacin-resistant strain. For garenoxacin, bactericidal activity was achieved between 2 and 6 h. Amoxicillin revealed no significant bactericidal activity up to 6 h. Clarithromycin showed no bactericidal activity and did not inhibit growth of a clarithromycin-resistant strain. These data indicate the potential usefulness of sitafloxacin for the treatment of S. pyogenes eradication.

  2. Two major medicinal honeys have different mechanisms of bactericidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus H S Kwakman

    Full Text Available Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H₂O₂ were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity.

  3. Bactericidal, Bacteriolytic, and Antibacterial Virulence Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the anti-Streptococcus pyogenes activity of the chloroform extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr. (Zingiberaceae) and investigate its possible antibacterial mechanisms of action. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were ...

  4. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Individuals of blood group O are likely to be more susceptible to infections caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A,B,C. INTRODUCTION. Human serum is considered an important host defence mechanism against invasive diseases caused by Gram- negative bacteria(1-3). The bactericidal and ...

  5. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, R; Vejar, C; Bello, H; Domínguez, M; González, G

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms of bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin (mechanisms A and B) upon cells of a strain of Escherichia coli and one strain of Acinetobacter baumannii were investigated under different conditions. The killing of E. coli cells by ciprofloxacin was significantly reduced by chloramphenicol, but this antibiotic showed almost no activity upon killing of A. baumannii cells by this quinolone. Similar results were obtained when rifampicin was added to ciprofloxacin. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon nondividing cells of E. coli was lower and that upon non-dividing cells of A. baumannii was not affected when compared with activity of ciprofloxacin upon dividing cells of both microorganisms. These results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin upon A. baumannii is independent of protein and ARN synthesis, a fact which suggests that this quinolone exerts only bactericidal mechanism B upon A. baumannii. This finding might explain, at least in part, the lower susceptibility of this microorganism to ciprofloxacin.

  6. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, P.H.S.; te Velde, A.A.; de Boer, L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil (R) source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey

  7. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Su, Haijia, E-mail: suhj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-02-15

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO{sub 2} is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO{sub 2}. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO{sub 2} and chitosan/TiO{sub 2} (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO{sub 2} composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  8. Bactericidal activity engineered on human pancreatic ribonuclease and onconase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Gerard; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleases belonging to the pancreatic-type family exhibit a variety of biological activities that make them potential candidates as chemotherapeutic agents. Among them are remarkable the selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells, exhibited by onconase, and the bactericidal activity presented by the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). In the past years, based on what is known about the cytotoxic mechanism of ribonucleases, a lot of work has been performed to switch non-naturally cytotoxic ribonucleases to potent toxins. Most of the efforts have been devoted to the production of ribonucleases endowed with selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells. In the present paper, however, we have used two nonbactericidal ribonucleases, onconase and the human pancreatic ribonuclease, as scaffolds onto which to engineer bactericidal activity. To this end, the main bactericidal determinant described for ECP (YRWR) has been introduced to these proteins either in an internal position or as an extension of the C-terminal end. The ribonucleolytic activity, thermostability, cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains have been determined for all the variants produced. The results show that we have endowed both ribonucleases with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, we show that this activity is, at least in part, dependent on the ribonucleolytic activity of the enzymes. Remarkably, we have developed a human pancreatic ribonuclease variant with de novo acquired selective antibacterial which is not cytotoxic to mammalian cells.

  9. Bactericidal activity of isothiocyanate against pathogens on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C M; Kim, J; Du, W X; Wei, C I

    2000-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of allyl and methyl isothiocyanate (AITC and MITC) was tested with a rifampicin-resistant strain of Salmonella Montevideo and streptomycin-resistant strains of Escherichia coil O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. Iceberg lettuce inoculated with high (10(7) to 10(8) CFU/g) and low (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) concentrations of bacterial pathogens was treated with AITC and MITC in sealed containers at 4 degrees C for 4 days. AITC showed stronger bactericidal activity than MITC against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Montevideo, whereas MITC showed stronger activity against L. monocytogenes than E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Montevideo. Up to 8-log reduction occurred with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Montevideo on lettuce following treatment with vapor generated from 400 microl of AITC for 2 and 4 days, respectively. AITC was used to treat tomatoes inoculated with Salmonella Montevideo on stem scars and skin and apples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 on stem scars. The bactericidal effect of AITC varied with bacteria species and exposure time. Salmonella Montevideo inoculated on tomato skin was more sensitive to AITC than that on stem scars. Treatment with vapor generated from 500 microl of AITC caused an 8-log reduction in bacteria on tomato skin but only a 5-log reduction on tomato stem scars. The bactericidal activity of AITC was weaker for E. coli O157:H7 on apple stem scars; only a 3-log reduction in bacteria occurred when 600 microl of AITC was used.

  10. Bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide ultraviolet-induced films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleskova, S.N., E-mail: pleskova@mail.ru [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tomsk State University, ave. Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Golubeva, I.S., E-mail: golubmay@mail.ru [Institute of applied biotechnology of Nizhny Novgorod, Yablonevaya Street 22, Nizhny Novgorod 603093 (Russian Federation); Verevkin, Y.K., E-mail: verevkin@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of applied physics of the Russian Academy of Science, Ul' yanov Street, 46, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-01

    TiO{sub 2} films are used as a self-sterilization surface due to their property to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) when irradiated with ultraviolet light. These ROS attack bacteria and kill them. We present a new way to enhance the bactericidal activity of TiO{sub 2}-films: formation of nanopores on the surface by four-beam high-power laser irradiation. Such surfaces have significantly higher antibacterial activity as compared to conventional TiO{sub 2} surfaces after 15 and 60 min of UV irradiation. Study of the bacterial cell morphology by atomic force microscopy after 60 min irradiation showed that Staphylococcus aureus 956 and Escherichia coli 321–5 undergo significant morphological changes. S. aureus assume atypical elongated shapes after UV treatment alone and swollen forms with protrusions after UV treatment on TiO{sub 2} surface. E. coli exhibit oval or round forms after UV treatment alone, and round forms with small protrusions, and destroyed cells after incubation under UV on the TiO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Nanopores on the TiO{sub 2} surface enhance the bactericidal activity of films. • The bactericidal effect of TiO{sub 2} is strain-specific. • The bacterial morphology significantly changes after UV/TiO{sub 2} treatment.

  11. Bactericidal, Bacteriolytic, and Antibacterial Virulence Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an edible medicinal plant and spice from the ginger family ... pathogens, can colonize the throat or skin and responsible for a wide variety of ..... Voravuthikunchai SP, Limsuwan S, Supapol O,. Subhadhirasakul S. Antibacterial activity of extracts from family Zingiberaceae against foodborne pathogens. J Food Saf 2006; 26: ...

  12. TLR signalling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A Phillip; Brodsky, Igor E; Rahner, Christoph; Woo, Dong Kyun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Walsh, Matthew C; Choi, Yongwon; Shadel, Gerald S; Ghosh, Sankar

    2011-04-28

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential components of the innate immune response against intracellular bacteria and it is thought that professional phagocytes generate ROS primarily via the phagosomal NADPH oxidase machinery. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) also contribute to mouse macrophage bactericidal activity, although the mechanisms linking innate immune signalling to mitochondria for mROS generation remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that engagement of a subset of Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4) results in the recruitment of mitochondria to macrophage phagosomes and augments mROS production. This response involves translocation of a TLR signalling adaptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), to mitochondria, where it engages the protein ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signalling intermediate in Toll pathways), which is implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly. Interaction with TRAF6 leads to ECSIT ubiquitination and enrichment at the mitochondrial periphery, resulting in increased mitochondrial and cellular ROS generation. ECSIT- and TRAF6-depleted macrophages have decreased levels of TLR-induced ROS and are significantly impaired in their ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Additionally, reducing macrophage mROS levels by expressing catalase in mitochondria results in defective bacterial killing, confirming the role of mROS in bactericidal activity. These results reveal a novel pathway linking innate immune signalling to mitochondria, implicate mROS as an important component of antibacterial responses and further establish mitochondria as hubs for innate immune signalling.

  13. TLR signaling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. Phillip; Brodsky, Igor E.; Rahner, Christoph; Woo, Dong Kyun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Walsh, Matthew C.; Choi, Yongwon; Shadel, Gerald S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential components of the innate immune response against intracellular bacteria, and it is thought that professional phagocytes generate ROS primarily via the phagosomal NADPH oxidase (Phox) machinery1. However, recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial ROS (mROS) also contribute to macrophage bactericidal activity, although the mechanisms linking innate immune signaling to mitochondria for mROS generation remain unclear2-4. Here we demonstrate that engagement of a subset of Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4) results in the recruitment of mitochondria to macrophage phagosomes and augments mROS production. This response involves translocation of the TLR signaling adapter tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to mitochondria where it engages evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT), a protein implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly5. Interaction with TRAF6 leads to ECSIT ubiquitination and enrichment at the mitochondrial periphery, resulting in increased mitochondrial and cellular ROS generation. ECSIT and TRAF6 depleted macrophages exhibit decreased levels of TLR-induced ROS and are significantly impaired in their ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Additionally, reducing macrophage mROS by expressing catalase in mitochondria results in defective bacterial killing, confirming the role of mROS in bactericidal activity. These results therefore reveal a novel pathway linking innate immune signaling to mitochondria, implicate mROS as important components of antibacterial responses, and further establish mitochondria as hubs for innate immune signaling. PMID:21525932

  14. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.m [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Nino-Martinez, N. [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P. [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 {mu}g/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  15. Bactericidal and Sporicidal Activity of a Quaternary Ammonium Resin-Triiodide Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Marion N.; Wicksell, Eva K.

    1972-01-01

    Tests to determine the potential use of a quaternary ammonium resin-triiodide complex as a sterilizing agent showed that it was an ineffective sporicide and that bactericidal activity was impaired by complex milieu. PMID:4670512

  16. Visible-Light-Activated Bactericidal Functions of Carbon "Quantum" Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Mohammed J; Dong, Xiuli; Zhu, Lu; Jones, Les P; LeCroy, Gregory E; Yang, Fan; Wang, Shengyuan; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Yiping; Yang, Liju; Tripp, Ralph A; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-04

    Carbon dots, generally defined as small carbon nanoparticles with various surface passivation schemes, have emerged as a new class of quantum-dot-like nanomaterials, with their optical properties and photocatalytic functions resembling those typically found in conventional nanoscale semiconductors. In this work, carbon dots were evaluated for their photoinduced bactericidal functions, with the results suggesting that the dots were highly effective in bacteria-killing with visible-light illumination. In fact, the inhibition effect could be observed even simply under ambient room lighting conditions. Mechanistic implications of the results are discussed and so are opportunities in the further development of carbon dots into a new class of effective visible/natural light-responsible bactericidal agents for a variety of bacteria control applications.

  17. Stabilizing the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide: a brand new function of certain Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-zhen; Tan, Ling-ling; Li, Qi-jie; Zhou, Bang-jing; Gao, Yong-xiang; Ding, Wei-jun

    2014-06-01

    To explore natural herbs to maintain the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide (H). Eighteen extracts of Chinese herbs were prepared complying with the standard protocol. Each of the solutions was then mixed with 1% H2O2. The mixtures were handled with two approaches: autoclaved daily for one, two or three times; stored at room temperature from one through five years. Then the bactericidal activity were evaluated by assaying the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC25923) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, ATCC12421) bacteria. While mixed with 1% H2O2, 10 out of 18 kinds of assessed Chinese herbs displayed MBC values at 1:12800 or higher after three times of autoclaving, and 8 of them preserved such level of MBC value after stored at room temperature for three years. Some Chinese herbs, i.e. R. Scutellariae, R. Coptidis, R. Bupleuri, H. Epimedii, C. Phelledendri and F. Chrysanthemi, can significantly maintain the bactericidal activity of diluted H2O2. Certain Chinese herbs can effectively stabilize the bactericidal activity of H2O2 undergoing autoclave or long-term storage. This paper reported a brandnew pharmaceutical function of Chinese herbs and provided experimental data for the potential enhancement of H2O2 usage while its stability level is promoted.

  18. Processing, characterization, and bactericidal activity of undoped and silver-doped vanadium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousley, M.E.; Wren, A.W.; Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States); Mellott, N.P., E-mail: mellott@alfred.edu [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Vanadium oxide (V) and silver-doped vanadium oxide (Ag-V) powders were prepared via sol-gel processing. Structural evolution and bactericidal activity was examined as a function of temperature ranging from 250, 350, 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C. Powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results from all techniques showed vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is the predominant phase regardless of heat treatment temperature or the addition of silver (Ag). XRD analysis suggests Ag is present as AgCl in samples heat treated to 250, 350, and 450 Degree-Sign C and as AgV{sub 6}O{sub 15} at 550 Degree-Sign C. Bactericidal activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method considering both Ag-V and undoped, V powders. While the addition of Ag significantly increased bactericidal properties, the specific Ag valency, or crystal structure and morphology formed at higher temperatures, had little effect on functionality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium and silver-doped vanadium oxide powders were prepared via sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powders were characterized using advanced, complementary structural techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bactericidal activity was evaluated against E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both vanadium and silver doped vanadium oxide show bactericidal activity.

  19. On-line determination of serum bactericidal activity using recombinant luminescent bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, D G; Polyakov, E G

    2006-08-01

    Intensity of luminescence quenching in recombinant strains of Escherichia coli with cloned lux-operones by human blood serum is directly proportional to the degree of bactericidal effect assessed by nephelometric and bacteriological methods. This correlation was most characteristic of E. coli with luminescence genes from Photobacterium leiognathi, which substantiates its use in the development of the kinetic bioluminescent method to determine of serum bactericidal activity. The possibility of using this method for evaluation of activity of classic and alternative pathways of compliment activation was demonstrated by using zymosan or EGTA-Mg(2+)-treated sera and C1-C5-deficient sera.

  20. BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY ( BaCTeRIA ) SUMMARY REPORT by Tobyn A. Branck Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer M. Rego and...October 2011 – September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY ( BaCTeRIA ) SUMMARY REPORT...ANTHRAX PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES BACTERIA BACTERIOCINS TARGETED ACTIVITY

  1. Anti-adherence and bactericidal activity of sphingolipids against Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukkemane, N.; Bikker, F.J.; Nazmi, K.; Brand, H.S.; Sotres, J.; Lindh, L.; Arnebrant, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), and sphinganine for: (i) anti-adherence activity on hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces; and (ii) bactericidal activity on different Streptococcus mutans phenotypes (i.e. planktonic cells and cells from a disrupted

  2. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Clementi

    Full Text Available HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize

  3. Characterization and Activity of an Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptide Containing Bactericidal PEG-Hydrogel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, Rik T. C.; Sjollema, Jelmer; Busscher, Henk J.; Kruijtzer, John A. W.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.

    A single step immobilization-polymerization strategy of a highly active antimicrobial peptide into a soft hydrogel network on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface using thiol-ene chemistry is described. The bactericidal hydrogel was molecularly characterized via Coomassie and Lowry assay protein

  4. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F.; Brandt, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    that production of OH˙may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (katA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates...

  5. Sequestration of nanoparticles by an EPS matrix reduces the particle-specific bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng; Mao, Xuewei; Hu, Xiaojie

    2016-02-09

    Most artificial nanomaterials are known to exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal activity; however, the defence mechanisms that bacteria use based on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to detoxify nanoparticles (NPs) are not well known. We ruled out the possibility of ion-specific bactericidal activity by showing the lack of equivalent dissolved zinc and silicon toxicity and determined the particle-specific toxicity of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles (ZnONPs/SiO2NPs) through dialysis isolation experiments. Surprisingly, the manipulation of the E. coli EPS (i.e., no EPS manipulation or EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation) showed that their particle-specific bactericidal activity could be antagonized by NP-EPS sequestration. The survival rates of pristine E. coli (no EPS manipulation) reached 65% (ZnONPs, 500 mg L(-1)) and 79% (SiO2NPs, 500 mg L(-1)), whereas survival rates following EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation were 11% and 63%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with fluorescence micro-titration analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that protein-like substances (N-H and C-N in amide II) and secondary carbonyl groups (C=O) in the carboxylic acids of EPS acted as important binding sites that were involved in NP sequestration. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced by bacteria have important implications for the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental effects of NPs.

  6. Sequestration of nanoparticles by an EPS matrix reduces the particle-specific bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng; Mao, Xuewei; Hu, Xiaojie

    2016-02-01

    Most artificial nanomaterials are known to exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal activity; however, the defence mechanisms that bacteria use based on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to detoxify nanoparticles (NPs) are not well known. We ruled out the possibility of ion-specific bactericidal activity by showing the lack of equivalent dissolved zinc and silicon toxicity and determined the particle-specific toxicity of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles (ZnONPs/SiO2NPs) through dialysis isolation experiments. Surprisingly, the manipulation of the E. coli EPS (i.e., no EPS manipulation or EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation) showed that their particle-specific bactericidal activity could be antagonized by NP-EPS sequestration. The survival rates of pristine E. coli (no EPS manipulation) reached 65% (ZnONPs, 500 mg L-1) and 79% (SiO2NPs, 500 mg L-1), whereas survival rates following EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation were 11% and 63%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with fluorescence micro-titration analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that protein-like substances (N-H and C-N in amide II) and secondary carbonyl groups (C=O) in the carboxylic acids of EPS acted as important binding sites that were involved in NP sequestration. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced by bacteria have important implications for the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental effects of NPs.

  7. Comparison of ex-vivo serum bactericidal activity of cefepime, ceftazidime and cloxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Asherov, J; Poch, F

    1999-01-01

    Cefepime (1 g), ceftazidime (1 g), and cloxacillin (2 g) were administered intravenously to 10 volunteers each. After infusion of a single dose over 30 min, blood samples were obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h (for ceftazidime at 0.5 and 4 h) after dosing. Drug levels were determined by the bioassay method. Serum bactericidal activity against five clinical isolates of cloxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the microdilution method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. The mean peak serum level was 76.88 +/- 24.71 mg/L for cefepime, 42.8 +/- 15.98 mL/L for ceftazidime, and 92.81 +/- 24.7 mg/L for cloxacillin. Concentrations of cefepime were detected during the whole testing period (mean trough level, 1.43 +/- 0.9 mg/L at 12 h), whereas concentrations of cloxacillin were measurable up to 5 h after administration (mean trough level, 0.90 +/- 0.97 mg/L). The mean peak reciprocal bactericidal titers were 29.41 for cefepime, 5.6 for ceftazidime, and 377 for cloxacillin. Effective bactericidal titers were detected as long as 5 h for cefepime (approximately 40% of the dosing interval) and 3 h for cloxacillin (at least 50% of the dosing interval). For ceftazidime, serum bactericidal activity was markedly lower compared with that of cefepime. Although cefepime has demonstrated an improved antistaphylococcal bactericidal activity compared with ceftazidime, it was somewhat lower than that of cloxacillin.

  8. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity of N-Chlorotaurine Is Enhanced in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Martina; Moser, Ivan; Nagl, Markus; Lackner, Michaela

    2017-05-01

    Lung infections with multiresistant pathogens are a major problem among patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). N-Chlorotaurine (NCT), a microbicidal active chlorine compound with no development of resistance, is well tolerated upon inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity of NCT in artificial sputum medium (ASM), which mimics the composition of CF mucus. The medium was inoculated with bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, including some methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) or spores of fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, Lomentospora prolificans, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium minutisporum, Exophiala dermatitidis, and Geotrichum sp.), to final concentrations of 107 to 108 CFU/ml. NCT was added at 37°C, and time-kill assays were performed. At a concentration of 1% (10 mg/ml, 55 mM) NCT, bacteria and spores were killed within 10 min and 15 min, respectively, to the detection limit of 102 CFU/ml (reduction of 5 to 6 log10 units). Reductions of 2 log10 units were still achieved with 0.1% (bacteria) and 0.3% (fungi) NCT, largely within 10 to 30 min. Measurements by means of iodometric titration showed oxidizing activity for 1, 30, 60, and >60 min at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 1.0% NCT, respectively, which matches the killing test results. NCT demonstrated broad-spectrum microbicidal activity in the milieu of CF mucus at concentrations ideal for clinical use. The microbicidal activity of NCT in ASM was even stronger than that in buffer solution; this was particularly pronounced for fungi. This finding can be explained largely by the formation, through transhalogenation, of monochloramine, which rapidly penetrates pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. All vehicles exhibited bactericidal activity at

  10. Concentration and bactericidal activity of fusidic acid and cloxacillin in serum and synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekh, E; Golan, T; Tanay, A; Poch, F; Dan, M

    1999-04-01

    Fusidic acid and cloxacillin were studied in patients who underwent joint aspiration for noninfectious disorders. Nine patients were given oral 500 mg fusidic acid tid for 72 h, the last dose being given 4, 8 or 12 h before the joint aspiration. Cloxacillin was administered in a single 2 g iv dose to 9 patients, 0.5, 4 or 8 h before the aspiration. Bactericidal activity was determined against five isolates each of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Satisfactory activity (> or = 1:3) was detected in the serum in patients who received fusidic acid, while in the synovial fluids titres reflected borderline effectiveness (c. 1:2). Despite drug concentrations and excellent MICs, fusidic acid demonstrated markedly lower inhibitory and bactericidal activity against S. aureus than did cloxacillin.

  11. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  12. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ELECTROLYZED OXIDIZING WATER ON MEAT AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serraino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW has potential application as a residue free sanitizing agent for food of animal origin. Meat and poultry were contaminated with microorganism, pathogens or not, and different types of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatement were investigated to evaluate the activity of each of these method. In detail, this study is aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of EOW in reducing microbial count, including total bacterial count, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli on meat and poultry. EOW has a very strong disinfectant activity which, along with its easy and safe use, makes a good alternative to many other more widely used disinfectants.

  13. In vitro bactericidal activity of promising nutraceuticals for targeting multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the bactericidal activity of nutraceuticals against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nutritionally valued herbs were screened on the basis of a matrix modeling approach and molecular docking based validation analysis. The database of 38 herbs developed earlier using fuzzy logic based scoring analysis was subjected to molecular docking based validation. The molecular docking (Hex 6.12) analyses of predominant phytoligands (∼10 per herb) against exoenzyme S of P. aeruginosa filtered potent herbs were selected. The preauthenticated bacterial inoculum (10(8) CFU/mL) was added to the sterile nutrient broth impregnated with standardized aqueous-alcoholic herbal extracts (1-1600 μg/mL). After overnight incubation at 37°C, antibacterial activity was evaluated in terms of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Five herbs were selected on the basis of fuzzy set scoring, an herbal informatics model, and validation analysis based on energy of docking (i.e., Evalue of 380) phytoligands with maximum scoring obtained by Glycyrrhiza glabra. Among the 5 nutraceuticals, G. glabra showed maximum bactericidal activity significantly (P herbs. G. glabra (licorice), a flavoring agent; Z. officinale (ginger), a condiment; and Mentha piperita (mint), a fragrance component, showed significant therapeutic potential against multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bactericidal Activity and Mechanism of Photoirradiated Polyphenols against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Kirika; Sheng, Hong; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-09-09

    The bactericidal effect of various types of photoirradiated polyphenols against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was evaluated in relation to the mode of action. Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans) and Gram-negative bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) suspended in a 1 mg/mL polyphenol aqueous solution (caffeic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and proanthocyanidin) were exposed to LED light (wavelength, 400 nm; irradiance, 260 mW/cm(2)) for 5 or 10 min. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid exerted the highest bactericidal activity followed by gallic acid and proanthocyanidin against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. It was also demonstrated that the disinfection treatment induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA, which suggests that polyphenols are incorporated into bacterial cells. The present study suggests that blue light irradiation of polyphenols could be a novel disinfection treatment.

  15. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, −80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at −80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and −20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3−. Moreover, PAW stored at −80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2− contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation. PMID:27346695

  16. Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Myrtus communis L. Leaf Extract and Investigation of Bactericidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, M. R.; Tondro, G. H.; Sattarahmady, N.; Parsa, A.; Heli, H.

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using only Myrtus communis L. leaf extract by a facile procedure without other reagents. The extract played the roles of both reducing and capping agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning microscopy, and remained stable for at least 3 weeks. Antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis based on inhibition zone disk diffusion assays. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the nanoparticles were obtained. Mechanisms for the antibacterial activity were proposed.

  17. Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Myrtus communis L. Leaf Extract and Investigation of Bactericidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, M. R.; Tondro, G. H.; Sattarahmady, N.; Parsa, A.; Heli, H.

    2017-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using only Myrtus communis L. leaf extract by a facile procedure without other reagents. The extract played the roles of both reducing and capping agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning microscopy, and remained stable␣for at least 3 weeks. Antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis based on inhibition zone disk diffusion assays. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the nanoparticles were obtained. Mechanisms for the antibacterial activity were proposed.

  18. Antibodies to Meningococcal H.8 (Lip) Antigen Fail to Show Bactericidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    des IgA et des IgM. Des liquides d’ascite (2-1-CA2) de souris riches en anticorps monoclonaux anti-Lip contenaient 28 400 unites d’anticorps en ELISA... monoclonaux n’avaient pas non plus d’activit6 bactericide contre ces souches. La faible activitt bactdricide associee aux anticorps monoclonaux et...active au trdsyl et utilise en chromatographie d’affinit6 pour purifier des anticorps anti-Lip A partir de sdrums de convalescents et de lapins

  19. [Identification and bactericidal activity of a novel Cathelicidin family member from skin of Bufu bufo gargarizans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Ping; Jia, Guang-Tao; Sun, Tong-Yi; Lee, Wen-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The skin transcriptome of Bufu bufo gargarizans was determined by conventional methods. A novel full length cDNA coding for a Cathelicidin precursor was identified by transcriptomic data assembling, annotation and blast search of corresponding data banks. According to the known processing methods of Cathelicidin family members, present reported novel Cathelicidin precursor of B. bufo gargarizans might be cleaved at 2 possible sites of the same precursor and generate both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 as mature molecules. The deduced BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 were synthesized with purity>95% to evaluate the properties and bactericidal activities. The secondary structural characteristics of both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different solutions were determined by Circular Dichroism (CD) Analysis. CD results indicated that random coil conformation were the main structural elements for both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different buffer systems. Antimicrobial activities against tested bacterial strains were carried out by plating method. Both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 showed strong antibacterial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, with MIC values of 1.25, 10 mg•L⁻¹, respectively. However, both of them showed weak bactericidal activities against human pathogenic bacteria, like Escherichia coli (ATCC25922),Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. CXC Chemokines Exhibit Bactericidal Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Crawford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens pose a serious challenge to global health. Countering antimicrobial-resistant pathogens requires a multifaceted effort that includes the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and colistin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that harbor the mobile colistin resistance protein MCR-1 and thus possess phosphoethanolamine-modified lipid A. Colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates affected by genetic mutation of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system, a chromosomally encoded regulator of lipopolysaccharide modification, and containing 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose-modified lipid A were also found to be susceptible to chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity. However, loss of PhoP/PhoQ autoregulatory control, caused by disruption of the gene encoding the negative regulator MgrB, limited the bactericidal effects of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in a variable, strain-specific manner. Cumulatively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, highlight disparities amongst determinants of colistin resistance, and suggest that chemokine-mediated bactericidal effects merit additional investigation as a therapeutic avenue for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Bactericidal and Antimycotic Activities against Oral Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvelia E. Rodríguez-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new discipline with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. Although several methods and reducing agents have been employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles, reactive chemicals promote toxicity and nondesired effects on the human and biological systems. The objective of this work was to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens extracts and determine their bactericidal and antimycotic activities against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans growth, respectively. 1 and 10 mM silver nitrate were mixed with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens. Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized by TEM, Vis-NIR, FTIR, fluorescence, DLS, TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Bactericidal and antimycotic activities of AgNPs were determined by Kirby and Bauer method and cell viability MTT assays. AgNPs showed a spherical shape and average size of 9 nm if prepared with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and 3 nm if prepared with Amphipterygium adstringens extract. AgNPs inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth as was expected, without a significant cytotoxic effect on human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that AgNPs could be an interesting option to control oral biofilms.

  2. Cationic Biomimetic Particles of Polystyrene/Cationic Bilayer/Gramicidin for Optimal Bactericidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. S. Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured particles of polystyrene sulfate (PSS covered by a cationic lipid bilayer of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB incorporated gramicidin D (Gr yielding optimal and broadened bactericidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The adsorption of DODAB/Gr bilayer onto PSS nanoparticles (NPs increased the zeta-average diameter by 8–10 nm, changed the zeta-potential of the NPs from negative to positive, and yielded a narrow size distributions for the PSS/DODAB/Gr NPs, which displayed broad and maximal microbicidal activity at very small concentrations of the antimicrobials, namely, 0.057 and 0.0057 mM DODAB and Gr, respectively. The results emphasized the advantages of highly-organized, nanostructured, and cationic particles to achieve hybrid combinations of antimicrobials with broad spectrum activity at considerably reduced DODAB and Gr concentrations.

  3. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite "Earth-plus". Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log(10) colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3-6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric.

  4. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”. Methods Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Results The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log10 colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3–6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Conclusion Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric. PMID:21931489

  5. Bactericidal activity of three disinfectants on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Marchionatti Avancini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are involved in nosocomial infections (HA-MRSA, in community-associated infections (CA-MRSA, in companion animals- and in livestock-associated infections (LA-MRSA. In addressing the control of its transmission, the action on the causal agents present on the surfaces of the environments requires attention, the choice of disinfectants and antiseptic substances being decisive. This study’s objectives were: to evaluate the bactericidal activity, on 21 MRSA isolates and a control bacteria, of the following chemical compounds: sodium hypochlorite (SH, iodoform (I and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC - cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, routinely used in nosocomial environments and equally in those of production and animal health; and to test the hypothesis of the possibility of cross resistance between antibiotics and disinfectants. Methods: for the suspension test, using an initial population density of the inoculum at 107CFU/mL, the bactericidal activity of four successive dilutions of the disinfectants was assessed at contact times of five, 15 and 30 minutes. Results: it was observed that the disinfectants at the concentrations of SH 25 ppm, I 12.5 ppm and QAC 125 ppm, at five minutes of contact, were sufficient to inactivate the reference bacteria S.aureus ATCC 6538 and all the MRSA. Conclusion: the factors that influence the efficacy of the disinfectants being controlled for, sodium hypochlorite, iodoform and quaternary ammonium compounds are appropriate for controlling MRSA in the sources of infection, and that in the isolates resistant to methicillin antibiotic encountered, no relationship of resistance with these chemical compounds was observed. KEYWORDS: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfectants. Hygiene.

  6. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Robinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications.

  7. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  8. Anti-listerial Bactericidal Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 Isolated from Fermented Beverage Marcha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2013-09-01

    The strain Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was isolated from fermented beverage Marcha of Sikkim and explored for its antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogens. The cell-free supernatant of L. plantarum DM5 showed antibacterial activity of 6,400 AU/mL in MRS medium (pH 6.0) against the indicator strain Staphylococcus aureus. MRS medium supplemented with 15 g/L of maltose at 37 °C under static condition yielded highest antimicrobial activity (6,400 AU/mL) with 3 % increase in specific activity when compared to 20 g/L glucose. The antimicrobial compound was heat stable (60 min at 100 °C) and was active over a wide pH range. It showed bactericidal effect on S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by causing 96 and 98 % of cell lysis, respectively. The cell morphology of the treated S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was completely deformed as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting the high potential of L. plantarum DM5 as natural preservatives in food industry. The antimicrobial compound was purified by 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation and showed antimicrobial activity of 12,800 AU/mL with 19-fold purification and a molecular mass of 15.2 kDa, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the compound.

  9. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  10. Bactericidal activity does not predict sterilizing activity: the case of rifapentine in the murine model of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak V Almeida

    Full Text Available Since 2004, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer, has shifted from surgery to daily treatment with streptomycin (STR + rifampin (RIF for 8 weeks. For shortening treatment duration, we tested the potential of daily rifapentine (RPT, a long-acting rifamycin derivative, as a substitute for RIF.BALB/c mice were infected with M. ulcerans in the right hind footpad and treated either daily (7/7 with STR+RIF or five days/week (5/7 with STR+RIF or STR+RPT for 4 weeks, beginning 28 days after infection when CFU counts were 4.88±0.51. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared by footpad CFU counts during treatment and median time to footpad swelling after treatment cessation as measure of sterilizing activity. All drug treatments were bactericidal. After 1 week of treatment, the decline in CFU counts was significantly greater in treated mice but not different between the three treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, the decline in CFU was greater in mice treated with STR+RPT 5/7 than in mice treated with STR+RIF 7/7 and STR+RIF 5/7. After 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, CFU counts were nil in mice treated with STR+RPT and reduced by more than 3 and 4 logs in mice treated with STR+RIF 5/7 and STR+RIF 7/7, respectively. In sharp contrast to the bactericidal activity, the sterilizing activity was not different between all drug regimens although it was in proportion to the treatment duration.The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.

  11. Effect of influenza infection on the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of pulmonary macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.M.; Pesanti, E.L.

    1979-11-01

    The effect of mouse-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 virus on pulmonary macrophage function was evaluated by using an in vitro system which allowed direct virus interaction with macrophages and then separate analysis of the steps required for bacterial clearance by macrophages. Infection of macrophages with this virus resulted in the appearance of a hemagglutinating activity on the macrophage surface; expression of this activity was inhibited by amantadine, 2-deoxyglucose, and cycloheximide and by pretreatment of the virus inoculum with with ultraviolet light and specific antiserum. After influenza infection, net ingestion of viable Staphylococcus aureus by macrophage monolayers was unaltered and there was no change in the fraction of the monolayer which ingested cocci over a wide range of bacterial inputs. Influenza-infected microphages also inactivated intracellular S. aureus at a rate indistinguishable from controls. Therefore, these in vitro studies do not support the hypothesis that the defect in pulmonary antibacterial mechanisms associated with influenza infections results from a direct effect of virus infection on either the phagocytic or bactericidal activity of resistant pulmonary macarophages.

  12. Laccase- and chloroperoxidase-nanotube paint composites with bactericidal and sporicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Navdeep; Borkar, Indrakant V; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2012-05-10

    Laccase and chloroperoxidase (CPO) were separately immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and subsequently mixed with a commercial eco-friendly paint to generate biocatalytic coatings. The laccase-nanotube based paints showed >99% bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (both challenged with 10⁶ CFU/mL) within 30 min and >98% sporicidal activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis-ΔSterne (initially challenged with 10⁴ CFU/mL) within 120 min. The CPO-nanotube based paints also showed >99% antimicrobial activity within 30 min against E. coli and S. aureus (both challenged with 10⁶ CFU/mL). These enzyme-nanotube based formulations provide an eco-friendly route to generate biocidal compounds, which can prevent the growth of a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, including spores. These enzyme-containing paints may be envisioned to be applied as self-decontaminating coatings onto a wide range of surfaces, such as hospital infrastructure, medical devices and equipment, food processing and packaging, etc.; in all cases effective killing of a variety of infectious organisms is critical. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has specific bactericidal activity against harmful algal bloom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

    2014-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide : In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ-genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. In vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activities of various extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigmas from Jammu & Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Croccus sativus L. (saffron stigmas, were tested against various bacterial strains (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values of each active extract were also determined. The results showed a strong activity of the petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of saffron stigmas against bacteria and fungi used as test organisms. The results of different antimicrobial assays also indicate that the extracts had significantly higher bactericidal than fungicidal activities (p < 0.05. The results suggest that these extracts can be used in pharmaceutical and food formulations for inhibiting pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  15. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibaie, Mojtaba [Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 76175-493 Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, Sassan [Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  16. Biofunctionalization of microgroove titanium surfaces with an antimicrobial peptide to enhance their bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Lai, Yingzhen; Huang, Wenxiu; Huang, Sijia; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dong

    2015-04-01

    A firm peri-implant soft tissue seal is important for the long-term survival of dental implants, which demands the properties of antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the implant surfaces. In this study, GL13K, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, was immobilized onto microgroove surfaces which were 60 μm in width and 10 μm in depth, and the modified surfaces improved both the properties of antibacterial and cytocompatibility. The method of silanization was used to immobilize the antimicrobial peptide GL13K, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement. Then the mechanical stability of the coatings was confirmed by ultrasonication. In vitro antibacterial tests confirmed bactericidal activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis without inhibiting its adhesion. In vitro cytocompatibility tests also confirmed that adhesion at later phase and proliferation of HGFs were greater (Pantibacterial activity simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, L; Carricajo, A; Zhiri, A; Aubert, G

    2008-09-01

    To compare the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 chemotyped essential oils (EO) on 65 bacteria with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Fifty-five bacterial strains were tested with two methods used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity (CLSI recommendations): the agar dilution method and the time-killing curve method. EO containing aldehydes (Cinnamomum verum bark and Cymbopogon citratus), phenols (Origanum compactum, Trachyspermum ammi, Thymus satureioides, Eugenia caryophyllus and Cinnamomum verum leaf) showed the highest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) Cymbopogon martinii and Lavandula angustifolia) exhibited varying degrees of activity depending on Gram status. EO containing 1.8-cineole and hydrocarbons (Eucalyptus globulus, Melaleuca cajeputii and Citrus sinensis) had MIC(90%) > or = 10% (v/v). Against P. aeruginosa, only C. verum bark and O. compactum presented MIC Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at concentrations ranging from to 0.31% to 10% (v/v) after 1 h of contact. Cinnamomum verum bark and O. compactum were bactericidal against P. aeruginosa within 5 min at concentrations <2% (v/v). Cinnamomum verum bark had the highest antimicrobial activity, particularly against resistant strains. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of EO on nosocomial antibiotic-resistant strains.

  18. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  19. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guocai; Xie, Rushan; Zhu, Xiaoping; Mao, Yanli; Liu, Shuangxi; Jiao, Hongmei; Yan, Hua; Xiong, Kun; Ji, Mingchun

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp) has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Monoclonal Antibodies with Prominent Bactericidal Activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shimin; Feng, Shaw-Huey; Li, Bingjie; Kim, Hyung-Yong; Rodriguez, Joe; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has developed more than a hundred mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. These antibodies have been categorized into different groups based on their specificities and the biochemical natures of their target antigens. The current study first examined the bactericidal activities of a number of these MAbs by an in vitro opsonic assay. Then, the in vivo protective efficacy of selected MAbs was evaluated using BALB/c mice challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of the bacteria. The opsonic assay using dimethyl sulfoxide-treated human HL-60 cells as phagocytes revealed that 19 out of 47 tested MAbs (40%) have prominent bactericidal activities against B. pseudomallei and/or B. mallei. Interestingly, all MAbs with strong opsonic activities are those with specificity against either the capsular polysaccharides (PS) or the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the bacteria. On the other hand, none of the MAbs reacting to bacterial proteins or glycoproteins showed prominent bactericidal activity. Further study revealed that the antigenic epitopes on either the capsular PS or LPS molecules were readily available for binding in intact bacteria, while the epitopes on proteins/glycoproteins were less accessible to the MAbs. Our in vivo study showed that four MAbs reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS were highly effective in protecting mice against lethal bacterial challenge. The result is compatible with that of our in vitro study. The MAbs with the highest protective efficacy are those reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS of the Burkholderia bacteria. PMID:21450976

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo studies of monoclonal antibodies with prominent bactericidal activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shimin; Feng, Shaw-Huey; Li, Bingjie; Kim, Hyung-Yong; Rodriguez, Joe; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2011-05-01

    Our laboratory has developed more than a hundred mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. These antibodies have been categorized into different groups based on their specificities and the biochemical natures of their target antigens. The current study first examined the bactericidal activities of a number of these MAbs by an in vitro opsonic assay. Then, the in vivo protective efficacy of selected MAbs was evaluated using BALB/c mice challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of the bacteria. The opsonic assay using dimethyl sulfoxide-treated human HL-60 cells as phagocytes revealed that 19 out of 47 tested MAbs (40%) have prominent bactericidal activities against B. pseudomallei and/or B. mallei. Interestingly, all MAbs with strong opsonic activities are those with specificity against either the capsular polysaccharides (PS) or the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the bacteria. On the other hand, none of the MAbs reacting to bacterial proteins or glycoproteins showed prominent bactericidal activity. Further study revealed that the antigenic epitopes on either the capsular PS or LPS molecules were readily available for binding in intact bacteria, while the epitopes on proteins/glycoproteins were less accessible to the MAbs. Our in vivo study showed that four MAbs reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS were highly effective in protecting mice against lethal bacterial challenge. The result is compatible with that of our in vitro study. The MAbs with the highest protective efficacy are those reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS of the Burkholderia bacteria.

  2. Influence of Rifampin Therapy on Serum Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Cloxacillin and Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MR Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of rifampin on serum inhibitory and serum bactericidal titres was examined. Sera were prepared from pooled human serum to contain vancomycin (10 mg/L, cloxacillin (5 mg/L or rifampin (1 mg/L, and the combinations cloxacillin/rifampin and vancomycin/rifampin. These five sera were tested by a microtitre method for serum inhibitory power and serum bactericidal titre against 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A 48 h incubation period was required to detect full colony growth for subculture plates. It was found with all strains that the effect of the addition of rifampin to the other two antibiotics was to increase the serum inhibitory power, lower the serum bactericidal titre, increase the inhibitory/cidal ratio, and slow colony growth on subculture. In the clinical part of the study it was shown that only three of 38 sera (8% from patients receiving betalactam or vanomycin but not rifampin gave an inhibitory/cidal ratio greater than 8, but that nine of 10 sera (90% from patients receiving rifampin in addition to betalactam or vancomycin gave a ratio greater than 8 (P<0.001. The study verified that the effect of rifampin in serum was to increase inhibitory power and decrease bactericidal titre. The clinical significance of these results is not known and it is suggested that a high ratio of inhibitory to bactericidal titre in the presence of rifampin is to be expected, and that a low bactericidal titre under these circumstances is not necessarily an indication to modify therapy.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus SaeR/S-regulated Factors Decrease Monocyte-derived TNF-α to Reduce Neutrophil Bactericidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sward, Eli W; Fones, Elizabeth M; Spaan, Russel R; Pallister, Kyler B; Haller, Brandon L; Guerra, Fermin E; Zurek, Oliwia W; Nygaard, Tyler K; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2017-12-19

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to evade killing by human neutrophils significantly contributes to disease progression. In this study, we characterize an influential role for the S. aureus SaeR/S-two component gene regulatory system in suppressing monocyte production of TNF-α to subsequently influence human neutrophil priming. TNF-α production from monocytes was significantly reduced following challenge with wild type S. aureus (USA300) compared to an isogenic saeR/S deletion mutant (USA300∆saeR/S). We observed that priming of neutrophils using conditioned medium (CM) from PBMCs stimulated with USA300∆saeR/S significantly increased neutrophil bactericidal activity against USA300 relative to unprimed neutrophils and neutrophils primed with USA300 CM. The increased neutrophil bactericidal activity was associated with enhanced ROS production that was significantly influenced by elevated TNF-α concentrations. Taken together, our findings identify an immune evasion strategy used by S. aureus to impede neutrophil priming and subsequent bactericidal activity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Necchi

    Full Text Available Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay.

  5. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Observation of Serum Bactericidal Activity of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs Combined with Brucella abortus RB51 Live Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Gholizadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: vaccination is vital against brucellosis. Although current vaccines have low efficiency, some cell wall compartments such as Outer Membrane Proteins could be used as an immunogenic candidate in vaccine development. By this mean, our aim in this study was to evaluate the humoral immunity of the combination of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs with the Brucella abortus RB51 live attenuated vaccine, by Serum Bactericidal Acitivity test. Materials and Methods: In this project, first Brucella abortus RB51 was cultivated in brucella agar. The OMPs were extracted by Sodium N-Lauryl Sarcosinate method, then added to the RB51 live attenuated vaccine. Immunization was done by injection of the vaccine to mice and rabbits. The blood was drawn on days 0, 15,30, and 45 from the rabbits and the sera were seperated. Brucella abortus 544 was also injected as challenge. Spleen colony count was also performed. Results: The data from Serum Bactericidal Assay has showed, there was a very high Humoral immunity and response as a bactericidal titre of the serum against Rb51 Live vaccine. There was a significant decrease of colonies in the group vaccinated with the combined vaccine in the Spleen colony count test. Statistical analysis of groups variances showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: The Serum Bactericidal Assay results showed despite previous studies, both the combine and live vaccine are capable to stimulate the Humoral immunity. greater activity of combined vaccine to boost the humoral activity might be due to the synergistic effect of this vaccine.

  7. Neutralization of Bactericidal Activity Related to Antimicrobial Carryover in Broiler Carcass Rinse Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Gary R; Berrang, Mark E; Buhr, R Jeff; Hinton, Arthur; Bourassa, Dianna V; Ingram, Kimberly D; Adams, Eric S; Feldner, Peggy W; Johnston, John J

    2017-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the ability of three chemicals to neutralize residual antibacterial activity of commercial antimicrobial chemicals used in poultry processing. Chemical antimicrobial interventions used in poultry processing may have potential for carryover into whole poultry carcass buffered peptone water (BPW) rinses collected for monitoring Salmonella contamination. Such carryover may lead to false-negative results due to continuing bactericidal action of the antimicrobial chemicals in the rinse. To simulate testing procedures used to detect Salmonella contamination, studies were conducted by separately adding test neutralizers (highly refined soy lecithin, sodium thiosulfate, or sodium bicarbonate) to BPW and using these solutions as carcass rinses. Control samples consisted of BPW containing no additional neutralizing agents. One of four antimicrobial solutions (cetylpyridinium chloride, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, and a pH 1 hydrochloric:citric acid mix) was then added to the rinses. The four antimicrobial solutions were prepared at maximum allowable concentrations and diluted with modified BPW rinses to volumes simulating maximum carryover. These solutions were then inoculated with a mixed culture of five nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serovars at 10(6) CFU/mL. The inoculated rinse was stored at 4°C for 24 h, and Salmonella was enumerated by direct plating on brilliant green sulfa agar supplemented with nalidixic acid. Results indicate that incorporation of optimal concentrations of three neutralizing agents into BPW neutralized the demonstrated carryover effects of each of the four antimicrobial solutions tested, allowing recovery of viable Salmonella at 10(6) CFU/mL (P > 0.05), equivalent to recovery from carcass rinses with no antimicrobial carryover. Incorporation of these neutralizers in BPW for Salmonella monitoring may reduce false-negative results and aid regulatory agencies in accurate reporting of Salmonella

  8. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufya N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Najib Sufya,1 Noora Matar,1 Rawanda Kaddura,1 Abdulaziz Zorgani2 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya Abstract: There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%–30% of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour-1. The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour-1, while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour-1, reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour-1. These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. Keywords: antibiotic, killing, Libya, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus 

  9. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 and their bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Baker; M N, Nagendra Prasad; B L, Dhananjaya; K, Mohan Kumar; S, Yallappa; S, Satish

    2016-12-01

    The present study emphasizes on biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human and phytopathogens. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 inhabiting Coffea arabica L. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy which revealed maximum absorption 425nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the possible functional groups mediating and stabilizing silver nanoparticles with predominant peaks occurring at 3346 corresponding to hydroxyl group, 1635 corresponding carbonyl group and 680 to aromatic group. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the Bragg's diffraction pattern with distinct peaks at 38° 44°, 64° and 78° revealing the face-centered cubic (fcc) metallic crystal corresponding to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets of the crystal planes at 2θ angle. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed presence of high intense absorption peak at 3keV is a typical characteristic of nano-crystalline silver which confirmed the presence of elemental silver. TEM analysis revealed the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 5-50nm with polydisperse nature of synthesized nanoparticles bearing myriad shapes. The particle size determined by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) method revealed average size to be 20.66nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited significant antibacterial activity against panel of test pathogens. The results showed Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407) and Xanthomonas campestris to be more sensitive among the test human pathogen and phyto-pathogen respectively. The study also reports synergistic effect of silver nanoparticles in combination with kanamycin which displayed increased fold activity up to 58.3% against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407). The results of the present investigation are promising enough and attribute towards

  11. Algerian propolis extracts: Chemical composition, bactericidal activity and in vitro effects on gilthead seabream innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, El-Khamsa; Cerezuela, Rebeca; Charef, Noureddine; Mezaache-Aichour, Samia; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Zerroug, Mohamed Mihoub

    2017-03-01

    Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent for centuries. The chemical composition of four propolis samples collected from four locations of the Sétif region, Algeria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was determined. More than 20 compounds and from 30 to 35 compounds were identified in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the propolis extracts against two marine pathogenic bacteria was evaluated. Finally, the in vitro effects of propolis on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) leucocyte activities were measured. The bactericidal activity of ethanolic extracts was very high against Shewanella putrefaciens, average against Photobacterium damselae and very low against Vibrio harveyi. The lowest bactericidal activity was always that found for the aqueous extracts. When the viability of gilthead seabream head-kidney leucocytes was measured after 30 min' incubation with the different extracts, both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of one of the propolis samples (from Babor) and the aqueous extract of another (from Ain-Abbassa) provoked a significant decrease in cell viability when used at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg ml-1. Furthermore, significant inhibitory effects were recorded on leucocyte respiratory burst activity when isolated leucocytes where preincubated with the extracts. This effect was dose-dependent in all cases except when extracts from a third propolis sample (from Boutaleb) were used. Our findings suggest that some of Algerian propolis extracts have bactericidal activity against important bacterial pathogens in seabream and significantly modulate in vitro leucocyte activities, confirming their potential as a source of new natural biocides and/or immunomodulators in aquaculture practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Macrophage Bactericidal Activities against Staphylococcus aureus Are Enhanced In Vivo by Selenium Supplementation in a Dose-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribi, Mourad; Meziane, Warda; Habi, Salim; Boulatika, Yasser; Marchandin, Hélène; Aymeric, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Dietary selenium is of fundamental importance to maintain optimal immune function and enhance immunity during infection. To this end, we examined the effect of selenium on macrophage bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Assays were performed in golden Syrian hamsters and peritoneal macrophages cultured with S. aureus and different concentrations of selenium. Infected and selenium-supplemented animals have significantly decreased levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) production when compared with infected but non-selenium-supplemented animals at day 7 post-infection (p selenium induced a significant decrease in macrophage NO production, but significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels (respectively, p = 0.009, p selenium; the optimal macrophage activity levels were reached at 20 ng/mL. The concentration of 5 ng/mL of selenium induced a significant decrease in the bacterial arginase activity but a significant increase in the macrophage arginase activity. The dose of 20 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease of bacterial growth (p Selenium acts in a dose-dependent manner on macrophage activation, phagocytosis and bacterial killing suggesting that inadequate doses may cause a loss of macrophage bactericidal activities and that selenium supplementation could enhance the in vivo control of immune response to S. aureus.

  13. Bactericidal activity and killing rate of serum in volunteers receiving teicoplanin alone or in combination with oral or intravenous rifampin.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Auwera, P; Klastersky, J

    1987-01-01

    A total of 10 volunteers, in two groups of 5 each, received the following on separate days: group 1,200 mg of teicoplanin intravenously (i.v.), 600 mg of rifampin orally, or teicoplanin-rifampin; group 2,400 mg of teicoplanin i.v., 300 mg of rifampin i.v. in 60 min, or teicoplanin-rifampin. Blood samples were obtained before, at the end, and at 1 and 6 h after the administration of the antibiotics. Bactericidal activity in serum (SBA) was measured in microtiter plates against 20 clinical isol...

  14. Effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Produce and meat processing wash solutions were prepared using romaine lettuce and ground beef samples. Physico-chemical properties such as pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolics (for produce) and protein (for meat) content of the extracts were determined using standard procedures. The photocatalytic bactericidal activity of TiO2 (1 mg/mL) in suspension with or without organic matter against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5-strain) was determined over a period of 3h. Increasing the concentration of organic matter (either produce or meat) from 0% to 100% resulted in 85% decrease in TiO2 microbicidal efficacy. 'Turbidity, total phenolics, and protein contents in wash solutions had significant effect on the log reduction. Increasing the total phenolics content in produce washes from 20 to 114 mg/L decreased the log reduction from 2.7 to 0.38 CFU/mL, whereas increasing the protein content in meat washes from 0.12 to 1.61 mg/L decreased the log reduction from and 5.74 to 0.87 CFU/mL. Also, a linear correlation was observed between COD and total phenolics as well as COD and protein contents. While classical disinfection kinetic models failed to predict, an empirical equation in the form of "Y=me(nX)" (where Y is log reduction, X is COD, and m and n are reaction rate constants) predicted the disinfection kinetics of TiO2 in the presence of organic matter (R(2)=94.4). This study successfully identified an empirical model with COD as a predictor variable to predict the bactericidal efficacy of TiO2 when used in food processing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ability of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase genotypes to resist neutrophil bactericidal activity and phagocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Scott, N. L.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    genotype. The interaction between bacteria and neutrophils was measured by phagocytosis and bactericidal effect. The average percent killing of bacteria was lowest (40.0%) with strains belonging to the most common genotype, medium (50%) with strains belonging to the intermediate type, and highest (64......; rare type, 10.5/cell). These findings suggest that one of the reasons for the variation in prevalence of different genotypes of S. aureus in the mammary gland is due to the superior ability of some types to resist phagocytosis and/or killing by bovine neutrophils...

  16. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, H. George; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  17. Bactericidal activities of two daptomycin regimens against clinical strains of glycopeptide intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akins, R L; Rybak, M J

    2001-01-01

    .... The mechanism of action is unique, resulting in interference with cell membrane transport. The bactericidal activity of daptomycin was evaluated against glycopeptide-intermediate susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (GISA...

  18. Macrophage Bactericidal Activities against Staphylococcus aureus Are Enhanced In Vivo by Selenium Supplementation in a Dose-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Aribi

    Full Text Available Dietary selenium is of fundamental importance to maintain optimal immune function and enhance immunity during infection. To this end, we examined the effect of selenium on macrophage bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus.Assays were performed in golden Syrian hamsters and peritoneal macrophages cultured with S. aureus and different concentrations of selenium.Infected and selenium-supplemented animals have significantly decreased levels of serum nitric oxide (NO production when compared with infected but non-selenium-supplemented animals at day 7 post-infection (p < 0.05. A low dose of 5 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease in macrophage NO production, but significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels (respectively, p = 0.009, p < 0.001. The NO production and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with increasing concentrations of selenium; the optimal macrophage activity levels were reached at 20 ng/mL. The concentration of 5 ng/mL of selenium induced a significant decrease in the bacterial arginase activity but a significant increase in the macrophage arginase activity. The dose of 20 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease of bacterial growth (p < 0.0001 and a significant increase in macrophage phagocytic activity, NO production/arginase balance and S. aureus killing (for all comparisons, p < 0.001.Selenium acts in a dose-dependent manner on macrophage activation, phagocytosis and bacterial killing suggesting that inadequate doses may cause a loss of macrophage bactericidal activities and that selenium supplementation could enhance the in vivo control of immune response to S. aureus.

  19. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division...... establishing sugar metabolism as an important factor influencing the bactericidal outcome of β-lactam treatment. Interestingly, the effect of sugar on β-lactam susceptibility was suppressed in a strain unable to synthesize the nutrient stress alarmone (p)ppGpp. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we......Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin...

  20. Neisseria meningitidis escape from the bactericidal activity of a monoclonal antibody is mediated by phase variation of lgtG and enhanced by a mutator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Christopher D; Hoe, J Claire; Makepeace, Katherine; Martin, Patricia; Hood, Derek W; Moxon, E Richard

    2008-11-01

    Bacteria adapt to environmental changes through high-frequency switches in expression of specific phenotypes. Localized hypermutation mediated by simple sequence repeats is an important mechanism of such phase variation (PV) in Neisseria meningitidis. Loss or gain of nucleotides in a poly(C) tract located in the reading frame results in switches in expression of lgtG and determines whether a glucose or a phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) is added at a specific position in the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Monoclonal antibody (MAb) B5 is bactericidal for N. meningitidis strain 8047 when PEtn is present in the inner core LPS and lgtG is switched "off." Escape from the bactericidal activity of this antibody was examined by subjecting strain 8047 to multiple cycles of growth in the presence of MAb B5 and human serum. Escape variants with alterations in the lgtG repeat tract rapidly accumulated in bacterial populations during selection with this antibody. Strain 8047 was outcompeted in this assay by the 8047 Delta mutS strain due to the elevated PV rate of this mismatch repair mutant and hence the greater proportion of preexisting phase variants of lgtG in the inoculum. This mutS mutant was also more virulent than strain 8047 during escape from passive protection by MAb B5 in an in vivo infant rat model of bacteremia. These results provide an example of how PV rates can modulate the occurrence and severity of infection and have important implications for understanding the evolution of bacterial fitness in species subject to environmental variations that occur during persistence within and transmission between hosts.

  1. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  2. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  3. Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion formulation by ultrasonic emulsification: investigation of its bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Saranya, S; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon oil (extracted from Cinnamomum zeylanicum) nanoemulsion was formulated using Tween 80 and water by ultrasonic emulsification. Process of nanoemulsion formulation was optimized for parameters such as surfactant concentration, oil-surfactant mixing ratio and emulsification time. Surfactant concentration was found to be inversely related to droplet size and directly related to stability. Increase in emulsification time resulted in decrease in droplet diameter. Stable cinnamon oil formulation (CF3) having droplet diameter of 65 nm was formulated after sonication for 30 min. Formulated nanoemulsion was evaluated for bactericidal efficacy against Bacillus cereus. Time and concentration dependent killing of B. cereus cells was observed upon treatment with nanoemulsion. Even at a higher dilution of CF3, significant reduction in bacterial population was observed. Alteration in membrane permeability of interacted samples was suggested by quantifying the release of UV absorbing materials. Bacterial staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide supported kinetics of killing data and also substantiated the above findings of alteration in membrane permeability. FTIR illustrated disappearance of peak corresponding phosphate vibration at 1078 cm(-1) and 536 cm(-1), and peak associated with vibration of acyl chains of lipid at 2852 cm(-1) was shifted to 2854 cm(-1) which suggested deformation of membrane phospholipids in nanoemulsion treated cells. SEM observations demonstrated membrane distortion leading to cell lysis. These results propose the potential use of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for preservation of minimally processed food.

  4. Epithelial Cell Damage Activates Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing-Protein (BPI Expression in Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense against invading pathogen, intestinal epithelium produces various antimicrobial proteins (AMP that help in clearance of pathogen. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI is a 55 kDa AMP that is expressed in intestinal epithelium. Dysregulation of BPI in intestinal epithelium is associated with various inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, and Infectious enteritis’s. In this paper, we report a direct correlation between intestinal damage and BPI expression. In Caco-2 cells, we see a significant increase in BPI levels upon membrane damage mediated by S. aureus infection and pore-forming toxins (Streptolysin and Listeriolysin. Cells detect changes in potassium level as a Danger-associated molecular pattern associated with cell damage and induce BPI expression in a p38 dependent manner. These results are further supported by in vivo findings that the BPI expression in murine intestinal epithelium is induced upon infection with bacteria which cause intestinal damage (Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri whereas mutants that do not cause intestinal damage (STM ΔfliC and STM ΔinvC did not induce BPI expression. Our results suggest that epithelial damage associated with infection act as a signal to induce BPI expression.

  5. Enhanced bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli in calves fed Morinda citrifolia (Noni) puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Sharp, P; Brooks, V J; Xu, J; Cai, J; Keuler, N S; Peek, S F; Godbee, R G; Schultz, R D; Darien, B J

    2008-01-01

    Although adequate colostrum intake and properly used antibiotics can provide much protection for the bovine neonate, increased antibiotic scrutiny and consumer demand for organic products have prompted investigations of natural immunomodulators for enhancing calf health. One plant-based immunomodulator, Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit, is a well-recognized natural product that has a broad range of immunomodulatory effects. Neonatal calves fed noni puree would demonstrate whole blood phagocytic capacity in Gram-negative and Gram-positive in vitro assays. Blood samples from 18 neonatal Holstein bull calves. Calves were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 comprised control calves, whereas Group 2 received 30 mL of noni puree twice a day in milk replacer. Day 0 blood samples were obtained between 36 and 48 hours of age before the first feeding of puree. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulated blood was collected from each calf on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Bactericidal assays were performed to estimate the percentage killing of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Blood samples from noni puree-fed calves displayed significantly more E. coli bacterial killing than did controls on day 14, and although differences were not significant on days 0, 3, and 7, bacterial killing progressively increased over time. There was no significant difference between the groups for S. epidermidis killing. The immunomodulatory effect of noni puree may prove valuable in the future as production animal antibiotic use becomes more restricted. Additional clinical trials are warranted to investigate the clinical application of noni puree in promoting calf health.

  6. Colloidal titania-silica-iron oxide nanocomposites and the effect from silica thickness on the photocatalytic and bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanhom, Padtaraporn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Charoenlap, Nisanart [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    New types of colloidal multifunctional nanocomposites that combine superparamagnetic character and high photocatalytic activity were synthesized and investigated. The superparamagnetic nanocomposites composed of anatase titania, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles (TSI) were synthesized using thermal decomposition method followed by microemulsion method, without calcination at high temperature. Different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize and confirm the structure of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed high photocatalytic activity when used in the photodegradation of methylene blue under irradiation with a black light lamp. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited high antibacterial properties. From our study, the nanocomposites can be useful in various applications such as removal of pollutants with readily separation from the environment using an external magnetic field. These composites could effectively photo-degrade the dye at least three cycles without regeneration. The effects of silica shell thickness on the photocatalytic activity was investigated, and the thickness of 6 nm of the silica interlayer is enough for the inhibition of electron translocation between titania and iron oxide nanoparticles and maintaining the efficiency of photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles. - Highlights: • New colloidal nanocomposites of iron oxide-silica-titania were prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activity with magnetic response. • The effects of silica thickness on photocatalytic activity were investigated. • Bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites was demonstrated.

  7. Azithromycin Synergizes with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides to Exert Bactericidal and Therapeutic Activity Against Highly Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative rods (GNR is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a standardized manner, identifying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC in bacteriologic media, but ignoring host immune factors. Lacking activity in standard MIC testing, azithromycin (AZM, the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the U.S., is never recommended for MDR GNR infection. Here we report a potent bactericidal action of AZM against MDR carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. This pharmaceutical activity is associated with enhanced AZM cell penetration in eukaryotic tissue culture media and striking multi-log-fold synergies with host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 or the last line antibiotic colistin. Finally, AZM monotherapy exerts clear therapeutic effects in murine models of MDR GNR infection. Our results suggest that AZM, currently ignored as a treatment option, could benefit patients with MDR GNR infections, especially in combination with colistin.

  8. Ambroxol inhibits mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Yu, Jialin; He, Yu; Wang, Zhengli; Li, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate. Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Propolis modulates miRNAs involved in TLR-4 pathway, NF-κB activation, cytokine production and in the bactericidal activity of human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Bruno J; Santiago, Karina B; Cardoso, Eliza O; Freire, Paula P; Carvalho, Robson F; Golim, Marjorie A; Sforcin, José M

    2016-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells, essential for recognition and presentation of pathogens to T cells. Propolis, a resinous material produced by bees from various plants, exhibits numerous biological properties, highlighting its immunomodulatory action. Here, we assayed the effects of propolis on the maturation and function of human DCs. DCs were generated from human monocytes and incubated with propolis and LPS. NF-κB and cytokines production were determined by ELISA. microRNA's expression was analysed by RT-qPCR and cell markers detection by flow cytometry. Colony-forming units were obtained to assess the bactericidal activity of propolis-treated DCs. Propolis activated DCs in the presence of LPS, inducing NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The inhibition of hsa-miR-148a and hsa-miR-148b abolished the inhibitory effects on HLA-DR and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of hsa-miR-155 may be correlated to the increase in TLR-4 and CD86 expression, maintaining LPS-induced expression of HLA-DR and CD40. Such parameters may be involved in the increased bactericidal activity of DCs against Streptococcus mutans. Propolis modulated the maturation and function of DCs and may be useful in the initial steps of the immune response, providing a novel approach to the development of DC-based strategies and for the discovery of new immunomodulators. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Evaluation of bactericidal and anti-biofilm properties of a novel surface-active organosilane biocide against healthcare associated pathogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biolfilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Murray

    Full Text Available Healthcare acquired infections (HAI pose a great threat in hospital settings and environmental contamination can be attributed to the spread of these. De-contamination and, significantly, prevention of re-contamination of the environment could help in preventing/reducing this threat. Goldshield (GS5 is a novel organosilane biocide marketed as a single application product with residual biocidal activity. We tested the hypothesis that GS5 could provide longer-term residual antimicrobial activity than existing disinfectants once applied to surfaces. Thus, the residual bactericidal properties of GS5, Actichlor and Distel against repeated challenge with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC43300 were tested, and showed that GS5 alone exhibited longer-term bactericidal activity for up to 6 days on 316I stainless steel surfaces. Having established efficacy against S. aureus, we tested GS5 against common healthcare acquired pathogens, and demonstrated that, on average, a 1 log10 bactericidal effect was exhibited by GS5 treated surfaces, although biocidal activity varied depending upon the surface type and the species of bacteria. The ability of GS5 to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was measured in standard microtitre plate assays, where it had no significant effect on either biofilm formation or development. Taken together the data suggests that GS5 treatment of surfaces may be a useful means to reducing bacterial contamination in the context of infection control practices.

  11. Synthetic calanolides with bactericidal activity against replicating and nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Purong; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Lu, Shichao; Roberts, Julia; Pingle, Maneesh; Warrier, Thulasi; Little, David; Guo, Xiaoyong; Brickner, Steven J; Nathan, Carl F; Gold, Ben; Liu, Gang

    2014-05-08

    It is urgent to introduce new drugs for tuberculosis to shorten the prolonged course of treatment and control drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). One strategy toward this goal is to develop antibiotics that eradicate both replicating (R) and nonreplicating (NR) Mtb. Naturally occurring (+)-calanolide A was active against R-Mtb. The present report details the design, synthesis, antimycobacterial activities, and structure-activity relationships of synthetic calanolides. We identified potent dual-active nitro-containing calanolides with minimal in vitro toxicity that were cidal to axenic Mtb and Mtb in human macrophages, while sparing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and yeast. Two of the nitrobenzofuran-containing lead compounds were found to be genotoxic to mammalian cells. Although genotoxicity precluded clinical progression, the profound, selective mycobactericidal activity of these calanolides will be useful in identifying pathways for killing both R- and NR-Mtb, as well as in further structure-based design of more effective and drug-like antimycobacterial agents.

  12. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo and its main effective component, palmatine, against porcine Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qian; Xu, Min; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Yuli; Li, Yinglun; Ye, Gang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-08-30

    Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo (TSG) is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection and has anti-bacterial and anti-ulcer activity. Our study investigated the bactericidal effects of TSG and its major component, palmatine, against a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain isolated from pig and the standard strain H. pylori SS1 in vitro and in vivo. H. pylori was isolated from pig and named H. pylori SCYA201401. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory activity of TSG and palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 and H. pylori SS1 were tested by use of the agar cup diffusion technique. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined from the absence of H. pylori colonies on agar plates. Time-kill curves were used to evaluate bactericidal activity; the average number of colonies was calculated at 0 to 48 h after liquid incubation, with concentrations of drugs at 0.5, 1, and 2 × MIC. For in vivo experiments, H. pylori SCYA201401-infected mice were randomly divided into TSG, palmatine, triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin), blank control, and model groups. The eradication ratios were determined by use of rapid urease tests and bacterial culture. In vitro, the MIC and MBC of TSG against H. pylori SCYA201401 and SS1 were both 6250 μg/mL, whereas palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 was 6.25 μg/mL and against H. pylori SS1 was 3.12 μg/mL. The time-kill curves showed a dose-dependent, progressive decline in the numbers of viable bacteria up to 40 h. In vivo, the eradication ratios in the TSG and palmatine groups of mice were 80 and 50 % compared with 70 % in the triple-therapy group. TSG and its major component, palmatine, have bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. The possibility that TSG or palmatine can be effective in the treatment of human and animals H. pylori

  13. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  14. Bactericidal activity of a granule extract from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes against Bacteroides species.

    OpenAIRE

    Pruul, H; Wetherall, B L; McDonald, P J

    1983-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of an acetate extract of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules was tested against Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. All strains tested were killed by the extract, and there were no significant differences between the different Bacteroides species.

  15. Towards the rational design of antimicrobial proteins: single point mutations can switch on bactericidal and agglutinating activities on the RNase A superfamily lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, David; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Nogués, M Victòria; Torrent, Marc; Boix, Ester

    2013-11-01

    The ribonuclease (RNase) A superfamily lineage includes distant members with antimicrobial properties, suggesting a common ancestral host-defense role. In an effort to identify the minimal requirements for the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP or RNase 3) antimicrobial properties we applied site-directed mutagenesis on its closest family homolog, the eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN or RNase 2). Both eosinophil secretion proteins are involved in human immune defense, and are reported as being among the most rapidly evolving coding sequences in primates. Previous studies in our laboratory defined two regions at the N-terminus involved in the protein antimicrobial action, encompassing residues 8-16 and 34-36. Here, we demonstrate that switching two single residues is enough to provide EDN with ECP antipathogen properties. That is, the EDN double-mutant Q34R/R35W displays enhanced bactericidal activity, particularly towards Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant increase in its affinity towards the bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharides. Moreover, we confirmed the direct contribution of residue W35 in lipopolysaccharide binding, membrane interaction and permeabilization processes. Furthermore, additional T13 to I substitution provides EDN with an exposed hydrophobic patch required for protein self-aggregation and triggers bacterial agglutination, thereby increasing the final antimicrobial activity by up to 20-fold. Our results highlight how single selected mutations can reshape the entire protein function. This study provides an example of how structure-guided protein engineering can successfully reproduce an evolution selection process towards the emergence of new physiological roles. © 2013 FEBS.

  16. Reduction in the bactericidal activity of selected cathelicidin peptides by bovine calf serum or exogenous endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Karen H; McCray, Paul B; Thorne, Peter S

    2004-06-01

    Synthetic cathelicidin peptides exhibit enhanced antimicrobial action and avid binding to LPS, thereby detoxifying the action of endotoxin released from degrading bacteria. A series of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAP) and sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP) congeners were examined to determine whether LPS-binding could predict other beneficial characteristics of the peptides. The peptides were challenged in complex media with bovine calf serum or LPS, and their ability to kill the Gram negative pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 43816) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA103) was then assessed. LPS-binding efficiency was not correlated with antimicrobial activity in complex media. Additionally, LPS- and serum-binding may interfere with the antimicrobial activity of peptides in complex media. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Reynosin and santamarine: two sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia confertiflora with bactericidal activity against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Velázquez, Carlos; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Hernández-Martínez, Javier; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previous studies have shown that the dichloromethanic extract of Ambrosia confertiflora DC (Asteraceae) inhibited Mtb. To isolate the compounds responsible for the mycobactericidal activity against clinical Mtb strains. The dichloromethanic extract of aerial parts of A. confertiflora was separated using chromatography columns. Mycobactericidal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using the Alamar Blue bioassay (128-16 μg/mL, 7 days). Cytotoxicity was tested against normal cell line L929 using the MTT ([3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium]) assay (100-3.125 μg/mL, 48 h). Compound structures were elucidated by 1H and 13C uni- and bidimensional NMR. Two sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) with mycobactericidal activity were identified: santamarine and reynosin. Reynosin was the most active compound, with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 366-2009 and 104-2010 Mtb strains and a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64, 64, 128, 128 and 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 104-2010, 63-2009, 366-2009 and 430-2010 Mtb strains, respectively. Santamarine had MBCs of 128 μg/mL against the H3Rv and 104-2010 Mtb strains and MICs of 128 μg/mL against the H37Rv, 366-2009 and 104-2010 Mtb strains. We also isolated 1,10-epoxyparthenolide but only showed mycobacteriostatic activity (MIC 128 μg/mL) against the Mtb strain. Compounds were tested against the L929 cell line and the calculated selectivity index was <1. This is the first report of the mycobactericidal activity of these compounds against clinical Mtb strains. It is also the first report of the isolation of 1,10-epoxyparthenolide from A. confertiflora. The anti-mycobacterial activity of A. confertiflora was attributed to the SQLs identified.

  18. Bactericidal activities of GM flax seedcake extract on pathogenic bacteria clinical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide problem. Each year several million people across the world acquire infections with bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, which is costly in terms of human health. New antibiotics are extremely needed to overcome the current resistance problem. Results Transgenic flax plants overproducing compounds from phenylpropanoid pathway accumulate phenolic derivatives of potential antioxidative, and thus, antimicrobial activity. Alkali hydrolyzed seedcake extract containing coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and lignan in high quantities was used as an assayed against pathogenic bacteria (commonly used model organisms and clinical strains). It was shown that the extract components had antibacterial activity, which might be useful as a prophylactic against bacterial infection. Bacteria topoisomerase II (gyrase) inhibition and genomic DNA disintegration are suggested to be the main reason for rendering antibacterial action. Conclusions The data obtained strongly suggest that the seedcake extract preparation is a suitable candidate for antimicrobial action with a broad spectrum and partial selectivity. Such preparation can be applied in cases where there is a risk of multibacterial infection and excellent answer on global increase in multidrug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25073883

  19. Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Basil oil (Ocimum basilicum) nanoemulsion was formulated using non-ionic surfactant Tween80 and water by ultrasonic emulsification method. Process of nanoemulsion development was optimized for parameters such as surfactant concentration and emulsification time to achieve minimum droplet diameter with high physical stability. Surfactant concentration was found to have a negative correlation with droplet diameter, whereas emulsification time had a positive correlation with droplet diameter and also with intrinsic stability of the emulsion. Stable basil oil nanoemulsion with droplet diameter 29.3 nm was formulated by ultrasonic emulsification for 15 min. Formulated nanoemulsion was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli by kinetics of killing experiment. Fluorescence microscopy and FT-IR results showed that nanoemulsion treatment resulted alteration in permeability and surface features of bacterial cell membrane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro bactericidal activity of blue light (465 nm) phototherapy on meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedeker, Amy H; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Diaz, Sandra F; Bonagura, John; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common cause of bacterial skin infections in dogs. Meticillin-resistant infections have become more common and are challenging to treat. Blue light phototherapy may be an option for treating these infections. The objective of this study was to measure the in vitro bactericidal activity of 465 nm blue light on meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). We hypothesized that irradiation with blue light would kill MSSP and MRSP in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro as previously reported for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In six replicate experiments, each strain [MSSP, n = 1; MRSP ST-71 (KM1381) n = 1; and MRSA (BAA-1680) n = 1] were cultivated on semisolid media, irradiated using a 465 nm blue light phototherapeutic device at the cumulative doses of 56.25, 112.5 and 225 J/cm 2 and incubated overnight at 35°C. Controls were not irradiated. Colony counts (CC) were performed manually. Descriptive statistics were performed and treatment effects assessed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Bonferroni-corrected rank-sum tests were performed for post hoc analysis when significant differences were identified. There was a significant decrease in CC with blue light irradiation at all doses for MRSA (P = 0.0006) but not for MSSP (P = 0.131) or MRSP (P = 0.589). Blue light phototherapy significantly reduced CC of MRSA, but not of MSSP or MRSP. The mechanism for the relative photosensitivity of the MRSA isolate is unknown, but is hypothesized to be due to an increased concentration of porphyrin in S. aureus relative to S. pseudintermedius, which would modulate blue light absorption. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  2. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity in the Gas Phase of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Antonio; Zarrella, Ilaria; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Pironti, Concetta; De Caro, Francesco; Motta, Oriana

    2016-08-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is usually employed as a disinfectant for the treatment of water, environmental surfaces and medical equipment principally for its effectiveness as a microbicide agent. In this study, we explore the possibility of a new use for NaDCC by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by air humidity, and by testing its effect on the neutralization of microbes present in domestic waste. NaDCC was inserted in a plastic garbage can where LB agar plates, with different dilutions of a known title of four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Aspergillus brasiliensis), were weakly inserted. The molecular chlorine (Cl2) levels present in the garbage can were quantified using an iodometric titration. The gas emitted in the garbage can presented a strong microbicide effect, inhibiting the proliferation of all four microorganisms and for four consecutive weeks, thus showing that NaDCC hydrolysis, mediated by air humidity, is able to ensure the decontamination of restricted environments, avoiding the proliferation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  3. Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, and available chlorine concentration (ACC were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples.

  4. Acorus calamus rhizome extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnappan Sudhakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticle (AgNP synthesis and characterization is an area of vast interest due to their broader application in the fields of science and technology and medicine. Plants are an attractive source for AgNP synthesis because of its ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites with strong reducing potentials. Thus, the present study describes the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (sweet flag. The AgNP formation was evaluated at different temperatures, incubation time and concentrations of AgNO3 using Response surface methodology based Box–Behnken design (BBD. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS. The surface plasmon resonance found at 420 nm confirmed the formation of AgNPs. SEM images reveal that the particles are spherical in nature. The EDS analysis of the AgNPs, using an energy range of 2–4 keV, confirmed the presence of elemental silver without any contamination. The antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and it was found that bacterial growth was significantly inhibited in a dose dependent manner. The results suggest that the AgNPs from rhizome extract could be used as a potential antibacterial agent for commercial application.

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA triggers expression of the bactericidal lectin REG3γ via gastric STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Syin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of what is known about the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin, CagA, pertains to a much-vaunted role as a determinant of gastric inflammation and cancer. Little attention has been devoted to potential roles of CagA in the majority of H. pylori infected individuals not showing oncogenic progression, particularly in relation to host tolerance. Regenerating islet-derived (REG3γ encodes a secreted C-type lectin that exerts direct bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the intestine. Here, we extend this paradigm of lectin-mediated innate immunity, showing that REG3γ expression is triggered by CagA in the H. pylori-infected stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human gastric mucosal tissues, REG3γ expression was significantly increased in CagA-positive, compared to CagA-negative H. pylori infected individuals. Using transfected CagA-inducible gastric MKN28 cells, we recapitulated REG3γ induction in vitro, also showing that tyrosine phosphorylated, not unphosphorylated CagA triggers REG3γ transcription. In concert with induced REG3γ, pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the gp130 cytokine co-receptor via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and transcription of two cognate ligands, interleukin(IL-11 and IL-6, were significantly increased. Exogenous IL-11, but not IL-6, directly stimulated STAT3 activation and REG3γ transcription. STAT3 siRNA knockdown or IL-11 receptor blockade respectively abrogated or subdued CagA-dependent REG3γ mRNA induction, thus demonstrating a requirement for uncompromised signalling via the IL-11/STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of the gp130-related SHP2-(Ras-ERK pathway did not affect CagA-dependent REG3γ induction, but strengthened STAT3 activation as well as augmenting transcription of mucosal innate immune regulators, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-response factor (IRF1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model of CagA-directed REG3

  6. Mechanisms of Action of Escapin, a Bactericidal Agent in the Ink Secretion of the Sea Hare Aplysia californica: Rapid and Long-Lasting DNA Condensation and Involvement of the OxyR-Regulated Oxidative Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko-Chun; Tai, Phang C.

    2012-01-01

    The marine snail Aplysia californica produces escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase, in its defensive ink. Escapin uses l-lysine to produce diverse products called escapin intermediate products of l-lysine (EIP-K), including α-amino-ε-caproic acid, Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid, and Δ2-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid. EIP-K and H2O2 together, but neither alone, is a powerful bactericide. Here, we report bactericidal mechanisms of escapin products on Escherichia coli. We show that EIP-K and H2O2 together cause rapid and long-lasting DNA condensation: 2-min treatment causes significant DNA condensation and killing, and 10-min treatment causes maximal effect, lasting at least 70 h. We isolated two mutants resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, both having a single missense mutation in the oxidation regulatory gene, oxyR. A complementation assay showed that the mutated gene, oxyR(A233V), renders resistance to EIP-K plus H2O2, and a gene dosage effect leads to reduction of resistance for strains carrying wild-type oxyR. Temperature stress with EIP-K does not produce the bactericidal effect, suggesting the effect is due to a specific response to oxidative stress. The null mutant for any single DNA-binding protein—Dps, H-NS, Hup, Him, or MukB—was not resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, suggesting that no single DNA-binding protein is necessary to mediate this bactericidal effect, but allowing for the possibility that EIP-K plus H2O2 could function through a combination of DNA-binding proteins. The bactericidal effect of EIP-K plus H2O2 was eliminated by the ferrous ion chelator 1,10-phenanthroline, and it was reduced by the hydroxyl radical scavenger thiourea, suggesting hydroxyl radicals mediate the effects of EIP-K plus H2O2. PMID:22232273

  7. Expanding the potential of NAI-107 for treating serious ESKAPE pathogens: synergistic combinations against Gram-negatives and bactericidal activity against non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunati, Cristina; Thomsen, Thomas T; Gaspari, Eleonora; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Donadio, Stefano

    2017-10-30

    To characterize NAI-107 and related lantibiotics for their in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, alone or in combination with polymyxin, and against non-dividing cells or biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. NAI-107 was also evaluated for its propensity to select or induce self-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. We used MIC determinations and chequerboard experiments to establish the antibacterial activity of the examined compounds against target microorganisms. Time-kill assays were used to evaluate killing of exponential and stationary-phase cells. The effects on biofilms (growth inhibition and biofilm eradication) were evaluated using biofilm-coated pegs. The frequency of spontaneous resistant mutants was evaluated by either direct plating or by continuous sub-culturing at 0.5 × MIC levels, followed by population analysis profiles. The results showed that NAI-107 and its brominated variant are highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some other fastidious Gram-negative pathogens. Furthermore, all compounds strongly synergized with polymyxin against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and showed bactericidal activity. Surprisingly, NAI-107 alone was bactericidal against non-dividing A. baumannii cells. Against S. aureus, NAI-107 and related lantibiotics showed strong bactericidal activity against dividing and non-dividing cells. Activity was also observed against S. aureus biofilms. As expected for a lipid II binder, no significant resistance to NAI-107 was observed by direct plating or serial passages. Overall, the results of the current work, along with previously published results on the efficacy of NAI-107 in experimental models of infection, indicate that this lantibiotic represents a promising option in addressing the serious threat of antibiotic resistance.

  8. Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) improved non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Taee, Hadis; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ahmadvand, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings (6.50 ± 0.55 g (were distributed in twelve cages (65 × 65 × 65 cm) with a metal framework. The study included four treatments repeated in triplicates. The treatments were feeding trouts with experimental diets containing different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Myrtle powder. The fingerlings were fed on experimental diet for sixty days and then skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as bactericidal activity were measured. At the end of the trial, the highest skin mucus soluble protein level was observed in group fed with 1.5% Myrtle (P  0.05). Also, no antibacterial activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica in all treatments and control group. Whereas skin mucus of rainbow trout showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri) in 1 and 1.5% Myrtle treatments. These results indicated beneficial effects of dietary Myrtle on mucosal immune parameters of fingerling rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Bactericidal activity and silver release of porous ceramic candle filter prepared by sintering silica with silver nanoparticles/zeolite for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Thanh Nguyen, Duc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Porous ceramic candle filters (PCCF) were prepared by sintering silica from rice husk with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/zeolite A at about 1050 °C to create bactericidal PCCF/AgNPs for water disinfection. The silver content in PCCF/AgNPs was of 300-350 mg kg-1 determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the average pore size of PCCF/AgNPs was of 50-70 Å measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The bactericidal activity and silver release of PCCF/AgNPs have been investigated by flow test with water flow rate of 5 L h-1 and initial inoculation of E. coli in inlet water of 106 CFU/100 mL. The volume of filtrated water was collected up to 500 L. Results showed that the contamination of E. coli in filtrated water was <1 CFU/100 mL and the content of silver released from PCCF/AgNPs into filtrated water was <1 μg L-1, it is low, far under the WHO guideline of 100 μg L-1 at maximum for drinking water. Based on the content of silver in PCCF/AgNPs and in filtrated water, it was estimated that one PCCF/AgNPs could be used to filtrate of ˜100 m3 water. Thus, as-prepared PCCF/AgNPs releases low content of silver into water and shows effectively bactericidal activity that is promising to apply as point-of-use water treatment technology for drinking water disinfection.

  10. Terminal carbohydrates abundance, immune related enzymes, bactericidal activity and physico-chemical parameters of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Cuesta, Alberto; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Recently, interest in mucosal surfaces, more specifically fish skin and its secreted mucus, has greatly increased among immunologists. The abundance of terminal carbohydrates, several enzymes (proteases, lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases and ceruloplasmin), bactericidal activity against fish pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and several physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolarity, density and viscosity) in the skin mucus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) have been evaluated. Present results evidence the abundance of N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, glucose and N-acetyl-galactosamine in skin mucus. The levels of lysozyme, proteases, esterases and alkaline phosphatase were very similar (from 20 to 30 Units mg-1 protein). However, 93 Units mg-1 protein were detected of ceruloplasmin and only 4'88 Units mg-1 protein of peroxidase. Skin mucus of S. senegalensis showed high bactericidal activity against the tested pathogen bacteria but weak activity against non-pathogenic bacteria. Finally, a clear relationship between mucus density and temperature was detected, while viscosity showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent behaviour. These results could be useful for better understanding the role of the skin mucus as a key component of the innate immune system, as well as, for elucidating possible relationships between biological and physico-chemical parameters and disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ production of human β defensin-3 in lager yeasts provides bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria under fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T C; Gallagher, L; Titze, J; Bourke, P; Kavanagh, J; Arendt, E; Bond, U

    2014-02-01

    To examine the use of a natural antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), as a means of preventing spoilage from bacterial contamination in brewery fermentations and in bottled beer. A chemically synthesised HBD3 peptide was tested for bactericidal activity against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative beer-spoiling bacteria, including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. The peptide was effective at the μmol l(-1) range in vitro, reducing bacterial counts by 95%. A gene construct encoding a secretable form of HBD3 was integrated into the genome of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain CMBS-33. The integrated gene was expressed under fermentation conditions and was secreted from the cell into the medium, but a significant amount remains associated with yeast cell surface. We demonstrate that under pilot-scale fermentation conditions, secreted HBD3 possesses bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria. Furthermore, when added to bottled beer, a synthetic form of HBD3 reduces the growth of beer-spoiling bacteria. Defensins provide prophylactic protection against beer-spoiling bacteria under brewing conditions and also in bottled beer. The results have direct application to the brewing industry where beer spoilage due to bacterial contamination continues to be a major problem in breweries around the world. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Bactericidal activities of health-promoting, food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the relative bactericidal activities (BA(50) ) of 10 presumed health-promoting food-based powders (nutraceuticals) and, for comparison, selected known components against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. The relative activities were evaluated using quantitative bactericidal activity [(BA(50) value, defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in colony forming units]. The BA(50) values were determined by fitting the data to a sigmoidal curve by regression analysis using concentration-antimicrobial response data. Antimicrobial activity is indicated by a low BA(50) value; meaning less material is needed to kill 50% of the bacteria. Olive pomace, olive juice powder, and oregano leaves were active against all 4 pathogens, suggesting that they behave as broad-spectrum antimicrobials. All powders exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The following powders showed exceptionally high activity against S. aureus (as indicated by the low BA(50) values shown in parentheses): apple skin extract (0.002%); olive pomace (0.008%); and grape seed extract (0.016%). Listeria bacteria were also highly susceptible to apple skin extract (0.007%). The most active substances provide candidates for the evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness in human food and animal feed. Plant-derived health-promoting food supplements, high in bioactive compounds, are candidates for use as antimicrobials in food. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  13. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO₂ Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccheri, Tommaso; Colonna, Martino; Stefanini, Ilaria; Santini, Cecilia; Gioia, Diana Di

    2013-08-02

    The photocatalytic effect of TiO 2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO₂, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO₂, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO₂ content (2 vol %) for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections. The nanoparticles and the coating have been characterized using spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy, showing their homogenous dispersion in the acrylic urethane coating. A common fluorescent light source was used to activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO₂. The paint dispersion showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The coating containing the TiO₂ nanoparticles maintained good UV stability, strong adhesion to the substrate and high hardness. Therefore, the approach used is feasible for paint formulation aimed at disinfection of healthcare surfaces.

  14. Functioned silver nanoparticle loaded activated carbon for the recovery of bioactive molecule from bacterial fermenter for its bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivizhivendhan, Villalan; Mahesh, Mannacharaju; Boopathy, Ramasamy; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Mary, Rathanasamy Regina; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2018-01-01

    A novel continuous production and extraction of bacterial bioactive prodigiosin (PG) from fermented using silver nanoparticle impregnated functioned activated carbon composite is proposed for cost-effective and ecofriendly microbial technique. Hence, in this investigation silver nanoparticle was impregnated onto functioned activated carbon ([AC]F) as a support matrix and to enable the separation of PG conjugated silver nanoparticle from the fermented medium. A laboratory scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the continuous production and recovery of PG using [AC@Ag]F. Ag nanoparticle impregnated [AC]F ([AC@Ag]F) characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM. Instrumental analyses confirmed that Ag nanoparticles significantly impregnated on AC through the functionalization of AC with diethanolamine and it enhances the binding capacity between AC and Ag. The various process parameters, such as contact time, pH, and mass of [AC@Ag]F, were statistically optimized for the recovery of PG using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The maximum extraction of PG in [AC@Ag]F was found to be 16.2 ± 0.2 mg g-1, its twofold higher than [AC]F. Further, PG conjugated [AC@Ag]F and ([AC@Ag]F-PG) were checked for the growth inhibition of gram negative and gram positive bacteria without formation of biofilm upto 96 h. Hence, the developed matrix could be eco-friendly, viable and lower energy consumption step for separation of the bacterial bioactive PG from fermented broth. In additionally, [AC@Ag]F-PG was used as an antifouling matrix without formation of biofilm.

  15. Bactericidal Effect of Er:YAG Laser-Activated Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation Against Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis Isolate from Canal of Root-Filled Teeth with Periapical Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogang; Xiang, Doudou; He, Wenxi; Qiu, Jun; Han, Bing; Yu, Qing; Tian, Yu

    2017-07-01

    This study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser-activated sodium hypochlorite irrigation (Er:YAG + NaOCl) on biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate. It was reported that Er:YAG + NaOCl had effective bactericidal effect on laboratory-adapted E. faecalis strain, while no study has reported its effect on the clinical isolate. Eighteen E. faecalis strains were isolated from 39 root-filled teeth with periapical lesions, and their biofilm formation abilities were evaluated using the crystal violet staining method. Extracted human root canals were prepared to a 40#/.04 K3 instrument and contaminated with the E. faecalis isolate that presented the strongest biofilm formation ability for 4 weeks. The infected canals then received treatments of syringe irrigation with normal saline (NS) or NaOCl, ultrasonic activated irrigations US + NS and US + NaOCl, and Er:YAG laser-activated irrigations Er:YAG + NS and Er:YAG + NaOCl. The root canals were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bacterial reductions were evaluated using the cell count method. SEM results showed that biofilm-like structures formed on the root canal walls after 4-week bacterial incubation. Er:YAG + NaOCl completely removed the E. faecalis biofilm from the root canal wall and made it the cleanest and most smooth surface among the treatment groups. Bacterial reductions in the treatment groups were presented in a descending order of Er:YAG + NaOCl (98.8%), US + NaOCl (98.6%) > NaOCl (94.0%) > Er:YAG + NS (91.9%) > US + NS (78.1%) > NS (51.1%) (p faecalis isolate, which may be considered an effective protocol for root canal treatment.

  16. Influence of the surface properties on bactericidal and fungicidal activity of magnetron sputtered Ti–Ag and Nb–Ag thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, D., E-mail: damian.wojcieszak@pwr.edu.pl [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wrocław (Poland); Mazur, M.; Kaczmarek, D. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wrocław (Poland); Mazur, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Max Born 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Szponar, B. [Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53–114 Wrocław (Poland); Domaradzki, J. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wrocław (Poland); Kepinski, L. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-05-01

    In this study the comparative investigations of structural, surface and bactericidal properties of Ti–Ag and Nb–Ag thin films have been carried out. Ti–Ag and Nb–Ag coatings were deposited on silicon and fused silica substrates by magnetron co-sputtering method using innovative multi-target apparatus. The physicochemical properties of prepared thin films were examined with the aid of X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. Moreover, the wettability of the surface was determined. It was found that both, Ti–Ag and Nb–Ag thin films were nanocrystalline. In the case of Ag–Ti film presence of AgTi{sub 3} and Ag phases was identified, while in the structure of Nb–Ag only silver occurred in a crystal form. In both cases the average size of crystallites was ca. 11 nm. Moreover, according to scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations the surface of Nb–Ag thin films was covered with Ag-agglomerates, while Ti–Ag surface was smooth and devoid of silver particles. Studies of biological activity of deposited coatings in contact with Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were performed. It was found that prepared coatings were bactericidal and fungicidal even in a short term-contact, i.e. after 2 h. - Highlights: • Surface and biological properties of Ti–Ag and Nb–Ag thin films were examined. • Ag content was related to sputtering yields and nucleation of Ti and Nb. • For Nb–Ag film the agglomeration of silver at the surface was observed. • Composition and surface topography had an impact on antimicrobial properties. • Fine-grained surface was important in Ag ions release process.

  17. Influence of pig age on virus titer and bactericidal activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1998-10-01

    Twelve pigs (six 4-week-old and six 4-month-old cross-bred, specific pathogen free pigs) were used as donors for both pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The PIMs and PAMs were infected in vitro with low (ISU-55) or high (VR-2385) virulence strains of PRRSV at 1 multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for comparisons of virus titers at 48 h post infection (PI). PIMs were as permissive as PAMs to infection with both PRRSV isolates yielding similar progeny titers (10(4.81) vs. 10(5.22) TCID50/ml, respectively). Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 were able to infect PIMs and no significant difference in virus replication as measured by virus titers between isolates was found (10(5.33) vs. 10(4.69) TCID50/ml, respectively). PIMs from 4-weak-old pigs yielded a higher virus titer following PRRSV infection than PIMs from 4-month-old pigs (10(5.43) vs. 10(4.59) TCID50/ml, respectively; p PIMs had significantly decreased bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) activity compared with uninfected PIMS at 48 h PI (p PIMs and VR-2385 (high virulence)-infected PIMs. Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (SOA) at 24 and 48 h PI (p PIMs, (2) PIMs from younger pigs were more permissive to PRRSV infection, and (3) the selected PRRSV strains, which differ in their abilities to induce pneumonia in vivo were not different when tested in vitro by measuring virus titer and bactericidal functions.

  18. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  19. A combination of ceftaroline and daptomycin has synergistic and bactericidal activity in vitro against daptomycin nonsusceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Iffat; Bulman, Zackery P; Spitznogle, Sarah L; Osorio, Justin E; Reilly, Irene S; Lesse, Alan J; Parameswaran, Ganapathi I; Mergenhagen, Kari A; Tsuji, Brian T

    2017-05-01

    There is an urgent need to optimize therapeutic options in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia who have failed conventional therapy. Two clinical isolates were obtained from a 68-year-old male with persistent MRSA bacteremia before and after the development of daptomycin nonsusceptibility. The pharmacodynamic activity of monotherapies and combinations of ceftaroline, daptomycin, cefoxitin, nafcillin and vancomycin were evaluated in time-kill experiments versus 10 8 CFU/mL of the pre- and post-daptomycin nonsusceptible MRSA isolates. Cefoxitin, nafcillin and vancomycin alone or in combination with ceftaroline failed to generate prolonged bactericidal activity against the post-daptomycin nonsusceptible isolate whereas a ceftaroline-daptomycin combination resulted in 6, 24 and 48 h log 10 (CFU/mL) reductions of 3.90, 4.40 and 6.32. Population analysis profiles revealed a daptomycin heteroresistant subpopulation of the pre-daptomycin nonsusceptible MRSA isolate that expanded by >10,000× on daptomycin agar containing 2-16 mg/L in the post-daptomycin nonsusceptible isolate. Daptomycin and ceftaroline combinations may be promising against persistent MRSA bacteremia.

  20. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO{sub 2} thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghibi, Sanaz, E-mail: naghibi@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahed, Shohreh, E-mail: sh_vahed@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Food Science, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabi, Omid, E-mail: omid_trb@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Amin, E-mail: amin_jam_g@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: m.hosseingolabgir@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly uniform Fe–TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on glass using sol–gel hot-dipping technique. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible irradiation. • By Fe doping into TiO{sub 2} structure, its microbial performance was prolonged even after stopping the illumination. • Due to Fe doping, the significant improvement in bactericidal coating was evident. - Abstract: Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared on glass by the sol–gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact.

  1. Enhancement of bactericidal activity against group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility by uptake of gentamicin into cells resulting from combination with β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Yoshifumi; Morozumi, Miyuki; Sato, Mamiko; Moritoki, Nobuko; Toyofuku, Meiwa; Takata, Misako; Murata, Mitsuru; Ubukata, Kimiko; Iwata, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Combined effects of penicillin (PEN) and gentamicin (GM) against Streptococcus agalactiae, i.e. group B streptococci (GBS), are known to occur, but synergy has not been examined in strains with reduced PEN susceptibility, usually called PEN-resistant GBS (PRGBS). We therefore studied combined effects of β-lactam antibiotics and GM in cultures of 3 PRGBS strains belonging to serotype Ia or III that were isolated from Japanese adults with invasive infections. Killing kinetics were determined at 2-h intervals from 0 to 6 h after exposure to ampicillin (AMP) or cefotaxime (CTX) combined with GM. Concentrations of GM in bacterial cells were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Morphologic changes after exposure to agents were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Combining AMP or CTX with GM synergistically increased bactericidal activity against PRGBS beyond that of either β-lactam alone. GM concentrations in bacterial cells increased 5- to 8-fold when GM was combined with AMP or CTX. Electron microscopically, bacterial cells showed aggregates of strands and ribosomal damage most likely reflecting enhanced GM uptake into bacterial cells. This uptake appeared to result from cell wall damage caused by β-lactam antibiotics. This study suggests that combining β-lactam antibiotics with GM might be useful against severe PRGBS infection. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  3. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Sivakumar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports a simple and robust method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanopoarticles (AuNPs) were formed on treatment of an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solutions with the root extract. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). UV-Vis and TEM analysis indicate that with higher quantities of root extract, the interaction is enhanced leading to size reduction of spherical metal nanoparticles. XRD confirms face-centered cubic phase and the diffraction peaks can be attributed to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 2) and (3 1 1) planes for these nanoparticles. These synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent bactericidal activity against clinically isolated selected pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The synthesized AgNPs were also found to function as an efficient green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride, which was apparent from the periodical color change from bright yellow to colorless, after the addition of AgNPs.

  4. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  5. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Sivakumar, A

    2014-07-15

    The present study reports a simple and robust method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanopoarticles (AuNPs) were formed on treatment of an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solutions with the root extract. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). UV-Vis and TEM analysis indicate that with higher quantities of root extract, the interaction is enhanced leading to size reduction of spherical metal nanoparticles. XRD confirms face-centered cubic phase and the diffraction peaks can be attributed to (111), (200), (222) and (311) planes for these nanoparticles. These synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent bactericidal activity against clinically isolated selected pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The synthesized AgNPs were also found to function as an efficient green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride, which was apparent from the periodical color change from bright yellow to colorless, after the addition of AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of radioisotopes in solution and bactericidal/bacteriostatic sterilising power in activated carbon and metal silver filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Claudio; Bestetti, Alberto; Mauri, Alessandro; Pozzato, Carlo; Paroni, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon filters play an important role in water filtration and purification from contaminants of different origin. Their limit consists in bacterial proliferation, which may occur only during prolonged periods of non-use and in their ability to remove radioactive contaminants present in waste water from Industry or Nuclear Medicine departments. In this work we tested a commercially available activated carbon filter for water purification enriched with silver plated parts incubating in static condition at room temperature different micro organisms (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillum niger), up to 78 days. The microbial growth was in general more inhibited in the presence of metal silver into the activated carbon in respect to filters with the activated carbon alone: >4log inhibition of bacterial proliferation after 78 days of incubation the presence of silver vs. 2log without silver. When the filters were incubated empty of carbon, the sterilizing power of silver was confirmed further. The activated carbon filters proved also their ability in removing from water the principal radioisotopes used for residues liquid medical and research purposes ((131)I, (99m)Tc, (201)Tl, (67)Ga). These results contribute useful data for the use of the silver-enriched carbon filters in water filtration both for daily use at home, and professional use in a Nuclear Medicine laboratory. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Colloidal titania-silica-iron oxide nanocomposites and the effect from silica thickness on the photocatalytic and bactericidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanhom, Padtaraporn; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat; Insin, Numpon

    2017-04-01

    New types of colloidal multifunctional nanocomposites that combine superparamagnetic character and high photocatalytic activity were synthesized and investigated. The superparamagnetic nanocomposites composed of anatase titania, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles (TSI) were synthesized using thermal decomposition method followed by microemulsion method, without calcination at high temperature. Different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize and confirm the structure of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed high photocatalytic activity when used in the photodegradation of methylene blue under irradiation with a black light lamp. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited high antibacterial properties. From our study, the nanocomposites can be useful in various applications such as removal of pollutants with readily separation from the environment using an external magnetic field. These composites could effectively photo-degrade the dye at least three cycles without regeneration. The effects of silica shell thickness on the photocatalytic activity was investigated, and the thickness of 6 nm of the silica interlayer is enough for the inhibition of electron translocation between titania and iron oxide nanoparticles and maintaining the efficiency of photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles.

  8. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  9. Physicochemical properties of bactericidal plasma-treated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Satoshi; Tani, Atsushi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-treated water (PTW), i.e. distilled water (DW) exposed to low-temperature atmospheric pressure helium plasma, exhibited strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli in suspension even within a few minutes of preparation. This effect was enhanced under acidic conditions. The bactericidal activity of PTW was attenuated according to first-order kinetics and the half-life was highly temperature dependent. The electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of an adduct of the superoxide anion radical (\\text{O}2-\\bullet ) was detected in an aqueous solution using a spin-trapping reagent mixed with PTW, and adding superoxide dismutase to the PTW resulted in a loss of the bactericidal activity and weakening of the ESR adduct signal of \\text{O}2-\\bullet in the spin-trapping. These results suggest that \\text{O}2-\\bullet plays an important role in imparting bactericidal activity to PTW. Moreover, molecular nitrogen was required both in the ambient gas and in the DW used to prepare the PTW. We, therefore, suggest that the reactive molecule in PTW with bactericidal effects is not a free reactive oxygen species but nitrogen atom(s)-containing molecules that release \\text{O}2-\\bullet , such as peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) or peroxynitric acid (O2NOOH). Considering the activation energy for degradation of these species, we conclude that peroxynitric acid stored in PTW induces the bactericidal effect.

  10. INVOLVEMENT OF BACTERICIDAL FACTORS FROM THROMBIN-STIMULATED PLATELETS IN CLEARANCE OF ADHERENT VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERFF, J; ZAAT, SAJ; JOLDERSMA, W; HESS, J

    Platelets activated with thrombin release bactericidal factors. We studied the role of the susceptibility of viridans streptococci to these bactericidal factors in the development of infective endocarditis (IE). By using the experimental endocarditis rabbit model, the initial adherence and the

  11. Bactericidal activity of an imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine using a mouse M. tuberculosis infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a global threat due in part to the long treatment regimen and the increased prevalence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Therefore, new drug regimens are urgently required to combat this deadly disease. We previously synthesized and evaluated a series of new anti-tuberculosis compounds which belong to the family of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines. This family of compounds showed low nM MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration values against M. tuberculosis in vitro. In this study, a derivative of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, (N-(4-(4-chlorophenoxybenzyl-2,7-dimethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (ND-09759, was selected as a promising lead compound to determine its protective efficacy using a mouse infection model. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ND-09759 determined that at a dosage of 30 mg/kg mouse body weight (PO gave a maximum serum drug concentration (Cmax of 2.9 µg/ml and a half-life of 20.1 h. M. tuberculosis burden in the lungs and spleens was significantly decreased in mice treated once daily 6 days per week for 4-weeks with ND-09759 compared to untreated mice and this antibiotic activity was equivalent to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RMP, two first-line anti-TB drugs. We observed slightly higher efficacy when using a combination of ND-09759 with either INH or RMP. Finally, the histopathological analysis revealed that infected mice treated with ND-09759 had significantly reduced inflammation relative to untreated mice. In conclusion, our findings indicate ND-09759 might be a potent candidate for the treatment of active TB in combination with current standard anti-TB drugs.

  12. Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, M; Sneha, K; Won, S W; Cho, C-W; Kim, S; Yun, Y-S

    2009-10-15

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present study reports the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles from silver precursor using the bark extract and powder of novel Cinnamon zeylanicum. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nano-sized Ag particles. TEM and XRD results confirmed the presence of nano-crystalline Ag particles. The pH played a major role in size control of the particles. Bark extract produced more Ag nanoparticles than the powder did, which was attributed to the large availability of the reducing agents in the extract. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The EC(50) value of the synthesized nanoparticles against Escherichia coli BL-21 strain was 11+/-1.72 mg/L. Thus C. zeylanicum bark extract and powder are a good bio-resource/biomaterial for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity.

  13. The promiscuous and synergic molecular interaction of polyphenols in bactericidal activity: an opportunity to improve the performance of antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Menor, Laura; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Martí, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente

    2015-03-01

    Plant polyphenols are a potential source of new antimicrobial molecules against bacteria because most newly developed antimicrobial agents do not improve the clinical management of infectious diseases. The potential synergism between the major polyphenolic compounds present in a Cistus salviifolius extract, which was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, was investigated by the isobole method and the fractional inhibitory concentration index determination. Pairwise combinations of selected flavonoids and ellagitannins present in C. salviifolius extract were assayed against the in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Some combinations revealed synergic effects, resulting in a reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 50% growth (MIC50 ) up to 20 times lower as compared with the individual compounds. Some of the combinations exhibited MIC50 values close to drug potency level (0.5-1 µg/mL). Punicalagin and myricetin were the major contributors in the combinations. The proportion between the compounds in the synergic mixtures is crucial and may explain the superior antimicrobial activity displayed by this extract when compared with other botanical extracts. The rational optimization of these combinations could lead to the design of potent antimicrobial phytopharmaceuticals, which may improve the performance of current antibiotics, taking advantage of the multi-targeted and synergic molecular interactions of selected polyphenols. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  15. Bactericidal Activity of Copper Oxide Nanocomposite/Bioglass for in Vitro Clindamycin Release in Implant Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, bioactive bioceramics such as bioglass and hydroxyapatite (HA have been introduced as a remarkable development in the field of medicine due to their bio-adaptability, non-toxicity, and persistence, in vivo. They have many potential applications in the repair of bone defects and hence they have attracted significant interest from scholars. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize inorganic matrix CuO-based bioglasses and evaluate their antibacterial activity against aerobic bacterial infections in bone implants. Methods Nano-composite samples of silica-based bioactive glass, 60S BG with nano-powder CuO, were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then assessed with regard to their antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion agar. The samples included BG58S (58%SiO2, 36%CaO, 6%P2O5, BG/10CuO (58%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 10%CuO, and BG/20CuO (48%SiO2, 26%CaO, 6%P2O5, 20%CuO. To evaluate their bioactivity, the prepared samples of BG/20CuO, BG/10CuO, and BG58S were immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF. The surface morphology and structure of the samples before and after immersion in the SBF were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, respectively. Then, the BG/20CuO and BG/10CuO samples were loaded in clindamycin, an antibiotic widely used in the treatment of osteomyelitis, and their release profiles were studied in phosphate buffer solution. Results It was observed that the growth inhibition zone increased through clindamycin release due to the increasing CuO percentage in the nanocomposite of bioactive glass. The bioactivity of the nanocomposite/bioglass with CuO was superior to that of bioglass alone. In this study, the BG/20CuO sample showed a sustained release of clindamycin, which is sufficient for a drug delivery system. Conclusions Increasing the Cu nanoparticles in bioactive glass samples leads to the release of Cu2

  16. Bactericidal Activity of Probiotic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds the symbiotic drugs tp inhibit the growth of pathogenic flora, to improve immune status, to enhance the general resistance of the organism to the pathogenic contagions.

  17. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

    OpenAIRE

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on t...

  18. Identification of a component of crystalline egg albumin bactericidal for thermophilic aerobic sporeformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, D H; Wilson, A A; Evancho, G M

    1975-11-01

    During an investigation of the effect of basic and acidic proteins on the growth of thermophilic aerobic sporeformers, crystalline egg albumin was found to be strongly bactericidal. This finding was uncharacteristic of acidic proteins. The bactericidal fraction was heat sensitive and separated from the non-bactericidal albumin fraction during gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. Cells of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Bacillus stearothermophilus were lysed rapidly by the bactericidal component, leading to its tentative identification as lysozyme. The bactericidal substance possessed an electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate identical to that of crystalline egg white lysozyme. Users of crystalline egg albumin are cautioned that commerical preparations may be contaminated with lysozyme. Destruction of the thermophilic aerobes by lysozyme should be considered when performing counts on egg products.

  19. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  20. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováts, Nora; Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

    2011-06-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level.

  1. Bactericidal antibiotics induce programmed metabolic toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn D. Rowan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The misuse of antibiotics has led to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in clinically important pathogens. These resistant infections are having a significant impact on treatment outcomes and contribute to approximately 25,000 deaths in the U.S. annually. If additional therapeutic options are not identified, the number of annual deaths is predicted to rise to 317,000 in North America and 10,000,000 worldwide by 2050. Identifying therapeutic methodologies that utilize our antibiotic arsenal more effectively is one potential way to extend the useful lifespan of our current antibiotics. Recent studies have indicated that modulating metabolic activity is one possible strategy that can impact the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. In this review, we will address recent advances in our knowledge about the impacts of bacterial metabolism on antibiotic effectiveness and the impacts of antibiotics on bacterial metabolism. We will particularly focus on two studies, Lobritz, et al. (PNAS, 112(27: 8173-8180 and Belenky et al. (Cell Reports, 13(5: 968–980 that together demonstrate that bactericidal antibiotics induce metabolic perturbations that are linked to and required for bactericidal antibiotic toxicity.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis, structural activity relationship and biological activity of some new quinoxaline Schiff base derivatives as highly potent spirochete bactericidal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandravadivelu Gopi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to synthesise a new (E-3-(4-or3-Aminophenylimino quinoxaline-2(3H-one oxime Schiff base derivatives and evaluate the anti-leptospiral activity against Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. The mentioned derivatives were prepared by performing microwave-assisted condensation reactions of (E-3-(4-or3-Aminophenyl iminoquinoxaline-2(3H-one and aromatic aldehydes. The structures of these interesting compounds were characterised by FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, these compounds were screened for spirocidal activity against Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae by using in vitro and in vivo method. The anti-leptospiral activity result reveals that most of the compounds were exhibiting considerable activity against Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. Compound 6c demonstrated remarkable activity at low concentration against the Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae as compared to the standard drugs.

  3. [Bactericidal properties of copper (II) complexes with 1-alkylimidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzymińska-Lenarcik, E; Mirska, I; Pernak, J

    1998-01-01

    The copper(II) complexes with 1-alkylimidazole were prepared. Bactericidal properties of the obtained complexes against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied. Particularly high activity against microbial strains was shown by complex [Cu(1-C4H9Im)4(CIO4)2].

  4. Mutacin II, a Bactericidal Lantibiotic from Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikindas, Michael L.; Novák, Jan; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus; Schilling, Kurt M.; Caufield, Page W.

    1995-01-01

    Mutacin II is a lantibiotic that is produced by group II Streptococcus mutans, it inhibits the growth of other streptococci as well as many other gram-positive microorganisms by a hitherto unknown mechanism, Mutacin LI possesses bactericidal activity against susceptible cells. It transiently

  5. Effect of replacing main-chain ureas with thiourea and guanidinium surrogates on the bactericidal activity of membrane active oligourea foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Stéphanie; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Mikaty, Guillain; Douat, Céline; Goossens, Pierre L; Guichard, Gilles

    2017-08-15

    Membrane-active foldamers have recently emerged as potential mimics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Amphiphilic cationic helical N,N'-linked oligoureas are one such class of AMP mimics with activities in vitro against a broad range of bacteria including Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive sporulating bacillus and causing agent of anthrax. Here we have used site-selective chemical modifications of the oligourea backbone to gain additional insight into the relationship between structure and function and modulate anthracidal activity. A series of analogues in which urea linkages at selected positions are replaced by thiourea and guanidium surrogates have been prepared on solid support and tested against different bacterial forms of B. anthracis (germinated spores and encapsulated bacilli). Urea→thiourea and urea→guanidinium replacements close to the negative end of the helix dipole led to analogues with increased potency and selectivity for B. anthracis versus mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Di Gioia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol % for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections. The nanoparticles and the coating have been characterized using spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy, showing their homogenous dispersion in the acrylic urethane coating. A common fluorescent light source was used to activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The paint dispersion showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The coating containing the TiO2 nanoparticles maintained good UV stability, strong adhesion to the substrate and high hardness. Therefore, the approach used is feasible for paint formulation aimed at disinfection of healthcare surfaces.

  7. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccheri, Tommaso; Colonna, Martino; Stefanini, Ilaria; Santini, Cecilia; Gioia, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol %) for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired inf...

  8. Anti-folates potentiate bactericidal effects of other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Xu-de; Yang, Shan-Shan; Gu, Jing; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2017-03-01

    Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis. And the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of streptomycin (SM) by SMX was also evaluated in E. coli and M. Smegmatis. Susceptibility tests and drug exposure experiments were performed for RIF and SM in the presence of sub-ICs of SMX. In drug exposure experiments, 10 mg l-1 of 7,8-dihydropteroic acid (DHP) was used to reverse the effect of SMX. In the presence of sub-ICs of SMX, MIC of RIF for E. coli and M. smegmatis decreased 2 and 16 fold, respectively. In the drug exposure experiments, addition of sub-ICs of SMX suppressed the growth of RIF and SM resistant population in a pool of susceptible bacteria, and the effects of SMX could be reversed by DHP. Besides, we also found that, sub-ICs of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) could bactericidal effects of INH, RIF and SM in M. tuberculosis. Taken together, our data suggest that, sub-ICs of anti-folates can potentiate bactericidal effects of other antimicrobial agents in various bacteria.

  9. Bactericidal Kinetics of Marine-Derived Napyradiomycins against Contemporary Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Haste

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new antibiotics to treat hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Previous work has indicated that both terrestrial and marine-derived members of the napyradiomycin class possess potential anti-staphylococcal activities. These compounds are unique meroterpenoids with unusual levels of halogenation. In this paper we report the evaluation of two previously described napyradiomycin derivatives, A80915A (1 and A80915B (2 produced by the marine-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. strain CNQ-525, for their specific activities against contemporary and clinically relevant MRSA. Reported are studies of the in vitro kinetics of these chemical scaffolds in time-kill MRSA assays. Both napyradiomycin derivatives demonstrate potent and rapid bactericidal activity against contemporary MRSA strains. These data may help guide future development and design of analogs of the napyradiomycins that could potentially serve as useful anti-MRSA therapeutics.

  10. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, S.; Markwardt, C.; Remillard, R.A.; Shaw, S.; Beckmann, V.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view of

  11. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Markwardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view o...

  12. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478

  13. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-04-15

    The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic ...

  14. Bactericidal Activities of Plant Essential Oils and Some of Their Isolated Constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman M; Henika P.R; Mandrell R.E

    2002-01-01

    .... The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils...

  15. Researchers rapidly respond to submarine activity at Loihi Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1996 Loihi Science Team

    The largest swarm of earthquakes ever observed at a Hawaiian volcano occurred at Loihi Seamount during July and early August 1996. The earthquake activity formed a large summit pit crater similar to those observed at Kilauea, and hydrothermal activity led to the formation of intense hydrothermal plumes in the ocean surrounding the summit. To investigate this event, the Rapid Response Cruise (RRC) was dispatched to Loihi in early August and two previously planned LONO cruises (named for a Hawaiian warrior god) sailed in September and October on the R/V Kaimikai-O-Kanaloa. Calm weather and a newly refurbished ship provided excellent opportunities for documenting the volcanic, hydrothermal plume, vent, and biological activities associated with the earthquake swarm.

  16. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  17. Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, T.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Fung, M.; Pharo, A.M.; Hoiby, E.A.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Aase, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Deuren, M. van; Mollnes, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the initial defense against Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, uncontrolled activation in meningococcal sepsis contributes to the development of tissue damage and shock. In a novel human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis, we studied the

  18. Rapid neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelium mediated by GMP-140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J G; Bevilacqua, M P; Moore, K L; McIntyre, T M; Prescott, S M; Kim, J M; Bliss, G A; Zimmerman, G A; McEver, R P

    1990-02-22

    Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), a membrane glycoprotein of platelet and endothelial cell secretory granules, is rapidly redistributed to the plasma membrane during cellular activation and degranulation. Also known as PADGEM protein, GMP-140 is structurally related to two molecules involved in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium: ELAM-1, a cytokine-inducible endothelial cell receptor for neutrophils, and the MEL-14 lymphocyte homing receptor. These three proteins define a new gene family, termed selectins, each of which contains an N-terminal lectin domain, followed by an epidermal growth factor-like module, a variable number of repeating units related to those in complement-binding proteins, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Here we demonstrate that GMP-140 can mediate leukocyte adhesion, thus establishing a functional similarity with the other selectins. Human neutrophils and promyelocytic HL-60 cells bind specifically to COS cells transfected with GMP-140 complementary DNA and to microtitre wells coated with purified GMP-140. Cell binding does not require active neutrophil metabolism but is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Within minutes after stimulation with phorbol esters or histamine, human endothelial cells become adhesive for neutrophils; this interaction is inhibited by antibodies to GMP-140. Thus, GMP-140 expressed by activated endothelium might promote rapid neutrophil targeting to sites of acute inflammation.

  19. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Rapid Response Team Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Won Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background To ensure patient safety and improvements in the quality of hospital care, rapid response teams (RRTs have been implemented in many countries, including Korea. The goal of an RRT is early identification and response to clinical deterioration in patients. However, there are differences in RRT systems among hospitals and limited data are available. Methods In Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the St. Mary’s Advanced Life Support Team was implemented in June 2013. We retrospectively reviewed the RRT activation records of 287 cases from June 2013 to December 2016. Results The median response time and median modified early warning score were 8.6 minutes (interquartile range, 5.6 to 11.6 minutes and 5.0 points (interquartile range, 4.0 to 7.0 points, respectively. Residents (35.8% and nurses (59.1% were the main activators of the RRT. Interestingly, postoperative patients account for a large percentage of the RRT activation cases (69.3%. The survival rate was 83.6% and survival was mainly associated with malignancy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and the time from admission to RRT activation. RRT activation with screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call in terms of the intensive care unit admission rate and length of hospital stay after RRT activation. Conclusions Malignancy was the most important factor related to survival. In addition, RRT activation with patient screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call. Further studies are needed to determine the effective screening criteria and improve the quality of the RRT system.

  20. Bactericidal and fungistatic activity of peptide derived from GH18 domain of prawn chitinase 3 and its immunological functions during biological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Gayathri; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Mahesh, Arun; Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Arshad, Aziz; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2018-01-01

    Chitinases play a vital role during the pathogenic invasion and immunosuppression in various organisms including invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we have investigated the participation of MrChit-3 (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Chitinase-3) during host-pathogenic interaction in freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of MrChit-3 was up-regulated during bacterial, viral and laminarin challenge. Moreover, to understand the antimicrobial role of the GH18 domain, a putative membrane-targeting antimicrobial peptide (MrVG) was identified from the GH18 domain region of the protein and it was chemically synthesized. Physico-chemical features of the GH18 derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) was assessed by various in silico tools and the antimicrobial property of the peptide was confirmed from in vitro studies. The membrane targeting mechanism of the peptide was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Interestingly, the peptide was able to inhibit the growth of a chitinolytic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus niger, which was isolated from the shells of M. rosenbergii. The toxicity studies such as hemolysis activity on human blood erythrocytes and cell viability assay with primary kidney cells, HEK293 of MrVG revealed that the peptide was not involved in inducing any toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  2. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy’s path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter’s message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  3. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  4. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirika Ishiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.

  5. A rapid search for the counterpart to an active magnetar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    We propose to obtain a fast response observation of a magnetar undergoing an active period. Utilizing rapid, deep, diffraction limited observations with WFC3 we will maximize the chances of obtaining the IR detection of the magnetar. This in turn yields unique constraints on emission mechanisms, enables the measurement of dynamics (e.g. via proper motion) and can associate the magnetar with a given structure (e.g. young cluster or supernova remnant) in the galaxy. The association with a cluster provides means of measuring the stellar age, in turn informing the stellar properties (e.g. mass) of the magnetar progenitors. We have demonstrated the success of this approach with the detection of the counterpart of SGR 1935+2154 with a magnitude (during bursting activity) of F140W(AB) 25.5, a level extremely challenging to detect variability in from the ground, requiring multiple nights of adaptive optics imaging in typical conditions. Indeed, our observations will be senstive to counterparts significantly fainter than it is possible to detect from any ground based observatory. These observations will allow us to break through the observational barrier that has so far prevented us from detecting counterparts to more than two-thirds of magnetar candidates. With these observations we will construct a fuller picture of magnetars, the routes to their creation, and their role as cosmic engines across the Universe.

  6. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (isolate ATCC VR-2385) infection on bactericidal activity of porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs): in vitro comparisons with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1997-11-01

    Porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) were recovered by in situ pulmonary vascular perfusion with 0.025% collagenase in saline from six 8-week old, crossbred pigs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the same pigs for comparisons in each assay. The macrophages were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) in vitro for 24 h and infection was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence test or transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles tended to accumulate in the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. Bactericidal function assays were performed on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the virus on macrophage functions. In vitro PRRSV infection reduced the bactericidal ability of PIMs from 68.3% to 56.4% (P 0.1) at 24 h post-infection. The mean percentage of bacteria killed by macrophages after PRRSV infection was not significantly different among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups and non-infected controls based on colorimetric MTT bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) assay. PRRSV did not affect the ability of PIMs or PAMs to internalize opsonized 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled S. aureus (P > 0.05). PRRSV infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (P PIMs and by 69.4% in PAMs. PRRSV reduced the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide product (P PIMs and by 48.1% for PAMs. The results suggest: (1) PIMs should be considered as an important replication site of PRRSV; (2) PRRSV may have a detrimental effect on both PIMs and PAMs; (3) loss of bactericidal function in PIMs may facilitate hematogenous bacterial infections.

  7. Unique Bactericidal Action of Metronidazole Against Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Edward D.; Kirby, William M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The comparative bactericidal activity of penicillin G, carbenicillin, clindamycin, and metronidazole against eight susceptible strains of Bacteroides fragilis and four strains of Clostridium perfringens was determined by performing colony counts anaerobically of cultures incubated in brucella broth. With the B. fragilis strains, there was a lag phase of growth of approximately 8 h, during which time metronidazole did not reduce the colony counts. However, within 4 h of the onset of exponential growth, metronidazole caused an abrupt decrease in counts to less than 100 colonies per ml in all strains tested. Moreover, in two strains in which the bactericidal rate was followed hourly, a 3- to 6-log decrease occurred over 1 h or less. In contrast, penicillin G and carbenicillin caused a gradual decline in colony counts from the start of approximately 1 log for each 8-h interval and were bactericidal for all strains tested. Clindamycin demonstrated the slowest bactericidal activity and for 25% of the strains was only bacteriostatic. With the C. perfringens strains, after a lag phase of 4 h, an abrupt decrease in colony counts also occurred with metronidazole, whereas penicillin and clindamycin again demonstrated more gradual killing effects. These studies showed a unique, time-related bactericidal action of metronidazole as compared with the other three antimicrobial agents. PMID:172007

  8. Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) for active shooter incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechem, C Crawford; Bossert, Richard; Baldini, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of active shooter incidents in recent years. The traditional emergency medical services (EMS) response to such incidents has been to stage at a safe distance until the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Such an approach may lead to unnecessary delays in medical care and potentially needless loss of life. To address this issue locally, the Philadelphia Fire Department (PFD) and the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD) collaborated to develop the Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) program. All PFD paramedics have been equipped and trained to move with PPD officers into a scene that has been cleared by police but not yet secured in order to initiate emergency care, with an emphasis on hemorrhage control. Patients are then extracted to awaiting EMS resources in the cold zone. The history behind the program and the challenges and obstacles that had to be addressed in its development are described. These included initial and ongoing training and funding sources; buy-in from risk management, labor, and the individual providers; whether only paramedics should be included in the RAMS program or if the PFD's firefighter-EMTs should be included as well; the potential for mission creep as police recognized the value of this asset and its potential application to other scenarios; and how to involve the many nonmunicipal ambulance services that are not involved in the routine operation of Philadelphia's 9-1-1 system. To date, RAMS teams have been activated on multiple occasions, but fortunately the incidents were resolved without injury or loss of life. However, the program provides another valuable tool with which the City of Philadelphia can respond should another active shooter incident occur.

  9. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  10. Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

  11. Crystallization and activation of silicon by microwave rapid annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Ota, Kosuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayuta; Ushijima, Mitsuru; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    A combination of the carbon-powder absorber with microwave irradiation is proposed as a rapid heat method. 2-μm-diameter carbon powders with a packing density of 0.08 effectively absorbed 2.45 GHz 1000-W-microwave and heated themselves to 1163 °C for 26 s. The present heat treatment recrystallized n-type crystalline silicon surfaces implanted with 1.0 × 10^{15}hbox {-cm}^{-2}-boron and phosphorus atoms with crystalline volume ratios of 0.99 and 0.93, respectively, by microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 20 s. Activation and carrier generation were simultaneously achieved with a sheet resistivity of 62 Ω / hbox {sq}. A high photo-induced-carrier effective lifetime of 1.0 × 10^{-4} s was also achieved. Typical electrical current-rectified characteristic and solar cell characteristic with an efficiency of 12.1 % under 100-mW/cm2-air-mass-1.5 illumination were obtained. Moreover, heat treatment with microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 22 s successfully crystallized silicon thin films with thicknesses ranging from 2.4 to 50 nm formed on quartz substrates. Nano-crystalline cluster structure with a high volume ratio of 50 % was formed in the 1.8-nm (initial 2.4-nm)-thick silicon films. Photoluminescence around 1.77 eV was observed for the 1.8-nm-thick silicon films annealed at 260 °C in 1.3 × 106-Pa-H2O-vapor for 3 h after the microwave heating.

  12. Hydrophobic pinning with copper nanowhiskers leads to bactericidal properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available The considerable morbidity associated with hospitalized patients and clinics in developed countries due to biofilm formation on biomedical implants and surgical instruments is a heavy economic burden. An alternative to chemically treated surfaces for bactericidal activity started emerging from micro/nanoscale topographical cues in the last decade. Here, we demonstrate a putative antibacterial surface using copper nanowhiskers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, the control of biological response is based on hydrophobic pinning of water droplets in the Wenzel regime, causing mechanical injury and cell death. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the details of the surface morphology and non-contact mode laser scanning of the surface revealed the microtopography-associated quantitative parameters. Introducing the bacterial culture over nanowhiskers produces mechanical injury to cells, leading to a reduction in cell density over time due to local pinning of culture medium to whisker surfaces. Extended culture to 72 hours to observe biofilm formation revealed biofilm inhibition with scattered microcolonies and significantly reduced biovolume on nanowhiskers. Therefore, surfaces patterned with copper nanowhiskers can serve as potential antibiofilm surfaces. The topography-based antibacterial surfaces introduce a novel prospect in developing mechanoresponsive nanobiomaterials to reduce the risk of medical device biofilm-associated infections, contrary to chemical leaching of copper as a traditional bactericidal agent.

  13. Serum Bactericidal Assay: New Role in Salmonella Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Da; Sun, Min; Deng, Mingjun; Cui, Shuhua; Liang, Chengzhu; Geng, Juan; Sun, Tao; Long, Ling; Xiao, Xizhi

    2016-01-01

    While inspecting animal feed for Salmonella contamination, we routinely observed bacterial colonies on selective agars that were similar in appearance to those formed by Salmonella. These were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia fonticola using biochemical and serological techniques. Because the presence of these bacterial species confounds identification of Salmonella, we refer to them as "interference bacteria." Polyvalent antisera against these interference bacteria were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of all three organisms. To minimize or eliminate interference by these bacteria, the polyvalent antisera were introduced between the steps of selective enrichment and Salmonella-selective plating. The antisera raised against the interference bacteria, when combined with neonatal rabbit complement, exhibited specific bactericidal activity against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola. The respective serum bactericidal assay titers were 2(9), 2(8), and 2(10). In selective broth, polyvalent antisera could also kill the target bacterial cells effectively. We tested 526 samples (186 white fishmeal, 97 red fishmeal, and 243 cattle bone powder) using the polyvalent antisera and found that the rates of contamination of each species of the three respective foods decreased by 58.8, 100, and 83%. Our data indicates that polyvalent sera against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola can be used as inhibitors to increase the accuracy of Salmonella detection.

  14. Delayed bactericidal response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to bedaquiline involves remodelling of bacterial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koul, A.; Vranckx, L.; Dhar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in decades. Though BDQ has shown excellent efficacy in clinical trials, its early bactericidal activity during the first week of chemotherapy is minimal. Here, using mi...

  15. Rapid neurogenesis through transcriptional activation in human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busskamp, Volker; Lewis, Nathan E; Guye, Patrick; Ng, Alex H M; Shipman, Seth L; Byrne, Susan M; Sanjana, Neville E; Murn, Jernej; Li, Yinqing; Li, Shangzhong; Stadler, Michael; Weiss, Ron; Church, George M

    2014-11-17

    Advances in cellular reprogramming and stem cell differentiation now enable ex vivo studies of human neuronal differentiation. However, it remains challenging to elucidate the underlying regulatory programs because differentiation protocols are laborious and often result in low neuron yields. Here, we overexpressed two Neurogenin transcription factors in human-induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained neurons with bipolar morphology in 4 days, at greater than 90% purity. The high purity enabled mRNA and microRNA expression profiling during neurogenesis, thus revealing the genetic programs involved in the rapid transition from stem cell to neuron. The resulting cells exhibited transcriptional, morphological and functional signatures of differentiated neurons, with greatest transcriptional similarity to prenatal human brain samples. Our analysis revealed a network of key transcription factors and microRNAs that promoted loss of pluripotency and rapid neurogenesis via progenitor states. Perturbations of key transcription factors affected homogeneity and phenotypic properties of the resulting neurons, suggesting that a systems-level view of the molecular biology of differentiation may guide subsequent manipulation of human stem cells to rapidly obtain diverse neuronal types. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... methods: (a) By immersion of the utensil or equipment for at least 2 minutes in clean hot water at a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective bactericidal treatment. 1240.10 Section... DISEASES General Provisions § 1240.10 Effective bactericidal treatment. Whenever, under the provisions of...

  17. Bactericidal effect of S-nitrosothiols against clinical isolates from keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira MG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Angelino Julio Cariello,1 Paulo José Martins Bispo,2 Gabriela Freitas Pereira de Souza,3 Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari,2 Marcelo Ganzarolli de Oliveira,3 Ana Luisa Hofling-Lima11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, 3Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two nitric oxide donors, ie, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC, against clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis.Methods: Reference broth microdilution assays were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations for GSNO and SNAC against four American Type Culture Collection strains and 52 clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis as follows: 14 (26.9% Pseudomonas species; 13 (25.0% coagulase-negative Staphylococci; 10 (19.2% Staphylococcus aureus; nine (17.3% Serratia marcescens; and six (11.5% Enterobacter aerogenes. Sterility control and bacterial growth control were also performed.Results: SNAC showed lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations than GSNO for all clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis. For Gram-positive bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 and 8.6 ± 3.8 mM for SNAC and 4.6 ± 3.2 and 21.5 ± 12.5 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01. For Gram-negative bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.3 ± 1.4 and 6.1 ± 3.4 mM for SNAC and 12.4 ± 5.4 and 26.5 ± 10.1 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01. The minimum bactericidal to inhibitory concentration ratio was ≤8 in 100% of all isolates tested for SNAC and in 94.2% tested for GSNO.Conclusions: SNAC and GSNO had effective inhibitory and bactericidal effects against bacterial isolates from keratitis. SNAC showed greater antimicrobial activity than GSNO against all bacteria

  18. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Martha; Moehring, Danielle; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Núñez, Gabriel; Callaway, Justin; Ting, Jenny; Scurria, Mike; Ugo, Tim; Bernad, Laurent; Cali, James; Lazar, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity. This approach enables a specific and rapid determination of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 activity is stable in the reagent thereby providing assay convenience and flexibility. Using this assay system, caspase-1 activation has been determined in THP-1 cells following treatment with α-hemolysin, LPS, nigericin, gramicidin, MSU, R848, Pam3CSK4, and flagellin. Caspase-1 activation has also been demonstrated in treated J774A.1 mouse macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice, as well as in human primary monocytes. Caspase-1 activity was not detected in treated BMDMs derived from Casp1-/- mice, further confirming the specificity of the assay. Caspase-1 activity can be measured directly in cultured cells using the lytic reagent, or caspase-1 activity released into medium can be monitored by assay of transferred supernatant. The caspase-1 assay can be multiplexed with other assays to monitor additional parameters from the same cells, such as IL-1β release or cell death. The caspase-1 assay in combination with a sensitive real-time monitor of cell death allows one to accurately establish pyroptosis. This assay system provides a rapid, convenient, and flexible method to specifically and quantitatively monitor caspase-1 activation in cells in a plate-based format. This will allow a more efficient and effective

  19. Selenium-mediated protection in reversing the sensitivity of bacterium to the bactericidal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonglei; Tan, Jun; Shao, Lei; Dong, Xiaojing; Ye, Richard D; Chen, Daijie

    2017-05-01

    Inducing production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important criterion to distinguish the bactericidal antibiotics from bacteriostatic antibiotics. Selenoenzymes were generally recognized to be a powerful antioxidant capable of scavenging free radicals, protecting the cells from the harmful effects of ROS. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the selenium (Se)-mediated protection in reversing antibiotic sensitivity and the role of selenoenzymes in alleviating the negative effects of oxidative stress. The cellular antioxidant activity of Se-enriched bacteria was analyzed, as well as intracellular ROS production and elimination when Se-enriched bacteria in the presence of various antibiotics. Compared to complete inhibition of the parental strain by bactericidal antibiotics, it only exhibited slight and reversible inhibition of Se-enriched Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 at the same conditions, which indicated that intracellular selenium provided substantial protection against antibiotics. ROS generation caused by bactericidal antibiotics was confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry using 2', 7'-dichloro- uorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as substrate. The time course experiments of pretreatment with selenium showed significant decrease of ROS level at 2h. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence supporting selenoenzymes has good scavenging effect to ROS and can protect bacteria from oxidative stress injury induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Bactericidal effects of 310 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode irradiation on oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayuko; Matsushita, Kenji; Horioka, Satoru; Furuichi, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori

    2017-06-06

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is used for phototherapy in dermatology, and UVB light (around 310 nm) is effective for treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In addition, it is known that UVC light (around 265 nm) has a bactericidal effect, but little is known about the bactericidal effect of UVB light. In this study, we examined the bactericidal effects of UVB-light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on oral bacteria to explore the possibility of using a 310 nm UVB-LED irradiation device for treatment of oral infectious diseases. We prepared a UVB (310 nm) LED device for intraoral use to examine bactericidal effects on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sauguinis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and also to examine the cytotoxicity to a human oral epithelial cell line (Ca9-22). We also examined the production of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide from Ca9-22 cells after irradiation with UVB-LED light. Irradiation with the 310 nm UVB-LED at 105 mJ/cm(2) showed 30-50% bactericidal activity to oral bacteria, though 17.1 mJ/cm(2) irradiation with the 265 nm UVC-LED completely killed the bacteria. Ca9-22 cells were strongly injured by irradiation with the 265 nm UVC-LED but were not harmed by irradiation with the 310 nm UVB-LED. Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide were produced by Ca9-22 cells with irradiation using the 310 nm UVB-LED. P. gingivalis was killed by applying small amounts of those reactive oxygen species (ROS) in culture, but other bacteria showed low sensitivity to the ROS. Narrowband UVB-LED irradiation exhibited a weak bactericidal effect on oral bacteria but showed low toxicity to gingival epithelial cells. Its irradiation also induces the production of ROS from oral epithelial cells and may enhance bactericidal activity to specific periodontopathic bacteria. It may be useful as a new adjunctive therapy for periodontitis.

  1. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, I.V.; Sheveyko, A.N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Y.; Gloushankova, N.A.; Zhitnyak, I.Y. [N.N Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Kashirskoe shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Benesova, J. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Institute of Biophysics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, V Uvalu 84, Prague 15006 (Czech Republic); Amler, E. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    ) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with co-amoxiclav was also studied. The obtained results showed that the moderate bacteriostatic effect of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films is mainly manifested in the change of bacterial colony morphology and optical densities of bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the SLS-prepared samples showed a very rapid initial drug release resulting in strong bactericidal effect just from the start of the test and for as long as several days. Cytocompatibility and ALP activity tests demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a pronounced antibacterial effect compatible or even higher than that in the control sample (standard disk loaded with the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid mixture (30 μg)) without compromising the material biocompatibility and bioactivity.

  2. Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, P.H.S.; Boer, den L.; Ruyter-Spira, C.; Creemers-Molenaar, T.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.J.; Velde, te A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Honey has potent activity against both antibioticsensitive and -resistant bacteria, and is an interesting agent for topical antimicrobial application to wounds. As honey is diluted by wound exudate, rapid bactericidal activity up to high dilution is a prerequisite for its successful application. We

  3. Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, P. H. S.; de Boer, L.; Ruyter-Spira, C. P.; Creemers-Molenaar, T.; Helsper, J. P. F. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Zaat, S. A. J.; te Velde, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Honey has potent activity against both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria, and is an interesting agent for topical antimicrobial application to wounds. As honey is diluted by wound exudate, rapid bactericidal activity up to high dilution is a prerequisite for its successful application. We

  4. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    1997-04-15

    Apr 15, 1997 ... The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. ... (1991), where they observed X-class flares near the sites of. EFR. Wang & Shi (1993) suggested that ... region using the USΟ video magnetograph (Mathew et al. 1998). The active region. 233 ...

  5. A rapid assay for the biological evaluation of helicase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Andrea Brancale, Colin Berry & Sophia Kossida ### Abstract A new assay for the measurement of helicase enzyme activity was developed for the evaluation of the potency of potential inhibitors. This assay involves the use of a DNA or RNA duplex substrate and recombinant purified helicase. The DNA duplex consists of a pair of oligonucleotides, one of which is biotinylated and the other is digoxygenin (DIG)-labelled, both at their respective 5’ termini. This ...

  6. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  7. The cyclopentyl group, as a small but bulky terminal group, allows rapid and efficient active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Junya; Makita, Yoshimasa; Kihara, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-02

    Secondary ammonium salts bearing a cyclopentyl terminal group rapidly formed pseudorotaxane with 1.5 equiv of DB24C8. Acylation of the pseudorotaxane with 50 equiv of benzoyl chloride in the presence of 50 equiv of triethylamine in toluene afforded rotaxane, the product of active transport, in 95% yield. The cyclopentyl group is small enough to allow rapid formation of pseudorotaxane, and bulky enough to facilitate the quantitative active transport by steric repulsion.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur in plasma, interstitial fluid, and gastrointestinal tract of calves after subcutaneous injection, and bactericidal impacts on representative enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Jacob, M E; Warren, C D; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study's objectives were to determine intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in calves administered enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium subcutaneously, and their impact on representative enteric bacteria. Ultrafiltration devices were implanted in the ileum and colon of 12 steers, which received either enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium. Samples were collected over 48 h after drug administration for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella enterica (5 × 10(5) CFU/mL of each) were exposed in vitro to peak and tail (48 h postadministration) concentrations of both drugs at each location for 24 h to determine inhibition of growth and change in MIC. Enrofloxacin had tissue penetration factors of 1.6 and 2.5 in the ileum and colon, while ciprofloxacin, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was less able to cross into the intestine (tissue penetration factors of 0.7 and 1.7). Ceftiofur was rapidly eliminated leading to tissue penetration factors of 0.39 and 0.25. All concentrations of enrofloxacin were bactericidal for S. enterica and significantly reduced E. faecalis. Peak ceftiofur concentration was bactericidal for S. enterica, and tail concentrations significantly reduced growth. E. faecalis experienced growth at all ceftiofur concentrations. The MICs for both organisms exposed to peak and tail concentrations of antimicrobials were unchanged at the end of the study. Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur achieved intestinal concentrations capable of reducing intestinal bacteria, yet the short exposure of ceftiofur in the intestine may select for resistant organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bactericidal effect of colistin on planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa is independent of hydroxyl radical formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Toft, Anders; Ciofu, Oana

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of several major types of antibiotics has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the formation of toxic amounts of hydroxyl radicals (OH·) resulting from oxidative stress in metabolically active cells. Since killing by the antimicrobial peptide colistin does...... not require bacterial metabolic activity, we tested whether the bactericidal effect of colistin depends on the formation of OH·. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures, OH-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was demonstrated by decreased bacterial survival and induction of 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF......) fluorescence. OH·-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was further confirmed by rescue of cells and reduction of HPF fluorescence due to prevention of OH· accumulation by scavenging with thiourea, by chelating with dipyridyl, by decreasing metabolism as well as by anoxic growth. In contrast, no formation of OH...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of bactericidal silver nanoparticles using cultural filtrate of simulated microgravity grown Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Lee, Yang Soo

    2013-03-05

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using cultural filtrate of Klebsiella pneumoniae cultured under simulated microgravity and silver nitrate solution as precursor. The nanoparticles exhibited typical plasmon absorption maximum of silver nanoparticles between 405 and 407 nm. Spherical silver nanoparticles were found to have size between 15 and 37 nm by TEM analysis. XRD pattern corresponding to planes (111), (200), (220) (311) revealed the crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum proposed stabilization of silver nanoparticles by the protein molecules present in the cultural filtrate. The silver nanoparticles exhibited high bactericidal activity against Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and moderate bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pyogenes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Proteins Shape Host-Microbe Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We characterized bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins (BPIs of the squid Euprymna scolopes, EsBPI2 and EsBPI4. They have molecular characteristics typical of other animal BPIs, are closely related to one another, and nest phylogenetically among invertebrate BPIs. Purified EsBPIs had antimicrobial activity against the squid’s symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes light organ crypt epithelia. Activity of both proteins was abrogated by heat treatment and coincubation with specific antibodies. Pretreatment under acidic conditions similar to those during symbiosis initiation rendered V. fischeri more resistant to the antimicrobial activity of the proteins. Immunocytochemistry localized EsBPIs to the symbiotic organ and other epithelial surfaces interacting with ambient seawater. The proteins differed in intracellular distribution. Further, whereas EsBPI4 was restricted to epithelia, EsBPI2 also occurred in blood and in a transient juvenile organ that mediates hatching. The data provide evidence that these BPIs play different defensive roles early in the life of E. scolopes, modulating interactions with the symbiont.

  12. Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Sarkar, Sajal; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Banerjee, Bubun; Roy, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    Nanotechnology is now regarded as a distinct field of research in modern science and technology with multifaceted areas including biomedical applications. Among the various approaches currently available for the generation of metallic nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis is of increasing demand for the purpose of green nanotechnology. Among various natural sources, plant materials are the most readily available template-directing matrix offering cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness, and easy handling. Moreover, the inherent pharmacological potentials of these medicinal plant extracts offer added biomedical implementations of the synthesized metal nanoparticles. A robust practical method for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) as both reducing and capping agent, under the influence of direct sunlight has been developed without applying any other chemical additives. The nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited considerable antibacterial activity. The effects were more pronounced on non-endospore-forming Gram-positive bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes than endospore-forming species Bacillus subtilis. The nanoparticles also showed prominent activity on Gram-negative human pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and plant pathogenic Pantoea ananatis. A bactericidal mode of action was observed for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the nanoparticles. We have developed a very simple, efficient, and practical method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of O. sanctum under the influence of direct sunlight. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles making use of such a traditionally important medicinal plant without applying any other chemical additives

  13. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who is responsible...

  14. Modification of natural sorbent for providing it with bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemianova Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of water purification from chemical and microbiological contaminations is very important. Sorption technologies are one of the effective and easy-to-use water purification techniques. To prevent the growth of microbiological contaminations on the surface of investigated sorbents, the surface of the investigated sorbents was treated by aqueous solution of copper sulphate with the further study of bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity. The results of sorption efficiency of original and modified zeolite samples of Kholinsk deposit are presented in this paper. These results were obtained, when Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions were removed from the simulated solutions. It was concluded that it is possible to provide natural zeolites with bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties.

  15. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-01-01

    .... The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  16. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Knelman, Joseph E.; Graham, Emily B; Scott Ferrenberg; Aurélien Lecoeuvre; Amanda Labrado; Darcy, John L.; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    While past research has studied forest succession on decadal timescales, ecosystem responses to rapid shifts in nutrient dynamics within the first months to years of succession after fire (e.g., carbon (C) burn-off, a pulse in inorganic nitrogen (N), accumulation of organic matter, etc.) have been less well documented. This work reveals how rapid shifts in nutrient availability associated with fire disturbance may drive changes in soil enzyme activity on short timescales in forest secondary s...

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  18. The Application of Bactericidal Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geewoo Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Even with the prevalence of wounds, the medical technol‐ ogy for efficiently managing skin damage is still primitive. The disruption of any of the numerous healing processes can lead to problems in the time-sensitive healing actions of the dermal and epidermal layers. Bacterial infection is one of the major obstacles to proper wound healing as it poses a danger of causing long-term negative effects. Keeping the wound free of bacteria is imperative to the proper and hasty repair of dermal wounds. Silver has been widely used to treat wounds for its bactericidal properties. Although the mechanism of silver’s antibacterial action is not fully understood, it exhibits a significant antimicrobial efficacy against a wide spectrum of bacterial species. A number of different approaches to the mechanism are reported and presented in this review. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been reported to exhibit enhanced antibac‐ terial activity due to their increased surface-area-to-volume ratio. AgNPs are capable of various modifications, signifi‐ cantly broadening the therapeutic properties of the mate‐ rial as a result. This review explores the different aspects of silver and silver nanoparticles, and their antibacterial properties, which can be applied in the field of wound treatments.

  19. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseok Choi; Bomi Choi; Ju Tae Seo; Kyung Jin Lee; Myung Chan Gye; Young-Pil Kim

    2016-01-01

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) p...

  20. Music training enhances rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 source activation for unattended sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia eSeppänen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive studies demonstrate that long-term musical training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether musical training modulates also rapid (within tens of minutes neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity when compared to nonmusicians. More specifically, we examined the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to regular standard sounds in an oddball paradigm between unattended passive blocks which were separated by an active task. Source analysis for event-related potentials showed that N1 and P2 source activation decreased selectively in musicians already after fifteen minutes of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, event-related potential (ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and nonmusicians, P2 ERP amplitude enhanced after fifteen minutes of passive exposure but only at frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, N1 ERP enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 might reflect the faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians when compared to nonmusicians.

  1. [Study on synergistic effect of bactericidal effect of chlorine dioxide solution by surfactant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuitao; Tian, Vuena; Gu, Na; Zhang, Congjing; Niu, Jiajing

    2013-03-01

    To study the effect of gemini fluorocarbon, sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the chlorine dioxide solution sterilization to object surface. Pure chlorine dioxide solution as the reference disinfectant, carrier quantitative bactericidal test and simulated test on-site were used to carry out laboratory observation according to The disinfection technical specifications (2002). Carrier quantitative bactericidal test showed that the addition dosage of gemini fluoronates, sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60, 60 and 40 mg/L respectively, the killing log value of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dioxide 50 mg/L for 10 mm were all more than 3; and the addition dosage of gemini fluorinates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60 mg/L, the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dixoxide 20 mg/L for 10 min were all more than 3. The bactericidal effect of the mixture use of surfactant and chlorine dioxide was better than the single use of chlorine dioxide. The simulated test on-site showed that the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate 40 mg/L and chlorine dioxide 20 mg/L for 15 min was more than 3. Surface active agent on germicidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide solution had synergistic action.

  2. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  3. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  4. Stratification of nitrification activity in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Musovic, Sanin

    2013-01-01

    Rapid sand filters used in groundwater treatment remove ammonium, iron and manganese from the water. Ammonium is removed biologically by nitrifying microorganisms attached on the sand surface. Nitrification kinetics and activity is strongly affected by filter design and operation, which are the k...

  5. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid Muscle Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and neural activity, as measured with electroencephalography ( EEG ). One of the hallmarks of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is muscle inhibition and is...than the prior studies previously cited that relied on pharmaceuticals to induce REM sleep . Building on this known literature, we have generated pilot... sleep /wake component we may need to alter our experimental paradigm and test whether we can influence EEG activity after the animal is already in SWS

  7. Multi-biofunctional polymer graphene composite for bone tissue regeneration that elutes copper ions to impart angiogenic, osteogenic and bactericidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidev, L R; Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2017-11-01

    Despite several recent advances, poor vascularization in implanted scaffolds impedes complete regeneration for clinical success of bone tissue engineering. The present study aims to develop a multi-biofunctional nanocomposite for bone tissue regeneration using copper nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Cu) hybrid particles in polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix (PCL/RGO_Cu). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of copper oxides (CuO and Cu2O) on RGO. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 11.8% of copper was decorated on RGO. PCL/RGO_Cu exhibited steady release of copper ions in contrast to burst release from the composite containing copper alone (PCL/Cu). PCL/RGO_Cu exhibited highest modulus due to enhanced filler exfoliation. Endothelial cells rapidly proliferated on PCL/RGO_Cu confirming cytocompatibility. The sustained release of ions from PCL/RGO_Cu composites augmented tube formation by endothelial cells evidenced enhanced angiogenic activity. Gene expression of angiogenic markers VEGF and ANG-2 was higher on PCL/RGO_Cu compared to PCL. The osteogenic activity of PCL/RGO_Cu was confirmed by the 87% increase in mineral deposition by pre-osteoblasts compared to PCL. The bactericidal activity of PCL/RGO_Cu showed 78% reduction in viability of Escherichia coli. Thus, the multi-biofunctional PCL/RGO_Cu composite exhibits angiogenic, osteogenic and bactericidal properties, a step towards addressing some of the critical challenges in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radicals generated by the sonolysis and photolysis of hydrogen peroxide for endodontic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibi, Haruna; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tamura, Muneaki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Shimizu, Kohei; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Imai, Kenichi; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2017-02-01

    The aim of endodontic root canal treatment is the elimination of bacteria and their products from an infected tooth root canal. To effectively disinfect a root canal, an ultrasonic irrigation system, in which hydroxyl radicals (HO·) generated artificially by sonolysis of H2O2, was developed previously for endodontic applications and was demonstrated to have bactericidal efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis. To improve this system, we examined the in vitro bactericidal effects of HO· generated from H2O2, activated by simultaneous irradiation with ultrasound for sonolysis and dental LED light for photolysis with a peak wavelength of 405 nm. Regarding the LED irradiation, two methods were used: (i) 'ideal' experimental conditions (irradiation close to the glass tube), and (ii) simulated endodontic conditions (more distant irradiation of a masked glass tube). In these conditions, HO· generation from H2O2 was detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and bactericidal efficacy against E. faecalis was assessed by measuring the colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The results indicated that HO· generation by ESR measurements and the bactericidal effect on E. faecalis by viable count using CFU/mL were enhanced significantly in a time-dependent manner in both conditions. In a comparison of these conditions, bactericidal activity under 'ideal' experimental conditions was similar to that under simulated endodontic conditions. Moreover, the irradiation time for effective killing of E. faecalis through the sonolysis and photolysis of H2O2 under simulated endodontic conditions was shorter than that with sonolysis alone. These results demonstrate that H2O2 activated by ultrasound and LED light may be a safe and effective disinfection technique for endodontic root canal treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between

  10. Short Communication A study on the bactericidal effect of nisin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecular weight of nisin was characterized using SDS PAGE and it was found to be 3000 and 7000 Daltons. The study revealed that nisin exhibited bactericidal effect against some of the selected food-borne pathogens and hence can be effectively used in any food product to control either the Gram positive ...

  11. Efficiency of Chlorine Dioxide as a Bactericide1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarde, Melvin A.; Israel, Bernard M.; Olivieri, Vincent P.; Granstrom, Marvin L.

    1965-01-01

    We found chlorine dioxide to be a more effective disinfectant than chlorine in sewage effluent at pH 8.5. Chlorine dioxide was also found to be a more stable bactericide in relation to pH in the range studied. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5325940

  12. Disclosure of the quackery: Testing of the bactericidal action of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained results indicate a fraud: bactericidal effect is rather a result of photocatalytic action of a hidden component used on purpose in the production of glass or subsequently applied by the use of nanotechnology (possibly antimony trioxide or titanium oxide) than of the so-called ''orgon and hydronic technology''.

  13. Disclosure of the quackery: Testing of the bactericidal action of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... The obtained results indicate a fraud: bactericidal effect is rather a result of photocatalytic action of a hidden component used on purpose in the production of glass or subsequently applied by the use of nanotechnology (possibly antimony trioxide or ...

  14. Increased bactericidal/permeability increasing protein in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ruiz, Armando; Casafont, Fernando; Cobo, Marta; Terán, Alvaro; de-la-Peña, Joaquín; Estebanez, Angel; Pons-Romero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    High levels of endotoxin in patients with cirrhosis are thought to be responsible for the activation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha-mediated pro-inflammatory pathways involved in haemodynamic alterations. Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) is a protein found in neutrophils with endotoxin-binding and neutralization capacity. It is not known whether defective BPI production or release is present in cirrhosis. We investigated the levels of BPI in cirrhotic patients and its relation to other endotoxin-binding proteins and inflammatory markers. Plasmatic levels of BPI, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, soluble CD14, TNF-alpha and BPI mRNA expression in neutrophils were determined in 130 patients and 30 healthy controls. The capacity of patients' plasma to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated TNF-alpha production by monocytes from healthy donors was assessed in vitro. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited an increase in BPI mRNA and plasma level of BPI when compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). Child C group displayed the highest frequency of patients with a high concentration of BPI. A positive correlation was found between TNF-alpha and plasma levels of BPI (P<0.01). High levels of BPI in plasma were able to significantly reduce in vitro TNF-alpha release by monocytes after a challenge with LPS (8.54 +/- 1.04 vs. 10.44 +/- 0.85 pg/ml, P=0.028). BPI is increased in cirrhotic patients, especially in those with more severe liver disease. The amount of BPI in the plasma correlated with the TNF-alpha level and was able to reduce LPS-mediated TNF production by monocytes. BPI possibly plays a regulatory role by antagonizing the pro-inflammatory mechanisms mediated by TNF-alpha.

  15. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  16. Bacterial Iron Uptake Pathways: Gates for the Import of Bactericide Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Isabelle J; Mislin, Gaëtan L A

    2017-06-08

    Bacterial resistance to most antibiotics in clinical use has reached alarming proportions. A challenge for modern medicine will be to discover new antibiotics or strategies to combat multidrug resistant bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria for which the situation is particularly critical. Vectorization of bactericide compounds by siderophores (iron chelators produced by bacteria) is a promising strategy able to considerably increase the efficacy of drugs. Such a Trojan horse strategy can also extend activity of specific Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lingjing Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4‘, 4“(5“-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  18. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lingjing Pan; Yu, Guobing; Wen, Deyun; Chen, Zhi; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Chung-King; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4`, 4"(5")-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  19. Ovotransferrin plays a major role in the strong bactericidal effect of egg white against the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gonnet, Fabienne; Pasco, Maryvonne; Jardin, Julien; Giudici, Bérangère; Gautier, Michel; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Nau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus cereus group bacteria are opportunistically pathogenic spore-forming microorganisms well known in the sector of pasteurized food products because of their involvement in spoilage events. In the sector of egg product processing, these bacteria may lead to important economic losses. It seemed then relevant to study their behavior in egg white, a widely used egg product usually recognized as developing different levels of antimicrobial activities depending on the environmental conditions. A strong bactericidal effect (decrease in the bacterial population of 6.1 ± 0.2 log CFU/ml) was observed for 68 B. cereus group isolates, independently incubated at 30°C in egg white at pH 9.3 (natural egg white pH). To determine which components could explain such a strong bactericidal effect, an experimental strategy was carried out, based on egg white fractionation by ultrafiltration and by anion-exchange liquid chromatography. The role of the protein fraction was thus demonstrated, and subsequent nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses allowed identification of ovotransferrin as a major protein involved. The strong bactericidal effect was confirmed in the presence of commercial ovotransferrin. Such a bactericidal effect (i.e., a decrease in the bacterial population through cell death) had never been described because ovotransferrin is known for its bacteriostatic effect (i.e., inhibition of growth) due to its ability to chelate iron. Surprisingly, the addition of iron did not reverse the bactericidal effect of ovotransferrin under alkaline conditions (pH 9.3), whereas it completely reversed this effect at pH 7.3. Ovotransferrin was shown to provoke a perturbation of the electrochemical potential of the cytoplasmic membrane. A membrane disturbance mechanism could, hence, be involved, leading to the lysis of B. cereus group bacteria incubated in egg white.

  20. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  1. Bactericidal effects of triclosan in soap both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Moon, H; Lee, K; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    On December 2013, the US FDA proposed a rule stating that manufacturers must provide data to demonstrate that antibacterial soap is more effective than plain soap or water. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal effect of triclosan (the most widely used antiseptic agent in soap) in soap. Twenty bacterial strains (proposed by the FDA) were exposed to plain and antibacterial soaps (the same formulation as plain soap, but containing 0.3% triclosan) for 20 s at 22°C (room temperature) and 40°C (warm temperature). The temperature and time were selected to simulate the hand washing conditions and procedures used by consumers. The triclosan concentration of 0.3% is the maximum allowed by law. The decontamination efficacy of plain soap and antibacterial soap was also examined in vivo: the hands of volunteers were artificially inoculated with Serratia marcescens. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in bactericidal activity between plain soap and antibacterial soap at either test temperature. However, antibacterial soap showed significantly greater bactericidal effects after 9 h. These results suggest that although triclosan-containing soap does have antibacterial activity, the effects are not apparent during the short time required for hand washing. Antibacterial soap containing triclosan (0.3%) was no more effective than plain soap at reducing bacterial contamination when used under 'real-life' conditions. The present study provides practical information that may prove useful for both industry and governments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rapid kinetic BRET measurements to monitor G protein activation by GPCR and non-GPCR proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Marcin; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are central hubs of signal transduction whose activity is controlled by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as by a complex network of regulatory proteins. Recently, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assays have been used to monitor real-time activation of heterotrimeric G proteins in cells. Here we describe the use of a previously established BRET assay to monitor G protein activation upon GPCR stimulation and its adaptation to measure G protein activation by non-GPCR proteins, such as by cytoplasmic guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) like GIV/Girdin. The BRET assay monitors the release of free Gβγ from Gα-Gβγ heterotrimers as a readout of G protein activation, which is readily observable upon agonist stimulation of GPCRs. To control the signal input for non-GPCR activators, we describe the use of a chemically induced dimerization strategy to promote rapid membrane translocation of proteins containing the Gα-binding and -activating (GBA) motif found in some nonreceptor GEFs. The assay described here allows the kinetic measurement of G protein activation with subsecond temporal resolution and to compare the levels of activation induced by GPCR agonists vs those induced by the membrane recruitment of nonreceptor G protein signaling activators. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-04-16

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  4. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseok Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  5. Virus-associated activation of innate immunity induces rapid disruption of Peyer's patches in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Anz, David; Stephan, Nicolas; Bohn, Bernadette; Herbst, Tina; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Suhartha, Nina; Sandholzer, Nadja; Kobold, Sebastian; Hotz, Christian; Eisenächer, Katharina; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Endres, Stefan; Bourquin, Carole

    2013-10-10

    Early in the course of infection, detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate immune receptors can shape the subsequent adaptive immune response. Here we investigate the influence of virus-associated innate immune activation on lymphocyte distribution in secondary lymphoid organs. We show for the first time that virus infection of mice induces rapid disruption of the Peyer's patches but not of other secondary lymphoid organs. The observed effect was not dependent on an active infectious process, but due to innate immune activation and could be mimicked by virus-associated molecular patterns such as the synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C). Profound histomorphologic changes in Peyer's patches were associated with depletion of organ cellularity, most prominent among the B-cell subset. We demonstrate that the disruption is entirely dependent on type I interferon (IFN). At the cellular level, we show that virus-associated immune activation by IFN-α blocks B-cell trafficking to the Peyer's patches by downregulating expression of the homing molecule α4β7-integrin. In summary, our data identify a mechanism that results in type I IFN-dependent rapid but reversible disruption of intestinal lymphoid organs during systemic viral immune activation. We propose that such rerouted lymphocyte trafficking may impact the development of B-cell immunity to systemic viral pathogens.

  6. Analysis of α-glucosidase enzyme activity used in a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Setlow, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was to determine the sources, location and identity of α-glucosidases in dormant/germinating/outgrowing spores and growing cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, an enzymatic activity in spores used in rapid tests of steam sterilization. α-Glucosidase activity in spores and cells was determined measuring methylumbelliferyl-α-d-glucoside (α-MUG) or α-MUG-6-phosphate hydrolysis fluorometrically. While α-MUG-6-phosphate was not hydrolysed by cell or spore extracts, assays with α-MUG showed that: (1) the α-glucosidase activity was inside and outside spores, and the activity outside spores was largely removed by buffer washes or heat activation, whereas α-glucosidase activity was only inside vegetative cells; (2) most α-glucosidase activity in cells and spores was soluble; (3) Western blots and enzyme inhibition using an anti-α-glucosidase antiserum identified ≥2 α-glucosidases in spores and growing cells; (4) α-glucosidase-specific activities were similar in dormant, germinated and outgrowing spore and growing cell extracts; and (5) significant α-glucosidase was synthesized during spore germination and outgrowth and cell growth, this synthesis was not repressed by glucose nor induced by α-MUG, but glucose inhibited α-MUG uptake. α-MUG hydrolysis by G. stearothermophilus is by α-MUG uptake and hydrolysis by ≥2 α-glucosidases associated with dormant spores and synthesized by germinating and outgrowing spores. The enzyme activity observed by sterilization assurance assays appears likely to come from heat-stable enzyme in the spore core and enzyme(s) synthesized in spore outgrowth. The results of this work provide new insight into the science behind a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Interaction Of ZnO Nanoparticles With Food Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli DH5α and Staphylococcus aureus 5021 & Their Bactericidal Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pawan; Thakur, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    Bactericidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles (np) against the food borne pathogens E. coli DH5α (Gram-ve) and & S. aureus 5021 (Gram+ve), and the mechanism of their interaction with target microbes was studied. Bactericidal activity of ZnO np was attributed to disruption of cell membrane causing cytoplasmic leakage, which was measured by quantifying the leakage of nucleic acids, proteins and K+ ions from the cells using UV-VIS Spectrophotometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, respectively. Cell membrane disruption was observed through TEM. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO np are responsible for their biocidal properties.

  8. Rapid muscle activation and force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2008-01-01

    muscle activation and force capacity of chronically painful muscles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 42 women with chronic trapezius myalgia, and 20 healthy matched controls. Maximal capacity was determined as peak torque and peak EMG amplitude of the painful trapezius and painfree deltoid muscles......-analogue-scale. FINDINGS: Peak torque was 18% lower at 115 degrees shoulder joint angle in women with myalgia compared with healthy controls (Pmuscle (Ptorque development was 33-54% lower (P...BACKGROUND: The association between musculoskeletal pain and decreased maximal muscle strength capacity has been extensively studied, but knowledge about functional rapid force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate rapid...

  9. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  10. Real-time PCR for rapidly detecting aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashima, Takakazu; Suzuki, Hisako; Maeda, Toshinari; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2013-05-01

    We developed a detection method that uses quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the TaqMan system to easily and rapidly assess the population of aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge prior to conducting a biodegradability test on a chemical compound. A primer and probe set for qPCR was designed by a multiple alignment of conserved amino acid sequences encoding the large (α) subunit of aniline dioxygenase. PCR amplification tests showed that the designed primer and probe set targeted aniline-degrading strains such as Acidovorax sp., Gordonia sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Pseudomonas putida, thereby suggesting that the developed method can detect a wide variety of aniline-degrading bacteria. There was a strong correlation between the relative copy number of the α-aniline dioxygenase gene in activated sludge obtained with the developed qPCR method and the number of aniline-degrading bacteria measured by the Most Probable Number method, which is the conventional method, and a good correlation with the lag time of the BOD curve for aniline degradation produced by the biodegradability test in activated sludge samples collected from eight different wastewater treatment plants in Japan. The developed method will be valuable for the rapid and accurate evaluation of the activity of inocula prior to conducting a ready biodegradability test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While past research has studied forest succession on decadal timescales, ecosystem responses to rapid shifts in nutrient dynamics within the first months to years of succession after fire (e.g., carbon (C burn-off, a pulse in inorganic nitrogen (N, accumulation of organic matter, etc. have been less well documented. This work reveals how rapid shifts in nutrient availability associated with fire disturbance may drive changes in soil enzyme activity on short timescales in forest secondary succession. In this study, we evaluate soil chemistry and decomposition extracellular enzyme activity (EEA across time to determine whether rapid shifts in nutrient availability (1–29 months after fire might control microbial enzyme activity. We found that, with advancing succession, soil nutrients correlate with C-targeting β-1,4-glucosidase (BG EEA four months after the fire, and with N-targeting β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG EEA at 29 months after the fire, indicating shifting nutrient limitation and decomposition dynamics. We also observed increases in BG:NAG ratios over 29 months in these recently burned soils, suggesting relative increases in microbial activity around C-cycling and C-acquisition. These successional dynamics were unique from seasonal changes we observed in unburned, forested reference soils. Our work demonstrates how EEA may shift even within the first months to years of ecosystem succession alongside common patterns of post-fire nutrient availability. Thus, this work emphasizes that nutrient dynamics in the earliest stages of forest secondary succession are important for understanding rates of C and N cycling and ecosystem development.

  12. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  13. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  14. Evaluation of bactericidal action of 2-vinylpiridine copolymers containing quaternary ammonium groups and their charge transfer complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. S. Valle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of copolymers based on 2-vinylpyridine with different porosity degrees. The copolymers were quaternized with methyl iodide and acrylonitrile to introduce quaternary ammonium groups on pyridine units. To prepare charge transfer complexes, the unmodified copolymers and their derivatives quaternized were impregnated with iodine. The antibacterial properties of all the polymers were evaluated ranging from of the Escherichia coli strain. The unmodified copolymers did not have antibacterial activity against E.Coli suspensions. The quaternization with methyl iodine and acrylonitrile increased the biocidal performance of these copolymers, but only the copolymer with the lowest porosity modified with methyl iodine showed significant bactericidal action for all E. Coli concentrations. The 2-vinylpiridine copolymers quaternized and impregnated with iodine had higher antibacterial activity than the impregnated ones. The charge transfer complexes derived from the copolymer with the lowest porosity and highest swelling capacity in water had the best bactericidal performance.

  15. A shape memory foam composite with enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties as a hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, T L; Touchet, T; Hasan, S M; Smith, C; Russell, B; Rivera, J; Maitland, D J; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage accounts for more than 30% of trauma deaths worldwide. Current hemostatic devices focus primarily on time to hemostasis, but prevention of bacterial infection is also critical for improving survival rates. In this study, we sought to improve on current devices used for hemorrhage control by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling capacity of hydrogels. In addition, a hydrogel composition was selected that readily complexes with elemental iodine to impart bactericidal properties to the device. The focus of this work was to verify that the advantages of each respective material (SMP foam and hydrogel) are retained when combined in a composite device. The iodine-doped hydrogel demonstrated an 80% reduction in bacteria viability when cultured with a high bioburden of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrogel coating of the SMP foam increased fluid uptake by 19× over the uncoated SMP foam. The composite device retained the shape memory behavior of the foam with more than 15× volume expansion after being submerged in 37°C water for 15 min. Finally, the expansion force of the composite was tested to assess potential tissue damage within the wound during device expansion. Expansion forces did not exceed 0.6N, making tissue damage during device expansion unlikely, even when the expanded device diameter is substantially larger than the target wound site. Overall, the enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties of the shape memory foam composite indicate its strong potential as a hemostatic agent to treat non-compressible wounds. No hemostatic device currently used in civilian and combat trauma situations satisfies all the desired criteria for an optimal hemostatic wound dressing. The research presented here sought to improve on current devices by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling

  16. Activation of raphe nuclei triggers rapid and distinct effects on parallel olfactory bulb output channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikrant; Provost, Allison C; Agarwal, Prateek; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-02-01

    The serotonergic raphe nuclei are involved in regulating brain states over timescales of minutes and hours. We examined more rapid effects of raphe activation on two classes of principal neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb, mitral and tufted cells, which send olfactory information to distinct targets. Brief stimulation of the raphe nuclei led to excitation of tufted cells at rest and potentiation of their odor responses. While mitral cells at rest were also excited by raphe activation, their odor responses were bidirectionally modulated, leading to improved pattern separation of odors. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that specific optogenetic activation of raphe axons affected bulbar neurons through dual release of serotonin and glutamate. Therefore, the raphe nuclei, in addition to their role in neuromodulation of brain states, are also involved in fast, sub-second top-down modulation similar to cortical feedback. This modulation can selectively and differentially sensitize or decorrelate distinct output channels.

  17. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT2 receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high...... densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT2 receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT2 receptor...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  18. Layer-by-layer nanocoating of live Bacille-Calmette-Guérin mycobacteria with poly(I:C) and chitosan enhances pro-inflammatory activation and bactericidal capacity in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Martin Tobias; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease burden globally causing more than 1.5 million deaths per year. The attenuated live vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although providing protection against childhood TB, is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB. A major aim therefore is to increase the potency of the BCG vaccine to generate stronger and more sustained immunity against TB. Here, we investigated the use of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating of the surface of live BCG with several layers of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a strong inducer of cell-mediated immunity, and the biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan to enhance BCG immunogenicity. Nanocoating of live BCG did not affect bacterial viability or growth in vitro but induced killing of the BCG in infected mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and enhanced macrophage production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expression of surface co-stimulatory molecules relative to uncoated BCG. In addition, poly(I:C) surface-coated BCG, but not BCG alone or together with soluble poly(I:C), induced high production of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-12. These results argue that BCG and surface absorbed poly(I:C) act in a synergistic manner to elicit pro-inflammatory macrophage activation. In conclusion, nanocoating of live BCG with the immunostimulatory agent poly(I:C) may be an appropriate strategy to enhance and modulate host responses to the BCG vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Cell-Based Assay for Detection and Quantification of Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2017-03-01

    Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat. In vivo bioassays that measure emetic activity in kitten and monkeys have been used, but these methods rely upon expensive procedures using live animals and raising ethical concerns. A rapid (5 h) quantitative bioluminescence assay, using a genetically engineered T-cell Jurkat cell line expressing luciferase under regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells response elements, in combination with the lymphoblastoid B-cell line Raji for antigen presentation, was developed. In this assay, the detection limit of biologically active SED is 100 ng/mL, which is 10 times more sensitive than the splenocyte proliferation assay, and 105 times more sensitive than monkey or kitten bioassay. Pasteurization or repeated freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on SED activity, but reduction in SED activity was shown with heat treatment at 100°C for 5 min. It was also shown that milk exhibits a protective effect on SED. This bioluminescence assay may also be used to rapidly evaluate antibodies to SED for potential therapeutic application as a measurement of neutralizing biological effects of SED. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Rapid NK-cell activation in chicken after infection with infectious bronchitis virus M41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelde, L; Matthijs, M G R; van Haarlem, D A; de Wit, J J; Jansen, C A

    2013-02-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes and play an important role in the early defence against viruses. In this study we focussed on NK cell and interferon (IFN) responses after infection with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Based on surface expression of CD107+, enhanced activation of lung NK cells was observed at 1 dpi, whereas in blood prolonged NK-cell activation was found. IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA and proteins were not rapidly induced whereas IFN-γ production in lung, measured by Elispot assay, increased over time at 2 and 4 dpi. In contrast, IFN-γ production in blood was highest at 1 dpi and decreased over time down to levels comparable to uninfected birds at 4 dpi. Collectively, infection with IBV-M41 resulted in activation of NK cells in the lung and blood and rapid production of IFN-γ and not IFN-α and IFN-β compared to uninfected birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  2. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  4. Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; McFeters, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two rapid in situ enumeration methods using fluorescent probes were used to assess the physiological activities of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms on stainless steel. Fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), were chosen to perform this study. CTC is a soluble redox indicator which can be reduced by respiring bacteria to fluorescent CTC-formazan crystals. Rh 123 is incorporated into bacteria with respect to cellular proton motive force. The intracellular accumulation of these fluorescent dyes can be determined using epifluorescence microscopy. The results obtained with these two fluorescent probes in situ were compared to the plate count (PC) and in situ direct viable count (DVC) methods. Viable cell densities within biofilms determined by the three in situ methods were comparable and always showed approximately 2-fold higher values than those obtained with the PC method. As an additional advantage, the results were observed after 2 h, which was shorter than the 4 h incubation time required for the DVC method and 24 h for colony formation. The results indicate that staining with CTC and Rh 123 provides rapid information regarding cell numbers and physiological activities of bacteria within biofilms.

  5. Rapid regulation of endoplasmic reticulum dynamics in dendritic spines by NMDA receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ai Na; Doherty, Andrew J; Lombroso, Paul J; Emptage, Nigel J; Collingridge, Graham L

    2014-08-19

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is motile within dendritic spines, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation are poorly understood. To address this issue, we have simultaneously imaged morphology and ER content of dendritic spines in cultured dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons. Over a 10 min period, spines were highly dynamic, with spines both increasing and decreasing in volume. ER was present in approximately 50% of spines and was also highly dynamic, with a net increase over this period of time. Inhibition of the endogenous activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a reduction in ER growth. Conversely, augmentation of the synaptic activation of NMDA receptors, by elimination of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), resulted in enhanced ER growth. Therefore, NMDA receptors rapidly regulate spine ER dynamics.

  6. Early bactericidal activity of ethambutol, pyrazinamide and the fixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in viable counts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum collections during the 2 days following the start of treatment was estimated from counts of colony-fonning units (CFUs) of M. tuberculosis per ml of sputum cultured on selective 7H1 0 agar medium. The EBA for ethambutol determined in 9 patients was 0.245 ± 0.046, ...

  7. Early bactericidal activity of ethambutol, pyrazinamide and the fixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Pharmacology, Internal Medicine and Paediatrics and Child ... Department of Medical Microbiology, St George's Hospital, London, UK. D. A Mitchison, FRC .... The mean EBA for the combined tablet. Table I. Counts of viable M. tuberculosis in sputum collections. Viable count log,o CFU/ml sputum. Error. Drug.

  8. Serum bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I. M. E.; van Deuren, M.; Sprong, T.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Namavar, F.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; van der Meer, J. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    The two major primary antibody deficiency disorders are X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CVID patients have an elevated risk for gastric cancer and extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Both diseases are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  9. Rapid and quantitative measuring of telomerase activity using an electrochemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin; Jia, Li

    2007-11-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to the 3'end of chromosomal DNA for maintaining chromosomal integrity and stability. This strong association of telomerase activity with tumors establishing it is the most widespread cancer marker. A number of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for the evaluation of telomerase activity. However, those methods require gel electrophoresis and some staining procedures. We developed an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor for the measuring of telomerase activity to overcome these problems such as troublesome post-PCR procedures and semi-quantitative assessment in the conventional method. In this assay 5'-biotinylated telomerase synthesis (TS) primer serve as the substrate for the extension of telomeric repeats under telomerase. The extension products were amplified with this TS primer and a tris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled reversed primer. The amplified products was separated and enriched in the surface of electrode by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Measuring telomerase activity use the sensor is easy, sensitive, rapid, and applicable to quantitative analysis, should be clinically useful for the detection and monitoring of telomerase activity.

  10. Dexamethasone rapidly suppresses IL-33-stimulated mast cell function by blocking transcription factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Anuya; Chernushevich, Oksana; Qayum, Amina Abdul; Spence, Andrew J; Taruselli, Marcela T; Abebayehu, Daniel; Barnstein, Brian O; McLeod, Jamie Josephine Avila; Baker, Bianca; Bajaj, Gurjas S; Chumanevich, Alena P; Oskeritzian, Carole A; Ryan, John J

    2016-12-01

    Mast cells are critical effectors of allergic disease and can be activated by IL-33, a proinflammatory member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-33 worsens the pathology of mast cell-mediated diseases, but therapies to antagonize IL-33 are still forthcoming. Because steroids are the mainstay of allergic disease treatment and are well known to suppress mast cell activation by other stimuli, we examined the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on IL-33-mediated mast cell function. We found that dexamethasone potently and rapidly suppressed cytokine production elicited by IL-33 from murine bone marrow-derived and peritoneal mast cells. IL-33 enhances IgE-mediated mast cell cytokine production, an activity that was also antagonized by dexamethasone. These effects were consistent in human mast cells. We additionally observed that IL-33 augmented migration of IgE-sensitized mast cells toward antigen. This enhancing effect was similarly reversed by dexamethasone. Simultaneous addition of dexamethasone with IL-33 had no effect on the phosphorylation of MAP kinases or NFκB p65 subunit; however, dexamethasone antagonized AP-1- and NFκB-mediated transcriptional activity. Intraperitoneal administration of dexamethasone completely abrogated IL-33-mediated peritoneal neutrophil recruitment and prevented plasma IL-6 elevation. These data demonstrate that steroid therapy may be an effective means of antagonizing the effects of IL-33 on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, acting partly by suppressing IL-33-induced NFκB and AP-1 activity. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. In vivo bactericidal efficacy of farnesol on Ti6Al4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, J A; Delgado-Rastrollo, M; Pacha-Olivenza, M A; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Quiles, M; González-Martín, M L; Gallardo-Moreno, A M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the in vivo anti-staphylococcal bactericidal activity of farnesol on Ti6Al4V surfaces. An experimental model of infection in biomaterials was developed by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 into the canal of both femurs of 15 Wistar rats. A Ti6Al4V pin impregnated with 30mM of farnesol was inserted into study femur, and a Ti6Al4V control was inserted into the control femur. To evaluate the bactericidal efficacy, a comparison was made between the median of the colony forming units recovered after inoculation in the study group and the control group for different times of euthanasia and inoculum size. The median expressed as Log10 CFU counts obtained with farnesol titanium pin was 4.26, and in control group, it was 4.86, which was statistically significant (P=.001) on applying the Student t test for related samples. The median reduction obtained in farnesol pins relative to the control was 74%. Treatment with farnesol 30mM on Ti6Al4V pins appears to decrease the rate of colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Toxic Metabolic Perturbations that Lead to Cellular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Belenky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how antibiotics impact bacterial metabolism may provide insight into their mechanisms of action and could lead to enhanced therapeutic methodologies. Here, we profiled the metabolome of Escherichia coli after treatment with three different classes of bactericidal antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones. These treatments induced a similar set of metabolic changes after 30 min that then diverged into more distinct profiles at later time points. The most striking changes corresponded to elevated concentrations of central carbon metabolites, active breakdown of the nucleotide pool, reduced lipid levels, and evidence of an elevated redox state. We examined potential end-target consequences of these metabolic perturbations and found that antibiotic-treated cells exhibited cytotoxic changes indicative of oxidative stress, including higher levels of protein carbonylation, malondialdehyde adducts, nucleotide oxidation, and double-strand DNA breaks. This work shows that bactericidal antibiotics induce a complex set of metabolic changes that are correlated with the buildup of toxic metabolic by-products.

  13. Analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the MDPB bactericidal effect on S. mutans biofilm CLSM analysis of MDPB bactericidal effect on biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since bacteria remain in the dentin following caries removal, restorative materials with antibacterial properties are desirable to help maintaining the residual microorganisms inactive. The adhesive system Clearfil Protect Bond (PB contains the antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB in its primer, which has shown antimicrobial activity. However, its bactericidal effect against biofilm on the dentin has been little investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and viable bacteria counting (CFU the MDPB bactericidal effect against S. mutans biofilm on the dentin surface. Material and methods: Bovine dentin surfaces were obtained and subjected to S. mutans biofilm formation in BHI broth supplemented with 1% (w/v sucrose for 18 h. Samples were divided into three groups, according to the primer application (n=3: Clearfil Protect Bond (PB, Clearfil SE Bond, which does not contain MDPB, (SE and saline (control group. After the biofilm formation, Live/ Dead stain was applied directly to the surface of each sample. Next, 10 µL of each primer were applied on the samples during 590 s for the real-time CLSM analysis. The experiment was conducted in triplicate. The primers and saline were also applied on the other dentin samples during 20, 90, 300 and 590 s (n=9 for each group and period evaluated and the CFU were assessed by colonies counting. Results: The results of the CLSM showed that with the Se application, although non-viable bacteria were detected at 20 s, there was no increase in their count during 590 s. In contrast, after the PB application there was a gradual increase of non-viable bacteria over 590 s. Conclusions: The quantitative analysis demonstrated a significant decrease of S. mutans CFU at 90 s PB exposure and only after 300 s of Se application. Protect Bond showed an earlier antibacterial effect than Se Bond.

  14. Rapid estimation of activation enthalpies for cytochrome-P450-mediated hydroxylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeno, Arthur N; Robinson, Jonathan L; Reisfeld, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a critical role in detoxication and bioactivation of xenobiotics; thus, the ability to predict the biotransformation rates and regioselectivity of CYP enzymes toward substrates is an important goal in toxicology and pharmacology. Here, we present the use of the semiempirical quantum chemistry method SAM1 to rapidly estimate relative activation enthalpies (ΔH(‡)) for the hydroxylation of aliphatic carbon centers of various substrates. The ΔH(‡) were determined via a reaction path calculation, in the reverse direction (RRP), using the iron-hydroxo-porphine intermediate and the substrate radical. The SAM1 ΔH(‡) were calculated via unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and configuration interaction (CI) formalisms for both the doublet and quartet spin states. The SAM1 RRP ΔH(‡), after subtracting a correction factor, were compared with density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP activation energies for two sets of substrates and showed R(2) ranging from 0.69 to 0.89, and mean absolute differences ranging from 1.2 ± 1.0 to 1.7 ± 1.5 kcal/mol. SAM1 UHF and CI RRP calculation times were, on average, more than 200 times faster than those for the corresponding forward reaction path DFT calculations. Certain key transition-state (TS) geometry measurements, such as the forming O···H bond length, showed good correlation with the DFT values. These results suggest that the SAM1 RRP approach can be used to rapidly estimate the DFT activation energy and some key TS geometry measurements and can potentially be applied to estimate substrate hydroxylation rates and regioselectivity by CYP enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. CE: Original research: hospital system barriers to rapid response team activation: a cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Jane Saucedo

    2015-02-01

    The goal of rapid response team (RRT) activation in acute care facilities is to decrease mortality from preventable complications, but such efforts have been only moderately successful. Although recent research has shown decreased mortality when RRTs are activated more often, many hospitals have low activation rates. This has been linked to various hospital, team, and nursing factors. Yet there is a dearth of research examining how hospital systems shape nurses' behavior with regard to RRT activation. Making systemic constraints visible and modifying them may be the key to improving RRT activation rates and saving more lives. The purpose of this study was to use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical-surgical nurses' RRT activation behavior. Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems. This framework was used as the organizing element of the study. Qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain data to fill the framework's five domains: resources, tasks, strategies, social systems, and worker competency. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical-surgical nurses and document review. Directed content analysis was used to place the obtained data into the framework's predefined domains. Many system factors affected participants' decisions to activate or not activate an RRT. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to "handle" these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT

  16. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  17. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  18. Internal Porosity of Mineral Coating Supports Microbial Activity in Rapid Sand Filters for Groundwater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    prokaryotes in filter material with various degrees of mineral coating. We also examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral coating. The amount of mineral coating correlated positively with the internal porosity, the packed bulk density, and the biologically available surface area.......6 μm) of the mineral coating, which had a thickness of up to 600 ± 51 μm. Environmental scanning electron microscopic (E-SEM) observations suggested an extracellular polymeric substance-rich matrix and submicron-sized bacterial cells. Nitrifier diversity profiles were similar irrespective of the degree...... of mineral coating, as indicated by pyrosequencing analysis. Overall, our results demonstrate that mineral coating positively affects microbial colonization and activity in rapid sand filters, most likely due to increased volumetric cell abundances facilitated by the large surface area of internal mineral...

  19. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  20. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Xian; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2017-03-17

    The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  1. Synergistic antibiotic effect of looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 with bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Yang, Ya; Tian, Zhiqiang; Lv, Jun; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2017-08-22

    The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents. Third, the underlying mechanism of antibiotic effect was likely associated with stimulation of hydroxyl radical generation. Lastly, CLP-19 was shown to effectively reduce the antibiotic-induced liberation of LPS, through direct neutralization of the LPS. Thus, CLP-19 is a potential therapeutic agent for combinatorial antibiotic therapy.

  2. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Arfilli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stx have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h, radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins.

  3. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfilli, Valentina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Torresani, Erminio; Scavia, Gaia; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h), radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins). PMID:26556372

  4. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  5. [Analysis of bactericidal material generated by electrical devices advertising bactericidal ability against bacteria on the agar gel plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    Several Japanese companies sell electrical devices advertised as effective in inactivating viruses and killing bacteria by releasing special materials, e.g., Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particle and minus ions, into the air. These companies claim that their devices killed bacteria on plates in their own experiments. We tested device effectiveness using the same experiments from the Plasmacluster ioniser SHARP Co., Japan, the Nanoe generator Panasonic Co., Japan, and the Vion KING JIM Co., Japan, to test their advertising claims. Bactericidal ability on agar plate was tested, using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis as follows: the medium containing a certain amount of each bacterium was put onto an agar plate and smeared. Plates were kept in a closed chamber (inner volume 14.4 m3) or a glove box (inner volume 0.2 m), with one of the devices run for 2 hours. Plates not exposed to any device were used as controls. Each plate was retrieved and put in an incubator to count the number of bacterial colonies formed on the plate. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies on plates exposed to devices compared to control, in the number for all devices, or in all bacteria tested in experiments in the 14.4 m3 chamber. These results strongly suggest that these devices have almost no bactericidal effect, at least in space exceeding this volume. Colony formation was suppressed in the glove box in all devices and in all bacteria tested except P. aeruginosa, although the degree of suppression differed among experiments. The colony formation suppression mechanism was analyzed, and indicated that:colony formation did not change even after the removal of Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particles, or negative ions from the air, while colony formation was decreased drastically by the removal of ozone from space, which was revealed to be generated inevitably during device operation. These results strongly suggest that the

  6. Middle Ear Prosthesis with Bactericidal Efficacy—In Vitro Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ziąbka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must possess appropriate biological properties, such as biocompatibility, stability, no cytotoxicity. Due to the risk of infection (otitis media and chronic otitis media, it is desirable to use an antibacterial agent for illness prevention during the ossicular reconstruction. The goal of this work was to observe biological properties of a new composite prosthesis made of ABS containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 45T. Samples for biological tests and then a prototype of middle ear prosthesis were prepared using injection moulding and extrusion techniques. In vitro experiments were carried out to assess bactericidal efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa standard strains, cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity, using Hs680.Tr. fibroblast cells. Surface parameters of the samples were evaluated, including roughness and wettability. The silver ions were continually released from the polymer in aqueous solution. The silver ions release was measured as increasing with time and concentration of the silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. No cytotoxicity effect was observed, while bactericidal efficacy was noticed for silver nanoparticles. The roughness studies showed an increase in roughness for the samples with silver nanoparticles. All polymer and composite materials containing silver nanoparticles showed hydrophilic properties. The composites were found to release silver ions at a concentration level capable of rendering the antimicrobial efficacy even with the lowest concentration of silver nanoparticles in the material. Our results demonstrate that middle ear prosthesis made of polymer and silver nanoparticles may eliminate bacteria during inflammation in the middle ear.

  7. Middle Ear Prosthesis with Bactericidal Efficacy-In Vitro Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziąbka, Magdalena; Dziadek, Michał; Menaszek, Elżbieta; Banasiuk, Rafał; Królicka, Aleksandra

    2017-10-10

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must possess appropriate biological properties, such as biocompatibility, stability, no cytotoxicity. Due to the risk of infection (otitis media and chronic otitis media), it is desirable to use an antibacterial agent for illness prevention during the ossicular reconstruction. The goal of this work was to observe biological properties of a new composite prosthesis made of ABS containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 45T). Samples for biological tests and then a prototype of middle ear prosthesis were prepared using injection moulding and extrusion techniques. In vitro experiments were carried out to assess bactericidal efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa standard strains, cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity, using Hs680.Tr. fibroblast cells. Surface parameters of the samples were evaluated, including roughness and wettability. The silver ions were continually released from the polymer in aqueous solution. The silver ions release was measured as increasing with time and concentration of the silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. No cytotoxicity effect was observed, while bactericidal efficacy was noticed for silver nanoparticles. The roughness studies showed an increase in roughness for the samples with silver nanoparticles. All polymer and composite materials containing silver nanoparticles showed hydrophilic properties. The composites were found to release silver ions at a concentration level capable of rendering the antimicrobial efficacy even with the lowest concentration of silver nanoparticles in the material. Our results demonstrate that middle ear prosthesis made of polymer and silver nanoparticles may eliminate bacteria during inflammation in the middle ear.

  8. Rapid activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels by immobile G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, Robert M; Pereira, Miguel A; Lambert, Nevin A

    2006-11-29

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate slow synaptic transmission and many other effects of small molecule and peptide neurotransmitters. In the standard model of GPCR signaling, receptors and G-proteins diffuse laterally within the plane of the plasma membrane and encounter each other by random collision. This model predicts that signaling will be most efficient if both GPCRs and G-proteins are free to diffuse, thus maximizing collision frequency. However, neuronal GPCRs are often recruited to and enriched at specific synaptic locations, suggesting receptor mobility is restricted in these cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that restricting GPCR mobility impairs signaling in neurons by limiting the frequency of collisions between receptors and G-proteins. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) were immobilized on the surface of cerebellar granule neurons by avidin-mediated cross-linking, and inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels were used as rapid indicators of G-protein activation. Mobile and immobile MORs activated GIRK channels with the same onset kinetics and agonist sensitivity in these neurons. In a heterologous expression system, GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged G alpha(oA) subunits remained mobile after cross-linking, but their mobility was reduced in the presence of immobile MORs, suggesting that these receptors and subunits were transiently precoupled. In addition, channel activation could be reconstituted with immobile GPCRs, G-protein heterotrimers, and GIRK channels. These results show that collision frequency is not rate-limiting for G-protein activation in CNS neurons, and are consistent with the idea that signaling components are compartmentalized or preassembled.

  9. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms Based on Active and Passive Modes of QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Farka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Label-free immunosensors are well suited for detection of microorganisms because of their fast response and reasonable sensitivity comparable to infection doses of common pathogens. Active (lever oscillator and frequency counter and passive (impedance analyzer modes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM were used and compared for rapid detection of three strains of E. coli. Different approaches for antibody immobilization were compared, the immobilization of reduced antibody using Sulfo‑SMCC was most effective achieving the limit of detection (LOD 8 × 104 CFU·mL−1 in 10 min. For the passive mode, software evaluating impedance characteristics in real-time was developed and used. Almost the same results were achieved using both active and passive modes confirming that the sensor properties are not limited by the frequency evaluation method but mainly by affinity of the antibody. Furthermore, reference measurements were done using surface plasmon resonance. Effect of condition of cells on signal was observed showing that cells ruptured by ultrasonication provided slightly higher signal changes than intact microbes.

  11. Activated Carbon Fibers "Thickly Overgrown" by Ag Nanohair Through Self-Assembly and Rapid Thermal Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Xu, Sijun; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2017-11-01

    Anisotropic nanomaterial-modified carbon fibers attract increasing attention because of their superior properties over traditional ones. In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) "thickly overgrown" by Ag nanohair were prepared through self-assembly and rapid thermal annealing. Viscose fibers with well-dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces were first prepared through self-assembly of hyperbranched poly(amino-amine) (HBPAA)-capped AgNPs on viscose surfaces. HBPAA endowed the AgNP surfaces with negative charges and abundant amino groups, allowing AgNPs to monodispersively self-assemble to fiber surfaces. Ag nanohair-grown ACFs were prepared by sequential pre-oxidation and carbonization. Because the carbonization furnace was open-ended, ACFs are immediately transferrable to the outside of the furnace. Therefore, the Ag liquid adsorbed by ACF pores squeezed out to form Ag nanowires through thermal contraction. FESEM characterization indicated that Ag nanohairs stood on ACF surface and grew from ACF caps. XPS and XRD characterization showed that Ag successfully assembled to fiber surfaces and retained its metallic state even after high-temperature carbonization. TG analysis suggested that Ag nanohair-grown ACFs maintained their excellent thermal stabilities. Finally, the fabricated ACFs showed excellent and durable antibacterial activities, and the developed method may provide a potential strategy for preparing metal nanowire-grown ACFs.

  12. Activated Carbon Fibers "Thickly Overgrown" by Ag Nanohair Through Self-Assembly and Rapid Thermal Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Xu, Sijun; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2017-11-09

    Anisotropic nanomaterial-modified carbon fibers attract increasing attention because of their superior properties over traditional ones. In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) "thickly overgrown" by Ag nanohair were prepared through self-assembly and rapid thermal annealing. Viscose fibers with well-dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces were first prepared through self-assembly of hyperbranched poly(amino-amine) (HBPAA)-capped AgNPs on viscose surfaces. HBPAA endowed the AgNP surfaces with negative charges and abundant amino groups, allowing AgNPs to monodispersively self-assemble to fiber surfaces. Ag nanohair-grown ACFs were prepared by sequential pre-oxidation and carbonization. Because the carbonization furnace was open-ended, ACFs are immediately transferrable to the outside of the furnace. Therefore, the Ag liquid adsorbed by ACF pores squeezed out to form Ag nanowires through thermal contraction. FESEM characterization indicated that Ag nanohairs stood on ACF surface and grew from ACF caps. XPS and XRD characterization showed that Ag successfully assembled to fiber surfaces and retained its metallic state even after high-temperature carbonization. TG analysis suggested that Ag nanohair-grown ACFs maintained their excellent thermal stabilities. Finally, the fabricated ACFs showed excellent and durable antibacterial activities, and the developed method may provide a potential strategy for preparing metal nanowire-grown ACFs.

  13. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Wilham

    2010-12-01

    prion and amyloid seeding assays. End point dilution RT-QuIC provides a sensitive, rapid, quantitative, and high throughput assay of prion seeding activity.

  14. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  15. Improved Neural Signal Classification in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task Using Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Wu, Dongrui; Slayback, David; Lance, Brent J

    2016-03-01

    The application space for brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies is rapidly expanding with improvements in technology. However, most real-time BCIs require extensive individualized calibration prior to use, and systems often have to be recalibrated to account for changes in the neural signals due to a variety of factors including changes in human state, the surrounding environment, and task conditions. Novel approaches to reduce calibration time or effort will dramatically improve the usability of BCI systems. Active Learning (AL) is an iterative semi-supervised learning technique for learning in situations in which data may be abundant, but labels for the data are difficult or expensive to obtain. In this paper, we apply AL to a simulated BCI system for target identification using data from a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to minimize the amount of training samples needed to initially calibrate a neural classifier. Our results show AL can produce similar overall classification accuracy with significantly less labeled data (in some cases less than 20%) when compared to alternative calibration approaches. In fact, AL classification performance matches performance of 10-fold cross-validation (CV) in over 70% of subjects when training with less than 50% of the data. To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the use of AL for offline electroencephalography (EEG) calibration in a simulated BCI paradigm. While AL itself is not often amenable for use in real-time systems, this work opens the door to alternative AL-like systems that are more amenable for BCI applications and thus enables future efforts for developing highly adaptive BCI systems.

  16. Evidence for the presence of cell-surface-bound and intracellular bactericidal toxins in the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kichul; Wencheng, Li; Takeshita, Satoshi; Seo, Jung-Kil; Chung, Young-Ho; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Heterocapsa circularisquama, a harmful dinoflagellate, has multiple haemolytic toxins that are considered to be involved in the toxic mechanism against shellfish and certain species of zooplankton. To evaluate the further nature of the toxins of H. circularisquama, we investigated its effects on several species of bacteria. By colony formation assay, we found that H. circularisquama had antibacterial activity toward the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus in a cell density-dependent manner. When the inoculated bacterial cells were co-cultured with H. circularisquama under dinoflagellate cell culture conditions, the bacterial growth was significantly suppressed, whereas the number of live bacterial cells increased when cultured in the medium alone. Since the cell-free culture supernatant and the ruptured dinoflagellate cell suspension showed no toxic effects on V. alginolyticus, it is speculated that direct cell-to-cell contact mediated by the live dinoflagellate cells may be the major toxic mechanism. The decrease in bactericidal activity of theca-removed dinoflagellate cells may further support this speculation. H. circularisquama also showed bactericidal activities towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the dinoflagellate/bacteria co-culture system, the number of live bacterial cells declined with increasing incubation time. Light-dependent antibacterial activity of the ruptured dinoflagellate cells against S. aureus was observed, whereas no such activity was detected against E. coli. These results suggest that intracellular photosensitising bactericidal toxins, which were previously found to be porphyrin derivatives, may have specificity towards gram-positive bacteria. Based on these results together with previous studies, it is obvious that H. circularisquama possesses antibacterial activity, which may be mediated through toxins located on its cell surface. It is likely that such toxins play a role in the defence mechanism against predators

  17. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an ``elongate and capture'' procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and

  18. Rapid product analysis and increased sensitivity for quantitative determinations of botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Benjamin; Schmidt, James J; Smith, Leonard A; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2010-01-15

    The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the N-terminal light chain (Lc) domain and is used extensively as the primary target toward therapeutic development against botulism. Here we describe an improved method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) whereby quantitative data were obtained in 1/10th the time using 1/20th the sample and solvent volumes compared with a widely used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We also synthesized a VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-based peptide containing an intact V1 motif that was efficiently used as a substrate by BoNT/D Lc. Although serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue, we were able to distinguish the two reactions by UPLC. The new method can accurately quantify as low as 7 pmol of the peptide substrates for BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, and D. We also report here that the catalytic efficiency of serotype A can be stimulated 35-fold by the addition of Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture. Combining the use of Triton X-100 with the newly introduced UPLC method, we were able to accurately detect very low levels of proteolytic activity in a very short time. Sensitivity of the assay and accuracy and rapidity of product analysis should greatly augment efforts in therapeutic development.

  19. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunakaran, C., E-mail: karunakaranc@rediffmail.com; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu{sub 2}O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH){sub 2}. But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO.

  20. Bactericidal Antibiotics Do Not Appear To Cause Oxidative Stress in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress can be an important contributor to the lethal effect of bactericidal antibiotics in some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, despite the different target-specific actions of bactericidal antibiotics, they have a common mechanism leading to bacterial...... self-destruction by internal production of hydroxyl radicals. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a similar mechanism is involved in antibiotic killing of the infectious human pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. We treated wild-type L. monocytogenes and oxidative stress mutants (Δsod...... and Δfri) with three different bactericidal antibiotics and found no difference in killing kinetics. In contrast, wild-type E. coli and an oxidative stress mutant (ΔsodA ΔsodB) differed significantly in their sensitivity to bactericidal antibiotics. We conclude that bactericidal antibiotics did not appear...

  1. Hydrodynamic Voltammetry as a Rapid and Simple Method for Evaluating Soil Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Sazawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzymes play essential roles in catalyzing reactions necessary for nutrient cycling in the biosphere. They are also sensitive indicators of ecosystem stress, therefore their evaluation is very important in assessing soil health and quality. The standard soil enzyme assay method based on spectroscopic detection is a complicated operation that requires the removal of soil particles. The purpose of this study was to develop a new soil enzyme assay based on hydrodynamic electrochemical detection using a rotating disk electrode in a microliter droplet. The activities of enzymes were determined by measuring the electrochemical oxidation of p-aminophenol (PAP, following the enzymatic conversion of substrate-conjugated PAP. The calibration curves of β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-glucosidase (β-glu and acid phosphatase (AcP showed good linear correlation after being spiked in soils using chronoamperometry. We also performed electrochemical detection using real soils. Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry can be used to assess the AcP in soils, with a detection time of only 90 s. Linear sweep voltammetry was used to measure the amount of PAP released from β-gal and β-glu by enzymatic reaction after 60 min. For the assessment of soil enzymes, the results of hydrodynamic voltammetry assay compared favorably to those using a standard assay procedure, but this new procedure is more user-friendly, rapid and simple.

  2. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  3. Cell-free expression of protein kinase a for rapid activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leippe, Donna M; Zhao, Kate Qin; Hsiao, Kevin; Slater, Michael R

    2010-05-19

    Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag((R)) fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  4. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase a for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag ® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  5. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase A for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  6. Music training enhances rapid neural plasticity of n1 and p2 source activation for unattended sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Miia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have demonstrated that long-term music training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether music training also modulates rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this phenomenon, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity compared to non-musicians. More specifically, we compared the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to standard sounds between four unattended passive blocks. Among the standard sounds, infrequently presented deviant sounds were presented (the so-called oddball paradigm). In the middle of the experiment (after two blocks), an active task was presented. Source analysis for event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that N1 and P2 source activation was selectively decreased in musicians after 15 min of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation was found to be re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and non-musicians, P2 ERP amplitude was enhanced after 15 min of passive exposure but only at the frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, the N1 ERP was enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at the parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid neural plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 is likely to reflect faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians.

  7. Bactericidal Antibiotics Increase Hydroxyphenyl Fluorescein Signal by Altering Cell Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm; Wang, Ying; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2014-01-01

    It was recently proposed that for bactericidal antibiotics a common killing mechanism contributes to lethality involving indirect stimulation of hydroxyl radical (OH center dot) formation. Flow cytometric detection of OH center dot by hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF) probe oxidation was used...... to support this hypothesis. Here we show that increased HPF signals in antibiotics-exposed bacterial cells are explained by fluorescence associated with increased cell size, and do not reflect reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. Independently of antibiotics, increased fluorescence was seen...... for elongated cells expressing the oxidative insensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP). Although our data question the role of ROS in lethality of antibiotics other research approaches point to important interplays between basic bacterial metabolism and antibiotic susceptibility. To underpin...

  8. Bactericidal effects of reactive thermal plasma synthesized titanium dioxide photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, M [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Sreekumar, K P [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Stengl, Vaclav [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bondioli, Federica [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905 - 41100 Modena (Italy); Selvarajan, V, E-mail: vselvrjn47@rediffmail.co

    2010-02-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide powder has been synthesized by reactive plasma processing. The precursor powder of TiH{sub 2} was oxidized 'in-flight' in a thermal plasma reactor to effect complete conversion of TiH{sub 2} to nano-sized TiO{sub 2} powder. Characterization of the powder by various analytical tools indicated that the powder consisted of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles consisting predominantly of the anatase phase. Bactericidal action of illuminated TiO{sub 2} on pure culture of Escherichia coli was studied. The plasma synthesized TiO{sub 2}nano powder catalyst was found to be highly effective for the killing of Escherichia coli. The efficiency of photocatalytic disinfection, used to inactivate Escherischia coli as function of time is discussed.

  9. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  10. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    arithmetic mean recurrence, λ, for the full records (λ=0.007 and 0.0125 Myr). This period of inactivity is coincident with a dramatic carbon isotopic excursion (i.e. warmest part of the IETM) and heavily skews statistical analyses for both records. Dramatic global warming appears to exert a strong control on inhibiting turbidity current activity; whereas the effects of sea level change are not shown to be statistically significant. Rapid global warming is often implicated as a potential landslide trigger, due to dissociation of gas hydrates in response to elevated ocean temperatures. Other studies have suggested that intense global warming may actually be attributed to the atmospheric release of gas hydrates following catastrophic failure of large parts of a continental slope. Either way, a greater intensity of landslide and resultant turbidity current activity would be expected during the IETM; however, our findings are to the contrary. We offer some explanations in relation to potential triggers. Our work suggests that previous rapid global warming at the IETM did not trigger more frequent turbidity currents. This has direct relevance to future assessments relating to landslide-triggered tsunami hazard, and breakage of subsea cables by turbidity currents.

  11. Rapid activated sludge respiration inhibition test performed by CO2 producing rate using a carbon dioxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Noboru; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Shoji, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    The rapid activated sludge inhibition test (rapid ASRI) is one of the promising bioassays to evaluate environmental risk to the ecosystem caused by various pollutants. To improve the sensitivity and stability of ASRI, the CO2 producing rate (CPR) using a carbon dioxide gas sensor was employed to examine the respiration activity of activated sludge and to compare it to that by the conventional activated sludge respiration inhibition test using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by EC50 values derived from dose response curve. Detection of respiratory activity based on CPR has higher reliability and sensitivity than that of OUR. It should be noted that the sensitivity of CPR for evaluating toxicity is sufficiently high in terms of derived dose response curve of some model environmental pollutants and the resultant EC50 values.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles With High Loading Capacity Of Amphotericin B: Characterization, Bactericidal And Antifungal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Victoria; Alasino, Roxana Valeria; Muñoz, Adrián; Beltramo, Dante Miguel

    2017-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most appropriate conditions to generate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded with a potent antimycotic drug like amphotericin B (AmB), characterize the physicochemical properties, and also evaluate the cytotoxic effect and biological activity of these new nanostructures as a potential nanocarrier for hydrophobic drugs. It was determined that the optimal molar ratio between Ag and AmB is 1/1 given the uniformity of size around 1750 nm of the nanoparticles generated as well as their strongly negative ζ potential of -27 mV, a condition that favors repulsions between AgNPs and inhibiting their aggregation. In this condition, only 0.8 mg.mL-1 of Ag is needed to solubilize 5 mg.mL-1 of AmB, a concentration currently used in commercial formulations. It is important to emphasize that the loading capacity (w/w) of this nanostructure is much higher than that of micellar and liposomal formulations. These AgNP-AmB nanoparticles retain both the bactericidal effect of silver and the cytotoxic and antifungal effect of AmB. However, it was shown that these nanoparticles are spontaneously associated with plasma lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), inhibiting their cytotoxic effects on red blood cells and on at least two cell lines, Vero and H1299 and slightly reducing its bactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa. In contrast, the antifungal effect of the formulation is maintained and is even higher than that when the nanoparticle is not associated with lipoproteins, indicating that this association is of the reversible type. The characterization of these nanoparticles is discussed as a potential new model formulation able to improve the antifungal therapeutic efficiency of AmB. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Session 6: Bactericidal indoor air decontamination on TiO{sub 2}-based photo-catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, V.; Keller, N.; Garin, F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Lett, M.C. [Laboratoire d' Expression des Genomes et de Microorganismes (LGM), 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2004-07-01

    The innovative approach of our work is focused on the indoor air decontamination on TiO{sub 2}-based photo-catalysts for applications in places with high infection and contamination risks, such as hospitals, collectivities or even for domestic use. The bactericidal activity of a series of photo-catalysts is evaluated for the Escherichia coli (typical dimensions of 1 x 4 {mu}m) photo-killing on: (i) commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 (Degussa), (ii) TiO{sub 2} prepared by sol-gel methods and (iii) chemically and electronically modified TiO{sub 2}, such as binary and ternary coupled semiconductor systems, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}-{beta}-SiC, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}-{beta}-SiC. The second innovation concerns the especially built bio-photo-catalytic device, made of a bacteria-supplying continuous system coupled to a photo-reactor. The survival ratio and physiological states of bacteria have been determined as a function of time on stream on the series of photo-catalysts given previously, by measurement of cellular ATP or by viability staining. Morphology of dead bacteria was also investigated by electronic microscopy. The evolution of the survival ratio of the bacteria with time on stream will be presented in details. The kinetic of photo-killing rate in function of UV intensity, of photo-catalyst content and on the 'bacteria flow rate and concentration' will be discussed in details. A possible mechanism of bactericidal effect through cell attack and destruction will be proposed. (authors)

  14. A rapid, sensitive, simple plate assay for detection of microbial alginate lyase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Shailesh S; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Kim, Beom Soo

    2015-09-01

    Screening of microorganisms capable of producing alginate lyase enzyme is commonly carried out by investigating their abilities to grow on alginate-containing solid media plates and occurrence of a clearance zone after flooding the plates with agents such as 10% (w/v) cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), which can form complexes with alginate. Although the CPC method is good, advantageous, and routinely used, the agar in the media interferes with the action of CPC, which makes judgment about clearance zones very difficult. In addition, this method takes a minimum of 30 min to obtain the zone of hydrolysis after flooding and the hydrolyzed area is not sharply discernible. An improved plate assay is reported herein for the detection of extracellular alginate lyase production by microorganisms. In this method, alginate-containing agar plates are flooded with Gram's iodine instead of CPC. Gram's iodine forms a bluish black complex with alginate but not with hydrolyzed alginate, giving sharp, distinct zones around the alginate lyase producing microbial colonies within 2-3 min. Gram's iodine method was found to be more effective than the CPC method in terms of visualization and measurement of zone size. The alginate-lyase-activity area indicated using the Gram's iodine method was found to be larger than that indicated by the CPC method. Both methods (CPC and Gram's iodine) showed the largest alginate lyase activity area for Saccharophagus degradans (ATCC 43961) followed by Microbulbifer mangrovi (KCTC 23483), Bacillus cereus (KF801505) and Paracoccus sp. LL1 (KP288668) grown on minimal sea salt medium. The rate of growth and metabolite production in alginate-containing minimal sea salt liquid medium, followed trends similar to that of the zone activity areas for the four bacteria under study. These results suggested that the assay developed in this study of Gram's iodine could be useful to predict the potential of microorganisms to produce alginate lyase. The method also

  15. Size tuning of Ag-decorated TiO₂ nanotube arrays for improved bactericidal capacity of orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Simchi, A; Bagheri, R

    2014-08-01

    Surface modification of orthopedic implants using titanium dioxide nanotubes and silver nanoparticles (SNs) is a promising approach to prevent bacteria adhesion, biofilm formation, and implant infection. Herein, we utilized a straightforward and all-solution process to prepare silver-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays with surface density of 10(3) to 10(4) per µm(2). With controlling the synthesis conditions, hexagonal closed-packed nanotubes with opening diameter of 30-100 nm that are decorated with SNs with varying sizes (12-40 nm) were prepared. Various analytical techniques were utilized to characterize the size, morphology, distribution, valance state, surface roughness, and composition of the prepared antibacterial films. The bactericidal capacity of the films were studied on Escherichia coli (E. coli) by drop-test method and correlated with the size and percentage of Ag as well as the surface density of TiO2 nanotube arrays. Synergetic effect of TiO2 nanotubes and SNs on the antibacterial activity of the composite films is shown. The bactericidal capacity is found to depend on the size characteristics of the Ag-TiO2 coating. The highest antibacterial activity is obtained for TiO2 nanotubes with opening diameter of about 100 nm and SNs with an average size of 20 nm. MTT assay using osteoblast MG63 cells was performed to examine the cell viability. We suggest that release rate of the silver ions is an important factor controlling the antibacterial activity. Additionally, the size dependency of the bactericidal capacity implies that electrical coupling between silver and TiO2 nanotubes and improved hydrophobicity of the coating might influence the bacterial behavior of the hybrid nanostructures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. 20 CFR 665.330 - Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.330 Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WIA are made available to workers who, under the NAFTA Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182), are...

  18. Synthesis and bactericidal ability of Ag/TiO 2 composite films deposited on titanium plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Lixiang; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Sheng; Xie, Yongjian; Huang, Chunming; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we develop a bactericidal coating material for micro-implant, TiO 2 films with Ag deposited on were prepared on titanium plates by sol-gel process. Their anti-microbial properties were analyzed as a function of the annealed temperature using Escherichia coli as a benchmark microorganism. Ag nanoparticles deposited on TiO 2 film were of metallic nature and could grow to larger ones when the annealed temperature increased. The results indicated that the smaller size of Ag nanoparticles, the better bactericidal ability. On the other hand, the positive antibacterial effect of TiO 2 enhanced the bactericidal effect of Ag.

  19. Patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes of 1151 rapid response team activations in a tertiary hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K; Scott, I A; Bernard, A; McCulloch, K; Vaux, A; Joyce, C; Sullivan, C M

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of mature contemporary rapid response systems are unclear. To determine the patient characteristics, processes and outcomes, both in-hospital and post-discharge, of a well-established rapid response system in a tertiary adult hospital. This is a prospective study of consecutive rapid response team (RRT) activations between 1 July and 25 November 2015. Variables included patient characteristics, timing, location and triggers of RRT activations, interventions undertaken, mortality and readmission status at 28 days post-discharge. A total of 1151 RRT activations was analysed (69.1 per 1000 admissions), involving 800 patients, of whom 81.5% were emergency admissions. A total of 351 (30.5%) activations comprised repeat activations for the same patient. Most activations (723; 62.8%) occurred out of hours, and 495 (43%) occurred within 48 h of admission. Hypotension, decreased level of consciousness and oxygen desaturation were the most common triggers. Advanced life support was undertaken in less than 7%; 198 (17.2%) responses led to transfer to higher-level care units. Acute resuscitation plans were noted for only 29.1% of RRT activations, with 80.3% stipulating supportive care only. A total of 103 (12.6%) patients died in hospital, equalling 14 deaths per 100 RRT activations. At 28 days, 150 (18.8%) patients had died, significantly more among those with multiple versus single RRT activations (24.9 vs 16.6%; odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.44; P = 0.013). Relatively few RRT activations are associated with acute resuscitation plans, and most interventions during RRT responses are low level. The high rate of post-RRT deaths and transfers to higher-level care units calls for the prospective identification of such patients in targeting appropriate care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Immobilized silver nanoparticles enhance contact killing and show highest efficacy: elucidation of the mechanism of bactericidal action of silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Mukherji, Soumyo; Mukherji, Suparna

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial materials with immobilized/entrapped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of considerable interest. There is significant debate on the mode of bactericidal action of AgNPs, and both contact killing and/or ion mediated killing have been proposed. In this study, AgNPs were immobilized on an amine-functionalized silica surface and their bactericidal activity was studied concurrently with the silver release profile over time. This was compared with similar studies performed using colloidal AgNPs and AgCl surfaces that released Ag ions. We conclude that contact killing is the predominant bactericidal mechanism and surface immobilized nanoparticles show greater efficacy than colloidal AgNPs, as well as a higher concentration of silver ions in solution. In addition, the AgNP immobilized substrate was used multiple times with good efficacy, indicating this immobilization protocol is effective for retaining AgNPs while maintaining their disinfection potential. The antibacterial surface was found to be extremely stable in aqueous medium and no significant leaching (~1.15% of total silver deposited) of the AgNPs was observed. Thus, immobilization of AgNPs on a surface may promote reuse, reduce environmental risks associated with leaching of AgNPs and enhance cost effectiveness.Antimicrobial materials with immobilized/entrapped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of considerable interest. There is significant debate on the mode of bactericidal action of AgNPs, and both contact killing and/or ion mediated killing have been proposed. In this study, AgNPs were immobilized on an amine-functionalized silica surface and their bactericidal activity was studied concurrently with the silver release profile over time. This was compared with similar studies performed using colloidal AgNPs and AgCl surfaces that released Ag ions. We conclude that contact killing is the predominant bactericidal mechanism and surface immobilized nanoparticles show greater efficacy than colloidal Ag

  1. Rapid EEG desynchronization and EMG activation induced by intravenous cocaine in freely moving rats: a peripheral, nondopamine neural triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Smirnov, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    Many important physiological, behavioral, and psychoemotional effects of intravenous (IV) cocaine (COC) are too fast and transient compared with pharmacokinetic predictions, suggesting a possible involvement of peripheral neural mechanisms in their triggering. In the present study, we examined changes in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and neck electromyogram (EMG) induced in freely moving rats by IV COC administration at low, reinforcing doses (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) and compared them with those induced by an auditory stimulus and IV COC methiodide, which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. We found that COC induces rapid, strong, and prolonged EEG desynchronization, associated with decrease in alpha and increase in beta and gamma activities, and EMG activation and that both begin within 2-6 s following the start of a 10-s injection; immediate components of this effect were dose independent. The rapid COC-induced changes in EEG and EMG resembled those induced by an auditory stimulus; the latter effects had shorter onset latencies and durations and were fully blocked during urethane anesthesia. Although urethane anesthesia completely blocked COC-induced EMG activation and rapid components of EEG response, COC still induced EEG desynchronization that was much weaker, greatly delayed (approximately 60 s), and associated with tonic decreases in delta and increases in alpha, beta, and gamma activities. Surprisingly, IV saline delivered during slow-wave sleep (but not quite wakefulness) also induced a transient EEG desynchronization but without changes in EMG activity; these effects were also fully blocked during anesthesia. Peripherally acting COC methiodide fully mimicked rapid EEG and EMG effects of regular COC, but the effects at an equimolar dose were less prolonged than those with regular COC. These data suggest that in awake animals IV COC, like somato-sensory stimuli, induces cortical activation and a subsequent motor response via its action on peripheral neural

  2. Characterizing rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins via sub-second hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J

    2013-11-01

    This review outlines the application of time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TRESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to study rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins. The method is implemented on a microfluidic chip which incorporates all sample-handling steps required for a 'bottom-up' HDX workflow: a capillary mixer for sub-second HDX labeling, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray. By combining short HDX labeling pulses with rapid digestion, this approach provides a detailed characterization of the structural transitions that occur during protein folding, ligand binding, post-translational modification and catalytic turnover in enzymes. This broad spectrum of applications in areas largely inaccessible to conventional techniques means that microfluidics-enabled TRESI-MS/HDX is a unique and powerful approach for investigating the dynamic basis of protein function. © 2013 FEBS.

  3. Segregation and rapid turnover of EDEM1 by an autophagy-like mechanism modulates standard ERAD and folding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Tito; Galli, Carmela; Olivari, Silvia; Molinari, Maurizio

    2008-07-04

    EDEM1 is a crucial regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) that extracts non-native glycopolypeptides from the calnexin chaperone system. Under normal growth conditions, the intralumenal level of EDEM1 must be low to prevent premature interruption of ongoing folding programs. We report that in unstressed cells, EDEM1 is segregated from the bulk ER into LC3-I-coated vesicles and is rapidly degraded. The rapid turnover of EDEM1 is regulated by a novel mechanism that shows similarities but is clearly distinct from macroautophagy. Cells with defective EDEM1 turnover contain unphysiologically high levels of EDEM1, show enhanced ERAD activity and are characterized by impaired capacity to efficiently complete maturation of model glycopolypeptides. We define as ERAD tuning the mechanisms operating in the mammalian ER at steady state to offer kinetic advantage to folding over disposal of unstructured nascent chains by selective and rapid degradation of ERAD regulators.

  4. Null bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by LEDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alcántara Muñoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to assess the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet light emitted by LEDS on the growth on Petri dishes of microorganisms whose legal limits in foods have been established. An electrically fed apparatus has been designed with precise timing and a camera to prevent light spillage, in which two ultraviolet radiation emission devices were connected by LED technology at different wavelengths: through an array of LEDS emitting at around 350nm, and a single specific emission LED at 280nm. 1000 cfu of E. Coli and S. aureus sown on PCA were used as prototypes of gram negative and positive bacteria, respectively, onto which ultraviolet light was radiated at different time intervals, by means of both devices, with the whole experiment being carried out in triplicate . In none of the three series of treatments at the two wavelengths were reductions in microbial growth observed. The series of sowings on PCA were done on unseeded plates in order to be able to discard the likelihood of subsequent recontamination.

  5. Highly bactericidal Ag nanoparticle films obtained by cluster beam deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Emanuele; De Cesari, Sebastiano; Landini, Giulia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gavioli, Luca

    2015-08-01

    The recent emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to most or all available antibiotics is among the major global public health problems. As indirect transmission through contaminated surfaces is a main route of dissemination for most of such pathogens, the implementation of effective antimicrobial surfaces has been advocated as a promising approach for their containment, especially in the hospital settings. However, traditional wet synthesis methods of nanoparticle-based antimicrobial materials leave a number of key points open for metal surfaces: such as adhesion to the surface and nanoparticle coalescence. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, i.e. supersonic cluster beam deposition, to obtain antimicrobial Ag nanoparticle films deposited directly on surfaces. The synthesized films are simple to produce with controlled density and thickness, are stable over time, and are shown to be highly bactericidal against major Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens, including extensively drug-resistant strains. The use of silver nanoparticle in health care is getting more widespread. The authors here describe the technique of cluster beam deposition for spraying silver on surfaces used in health care sectors. This may open a new avenue for future anti-bacterial coatings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  7. Bactericidal effect of starch-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosaferi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that nonstabilized Fe 0 nanoparticles have higher bactericidal efficiency than that of S-NZVI. This investigation also suggests that NZVI can be used as an effective and strong agent for antimicrobial applications.

  8. Comparison of Broth and Human Serum as the Diluent in the Serum Bactericidal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, F. D.; Williams, R. D.; Vosti, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The use of serum rather than broth as the diluent in the serum bactericidal test results in a significant decrease in the test level among patients receiving highly protein-bound semisynthetic penicillins. PMID:1137355

  9. The study of cellulosic fabrics impregnated with porphyrin compounds for use as photo-bactericidal polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah, E-mail: rahimi_rah@iust.ac.ir [Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fayyaz, Fatemeh [Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rassa, Mehdi [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the preparation of cellulosic fabrics bearing two types of photo-sensitizers in order to prepare efficient polymeric materials for antimicrobial applications. The obtained porphyrin-grafted cellulosic fabrics were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–Vis (DRUV) spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antimicrobial activity of the prepared porphyrin-cellulose was tested under visible light irradiation against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomunas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of two parameters on photo-bactericidal activity of treated fibers was studied: illumination time and concentration of photosensitizers (PS). - Highlights: • Cellulosic fabrics were impregnated with various concentrations of porphyrins (TAPP and its zinc ion complex). • The products were characterized by ATR-FTIR, DRUV, SEM and TG. • The photo-antibacterial activity of products was determined against S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli. • The effect of two parameters were studied on photoinactivation of treated fibers: illumination time and concentration of PS.

  10. Transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Yang, Ping-Hsi; Kao, Chia-Ling; Huang, Han-I; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (LFB), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. We constructed an expression plasmid in which LFB was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. After microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of GFP appearance. Among them, a stable ZBL-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of GFP. Using PCR and Western blot analysis, we confirmed that the recombinant LFB-GFP protein was produced by the F2 progeny derived from the ZBL-5 line. The bactericidal agar plate assay proved that the functional domain of LFB was released from the LFB-GFP fusion protein, resulting in strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, adult zebrafish were given one feeding of fifty 72-hpf transgenic embryos. The treated fish were then immersed in freshwater containing 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1)E. tarda for 7 days. The survival rate of the treated zebrafish was significantly higher than that of fish fed with fifty wild-type embryos (75 +/- 12.5% versus 4 +/- 7.2%). This line of evidence suggested that pathogen resistance can be enhanced by using transgenic embryos containing LFB-GFP as a food supplement for fish, while, at the same time, reducing the demand of chemical antibiotics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid Extract of Mycoplasma penetrans Proteinase K-Digested Lipid-Associated Membrane Proteins Rapidly Activates NF-κB and Activator Protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shaw-Huey; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    1999-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-α production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located ...

  12. Rapid antibacterial activity of 2 novel hand soaps: evaluation of the risk of development of bacterial resistance to the antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Ingrid M; Gilman, Allan; Shintre, Milind S; Modak, Shanta M

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of and risk of organisms developing resistance to 2 novel hand soaps: (1) a soap containing triclosan, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (TPB soap); and (2) a soap containing farnesol, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (FPB soap). Tests also included soaps containing only triclosan. The risk of emergence of resistant bacterial mutants was investigated by determining the susceptibility changes after repeated exposure of bacteria to the drugs and soaps in vitro. The effectiveness of the soaps was evaluated using an in vitro tube dilution method, a volunteer method (the ASTM standard), and 2 pig skin methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of triclosan against Staphylococcus aureus increased 8- to 62.5-fold, whereas those of TPB and FPB (both alone and in soap) were unchanged. In vitro, TPB and FPB soaps produced higher log(10) reductions in colony-forming units of all tested organisms (4.95-8.58) than did soaps containing triclosan alone (0.29-4.86). In the test using the pig skin and volunteer methods, TPB soap produced a higher log(10) reduction in colony-forming units (3.1-3.3) than did the soap containing triclosan alone (2.6-2.8). The results indicate that TPB and FPB soaps may provide superior rapid and broad-spectrum efficacy with a lower risk of organisms developing resistance than do soaps containing triclosan alone. Pig skin methods may be used to predict the efficacy of antibacterial soaps in the rapid disinfection of contaminated hands. Hand washing with TPB and FPB soaps by healthcare workers and the general population may reduce the transmission of pathogens, with a lower risk of promoting the emergence of resistant organisms.

  13. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. Conclusion/Significance IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials

  14. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  15. Lipid Extract of Mycoplasma penetrans Proteinase K-Digested Lipid-Associated Membrane Proteins Rapidly Activates NF-κB and Activator Protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaw-Huey; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    1999-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-α production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located in the upstream promoter region, we examined the activity of transcriptional factors, namely, NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1), in thioglycolate exudate peritoneal (TEP) macrophages treated with M. penetrans lipid extract of proteinase K (PK)-digested LAMPs. Initially, in the nuclei of unstimulated TEP cells, there was only a low basal level of active AP-1, and the active form of NF-κB could not be detected. M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs activated both NF-κB and AP-1 in TEP macrophages within 15 min. The markedly increased activities of both factors gradually declined and dissipated after 2 h. Parallel to the rapid increase of NF-κB and AP-1, the TNF-α transcript also increased significantly 15 min after the stimulation. The high-level expression of TNF-α persisted over 2 h. Dexamethasone blocked the activation of both NF-κB and AP-1 and suppressed the production of TNF-α in TEP macrophages stimulated by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs. Our study demonstrates that the M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMP is a potent activator for NF-κB and AP-1 in murine TEP macrophages. Our results also suggest that high-level expression of TNF-α in cells induced by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs is associated with rapid activation of transcriptional factors NF-κB and AP-1. PMID:10338504

  16. Lipid extract of Mycoplasma penetrans proteinase K-digested lipid-associated membrane proteins rapidly activates NF-kappaB and activator protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S H; Lo, S C

    1999-06-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-alpha production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located in the upstream promoter region, we examined the activity of transcriptional factors, namely, NF-kappaB and activator protein 1 (AP-1), in thioglycolate exudate peritoneal (TEP) macrophages treated with M. penetrans lipid extract of proteinase K (PK)-digested LAMPs. Initially, in the nuclei of unstimulated TEP cells, there was only a low basal level of active AP-1, and the active form of NF-kappaB could not be detected. M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs activated both NF-kappaB and AP-1 in TEP macrophages within 15 min. The markedly increased activities of both factors gradually declined and dissipated after 2 h. Parallel to the rapid increase of NF-kappaB and AP-1, the TNF-alpha transcript also increased significantly 15 min after the stimulation. The high-level expression of TNF-alpha persisted over 2 h. Dexamethasone blocked the activation of both NF-kappaB and AP-1 and suppressed the production of TNF-alpha in TEP macrophages stimulated by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs. Our study demonstrates that the M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMP is a potent activator for NF-kappaB and AP-1 in murine TEP macrophages. Our results also suggest that high-level expression of TNF-alpha in cells induced by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs is associated with rapid activation of transcriptional factors NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  17. Injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling in dechorionated eggs and larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Previous study showed that diapause in Bombyx mori eggs can be terminated by dechorionation and that activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in dechorionated cultured eggs is involved in diapause termination. In the present study, the possible mechanism underlying activation of ERK upon dechorionation was further investigated. Results showed that mechanical injury of diapause eggs without medium incubation also resulted in rapid increase in the phospho-ERK levels and that injury increased the phospho-ERK levels at different stages of both diapause eggs and eggs in which diapause initiation was prevented by HCl. Effects of anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels showed that the mechanical injury itself but not the dramatic increase in oxygen uptake upon injury is involved in a rapid activation of ERK. Chemical anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels and the in vivo effect of anaerobiosis showed that the supply of oxygen also plays a role in ERK signaling. In addition, injury induced the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, components of two parallel MAPK pathways. A kinase assay showed a dramatic increase in JNK kinase activity in egg lysates upon injury. When newly hatched first instar larvae were injured, an increase in the phospho-ERK levels similar to that in dechorionated eggs was observed. From the results, we hypothesize that the injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling, which serves as a natural signal for embryonic development, is related to diapause termination in dechorionated eggs. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Bactericidal Lipophosphonoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Natalya; Zborníková, Eva; Šimák, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Kolář, Milan; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Seydlová, Gabriela; Fišer, Radovan; Hadravová, Romana; Šanderová, Hana; Vítovská, Dragana; Šiková, Michaela; Látal, Tomáš; Lovecká, Petra; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Rejman, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The advantages offered by established antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases are endangered due to the increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. This leads to a need for new antibacterial compounds. Recently, we discovered a series of compounds termed lipophosphonoxins (LPPOs) that exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria that include pathogens and resistant strains. For further development of these compounds, it was necessary to identify the mechanism of their action and characterize their interaction with eukaryotic cells/organisms in more detail. Here, we show that at their bactericidal concentrations LPPOs localize to the plasmatic membrane in bacteria but not in eukaryotes. In an in vitro system we demonstrate that LPPOs create pores in the membrane. This provides an explanation of their action in vivo where they cause serious damage of the cellular membrane, efflux of the cytosol, and cell disintegration. Further, we show that (i) LPPOs are not genotoxic as determined by the Ames test, (ii) do not cross a monolayer of Caco-2 cells, suggesting they are unable of transepithelial transport, (iii) are well tolerated by living mice when administered orally but not peritoneally, and (iv) are stable at low pH, indicating they could survive the acidic environment in the stomach. Finally, using one of the most potent LPPOs, we attempted and failed to select resistant strains against this compound while we were able to readily select resistant strains against a known antibiotic, rifampicin. In summary, LPPOs represent a new class of compounds with a potential for development as antibacterial agents for topical applications and perhaps also for treatment of gastrointestinal infections. PMID:26716439

  19. Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Bactericidal Lipophosphonoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Panova

    Full Text Available The advantages offered by established antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases are endangered due to the increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. This leads to a need for new antibacterial compounds. Recently, we discovered a series of compounds termed lipophosphonoxins (LPPOs that exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria that include pathogens and resistant strains. For further development of these compounds, it was necessary to identify the mechanism of their action and characterize their interaction with eukaryotic cells/organisms in more detail. Here, we show that at their bactericidal concentrations LPPOs localize to the plasmatic membrane in bacteria but not in eukaryotes. In an in vitro system we demonstrate that LPPOs create pores in the membrane. This provides an explanation of their action in vivo where they cause serious damage of the cellular membrane, efflux of the cytosol, and cell disintegration. Further, we show that (i LPPOs are not genotoxic as determined by the Ames test, (ii do not cross a monolayer of Caco-2 cells, suggesting they are unable of transepithelial transport, (iii are well tolerated by living mice when administered orally but not peritoneally, and (iv are stable at low pH, indicating they could survive the acidic environment in the stomach. Finally, using one of the most potent LPPOs, we attempted and failed to select resistant strains against this compound while we were able to readily select resistant strains against a known antibiotic, rifampicin. In summary, LPPOs represent a new class of compounds with a potential for development as antibacterial agents for topical applications and perhaps also for treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

  20. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Xian Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index < 0.5 against three susceptible bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli O157 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442. However, the time-kill study showed that the interaction was indifference which did not significantly differ from the gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  1. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species - bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; de Melo, Wanessa C.M.A.; Avci, Pinar; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Karimi, Mahdi; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Yin, Rui; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising: superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•− and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and 1O2, since the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or 1O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics, and non-pharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers, reactive nitrogen species, and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles. PMID:23802986

  2. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species--bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; de Melo, Wanessa C M A; Avci, Pinar; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Karimi, Mahdi; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Yin, Rui; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction in molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising superoxide (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen ((1)O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•- and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and (1)O2, because the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and nonenzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or (1)O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics and nonpharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma, and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers reactive nitrogen species and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu-Kung, Alexander F; Bozzelli, Kristen N; Nguyen, Rose; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2004-01-01

    ... or the conjugate of the nonamphipathic peptide, KAK. The induction of helicity corresponds to a significant improvement in antimicrobial activity as measured by a minimum bactericidal concentration test...

  4. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agencies and officials, employer associations, technical councils or other industry business councils, and... in capacity building activities, including providing information about innovative and successful... employee skill upgrading; and (3) Linkages with economic development activities at the Federal, State and...

  5. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair

    2003-04-01

    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  6. Photocatalytic Bactericidal Efficiency of Ag Doped TiO2/Fe3O4 on Fish Pathogens under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Kanchanatip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates photocatalytic bactericidal efficiencies of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 in visible light using target pollutants that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The investigation started with Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 synthesis and calcination followed by a series of product tests that include the examination of crystallite phase, light absorption, element composition morphology, and magnetic properties. The results of the experiment indicate that Ag and Fe3O4 significantly enhanced the light absorption capacity of TiO2 in the entire visible light range. The Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 prepared in this study displays significantly enhanced visible light absorption and narrowed band gap energy. The magnetic property of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 made it easy for retrieval using a permanent magnet bar. The photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 remains above 85% after three application cycles, which indicates high and favorable efficiency in bactericidal evaluation. The experiments have proved that the Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 magnetic photocatalyst is a promising photocatalyst for antibacterial application under visible light.

  7. Bactericidal laser ablation of carbon dots: An in vitro study on wild-type and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarahmady, N; Rezaie-Yazdi, M; Tondro, G H; Akbari, N

    2017-01-01

    Suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were irradiated with a 808-nm diode laser in the presence of different concentrations of carbon dots (C-dots). The effects of laser irradiation and C-dots on the bactericidal activity were separately investigated. The results indicated that without laser irradiation, C-dots caused to a significant cease in the colony formation of both wild and methicillin-resistance types of S. aureus in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the bactericidal effect of C-dots was accelerated upon laser irradiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that formation of reactive oxygen species and protein leakage, which occurred in the presence of C-dots, were greatly accelerated by laser irradiation. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed morphological changes in the bacterial surfaces in the presence of C-dots upon laser irradiations, while almost no changes in the bacteria morphology were observed in the presence of C-dots alone. Outer membrane damage was a synergism result of laser irradiation and presence of C-dots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a common pathogen in Thailand that is resistant to the bactericidal effects of many antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookpranee, T; Sookpranee, M; Mellencamp, M A; Preheim, L C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify newer antimicrobial agents that may be useful in the therapy of melioidosis. The in vitro susceptibilities of 199 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas pseudomallei to 22 antibiotics were determined by standard disk diffusion, and those to 13 antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. Over 90% of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, piperacillin, ceftazidime, ticarcillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, and carumonam by both methods. Standard disk diffusion yielded unacceptably high false-susceptibility results with aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and temafloxacin. Piperacillin, ceftazidime, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin were not bactericidal for three selected P. pseudomallei strains as determined by time-kill curve methods. Furthermore, addition of ciprofloxacin to piperacillin, ceftazidime, or imipenem did not enhance bactericidal activity. One hundred ninety-four strains showed weak beta-lactamase production that did not increase upon incubation with cefoxitin. These findings suggest that several newer antimicrobial agents may prove useful in the treatment of melioidosis. However, results of susceptibility studies involving P. pseudomallei and newer agents must be interpreted with caution.

  9. Rapid investigation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Phaleria macrocarpa extracts using FTIR-ATR based fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Easmin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaleria macrocarpa, known as “Mahkota Dewa”, is a widely used medicinal plant in Malaysia. This study focused on the characterization of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa extracts using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-based metabolomics. P. macrocarpa and its extracts contain thousands of compounds having synergistic effect. Generally, their variability exists, and there are many active components in meager amounts. Thus, the conventional measurement methods of a single component for the quality control are time consuming, laborious, expensive, and unreliable. It is of great interest to develop a rapid prediction method for herbal quality control to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa by multicomponent analyses. In this study, a rapid and simple analytical method was developed using FTIR spectroscopy-based fingerprinting. A total of 36 extracts of different ethanol concentrations were prepared and tested on inhibitory potential and fingerprinted using FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS at the 4000–400 cm−1 frequency region and resolution of 4 cm−1. The OPLS model generated the highest regression coefficient with R2Y = 0.98 and Q2Y = 0.70, lowest root mean square error estimation = 17.17, and root mean square error of cross validation = 57.29. A five-component (1+4+0 predictive model was build up to correlate FTIR spectra with activity, and the responsible functional groups, such as –CH, –NH, –COOH, and –OH, were identified for the bioactivity. A successful multivariate model was constructed using FTIR-attenuated total reflection as a simple and rapid technique to predict the inhibitory activity.

  10. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  11. Discovery of PI-1840, a novel noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Ozcan, Sevil; Tecleab, Awet; Sun, Ying; Lawrence, Harshani R; Sebti, Saïd M

    2014-04-25

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is effective in hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma but has little activity against solid tumors, acts covalently, and is associated with undesired side effects. Therefore, noncovalent inhibitors that are less toxic and more effective against solid tumors are desirable. Structure activity relationship studies led to the discovery of PI-1840, a potent and selective inhibitor for chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) (IC50 value = 27 ± 0.14 nm) over trypsin-like and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolyzing (IC50 values >100 μm) activities of the proteasome. Furthermore, PI-1840 is over 100-fold more selective for the constitutive proteasome over the immunoproteasome. Mass spectrometry and dialysis studies demonstrate that PI-1840 is a noncovalent and rapidly reversible CT-L inhibitor. In intact cancer cells, PI-1840 inhibits CT-L activity, induces the accumulation of proteasome substrates p27, Bax, and IκB-α, inhibits survival pathways and viability, and induces apoptosis. Furthermore, PI-1840 sensitizes human cancer cells to the mdm2/p53 disruptor, nutlin, and to the pan-Bcl-2 antagonist BH3-M6. Finally, in vivo, PI-1840 but not bortezomib suppresses the growth in nude mice of human breast tumor xenografts. These results warrant further evaluation of a noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor as potential anticancer agents against solid tumors.

  12. Complete inactivation of photosynthetic activity during desiccation and rapid recovery by rehydration in the aerial microalga Trentepohlia jolithus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2016-11-01

    Aerial microalgae are more exposed to harsh and rapidly changing environmental conditions, including desiccation and radiation. Under high light, aerial algae in the desiccated state would be highly subject to photodamage. Therefore, aerial algae need effective protective mechanisms to dissipate excess excitation energy. In this study, the changes in photosynthetic behaviors during desiccation and after rehydration in Trentepohlia jolithus were confirmed using chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transient, allowing determination of the photoprotection mechanisms of this aerial alga. The filaments of T. jolithus cells at 25% relative air humidity (RH) are significantly shrunken compared with those at 100% and 87% RH, decreasing the surface area for light absorption. At 25% RH, the shape and intensity of the OJIP transient disappeared, but recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. Compared with 100% RH, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (φPo ), phenomenological energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/CSm) and active PSII reaction centers (RCs) at 25% RH decreased significantly, the specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) increased significantly, but the specific energy fluxes for trapping (TRo/RC) at 25% RH did not change. These parameters at 25% RH recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. These results suggest that the efficiency of PSII light absorption and activities of PSII RCs were reversibly down-regulated in desiccated T. jolithus, which may be a special adaptive mechanism for the survivability of aerial microalgae in habitats with rapidly changing water availability. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Rapid Response Concentration-Controlled Desorption of Activated Carbon to Dampen Concentration Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    will be much smaller and will sustain a much more stable microbial population because the microorganisms will not experience starvation during times...activated carbon biofilter. Bioprocess Eng. 1997, 16, 331-337. (10) Weber, F. J.; Hartmans, S. Use of activated carbon as a buffer in biofiltration of waste

  14. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  15. Field-deployable, quantitative, rapid identification of active Ebola virus infection in unprocessed blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kavit; Bentley, Emma; Tyler, Adam; Richards, Kevin S R; Wright, Edward; Easterbrook, Linda; Lee, Diane; Cleaver, Claire; Usher, Louise; Burton, Jane E; Pitman, James K; Bruce, Christine B; Edge, David; Lee, Martin; Nazareth, Nelson; Norwood, David A; Moschos, Sterghios A

    2017-11-01

    The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay. The resulting process is entirely free of manual or automated sample pre-processing, requires no microfluidics or magnetic/mechanical sample handling and thus utilizes low cost consumables. This enables a fast, laboratory infrastructure-free, minimal risk and simple standard operating procedure suited to frontline, field use. Developing this novel approach on recombinant bacteriophage and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; Lentivirus), we demonstrate clinical utility in symptomatic EBOV patient screening using live, infectious Filoviruses and surrogate patient samples. Moreover, we evidence assay co-linearity independent of viral particle structure that may enable viral load quantification through pre-calibration, with no loss of specificity across an 8 log-linear maximum dynamic range. The resulting quantitative rapid identification (QuRapID) molecular diagnostic platform, openly accessible for assay development, meets the requirements of resource-limited countries and provides a fast response solution for mass public health screening against emerging biosecurity threats.

  16. Brain activity-based image classification from rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Vankov, Andrey; Ramirez, Rey R; Makeig, Scott

    2008-10-01

    We report the design and performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific dynamic brain response signatures in high-density (128-channel) electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquired during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Image clips were selected from a broad area image and presented in rapid succession (12/s) in 4.1-s bursts. Participants indicated by subsequent button press whether or not each burst of images included a target airplane feature. Image clip creation and search path selection were designed to maximize user comfort and maintain user awareness of spatial context. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract a set of independent source time-courses and their minimally-redundant low-dimensional informative features in the time and time-frequency amplitude domains from 128-channel EEG data recorded during clip burst presentations in a training session. The naive Bayes fusion of two Fisher discriminant classifiers, computed from the 100 most discriminative time and time-frequency features, respectively, was used to estimate the likelihood that each clip contained a target feature. This estimator was applied online in a subsequent test session. Across eight training/test session pairs from seven participants, median area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, by tenfold cross validation, was 0.97 for within-session and 0.87 for between-session estimates, and was nearly as high (0.83) for targets presented in bursts that participants mistakenly reported to include no target features.

  17. The bactericidal effect of dendritic copper microparticles, contained in an alginate matrix, on Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available Although the bactericidal effect of copper has been known for centuries, there is a current resurgence of interest in the use of this element as an antimicrobial agent. During this study the use of dendritic copper microparticles embedded in an alginate matrix as a rapid method for the deactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 was investigated. The copper/alginate produced a decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration from free copper powder dispersed in the media from 0.25 to 0.065 mg/ml. Beads loaded with 4% Cu deactivated 99.97% of bacteria after 90 minutes, compared to a 44.2% reduction in viability in the equivalent free copper powder treatment. There was no observed loss in the efficacy of this method with increasing bacterial loading up to 10(6 cells/ml, however only 88.2% of E. coli were deactivated after 90 minutes at a loading of 10(8 cells/ml. The efficacy of this method was highly dependent on the oxygen content of the media, with a 4.01% increase in viable bacteria observed under anoxic conditions compared to a >99% reduction in bacterial viability in oxygen tensions above 50% of saturation. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM of the beads indicated that the dendritic copper particles sit as discrete clusters within a layered alginate matrix, and that the external surface of the beads has a scale-like appearance with dendritic copper particles extruding. E. coli cells visualised using SEM indicated a loss of cellular integrity upon Cu bead treatment with obvious visible blebbing. This study indicates the use of microscale dendritic particles of Cu embedded in an alginate matrix to effectively deactivate E. coli cells and opens the possibility of their application within effective water treatment processes, especially in high particulate waste streams where conventional methods, such as UV treatment or chlorination, are ineffective or inappropriate.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against the iron regulated outer membrane Proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii are bactericidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Vikas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important nutrient required by all forms of life.In the case of human hosts,the free iron availability is 10-18M,which is far less than what is needed for the survival of the invading bacterial pathogen.To survive in such conditions, bacteria express new proteins in their outer membrane and also secrete iron chelators called siderophores. Results/ Discussion Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, a nosocomial pathogen which grows under iron restricted conditions, expresses four new outer membrane proteins,with molecular weight ranging from 77 kDa to 88 kDa, that are called Iron Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs. We studied the functional and immunological properties of IROMPs expressed by A.baumanii ATCC 19606.The bands corresponding to IROMPs were eluted from SDS-PAGE and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas secreting specific antibodies against these IROMPs were selected after screening by ELISA and their reactivity was confirmed by Western Blot. The antibodies then generated belonged to IgM isotype and showed bactericidical and opsonising activities against A.baumanii in vitro.These antibodies also blocked siderophore mediated iron uptake via IROMPs in bacteria. Conclusion This proves that iron uptake via IROMPs,which is mediated through siderophores,may have an important role in the survival of A.baumanii inside the host,and helps establishing the infection.

  19. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.

  20. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  1. Bactericidal action of positive and negative ions in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleigh P Andrew

    2007-04-01

    . However in the case of Mycobacterium parafortuitum, electroporation resulting from exposure to the electric field appears to have been the principal cause of cell inactivation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the bactericidal action attributed to negative air ions by previous researchers may have been overestimated.

  2. Rapid Guest Exchange and Ultra-Low Surface Tension Solvents Optimize Metal-Organic Framework Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jialiu; Kalenak, Andre P; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J

    2017-11-13

    Exploratory research into the critical steps in metal-organic framework (MOF) activation involving solvent exchange and solvent evacuation are reported. It is discovered that solvent exchange kinetics are extremely fast, and minutes rather days are appropriate for solvent exchange in many MOFs. It is also demonstrated that choice of a very low surface tension solvent is critical in successfully activating challenging MOFs. MOFs that have failed to be activated previously can achieve predicted surface areas provided that lower surface tension solvents, such as n-hexane and perfluoropentane, are applied. The insights herein aid in the efficient activation of MOFs in both laboratory and industrial settings and provide best practices for avoiding structural collapse. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix...... associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...

  4. Visible light-responsive core-shell structured In₂O₃@CaIn₂O₄ photocatalyst with superior bactericidal properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ku; Sun, Der-Shan; Chan, Hao; Huang, Pai-Tsang; Wu, Wen-Shiang; Lin, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-07-01

    Antibacterial activity of photocatalytic substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible light-responsive photocatalysts were recently discovered, offering greater opportunity to use photocatalysts as disinfectants in our living environment. The development of antibacterial photocatalysts, however, has mainly focused on titanium oxide (TiO(2))-related materials with antibacterial properties not comparable with conventional chemical disinfectants. This study demonstrated that a core-shell structured In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) substrate has superior visible light-induced bactericidal properties, as compared with several commercially available and laboratory-prepared visible light-responsive photocatalysts. The high performance is enhanced by more easily photoexcited electron transfer between the interfaces of In(2)O(3) and CaIn(2)O(4) to minimize the electron-hole recombination during photocatalysis. Additionally, when compared with TiO(2)-based photocatalysts, In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) treatments did not induce significant cell death and tissue damage, implying a superior biocompatibility. These findings suggest that In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) may have potential application in the development of a safer and highly bactericidal photocatalyst. A photocatalytic susbstrate is described that functions in visible light, possesses bactericidal properties and better biocompatibility than the standard TiO(2) based methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Hansen, Kristina Beck; van Hees, Vincent T; Christensen, Line Brinch; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren

    2014-06-01

    To assess physical activity at admission and during recovery from severe acute malnutrition. Ethiopian children who were admitted with severe acute malnutrition received a clinical examination each week to monitor their recovery during rehabilitation. Using accelerometry (24 h/d for 5 consecutive days) at admission and again after 10 days of rehabilitation, we assessed the level and changes of physical activity. Among 13 children included, the mean (SD) age was 31.1 months (15.5). At baseline, the day-night activity difference was relatively small, whereas the level of activity had substantially increased at follow-up. The diurnal mean acceleration level was significantly greater at follow-up for wrist (1158.8 vs 541.4 counts per minute, P = .003) but not hip movements (204.1 vs 141.5, P = .261). During daytime (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), hip activity increased by 38% from baseline to follow-up (e(B) 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62), and wrist activity more than doubled (e(B) 2.50, 95% CI 2.17-2.87). The level of physical activity among children with severe acute malnutrition is very low but increases rapidly during recovery. Accelerometry may be a useful approach in the recovery phase as an indicator of early improvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step and rapid synthesis of porous Pd nanoparticles with superior catalytic activity toward ethanol/formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Fang, Youxing; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-02-01

    Porous Pd nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a rapid, one-step, and efficient route with high yield in aqueous solution. The developed method is very simple, just by mixing sodium tetrachloropalladate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroquinone and heated at 70 °C for 15 min. The structure and composition are analyzed by transmission electron microscope, selected-area electron diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as synthesized porous Pd nanoparticles exhibit superior catalytic activity towards ethanol and formic acid electrooxidation.

  7. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emilie A; Folts, John D; Goldman, Irwin L

    2012-09-20

    Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  8. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration. PMID:22992282

  9. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Emilie A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  10. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in muscle strength and neural function, but the effect of long-term disuse in the elderly is largely unexplored. The present study examined the effect of unilateral long-term limb disuse on maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction (MVC), lean......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38...... quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...

  11. Rapid regulation of sialidase activity in response to neural activity and sialic acid removal during memory processing in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akira; Meguro, Yuko; Ishibashi, Sayaka; Ishii, Ami; Shiratori, Mako; Sai, Saki; Horii, Yuuki; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Hokuto; Shimba, Sumika; Taguchi, Risa; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2017-04-07

    Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac) or 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDA receptors, or NMDA receptors. The increase in sialidase activity with neural excitation appears to be caused not by secreted sialidase or by an increase in sialidase expression but by a change in the subcellular localization of sialidase. Astrocytes as well as neurons are also involved in the neural activity-dependent increase in sialidase activity. Sialidase activity visualized with a benzothiazolylphenol-based sialic acid derivative (BTP3-Neu5Ac), a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, at the CA3 stratum lucidum of rat acute hippocampal slices was immediately increased in response to LTP-inducible high-frequency stimulation on a time scale of seconds. To obtain direct evidence for sialic acid removal on the extracellular cell surface during neural excitation, the extracellular free sialic acid level in the hippocampus was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. The free sialic acid level was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Desialylation also occurred during hippocampus-dependent memory formation in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. Our results show that neural activity-dependent desialylation by sialidase may be involved in hippocampal memory processing. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  13. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  14. Rapid NK-cell activation in chicken after infection with infectious bronchitis virus M41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Matthijs, M.G.R.; van Haarlem, D.A.; de Wit, Sjaak; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes and play an important role in the early defence against viruses. In this study we focussed on NK cell and interferon (IFN) responses after infection with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Based on surface expression of CD107+, enhanced activation

  15. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  17. Bactericidal efficacy of alcohol solution in community hospital and health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Sungkeeree, Seksit; Saisud, Phitsamai; Chaiyakhot, Pojnicha; Wongwian, Adisak; Pakarasang, Maitree; Prasongwatana, Vitoon; Asayut, Narong; Thipchaksurat, Narongrit; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate bactericidal efficacy of alcohol solution during actual use and typical storage conditions in community hospital and health centers. The alcohol samples were collected immediately after the first bottle-opening (day 0) and on day 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 from 10 stations in hospital and community health centers in Pone-na-kaew district, Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand, during May-July 2011. Bactericidal efficacy of these samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. Ethanol concentration was quantified by a gas chromatography method. Bactericidal efficacy of the alcohol samples still remained on day 30 with ethanol concentration range of 60.91-65.99% v/v. This finding should be considered as a cost-benefit model for using alcohol solution in community hospital and health centers.

  18. Impaired innate immunity in the newborn: newborn neutrophils are deficient in bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, O; Martin, S; Eichenwald, E; Ganz, T; Valore, E; Carroll, S F; Lee, K; Goldmann, D; Thorne, G M

    1999-12-01

    The mechanisms by which newborns are at increased risk for invasive bacterial infections have been incompletely defined. A central element of innate immunity to bacterial infection is the neutrophil-a cell that contains cytoplasmic granules replete with antibiotic proteins and peptides. The activity of adult neutrophils against gram-negative bacteria is believed to depend to a significant degree on the presence in neutrophil primary (azurophilic) granules of the 55-kDa bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which binds with high affinity to bacterial lipopolysaccharides and kills gram-negative bacteria. In light of the importance of BPI to antibacterial host defense and to investigate possible factors underlying the risk of neonatal bacterial infections, we determined the relative content of BPI in the neutrophils of adults and newborns. The cellular content of BPI was determined by Western blotting of neutrophils derived from full-term newborn cord blood (n = 21; mean gestational age: 38.6 weeks) and from adult peripheral blood (n = 22; mean age: 29 years). Extracellular levels of BPI in adult and newborn plasma were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil content of other azurophil granule markers also was assessed: myeloperoxidase by Western blotting and defensin peptides by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie staining. Acid extracts of newborn and adult neutrophils were analyzed for antibacterial activity against serum-resistant encapsulated isolate Escherichia coli K1/r. The neutrophils of newborns contain at least threefold to fourfold less BPI per cell than adult neutrophils (67 +/- 13 ng per 10(6) cells vs 234 +/- 27 ng per 10(6) cells). The relative BPI-deficiency of newborn neutrophils apparently was not attributable to perinatal stress-related degranulation of intracellular BPI stores because: 1) newborn and adult neutrophils contained nearly identical amounts of 2 microbicidal constituents derived

  19. A Rapid and Quantitative Flow Cytometry Method for the Analysis of Membrane Disruptive Antimicrobial Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M O'Brien-Simpson

    Full Text Available We describe a microbial flow cytometry method that quantifies within 3 hours antimicrobial peptide (AMP activity, termed Minimum Membrane Disruptive Concentration (MDC. Increasing peptide concentration positively correlates with the extent of bacterial membrane disruption and the calculated MDC is equivalent to its MBC. The activity of AMPs representing three different membranolytic modes of action could be determined for a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including the ESKAPE pathogens, E. coli and MRSA. By using the MDC50 concentration of the parent AMP, the method provides high-throughput, quantitative screening of AMP analogues. A unique feature of the MDC assay is that it directly measures peptide/bacteria interactions and lysed cell numbers rather than bacteria survival as with MIC and MBC assays. With the threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria, this high-throughput MDC assay has the potential to aid in the development of novel antimicrobials that target bacteria with improved efficacy.

  20. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  1. Rapidly light-activated surgical protein glue inspired by mussel adhesion and insect structural crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Young; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Bum Jin; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Jung, Gyu Yong; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-10-01

    Currently approved surgical tissue glues do not satisfy the requirements for ideal bioadhesives due to limited adhesion in wet conditions and severe cytotoxicity. Herein, we report a new light-activated, mussel protein-based bioadhesive (LAMBA) inspired by mussel adhesion and insect dityrosine crosslinking chemistry. LAMBA exhibited substantially stronger bulk wet tissue adhesion than commercially available fibrin glue and good biocompatibility in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Besides, the easily tunable, light-activated crosslinking enabled an effective on-demand wound closure and facilitated wound healing. Based on these outstanding properties, LAMBA holds great potential as an ideal surgical tissue glue for diverse medical applications, including sutureless wound closures of skin and internal organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Emilie A; Folts John D; Goldman Irwin L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for ...

  3. Rapid determination of filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge; Determinacion rapida de microorganismos filamentosos en fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Jimenez, C.; Estevez, F. [Empresa Municipal de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas de Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Despite many methods available biomass estimation of a bioprocess may sometimes become laborious and impracticable. Samples containing filamentous organisms, as in Wastewater Treatment Plants, present special counting difficulties. If they are abundant they may need to be estimated separately. In this work a counting method for these organisms is show. The main goal is to improve chlorination of activated sludge suffering bulking or foaming through a quantitative record of filamentous bacteria. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep–wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally. PMID:24860176

  5. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  6. Enhanced Activity of Supported Ni Catalysts Promoted by Pt for Rapid Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishan Shang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the activities of non-noble metal catalysts is highly desirable and valuable to the reduced use of noble metal resources. In this work, the supported nickel (Ni and nickel-platinum (NiPt nanocatalysts were derived from a layered double hydroxide/carbon composite precursor. The catalysts were characterized and the role of Pt was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS mapping, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS techniques. The Ni2+ was reduced to metallic Ni0 via a self-reduction way utilizing the carbon as a reducing agent. The average sizes of the Ni particles in the NiPt catalysts were smaller than that in the supported Ni catalyst. The electronic structure of Ni was affected by the incorporation of Pt. The optimal NiPt catalysts exhibited remarkably improved activity toward the reduction of nitrophenol, which has an apparent rate constant (Ka of 18.82 × 10−3 s−1, 6.2 times larger than that of Ni catalyst and also larger than most of the reported values of noble-metal and bimetallic catalysts. The enhanced activity could be ascribed to the modification to the electronic structure of Ni by Pt and the effect of exposed crystal planes.

  7. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  8. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Breast Cancer Cells in Patient Blood with Nuclease-Activated Probe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kruspe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for circulating tumor cell (CTC-based diagnostics is the development of simple and inexpensive methods that reliably detect the diverse cells that make up CTCs. CTC-derived nucleases are one category of proteins that could be exploited to meet this challenge. Advantages of nucleases as CTC biomarkers include: (1 their elevated expression in many cancer cells, including cells implicated in metastasis that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; and (2 their enzymatic activity, which can be exploited for signal amplification in detection methods. Here, we describe a diagnostic assay based on quenched fluorescent nucleic acid probes that detect breast cancer CTCs via their nuclease activity. This assay exhibited robust performance in distinguishing breast cancer patients from healthy controls, and it is rapid, inexpensive, and easy to implement in most clinical labs. Given its broad applicability, this technology has the potential to have a substantive impact on the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers.

  9. Flexible and Adhesive Surface Enhance Raman Scattering Active Tape for Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaming; Huang, Youju; Kannan, Palanisamy; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Chen, Tao; Guo, Longhua

    2016-02-16

    The efficient extraction of targets from complex surfaces is vital for technological applications ranging from environmental pollutant monitoring to analysis of explosive traces and pesticide residues. In our present study, we proposed a proof-of-concept surface enhance Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate serving directly to the rapid extraction and detection of target molecules. The novel substrate was constructed by decorating the commercial tape with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), which simultaneously provides SERS activity and "sticky" of adhesive. The utility of SERS tape was demonstrated by directly extracting pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables via a simple and viable "paste and peel off" approach. The obtained strong and easily distinguishable SERS signals allow us to detect various pesticide residues such as parathion-methyl, thiram, and chlorpyrifos in the real samples with complex surfaces including green vegetable, cucumber, orange, and apple.

  10. A comparative study of methods for automatic detection of rapid eye movement abnormal muscular activity in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Alexander Neergaard; Cesari, Matteo; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate rapid eye movement (REM) muscular activity in narcolepsy by applying five algorithms to electromyogram (EMG) recordings, and to investigate its value for narcolepsy diagnosis. Patients/methods: A modified version of phasic EMG metric (mPEM), muscle activity index (MAI), REM...... atonia index (RAI), supra-threshold REM EMG activit ymetric (STREAM), and Frandsen method (FR) were calculated from polysomnography recordings of 20 healthy controls, 18 clinic controls (subjects suspected with narcolepsy but finally diagnosed without any sleep abnormality), 16 narcolepsy type 1 without...... REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), 9 narcolepsy type 1 with RBD, and 18 narcolepsy type 2. Diagnostic value of metrics in differentiating between groups was quantified by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Correlations among the metrics and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1...

  11. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...... with ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...... ventricular ectopy, and TdP. Infusion of NS1643 completely suppressed arrhythmic activity and shortened the QT interval; vehicle had no effect. NS1643 also suppressed ventricular tachyarrhythmias caused by infusion of dofetilide to methoxamine-sensitized rabbits, and reversed dofetilide-induced QT...

  12. Health quality and germination of Butia capitata seeds treated with bactericide and fungicide

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, Vander Rocha; Mendes, Diemesson San Tiago; Rocha, Fernando da Silva; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Gonçalves; Lopes, Paulo Sergio Nascimento; Civil, Nody; Catão, Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propagation of “coquinho-azedo” (Butia capitata) is limited due to dormancy and high incidence of fungi in its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating “coquinho-azedo” seeds with different concentrations of bactericide and/or fungicide on the incidence of fungi and on the germination of seeds. Thus, B. capitata seeds were immersed in four doses of the bactericide kasugamycin (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mL/L) and/or in four concentrations of the fungicide carbenda...

  13. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  14. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M.; Cullen, Darron A.; Anstey, Michael L.; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R.; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  15. Bisphenol A induces a rapid activation of Erk1/2 through GPR30 in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Terasaka, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Kiyama, R., E-mail: kiyama.r@aist.go.j [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been considered as an endocrine disruptor due to its ability to interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). While G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a novel estrogen receptor, its role in BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 remains unknown. Human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3, were used as experimental models to discriminate between ERs-dependent, putative ERs-independent and/or GPR30-associated effects. BPA induced a rapid activation of Erk1/2 in both ER{alpha}/{beta}-positive and negative breast cancer cells, and this effect was not blocked with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. A small interfering RNA assay revealed that the expression of GPR30 was necessary for BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 and transcriptional regulation of c-fos. In addition, BPA regulates the expression of c-fos likely through an AP1-mediated pathway. As a conclusion, GPR30 plays an important role in the BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 in a manner distinguishable from that in ER{alpha}-mediated signaling. - We showed here that the mechanism by which BPA induces the activation of Erk1/2 is distinguishable from the mechanism of ER{alpha}-mediated signaling in human breast cancer cells.

  16. Rapid degradation of an active formylglycine generating enzyme variant leads to a late infantile severe form of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotawa, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schmid, Regula; Schmidt, Bernhard; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting posttranslational activation of sulfatases by the formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE). Due to mutations in the encoding SUMF1 gene, FGE's catalytic capacity is impaired resulting in reduced cellular sulfatase activities. Both, FGE protein stability and residual activity determine disease severity and have previously been correlated with the clinical MSD phenotype. Here, we report a patient with a late infantile severe course of disease. The patient is compound heterozygous for two so far undescribed SUMF1 mutations, c.156delC (p.C52fsX57) and c.390A>T (p.E130D). In patient fibroblasts, mRNA of the frameshift allele is undetectable. In contrast, the allele encoding FGE-E130D is expressed. FGE-E130D correctly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has a very high residual molecular activity in vitro (55% of wildtype FGE); however, it is rapidly degraded. Thus, despite substantial residual enzyme activity, protein instability determines disease severity, which highlights that potential MSD treatment approaches should target protein folding and stabilization mechanisms.

  17. Rapid photometry of EZ Canis Majoris - Searching for flare activity in Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Marchenko, S. V.

    1992-12-01

    EZ CMa was chosen for a trial run of high-speed photometry to search for flare activity in W-R stars. Data were collected during UT November 27-December 2, 1991 with the 1.0-telescope + ASCAP photometer and the 0.6-m telescope + manual photometer of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A period near 22.7 min was found. A brightness increase of about 1 percent, lasting for about 10 min in the otherwise smooth light curve, was observed. Fourier analysis of the data sets an upper limit of 0.0005 mag on any variations with periods less than about 10 min.

  18. Rapid adaptive remote focusing microscope for sensing of volumetric neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurauskas, Mantas; Barnstedt, Oliver; Frade-Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Scott; Booth, Martin J

    2017-10-01

    The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope. This enabled simultaneous recording of odor-evoked calcium transients in a defined volume of mushroom body Kenyon cell bodies in a live fruit fly.

  19. Exopolysaccharide dispelled by calcium hydroxide with volatile vehicles related to bactericidal effect for root canal medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Enterococcus faecalis is the dominant microbial species responsible for persistent apical periodontitis with ability to deeply penetrate into the dentin. Exopolysaccharides (EPS contribute to the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis. Our aim was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (CH, camphorated parachlorophenol (CMCP, and chlorhexidine (CHX against E. faecalis in dentinal tubules. Material and Methods: Decoronated single-canal human teeth and semicylindrical dentin blocks were incubated with E. faecalis for 3 weeks. Samples were randomly assigned to six medication groups for 1 week (n=10 per group: CH + 40% glycerin-water solution (1:1, wt/vol; CMCP; 2% CHX; CH + CMCP (1:1, wt/vol; CH + CMCP (2:3, wt/vol; and saline. Bacterial samples were collected and assayed for colony-forming units. After dentin blocks were split longitudinally, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the proportion of viable bacteria and EPS production in dentin. Results: CMCP exhibited the best antimicrobial activity, while CH was the least sensitive against E. faecalis (p0.05. CH combined with CMCP inhibited EPS synthesis by E. faecalis, which sensitized biofilms to antibacterial substances. Moreover, increasing concentrations of CMCP decreased EPS matrix formation, which effectively sensitized biofilms to disinfection agents. Conclusion: The EPS matrix dispelled by CH paste with CMCP may be related to its bactericidal effect; the visualization and analysis of EPS formation and microbial colonization in dentin may be a useful approach to verify medicaments for antimicrobial therapy.

  20. IPN hydrogel nanocomposites based on agarose and ZnO with antifouling and bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Hu, Hongkai; Yang, Zhonglin; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate modified ZnO (ZnO-PEGMA) and 4-azidobenzoic agarose (AG-N{sub 3}) were prepared by a one-pot strategy under UV irradiation. The hydrogels exhibited a highly macroporous spongelike structure, and the pore size decreased with the increase of the ZnO-PEGMA content. Due to the entanglement and favorable interactions between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum compressive and tensile strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa respectively. The transparent IPN hydrogels transmitted more than 85% of visible light at all wavelengths (400–800 nm). The IPN hydrogels exhibited anti-adhesive property towards Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the bactericidal activity increased with the ZnO-PEGMA content. The incorporation of ZnO-PEGMA did not reduce the biocompatibility of the IPN hydrogels and all the IPN nanocomposites showed negligible cytotoxicity. The present study not only provided a facile method for preparing hydrogel nanocomposites with IPN structure but also developed a new hydrogel material which might be an excellent candidate for wound dressings. - Highlights: • IPN hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by a one-pot strategy. • The maximum compressive and tensile strengths reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa. • IPN hydrogels displayed excellent antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. • This study provided a facile method for preparing IPN hydrogel nanocomposites.

  1. Targeting polyelectrolyte networks in purulent body fluids to modulate bactericidal properties of some antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucki R

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Bucki,1,* Bonita Durnaś,2,* Marzena Wątek,2,3 Ewelina Piktel,1 Katrina Cruz,4 Przemysław Wolak,2 Paul B Savage,5 Paul A Janmey4 1Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Faculty of Health Sciences of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, 3Holy Cross Oncology Center of Kielce, Kielce, Kielce, Poland; 4Department of Physiology, Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 5Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The response of the human immune system to most bacterial infections results in accumulation of neutrophils at infection sites that release a significant quantity of DNA and F-actin. Both are negatively charged polyelectrolytes that can interact with positively charged host defense molecules such as cathelicidin-delivered LL-37 peptide or other cationic antibiotic agents. Evaluation of the ability of bacterial outgrowth (using luminescence measurements or counting colony-forming units to form a biofilm (quantified by crystal violet staining and analysis of the structure of DNA/F-actin network by optical microscopy in human pus samples treated with different antibiotics in combination with plasma gelsolin, DNAse 1, and/or poly-aspartic acid revealed that bactericidal activity of most tested antibacterial agents increases in the presence of DNA/F-actin depolymerizing factors. Keywords: antibiotic activity, polyelectrolyte network, depolymerizing factors, cathelicidin, ceragenins, DNase 1, cystic fibrosis

  2. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  3. Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, Sherry; Park, Soyoun; Trivedi, Tarak; Parashar, Umesh D.; Lopman, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, BioSense visits mapped by chief complaints of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007–2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828–0.926) than for nausea/vomiting (R = 0.729–0.866) across multiple age groups. Diarrhea ED visit proportions exhibited winter seasonality attributable to norovirus; rotavirus contributed substantially for children norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates and could be reliable, timely indicators of norovirus activity. PMID:23876432

  4. Functionally Active Fc Mutant Antibodies Recognizing Cancer Antigens Generated Rapidly at High Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Ilieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies find broad application as therapy for various types of cancer by employing multiple mechanisms of action against tumors. Manipulating the Fc-mediated functions of antibodies that engage immune effector cells, such as NK cells, represents a strategy to influence effector cell activation and to enhance antibody potency and potentially efficacy. We developed a novel approach to generate and ascertain the functional attributes of Fc mutant monoclonal antibodies. This entailed coupling single expression vector (pVitro1 antibody cloning, using polymerase incomplete primer extension (PIPE polymerase chain reaction, together with simultaneous Fc region point mutagenesis and high yield transient expression in human mammalian cells. Employing this, we engineered wild type, low (N297Q, NQ, and high (S239D/I332E, DE FcR-binding Fc mutant monoclonal antibody panels recognizing two cancer antigens, HER2/neu and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4. Antibodies were generated with universal mutagenic primers applicable to any IgG1 pVitro1 constructs, with high mutagenesis and transfection efficiency, in small culture volumes, at high yields and within 12 days from design to purified material. Antibody variants conserved their Fab-mediated recognition of target antigens and their direct anti-proliferative effects against cancer cells. Fc mutations had a significant impact on antibody interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs on human NK cells, and consequently on the potency of NK cell activation, quantified by immune complex-mediated calcium mobilization and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC of tumor cells. This strategy for manipulation and testing of Fc region engagement with cognate FcRs can facilitate the design of antibodies with defined effector functions and potentially enhanced efficacy against tumor cells.

  5. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...... was also detected as concentration-dependent shorter QT intervals. There was no sign of action potential triangulation or reverse use dependence. NS3623 decreased QT variability and distinctly decreased the occurrence of extrasystoles in the acutely bradypaced hearts. Taken together, the present data...

  7. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  8. Rapid and liquid-based selection of genetic switches using nucleoside kinase fused with aminoglycoside phosphotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tominaga

    Full Text Available The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON- and negative (OFF- selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3'-phosphotransferase (APH, we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling.

  9. Active machine learning for rapid landslide inventory mapping with VHR satellite images (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Lachiche, N.; Malet, J.; Kerle, N.; Puissant, A.

    2013-12-01

    VHR satellite images have become a primary source for landslide inventory mapping after major triggering events such as earthquakes and heavy rainfalls. Visual image interpretation is still the prevailing standard method for operational purposes but is time-consuming and not well suited to fully exploit the increasingly better supply of remote sensing data. Recent studies have addressed the development of more automated image analysis workflows for landslide inventory mapping. In particular object-oriented approaches that account for spatial and textural image information have been demonstrated to be more adequate than pixel-based classification but manually elaborated rule-based classifiers are difficult to adapt under changing scene characteristics. Machine learning algorithm allow learning classification rules for complex image patterns from labelled examples and can be adapted straightforwardly with available training data. In order to reduce the amount of costly training data active learning (AL) has evolved as a key concept to guide the sampling for many applications. The underlying idea of AL is to initialize a machine learning model with a small training set, and to subsequently exploit the model state and data structure to iteratively select the most valuable samples that should be labelled by the user. With relatively few queries and labelled samples, an AL strategy yields higher accuracies than an equivalent classifier trained with many randomly selected samples. This study addressed the development of an AL method for landslide mapping from VHR remote sensing images with special consideration of the spatial distribution of the samples. Our approach [1] is based on the Random Forest algorithm and considers the classifier uncertainty as well as the variance of potential sampling regions to guide the user towards the most valuable sampling areas. The algorithm explicitly searches for compact regions and thereby avoids a spatially disperse sampling pattern

  10. Interaction between the long-latency stretch reflex and voluntary electromyographic activity prior to a rapid voluntary motor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B L; Rothwell, J C; Marsden, C D

    1983-06-27

    The size of the long-latency component of the stretch reflex has been examined in the time interval between a signal to move and the required rapid voluntary contraction of triceps and flexor pollicis longus in 8 normal subjects. Bilateral movements of the elbow and thumb were made following an auditory signal. In 50% of the trials a torque pulse was applied unilaterally in order to elicit a stretch reflex response in one arm. The voluntary response in the contralateral arm was uncorrupted by a stretch reflex response, so was used as an indicator of voluntary reaction time. Control experiments, using an electrical stimulus to the fingers rather than muscle stretch, verified that both arms reacted almost simultaneously to the auditory cue, even when the reaction time was shortened by the presence of a unilateral electrical stimulus. Similarly, an interposed muscle stretch stimulus considerably reduced the reaction time to the audio signal. Because of this, the start of the voluntary EMG response frequently 'over-lapped' the end of the long-latency stretch reflex. Failure to take this shortening of voluntary reaction time into consideration can lead to the erroneous conclusion that reflex gain is increased prior to a rapid movement. If the 'overlap' of EMG responses is accounted for, very little change in the size of the long-latency stretch reflex is evident prior to activation of the muscles responsible for the movement of either the elbow or the thumb.

  11. A Force-Activated Trip Switch Triggers Rapid Dissociation of a Colicin from Its Immunity Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Oliver E.; Hann, Eleanore; Kaminska, Renata; Housden, Nicholas G.; Derrington, Sasha R.; Kleanthous, Colin; Radford, Sheena E.; Brockwell, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (Kd≈fM, lifetime ≈4 days), immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9) and immunity protein 9 (Im9) complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21–30) whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods. PMID:23431269

  12. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Farrance

    Full Text Available Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days, immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9 and immunity protein 9 (Im9 complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30 whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods.

  13. Macrophage activation-like syndrome: an immunological entity associated with rapid progression to death in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Leventogiannis, Konstantinos; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Dimopoulos, Georgios; Pantazi, Aikaterini; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Rovina, Nikoletta; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Gkavogianni, Theologia; Botsa, Elektra; Chassiou, Eleftheria; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Kontouli, Christina; Chaloulis, Panagiotis; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Savva, Athina; Cullberg, Jonas-Sundén; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2017-09-18

    A subanalysis of a randomized clinical trial indicated sepsis survival benefit from interleukin (IL)-1 blockade in patients with features of the macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of MALS and to develop a biomarker of diagnosis and prognosis. Patients with infections and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were assigned to one test cohort (n = 3417) and a validation cohort (n = 1704). MALS was diagnosed for patients scoring positive either for the hemophagocytic syndrome score and/or having both hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the predictive value of MALS for 10-day mortality in both cohorts. Ferritin, sCD163, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the blood the first 24 h; ferritin measurements were repeated in 747 patients on day 3. The frequency of MALS was 3.7% and 4.3% in the test and the validation cohort, respectively. In both cohorts, MALS was an independent risk factor for 10-day mortality. A ferritin level above 4420 ng/ml was accompanied by 66.7% and 66% mortality after 28 days, respectively. Ferritin levels above 4420 ng/ml were associated with an increase of IL-6, IL-18, INF-γ, and sCD163 and a decreased IL-10/TNF-α ratio, indicating predominance of pro-inflammatory phenomena. Any less than 15% decrease of ferritin on day 3 was associated with more than 90% sensitivity for unfavorable outcome after 10 days. This high mortality risk was also validated in an independent Swedish cohort (n = 109). MALS is an independent life-threatening entity in sepsis. Ferritin measurements can provide early diagnosis of MALS and may allow for specific treatment.

  14. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  15. Bactericidal effects of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode for solutions during intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Aoe, Mai; Esaki, Seiji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Teramachi, Hitomi; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation is effectively used as a disinfection method for inactivating microorganisms. Methods: We investigated the bactericidal effects by irradiation with a deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) on the causative microorganisms of catheter related blood stream infection contaminating the solution for intravenous infusion. For irradiation, prototype modules for water disinfection with a DUV-LED were used. Experiments were conducted on five kinds of microorganisms. We examined the dependence of bactericidal action on eleven solutions. Administration sets were carried out three types. Results: When the administration set JY-PB343L containing the infusion tube made of polybutadiene was used, the bactericidal action of the DUV-LED against all tested microorganisms in the physiological saline solutions was considered to be effective. We confirmed that the number of viable bacteria decreased in 5% glucose solution and electrolyte infusions with DUV-LED irradiation. Conclusions: These results indicate that the DUV-LED irradiation has bactericidal effects in glucose infusion and electrolyte infusions by irradiating via a plasticizer-free polybutadiene administration set. We consider DUV-LED irradiation to be clinically applicable.

  16. Bactericidal synergistic effect due to chloramphenicol-induced inhibition of staphyloccal penicillinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J; Jacobs, J; Sacks, T

    1977-01-01

    A synergistic bactericidal effect of chloramphenicol and penicillin-G was observed with 17 out of 20 beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The synergism was due to chloramphenicol-induced inhibition of beta-lactamase production. With seven of the strains the synergistic effect was operative only with subinhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, while higher concentrations produced antagonism.

  17. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  18. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bactericidal activity was heat-resistant and showed minimal cytotoxic effects on human brain microvascular endothelial cells. FPLC revealed eight peaks, with three of them representing compounds that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity. Conclusion: ...

  19. Dynamic changes in single unit activity and γ oscillations in a thalamocortical circuit during rapid instrumental learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Yu

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mediodorsal thalamus (MD together form a thalamocortical circuit that has been implicated in the learning and production of goal-directed actions. In this study we measured neural activity in both regions simultaneously, as rats learned to press a lever to earn food rewards. In both MD and mPFC, instrumental learning was accompanied by dramatic changes in the firing patterns of the neurons, in particular the rapid emergence of single-unit neural activity reflecting the completion of the action and reward delivery. In addition, we observed distinct patterns of changes in the oscillatory LFP response in MD and mPFC. With learning, there was a significant increase in theta band oscillations (6-10 Hz in the MD, but not in the mPFC. By contrast, gamma band oscillations (40-55 Hz increased in the mPFC, but not in the MD. Coherence between these two regions also changed with learning: gamma coherence in relation to reward delivery increased, whereas theta coherence did not. Together these results suggest that, as rats learned the instrumental contingency between action and outcome, the emergence of task related neural activity is accompanied by enhanced functional interaction between MD and mPFC in response to the reward feedback.

  20. Estrogen activates rapid signaling in the brain: role of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, A J; Dorsa, D M

    2006-01-01

    The aging process is known to coincide with a decline in circulating sex hormone levels in both men and women. Due to an increase in the average lifespan, a growing number of post-menopausal women are now receiving hormone therapy for extended periods of time. Recent findings of the Women's Health Initiative, however, have called into question the benefits of long-term hormone therapy for treating symptoms of menopause. The results of this study are still being evaluated, but it is clear that a better understanding of the molecular effects of estradiol is needed in order to develop new estrogenic compounds that activate specific mechanisms but lack adverse side effects. Traditionally, the effects of estradiol treatment have been ascribed to changes in gene expression, namely transcription at estrogen response elements. This review focuses on emerging information that estradiol can also activate a repertoire of membrane-initiated signaling pathways and that these rapid signaling events lead to functional changes at the cellular level. The various types of cells in the brain can respond differently to estradiol treatment based on the signaling properties of the cell, as well as which receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and/or estrogen receptor beta, is expressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the estradiol-induced activation of membrane-initiated signaling pathways occurs in a cell-type specific manner and can differentially influence how the cells respond to various insults.

  1. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  2. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick, E-mail: ssheppard@carnegiescience.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  3. Bactericidal Effect of Lauric Acid-Loaded PCL-PEG-PCL Nano-Sized Micelles on Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Quynh-Mai Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the over growth of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes on human skin. Lauric acid (LA has been investigated as an effective candidate to suppress the activity of P. acnes. Although LA is nearly insoluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO has been reported to effectively solubilize LA. However, the toxicity of DMSO can limit the use of LA on the skin. In this study, LA-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ɛ-caprolactone micelles (PCL-PEG-PCL were developed to improve the bactericidal effect of free LA on P. acnes. The block copolymers mPEG-PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL with different molecular weights were synthesized and characterized using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. In the presence of LA, mPEG-PCL diblock copolymers did not self-assemble into nano-sized micelles. On the contrary, the average particle sizes of the PCL-PEG-PCL micelles ranged from 50–198 nm for blank micelles and 27–89 nm for LA-loaded micelles. The drug loading content increased as the molecular weight of PCL-PEG-PCL polymer increased. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of free LA were 20 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. The MICs and MBCs of the micelles decreased to 10 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that the LA-loaded micelles are a potential treatment for acne.

  4. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  5. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The

  6. Bactericidal efficiency and mode of action: a comparative study of photochemistry and photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeot-Rémy, S; Simonet, F; Atlan, D; Lazzaroni, J C; Guillard, C

    2012-06-15

    In order to compare the disinfection potential of photocatalysis and photochemistry, the effects of these two processes on bacteria in water were investigated under exposure to UV-A and UV-C. The well-known bacterial model Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used as the experimental organism. Radiation exposure was produced with an HPK 125 W lamp and the standard TiO(2) Degussa P-25 was used as the photocatalyst. Firstly, the impact of photocatalysis and photochemistry on the cultivability of bacterial cells was investigated. UV-A radiation resulted in low deleterious effects on bacterial cultivability but generated colonies of size smaller than average. UV-C photocatalysis demonstrated a greater efficiency than UV-A photocatalysis in altering bacterial cultivability. From a cultivability point of view only, UV-C radiation appeared to be the most deleterious treatment. A rapid epifluorescence staining method using the LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit was then used to assess the modifications in bacterial membrane permeability. UV-A radiation did not induce any alterations in bacterial permeability for 420 min of exposure whereas only a few minutes of exposure to UV-C radiation, with the same total radiance intensity, induced total loss of permeability. Moreover, after 20 and 60 min of exposure to UV-C and UV-A photocatalysis respectively, all bacteria lost their membrane integrity, suggesting that the bacterial envelope is the primary target of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated at the surface of TiO(2) photocatalyst. These results were further confirmed by the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during the photocatalytic inactivation of bacterial cells and suggest that destruction of the cell envelope is a key step in the bactericidal action of photocatalysis. The oxidation of bacterial membrane lipids was also correlated with the monitoring of carboxylic acids, which can be considered as representatives of lipid peroxidation by-products. Finally, damages to

  7. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation reduces rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarini R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results

  8. Bactericidal peptidoglycan recognition protein induces oxidative stress in Escherichia coli through a block in respiratory chain and increase in central carbon catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Des R; Kuzma, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Dominik A; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through simultaneous induction of oxidative, thiol and metal stress responses in bacteria. However, metabolic pathways through which PGRPs induce these bactericidal stress responses are unknown. We screened Keio collection of Escherichia coli deletion mutants and revealed that deleting genes for respiratory chain flavoproteins or for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle resulted in increased resistance of E. coli to PGRP killing. PGRP-induced killing depended on the production of hydrogen peroxide, which required increased supply of NADH for respiratory chain oxidoreductases from central carbon catabolism (glycolysis and TCA cycle), and was controlled by cAMP-Crp. Bactericidal PGRP induced a rapid decrease in respiration, which suggested that the main source of increased production of hydrogen peroxide was a block in respiratory chain and diversion of electrons from NADH oxidoreductases to oxygen. CpxRA two-component system was a negative regulator of PGRP-induced oxidative stress. By contrast, PGRP-induced thiol stress (depletion of thiols) and metal stress (increase in intracellular free Zn2+ through influx of extracellular Zn2+ ) were mostly independent of oxidative stress. Thus, manipulating pathways that induce oxidative, thiol and metal stress in bacteria could be a useful strategy to design new approaches to antibacterial therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  10. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  11. Enhancement of Lipase Enzyme Activity in Non-Aqueous Media through a Rapid Three Phase Partitioning and Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phase partitioning is fast developing as a novel bio-separation strategy with a wide range of applications including enzyme stability and enhancement of its catalytic activity. pH tuning of enzyme is now well known for use in non-aqueous systems. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. With optimal condition of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, the protein appeared as an interfacial precipitate between upper t-butanol and lower aqueous phases. In this study we report the results on the lipase which has been subjected to pH tuning and TPP, which clearly indicate the remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. Hence it is shown that microwave irradiation can be used in conjunction with other strategies (like pH tuning and TPP for enhancing initial reaction rates.

  12. A Rapid Review of the Factors Affecting Healthcare Students' Satisfaction with Small-Group, Active Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, James M; Grundy, Lisa; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Problem-based learning (PBL) and other small-group, active learning methodologies have been widely adopted into undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare curricula across the world. Although much research has examined student perceptions of these innovative teaching pedagogies, there are still questions over which factors influence these views. This article aims to identify these key elements that affect healthcare student satisfaction with PBL and other small-group learning methods, including case-based and team-based learning. A systematic rapid review method was used to identify high-quality original research papers from the healthcare education literature from between 2009 and 2014. All papers were critically appraised before inclusion in line with published guidelines. Narrative synthesis was achieved using an inductively developed, thematic framework approach. Fifty-four papers were included in the narrative synthesis. The evidence suggests that, despite an initial period of negative emotion and anxiety, the perspectives of healthcare students toward small-group, active learning methods are generally positive. The key factors influencing this satisfaction level include (a) the facilitator role, (b) tutorial structure, (c) individual student factors, (d) case authenticity, (e) increased feedback, (f) group harmony, and (g) resource availability. Insights: Student satisfaction is an important determinant of healthcare education quality, and the findings of this review may be of value in future curriculum design. The evidence described here suggests that an ideal curriculum may be based on an expert-led, hybrid PBL model.

  13. A rapid method for testing in vivo the susceptibility of different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to active chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny S. Filardi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described which permits to determine in vivo an in a short period of time (4-6 hours the sensitivity of T. cruzo strains to known active chemotherapeutic agents. By using resistant- and sensitive T. cruzi stains a fairly good correlation was observed between the results obtained with this rapid method (which detects activity against the circulating blood forms and those obtained with long-term schedules which involve drug adminstration for at least 20 consecutive days and a prolonged period of assessment. This method may be used to characterize susceptibility to active drugs used clinically, provide infomation on the specific action against circulating trypomastigotes and screen active compounds. Differences in the natural susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains to active drugs have been already reported using different criteria, mostly demanding long-term study of the animal (Hauschka, 1949; Bock, Gonnert & Haberkorn, 1969; Brener, Costa & Chiari, 1976; Andrade & Figueira, 1977; Schlemper, 1982. In this paper we report a method which detects in 4-6 hours the effect of drugs on bloodstream forms in mice with established T. cruzi infections. The results obtained with this method show a fairly good correlation with those obtained by prolonged treatment schedules used to assess the action of drugs in experimental Chagas' disease and may be used to study the sensitivity of T. cruzi strains to active drugs.No presente trabalho descreve-se um metodo que permite determinar in vivo e em curto espaço de tempo (4-6 horas a sensibilidade de cepas de T. cruzi a agentes terapeuticos ativos na doença de Chagas. Usando-se cepas sensíveis e resistentes aos medicamentos foi possível observar uma boa correlação entre os resultados obtidos com o método rápido (que detecta atividade contra as formas circulantes do parasita e aqueles obtidos com esquema de acao prolongada que envolve a administração da droga por 20 dias e posterior avalia

  14. Spectrally selective UV bactericidal effect for curative treatment of post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Miller, Mark A.; Babichenko, Sergey M.

    2004-07-01

    Results of in-vitro studies of bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on strains causing drug-resistant endo-cavital infections (Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others) are presented. An original technique to measure effects of UV-irradiation on bacterial growth at different wavelengths has been developed. Spectral dependences of the bactericidal effect have been observed, and spectral maxima of bactericidal efficiency have been found. Applications to curative treatments of wounds, post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other diseases are discussed.

  15. Rapid Assessment of Distribution of Wildlife and Human Activities for Prioritizing Conservation Actions in a Patagonian Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Lorena F; Novaro, Andrés J; Funes, Martín C; Walker, R Susan

    2015-01-01

    Large landscapes encompassing reserves and areas with other human uses are necessary for conservation of many species. Generating information for conservation planning over such landscapes may be expensive and time-consuming, though resources for conservation are generally limited and conservation is often urgent. We developed a sign-based occupancy survey to help prioritize conservation interventions by simultaneously assessing the distribution of 3 species, the lesser rhea, guanaco, and mara, and their association with human activities in a 20,000-km2 landscape in the northern Patagonian steppe. We used a single-season occupancy model with spatial rather than temporal replication of surveys in order to reduce costs of multiple visits to sites. We used covariates related to detectability, environmental factors, and different human activities to identify the most plausible models of occupancy, and calculated importance weights of covariates from these models to evaluate relative impacts of human activities on each species. Abundance of goats had the strongest negative association with lesser rheas and guanacos, and road density with maras. With six months of fieldwork, our results provided initial hypotheses for adaptive conservation interventions for each species. Addressing high livestock densities for rheas and guanacos, poaching by urban hunters for all three species, and hunting by rural people for rheas are priorities for conservation in this landscape. Our methodology provided new insights into the responses of these species, although low detection probabilities for maras indicate that the sampling scheme should be altered for future monitoring of this species. This method may be adapted for any large landscape where a rapid, objective means for prioritizing conservation actions on multiple species is needed and data are scarce.

  16. Rapid synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Rosa damascena petals and evaluation of their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balaji; Subramanian, Vimala; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-09-01

    To optimize the process parameters involved in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (G-SNPs) by aqueous extract of Rosa damascena petals and to evaluate the biocompatibility and anti cancer activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549). The process variables that include concentration of extract, mixing ratio of reactants, silver salt concentration and interaction time were analyzed. The compatibility of the G-SNPs was verified by incubating with erythrocytes and the anticancer property of the G-SNPs against A549 cells was performed by MTT assay. Formation of G-SNPs was confirmed by the visual change in the colour of the reaction mixture from pale yellow to brown yellow. Surface plasmon resonance of synthesized G-SNPs was observed at 420 nm; the size of G-SNPs were analyzed by DLS and found to be in the range of (84.00±10.08) nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the G-SNPs were fairly spherical. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed the characteristic peaks of G-SNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed a signal of silver around 3 keV. The synthesized G-SNPs exhibited anticancer activity as evidenced by the MTT assay. IC50 value of G-SNPs was found to be 80 μg/mL. The results of the present study suggest that G-SNPs can be synthesized rapidly within first minute of the reaction; they are biocompatible and possess anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  18. Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum of phenolic constituents isolated from dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a worldwide and devastating plant pathogen infesting over 200 host species. Synthetic bactericides against the pathogen have only achieved limited success and always cause both crop contamination and environmental pollution. However, natural bactericides are effective for protecting cultivated crops from destruction by disease, without the adverse effects of chemical bactericides. In this paper, fifteen phenolic constituents from dragon's blood were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum, and all exhibited inhibitory activity. These compounds are potential leading compounds for the development of bactericides against wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

  19. Rapid Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by the Extracellular Secretion of Bacillus niabensis 45: Characterization and Antibiofilm Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated that the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs using B. niabensis 45 may be mediated by a cyclic peptide (P2. The molecular weight of P2 was determined to be about 1122 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS. A novel protocol for rapid biosynthesis of GNPs using P2 was developed. The results showed that GNP synthesis could be completed in a wide range of temperatures (40–100°C and pH (6.0–10.0 within few minutes when 9 mL of P2 (2 mg/mL and 1 mL of HAuCl4 solution (2 mM were mixed together. The synthesized GNPs were further characterized. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed the presence of elemental gold and crystalline structure of the GNPs, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed the formation of spherical metallic GNPs. The size distribution of GNPs calculated using ImageJ software was found to be 10–20 nm. And these GNPs showed excellent antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. The results revealed microbial cyclic peptides could be used as synthesis of GNPs which had potent antibiofilm potential.

  20. HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Norman

    Full Text Available Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS, and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR, followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS.

  1. Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredients with the eFlow(®) rapid: impact of formulation variables on aerodynamic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Prüfer, Nadine; Oesterheld, Nina; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solutions is a well-established means to achieve pulmonary drug deposition. The current study identified the impact of formulation variables on the aerosolization performance of the eFlow(®) rapid with special respect to optimized lung application. API formulations (including excipient-supplemented samples) were investigated for physicochemical properties, then nebulized using vibrating-mesh technology. The generated aerosol clouds were analyzed by laser diffraction. Aerosol deposition characteristics in the human respiratory tract were estimated using an algebraic model. Remarkable effects on aerosolization performance [i.e., mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)] of API solutions were obtained when the sample conductivity (by API concentration and type, sodium chloride addition) and dynamic viscosity (by application of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) 200) were elevated. A similar influence was observed for a decline in surface tension (by ethanol addition). Thus, a defined adjustment of formulation parameters allowed for a decrease of the MMAD from ∼ 8.0 μm to values as small as ∼ 3.5 μm. Consequently, the pattern and efficiency of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract were improved. In conclusion, identification of physicochemical variables and their way of influencing vibrating-mesh nebulization has been provided to deliver a platform for tailoring aerosol characteristics and thus, advancing pulmonary therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Photosynthetic activity and proteomic analysis highlights the utilization of atmospheric CO2 by Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta) for rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-12-01

    Free-floating Ulva prolifera is one of the causative species of green tides. When green tides occur, massive mats of floating U. prolifera thalli accumulate rapidly in surface waters with daily growth rates as high as 56%. The upper thalli of the mats experience environmental changes such as the change in carbon source, high salinity, and desiccation. In this study, the photosynthetic performances of PSI and PSII in U. prolifera thalli exposed to different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels were measured. Changes in photosynthesis within salinity treatments and dehydration under different CO2 concentrations were also analyzed. The results showed that PSII activity was enhanced as CO2 increased, suggesting that CO2 assimilation was enhanced and U. prolifera thalli can utilize CO2 in the atmosphere directly, even when under moderate stress. In addition, changes in the proteome of U. prolifera in response to salt stress were investigated. Stress-tolerance proteins appeared to have an important role in the response to salinity stress, whereas the abundance of proteins related to metabolism showed no significant change under low salinity treatments. These findings may be one of the main reasons for the extremely high growth rate of free-floating U. prolifera when green tides occur. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Preliminary test of the LFA rapid evaluation of activity in lupus (LFA-REAL): an efficient outcome measure correlates with validated instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Askanase, Anca; Li, Xiaoqing; Pong, Avery; Shum, Katrina; Kamp, Stan; Carthen, Fredonna; Aberle, Teresa; Hanrahan, Leslie; Daly, Paola; Giles, Jon; Merrill, Joan T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current disease activity measures for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are difficult to score or interpret and problematic for use in clinical practice. Lupus Foundation of America (LFA)-Rapid Evaluation of Activity in Lupus (REAL) is a pilot application composed of anchored visual analogue scores (0?100?mm each) for each organ affected by lupus. This study evaluated the use of LFA-REAL in capturing SLE disease activity. Methods In a preliminary test of LFA-REAL, this simplified, ...

  4. The Role of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Slow-Wave Activity in Prefrontal Metabolism across Young and Middle Age Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wilckens, K.A.; Aizenstein, H J; Nofzinger, E.A.; James, J. A.; Hasler, B.P.; Rosario-Rivera, B.L.; Franzen, P; Germain, A.; Hall, M. H.; Kupfer, D.J.; Price, J C.; Siegle, G.J.; Buysse, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5���4 Hz) during non rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is a marker for cortical reorganization, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. Greater slow-wave activity during sleep may promote greater waking prefrontal metabolic rate, and in turn, executive function. However, this process may be affected by age. Here we examined whether greater NREM slow-wave activity was associated with higher prefrontal metabolism during wakefulness and whether this...

  5. The proposed mechanism of bactericidal action of eugenol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... same condition. Gamma terpinene displayed the highest activity toward lipid content leakage at 2 x MIC while -terpineol and eugenol showed similar effect after 120 min of exposure. The result revealed that both cell wall and membrane of the treated gram negative and gram positive bacteria were significantly damaged.

  6. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  7. [Effect of ambroxol on biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae and bactericidal action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Zhang, Yutuo; Lin, Yantao; Li, Haifeng; Xin, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Xu, Yunpeng; Shang, Xiaoling

    2014-05-01

    To establish a biofilm model of Haemophilus influenzae and observe the effect of ambroxol on biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae and bactericidal action. Thirty strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from adenoids of children with adenoidal hypertrophy. Two strains which could build stronger biofilms was selected in a 96-well plate. The effect of ambroxol on biofilms were determined by crystal violet, and the structure of biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The numbers of viable bacterial in biofilm after ambroxol treatmented determined by plate culture count. Through crystal violet assay, significant difference (P ambroxol concentration reached at 0.25 mg/ml and 0.49 mg/ml. The biofilms was destroyed by SEM. Ambroxol had the positive effect on bacterial killing by plate culture count,and the effect was in a dose dependent. Ambroxol could destroy the biofilm of Haemophilus influenzae, and had bactericidal function in vitro.

  8. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  9. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL can rapidly (<2 h be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the increase in GAL-activity correlated well with the increase in fecal indicator bacteria. The GAL activity in human feces (n = 14 was high (mean activity 7 × 107 ppb MU/hour and stable (1 LOG10 variation, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci varied by >5 LOG10. Furthermore, the GAL-activity per gram feces from birds, sheep and cattle was 2–3 LOG10 lower than the activity from human feces, indicating that high GAL-activity in water may reflect human fecal pollution more than the total fecal pollution. The rapid method can only be used to quantify high levels of human fecal pollution, corresponding to about 0.1 mg human feces/liter (or 103 E. coli/100 mL, since below this limit GAL-activity from non-fecal environmental sources may interfere.

  10. Bactericidal effects of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode for solutions during intravenous infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Aoe, Mai; Esaki, Seiji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Teramachi, Hitomi; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation is effectively used as a disinfection method for inactivating microorganisms. Methods: We investigated the bactericidal effects by irradiation with a deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) on the causative microorganisms of catheter related blood stream infection contaminating the solution for intravenous infusion. For irradiation, prototype modules for water disinfection with a DUV-LED were used. Experiments were conducted on five kinds of microor...

  11. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0 for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp., other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  12. Bactericidal effect of the CO2 laser in the root canal: an in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Wilkert-Walter, Cornelia; Lampert, Friedrich

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bactericidal effect of a CO2 laser used in a continuous mode. Classically prepared root canals were irradiated under standardized conditions with power settings of 2, 4, and 6 Watts. The mean elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in prepared and infected root canals of extracted teeth was 98.97%, 99.51% and 99.34% respectively. Minimum elimination was 91.67% and maximum 99.696%.

  13. Health quality and germination of Butia capitata seeds treated with bactericide and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Rocha Lacerda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Propagation of “coquinho-azedo” (Butia capitata is limited due to dormancy and high incidence of fungi in its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating “coquinho-azedo” seeds with different concentrations of bactericide and/or fungicide on the incidence of fungi and on the germination of seeds. Thus, B. capitata seeds were immersed in four doses of the bactericide kasugamycin (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mL/L and/or in four concentrations of the fungicide carbendazim+ thiram (0, 2.92, 5.84 e 8.75 mL/Kg, totaling 16 treatments. After the treatments, the operculum was removed from the seeds, which were placed on trays containing autoclaved sand, covered with transparent plastic film and kept in the nursery. In the germination test, treatments were distributed in randomized block design, factorial arrangement of 4x4 (bactericidal doses x fungicide doses, with four replicates of 50 seeds per plot. For the test of seed health quality, the Blotter test was employed in completely randomized design, using 20 replicates and 10 seeds. Health quality and germination were evaluated at 15 and 40 days after the treatment of seeds, respectively. There was no interaction between the bactericide and the fungicide on germination and control of fungi associated with seeds. However, there was an effect of fungicide concentrations on the evaluated parameters. We observed a negative correlation between the concentrations of the fungicide carbendazim + thiram and fungal incidence, and a positive correlation between the fungicide concentrations and seed germination. Therefore, fungicide treatment reduces the fungal incidence and provides better germination of B. capitata seeds.

  14. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M., E-mail: amparogm@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M. Luisa [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Galván, Juan C. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron–hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott–Schottky plots. EIS and Mott–Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24 h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Highlights: ► Bactericidal response of UV-treated Ti6Al4V is explained through electrochemistry. ► There is an increase in the superficial electrical conduction after UV-treatment. ► Higher corrosion currents for UV-treated against non-UV-treated samples are shown. ► EIS shows the recuperation on irradiated samples in agreement with microbial tests.

  15. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2013-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  16. Nanoparticles as Efflux Pump and Biofilm Inhibitor to Rejuvenate Bactericidal Effect of Conventional Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Singh, Ajeet; Khan, Asad U.

    2017-07-01

    The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells. Hindrance in the functioning of efflux pumps may rejuvenate the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics. Efflux pumps also play an important role in the exclusion or inclusion of quorum-sensing biomolecules responsible for biofilm formation in bacterial cells. This transit movement of quorum-sensing biomolecules inside or outside the bacterial cells may get interrupted by impeding the functioning of efflux pumps. Metallic nanoparticles represent a potential candidate to block efflux pumps of bacterial cells. The application of nanoparticles as efflux pump inhibitors will not only help to revive the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics but will also assist to reduce biofilm-forming capacity of microbes. This review focuses on a novel and fascinating application of metallic nanoparticles in synergy with conventional antibiotics for efflux pump inhibition.

  17. Inhibitory and bactericidal power of mangosteen rind extract towards Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bacteria that cause the occurrence of pathogens of periodontal disease are gram negative anaerobes. These bacteria include Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans. Mangosteen skin extract is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti microbial, and anti oxidant properties. The extract of the mangosteen peel is altered in gel preparation in order to streamline its clinical application in periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial power of the ginger mangosteen tree extract gel against Pophyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: This research was conducted by experimental laboratory. Mangosteen fruit extract gel with concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125% and 0,78% were tested against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans with agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that for Actinobacilus Aggregatibacter bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration at a concentration of 6.25% with a diameter of 13,5mm inhibition. Minimal bactericidal concentration at 12,5% concentration with 14,7mm inhibitory diameter. In the test of Pophyromonas Gingivalis bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained at a concentration of 1.56% and a minimum bactericidal concentration was obtained at a concentration of 3.125%. Conclusion: The conclusion that mangosteen peel skin gel extract can inhibit bacterial growth and is bactericidal against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetecomitans.

  18. Mangrove Streptomyces sp. BDUKAS10 as nanofactory for fabrication of bactericidal silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Antony, Jacob Joe; Siva, Durairaj; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2012-10-01

    Biosynthesis has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the fabrication of nanoscale materials. The present study reveals a unique procedure for the biosynthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a novel Streptomyces sp. BDUKAS10, an isolate of mangrove sediment. Aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution was treated with cell free supernatant (CFS) of the isolate to synthesize bactericidal silver nanoparticles. Initial characterization was performed by visual observation for color change to intense brown color. UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) for measuring surface plasmon resonance indicated a maximum absorption peak at 441 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides evidence for proteins as possible reducing, and capping agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy analysis showed elemental silver as major signal. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study indicated spherical silver nanoparticles in the size range of 21-48 nm. Compared to the CFS, the biosynthesized AgNPs exemplified superior bactericidal efficacy towards the tested bacterial strains. Results from this study suggested that Streptomyces sp. BDUKAS10 can be advantageous for the synthesis of AgNPs by extracellular method in the view of sustainable and ecofriendly approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures. PMID:23097502

  20. Effects of CO2 on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes injured by various bactericidal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houteghem, Nancy; Devlieghere, Frank; Rajkovic, Andreja; Gómez, Sandra Maria Osés; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    To assure the microbiological safety and quality of a food product, a combination of preservation hurdles is often used. Therefore, the effects of carbon dioxide at concentrations of 0, 20, 40 and 60% in modified atmospheres on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes cells injured by mild bactericidal treatments during storage at 7 degrees C were examined. The bactericidal treatments were intense light pulses (ILP), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), lactic acid (LA) and heat. The results indicated additional bactericidal effects of CO(2) on cultures treated with LA, ClO(2) and ILP, with additional reductions in viable L. monocytogenes of 0.5-1.0 log cfu/ml. Lag phase duration was significantly different between the different treatments, with non-treated cells having the shortest lag phase, followed by that of heat, intense light pulses, lactic acid and finally ClO(2) treated cells. Maximum growth rate was also estimated and results showed a negative correlation with increasing CO(2) concentrations. A relationship was found between the amount of sub-lethally damaged cells after a mild inactivation treatment and the lag phase duration in the CO(2) environment. Current findings demonstrate the possibility that combining mild decontamination treatments and packaging in a CO(2) enriched environment could reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes infections in food due to an extension of the lag phase.

  1. Polyphenolic content and bactericidal effect of Mexican Citrus limetta and Citrus reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damián-Reyna, Andrés Alejandro; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Maya-Yescas, Rafael; de Jesús Cortés-Penagos, Consuelo; Del Carmen Chávez-Parga, Ma

    2017-02-01

    In this study, total phenolics, total flavonoids, hesperidin and ascorbic acid contents in bagasse, juice and seed of mexican sweet lime (Citrus limetta) and mandarine (Citrus reticulata) were determined at two commercial maturity stages (maturation index), as well as their bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that bagasses had the highest total phenolics, total flavonoids, and hesperidin content for both, C. limetta, and C. reticulata; highest ascorbic acid contents were found in C. limetta juice (3.36 ± 0.25 mg g-1 DW) and C. reticulata bagasse (3.83 ± 0.37 mg g-1 DW). All tested extracts showed bacterial growth inhibition at 50 and 800 µg mL-1. Bagasse extracts of both fruits showed the highest inhibitions (>90%) on tested bacteria. Total phenolics, total flavonoids, and hesperidin contents, as well as bactericidal effect increased with maturity. Results indicated that both Mexican citric fruits (C. limetta and C. reticulata) were good sources of antioxidant and bactericidal agents.

  2. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M Luisa; Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro; Galván, Juan C

    2013-04-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron-hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott-Schottky plots. EIS and Mott-Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  4. Perceptions of interactions between staff members calling, and those responding to, rapid response team activations for patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, Richard; Flabouris, Arthas; Kapitola, Karoline; Dewick, Leonie

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate experiences of staff interactions and non-technical skills (NTS) at rapid response team (RRT) calls, and their association with repeat RRT calls. Methods Mixed-methods surveys were conducted of RRT members and staff who activate the RRT (RRT users) for their perceptions and attitudes regarding the use of NTS during RRT calls. Responses within the survey were recorded as Likert items, ranked data and free comments. The latter were coded into nodes relating to one of four NTS domains: leadership, communication, cooperation and planning. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven (32%) RRT users and 79 (73.8%) RRT members provided responses. Of the RRT user respondents, 76.5% had activated the RRT at some point. Deficits in NTS at RRT calls were revealed, with 36.9% of users not feeling involved during RRT calls and 24.7% of members perceiving that users were disinterested. Unresolved user clinical concerns, or persistence of RRT calling criteria, were reasons cited by 37.6% and 23%, respectively, of RRT users for reactivating an RRT to the same patient. Despite recollections of conflict at previous RRT calls, 92% of users would still reactivate the RRT. The most common theme in the free comments related to deficiencies in cooperation (52.9%), communication (28.6%) and leadership (14.3%). Conclusions This survey of RRT users and members revealed problems with RRT users' and members' interactions at the time of an RRT call. Both users and members considered NTS to be important, but lacking. These findings support NTS training for RRT members and users. What is known about the topic? Previous surveying has related experiences of criticism and conflict between clinical staff at RRT activations. This leads to reluctance to call the RRT when indicated, with risks to patient safety, especially if subsequent RRT activation is necessary. Training in NTS has improved clinician interactions in simulated emergencies, but the

  5. A small molecule with anticancer and antimetastatic activities induces rapid mitochondrial-associated necrosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Anja; Thorpe, Jessica E; Disch, Bryan C; Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Gangjee, Aleem; Devambatla, Ravi K V; Henthorn, Jim; Humphries, Kenneth M; Vadvalkar, Shraddha S; Ihnat, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Therapy for treatment-resistant breast cancer provides limited options and the response rates are low. Therefore, the development of therapies with alternative chemotherapeutic strategies is necessary. AG311 (5-[(4-methylphenyl)thio]-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-2,4-diamine), a small molecule, is being investigated in preclinical and mechanistic studies for treatment of resistant breast cancer through necrosis, an alternative cell death mechanism. In vitro, AG311 induces rapid necrosis in numerous cancer cell lines as evidenced by loss of membrane integrity, ATP depletion, HMGB1 (high-mobility group protein B1) translocation, nuclear swelling, and stable membrane blebbing in breast cancer cells. Within minutes, exposure to AG311 also results in mitochondrial depolarization, superoxide production, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Additionally, upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation results in sensitization to AG311. This AG311-induced cell death can be partially prevented by treatment with the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor, Ru360 [(μ)[(HCO2)(NH3)4Ru]2OCl3], or an antioxidant, lipoic acid. Additionally, AG311 does not increase apoptotic markers such as cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or caspase-3 and -7 activity. Importantly, in vivo studies in two orthotopic breast cancer mouse models (xenograft and allograft) demonstrate that AG311 retards tumor growth and reduces lung metastases better than clinically used agents and has no gross or histopathological toxicity. Together, these data suggest that AG311 is a first-in-class antitumor and antimetastatic agent inducing necrosis in breast cancer tumors, likely through the mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface...

  7. Music Training Enhances Rapid Neural Plasticity of N1 and P2 Source Activation for Unattended Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, Miia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have demonstrated that long-term music training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether music training also modulates rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this phenomenon, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity compared to non-musicians. More specifically, we compared the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to standard sounds between four unattended ...

  8. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  9. Rapid Screening of Active Components with an Osteoclastic Inhibitory Effect in Herba epimedii Using Quantitative Pattern–Activity Relationships Based on Joint-Action Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening of bioactive components is important for modernization and quality control of herbal medicines, while the traditional bioassay-guided phytochemical approach is time-consuming and laborious. The presented study proposes a strategy for rapid screening of active components from herbal medicines. As a case study, the quantitative pattern–activity relationship (QPAR between compounds and the osteoclastic inhibitory effect of Herba epimedii, a widely used herbal medicine in China, were investigated based on joint models. For model construction, standard mixtures data showed that the joint-action models are better than the partial least-squares (PLS model. Then, the Good2bad value, which could reflect components’ importance based on Monte Carlo sampling, was coupled with the joint-action models for screening of active components. A compound (baohuoside I and a component composed of compounds with retention times in the 6.9–7.9 min range were selected by our method. Their inhibition rates were higher than icariin, the key bioactive compound in Herba epimedii, which could inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in a previous study. Meanwhile, the half-maximal effective concentration, namely, EC50 value of the selected component was 7.54 μg/mL, much smaller than that of baohuoside I—77 μg/mL—which indicated that there is synergistic action between compounds in the selected component. The results clearly show our proposed method is simple and effective in screening the most-bioactive components and compounds, as well as drug-lead components, from herbal medicines.

  10. Assessment of early thromboelastometric variables from extrinsically activated assays with and without aprotinin for rapid detection of fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Daniel; Görlinger, Klaus; Peters, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Although thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombelastography can be used for bedside diagnosis of fibrinolysis, the time needed for detection is often prolonged. Since untreated fibrinolysis can result in consumption of coagulation factors and bleeding, early diagnosis and decision making are desirable. Accordingly, we assessed ROTEM variables from extrinsically activated assays with (APTEM) and without (EXTEM) addition of aprotinin for their ability to rapidly identify fibrinolysis. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that prolonged clotting time, clot formation time, low clot firmness (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, designated A5, A10, A15, and A20, respectively), low maximum clot firmness (MCF) in EXTEM assays, and differences in these variables from parallel APTEM and EXTEM assays (designated as Δvariables) predict fibrinolysis. Data from 411 thromboelastometric measurements (obtained from 352 patients) with fibrinolysis and from 2537 measurements without fibrinolysis (obtained from 1605 patients) were assessed and analyzed using receiver operating characteristics. Data were analyzed as a pooled fibrinolysis cohort, and subanalyses were performed from sets assigned to categories of fibrinolysis related to the timing of thrombus lysis (i.e., a decrease of clot firmness to fibrinolysis. AUCs were compared to identify the variable providing the best predictive association with fibrinolysis. As a secondary end point, optimum cutoff values at the point estimate corresponding to the greatest Youden index were calculated along with the respective sensitivities and specificities. In the pooled cohort, clot formation time (AUC: 0.652 [0.016]), α-angle (AUC: 0.675 [0.015]), A5 (AUC: 0.718 [0.013]), A10 (AUC: 0.734 [0.0.13]), A15 (AUC: 0.752 [0.013]), A20 (AUC: 0.771 [0.013]), and MCF (AUC: 0.799 [0.012]) predicted fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis was also predicted by ΔA15 (AUC: 0.675 [0.016]), ΔA20 (AUC: 0.719 [0.015]), and ΔMCF (AUC: 0.812 [0.013]). AUCs increased in

  11. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 in airway host protection and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Cohn, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.

  12. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  13. Active and energy-dependent rapid formation of cell aggregates in the thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Satoshi; Shimada, Keizo; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2002-03-05

    The thermophilic filamentous phototroph Chloroflexus aggregans was able to form a bacterial mat-like dense cell aggregate rapidly. The aggregate formation, which was observed in growing cells in a liquid medium in a bottle, occurred every time within 20-30 min after the cells were dispersed by shaking. The aggregation depended on the energy supplied by photosynthesis or respiration. Cells aggregated most rapidly under temperature and pH conditions that support maximum growth. The aggregation was also accelerated by the addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine that inhibits cyclic 3',5'-AMP phosphodiesterase. Microscopic observation revealed that the bacterium has a fast gliding mobility (1-3 microm s(-1)). The distinctive cell aggregation of C. aggregans was due to this rapid gliding movement.

  14. Biology of three Malacostraca (Decapoda) in a Mediterranean lagoon with particular emphasis on the effect of rapid environmental changes on the activity (catchability) of the species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, A. J.

    1982-12-01

    The activity of three Malacostraca (Decapoda), Crangon crangon, Carcinus aestuarii and Paleamon squilla, was studied following rapid environmental changes in a Mediterranean lagoon linked temporarily with the sea. Nekton was sampled every 2-3 days using fixed fyke nets. A canonical analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were computed to determine which factor(s) can predict or account for the catch of these three decapods. In spite of rapid environmental changes no exceptional mortality was observed in each of the three species. Temperature is the environmental factor with major impact on the activity of C. crangon. Activity of P. squilla is controlled by water depth. At a depth of less than 20 cm two factors, salinity and phase of the moon, have a significant influence on the activity of this species. At depths deeper than 20 cm the activity is inhibited. There is only a weak relationship between the catch of C. aestuarii and salinity. Additional data on the life cycle of these species are given. The limitations of a monthly sampling period are discussed and the need for more short-term, consecutive sampling periods is stressed in order to understand the dynamics of systems with rapid environmental fluctuations.

  15. Bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shoaib Haider; Awan, Kamran Habib; Javed, Fawad

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to review the bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. To address the focused question "Does PDT exhibit bactericidal effects against E. faecalis in infected root canals?" PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1985 up to August 2013 using various combinations of the following key words: "antibacterial; "bactericidal; "endodontic; "root canal" and "photodynamic therapy". Original studies, experimental studies and articles published only in English language were included. Letters to the editor, historic reviews and unpublished data were excluded. The pattern of the present review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent information. Seventeen studies (16 ex vivo and one in vivo) were included. In these studies, numbers of teeth used ranged between 30 and 220 teeth. In these studies, wavelengths of diode laser used, diameter of fiber and power output ranged between 625 and 805 nm, 200 μm and 0.4 cm, and 40 mW and 5 W respectively. Twelve studies reported PDT to be effective in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals. Four studies reported conventional irrigation and instrumentation to be more efficient in killing E. faecalis than PDT. One study reported PDT and conventional endodontic regimes to be equally effective in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals. In most studies, toluidine blue and/or methylene blue were used as photosensitizers. Efficacy of PDT in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals remains questionable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pratibha; Merwyn, S.; Agarwal, G. S.; Tripathi, B. K.; Pant, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500-1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100-200 nm width near the base and 50-100 nm width at the tapered ends and 25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, s taphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 μg/mL nano CuO killed 3 × 108 CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 × 106 CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 μg/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  17. Biochemical and micrographic evidence of Escherichia coli membrane damage during incubation in egg white under bactericidal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence; Alabdeh, Mariah; Chaari, Walid; Grosset, Noël; Cochet, Marie-Françoise; Gautier, Michel; Vié, Véronique; Nau, Françoise

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial membranes are often thought to be the main targets of the antimicrobial activity of egg white. In order to test this hypothesis, the state of the membranes of Escherichia coli K-12 cells during either bactericidal (45°C) or bacteriostatic (30°C) incubation in egg white at natural alkaline pH was studied by biochemical methods. Namely, the permeability of the outer membrane was evaluated through its ability to incorporate a hydrophobic fluorescent probe (1-N-phenylnaphthylamine), and the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane was evaluated through the release of a specific intracellular enzyme (β-galactosidase). The bacteria were observed by atomic force microscopy in order to support the biochemical results. At 45°C, the outer membrane of E. coli K-12 incorporated the hydrophobic probe, suggesting that it was disrupted. In addition, the cytoplasmic β-galactosidase was released at this temperature. The atomic force microscopy analysis revealed the formation of spheroplasts, which provided further evidence of the cell wall disruption and a progressive release of cellular contents. At 30°C, biochemical and micrographic experiments confirmed that membrane integrity was preserved. These techniques provide a useful approach for studying the mechanisms of bacterial cell death in egg white.

  18. Minimum bactericidal concentration of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water on spoilers, starters and food-borne bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro effect of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water (PEOW on several food-borne strains. Antibacterial activity of PEOW was based on the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC on microtitre assay. The taxa tested were: Staphylococcus (n. 5, Listeria (n. 4, Escherichia (n. 2, Salmonella (n. 1, Pseudomonas (n. 3, Lactobacillus (n. 2 and Pediococcus (n. 1. S. aureus and L. monocytogens showed the lowest level of resistance to PEOW (MBC=1.5-3 mg/mL. In contrast, the Gram negative strains (e.g. S. Typhimurium and Pseudomonas spp. were in some cases unaffected by the tested doses and the MBCs ranged between 6 to 12 mg/mL. Starter cultures were dramatically reduced on growth (e.g. Staphylococcus xylosus; 0.75 mg/mL MBC. The thresholds for pathogenic strains could be considered for further applications of PEOW in food models (e.g. shelf life or challenge test studies.

  19. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  20. Increased extracellular collagen matrix in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins: an additional mechanism facilitating repetitive rapid activities in chronic pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Wei, Hao-Ji; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Lin, Nai-Nu; Chen, Ying-Tsung; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Increased ECM in canine PVs. Cell uncoupling due to fibrosis or increased extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) affects the formation of ectopic focal activity. Whether or not the increase of ECM also exists in the pulmonary veins (PVs) with rapid atrial pacing is unknown. We sought to test the hypothesis that in chronic atrial pacing dogs with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF), the amount of ECM was increased in both atria and the PVs. We induced sustained AF in dogs by rapid atrial pacing. Computerized mapping techniques were used to map both atria and the PVs. We also used histological assessment to quantify the amount of ECM. After 118+/-24 days of rapid atrial pacing, sustained AF was induced in 7 dogs. Repetitive rapid activities (RRAs) either continuously or intermittently arose from the PVs during sustained AF. Histological study shows that there was no fibrosis in both atrial free walls and the PVs. However, the amount of ECM was increased in these regions. The mean ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was all significantly higher compared to the corresponding region in normal dogs. Similarly, the heterogeneity of the ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was also all significantly higher compared to normal dogs. In chronic atrial pacing-induced sustained AF, structural remodeling (i.e., inhomogeneous increase of ECM) also involves the PVs. Reduced coupling of the myocytes in the PV due to histological changes may provide an additional mechanism facilitating RRAs.

  1. Stimulus and Response-Locked P3 Activity in a Dynamic Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    electroencephalogram EOG electrooculography ERP event - related potential P3 P300 RSVP rapid serial visual presentation RT reaction time NO. OF NO. OF...4 Figure 3. Left: stimulus-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from nontargets and targets in each quartile. Right...average). .....6 Figure 5. Left: response-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from targets in each quartile. Right: corresponding

  2. Glucose Evokes Rapid Ca2+ and Cyclic AMP Signals by Activating the Cell-Surface Glucose-Sensing Receptor in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Medina, Johan; Kojima, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse β-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor. PMID:26630567

  3. Luminal leptin induces rapid inhibition of active intestinal absorption of glucose mediated by sodium-glucose cotransporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducroc, Robert; Guilmeau, Sandra; Akasbi, Khalil; Devaud, Hélène; Buyse, Marion; Bado, André

    2005-02-01

    The effect of leptin on glucose transport was studied in rat jejunal mucosa in Ussing chambers. Leptin was added in the luminal or the serosal compartment before the tissues were challenged with 1, 10, or 50 mmol/l glucose. In response to 10 mmol/l glucose, the increase in short-circuit current (DeltaIsc) reached 26.8 +/- 2.1 microA/cm(2). Luminal addition of leptin dramatically decreased glucose-induced Isc (90.5% for 10 nmol/l leptin). Inhibition was maximal after 5 min and dose dependent (IC(50) = 0.13 nM). Western blot analysis showed that rapid inhibition of glucose-induced Isc by leptin was associated with a parallel decrease in the abundance of sodium-glucose transporter-1 in brush border membranes. Inhibition by luminal leptin of DeltaIsc was prevented by inhibitor of conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Serosal addition of leptin did not decrease glucose-induced Isc within 5 min and reached maximum after 10 min. The effect of leptin from serosal side was blocked by cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor-2 receptor antagonist YM022. Altogether, these data demonstrate that luminal leptin induces rapid inhibition of glucose entry into enterocyte. The slower action of leptin on the serosal side of mucosa seems indirect and is likely mediated by endogenous CCK. They demonstrate that gut leptin is a major regulator of rapid intestinal glucose transport.

  4. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Hydrothermal fabrication of ZSM-5 zeolites: biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Ping; Long, Teng; Song, Zhen-Fu; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-04-01

    The bone graft-associated infection is widely considered in orthopedic surgery, which may lead to implant failure, extensive bone debridement, and increased patient morbidity. In this study, we fabricated ZSM-5 zeolites for drug delivery systems by hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology, biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property of the ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated. The ZSM-5 zeolites have mordenite framework inverted-type structure and exhibit the disk-like shape with the diameter of ∼350 nm and thickness of ∼165 nm. The biocompatibility tests indicate that human bone marrow stromal cells spread out well on the surfaces of the ZSM-5 zeolites and proliferate significantly with increasing culture time. As compared with the conventional hydroxyapatite particles, the ZSM-5 zeolites possess greater drug loading efficiency and drug sustained release property because of the ordered micropores, large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and functional groups. For the gentamicin-loaded ZSM-5 zeolites, the sustained release of gentamicin minimizes significantly bacterial adhesion and prevents biofilm formation against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The excellent biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property of the ZSM-5 zeolites suggest that they have great application potentials for treating implant-associated infections. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In vitro bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser on Actinomyces israelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Paolo; Conti, Stefania; Merigo, Elisabetta; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano; Manfredi, Maddalena; Meleti, Marco; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, S Amir

    2013-07-01

    A bactericidal effect has been reported by the use of near-infrared laser light on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser on Actinomyces israelii, filamentous bacteria causing cervicofacial actinomycosis. Experiments were realized on bacterial cells in saline suspension or streaked on Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar plates with or without India ink. Laser application was performed in Eppendorf tubes with different powers and frequencies for 40 s; bacterial suspensions were then streaked on agar plates and incubated at 35 °C in proper conditions for 5 days before colony enumeration. A reduction of colony number variable from 60.13 to 100 % for powers of 2, 4, and 6 W at 25-50 Hz of frequency was observed in comparison with growth control. For agar plates, laser application was performed with different powers at 50 Hz for 60 s. A growth inhibition was observed after 5 days of incubation on MH plates with powers of 6 W and on MH-ink plates with all applied powers. This preliminary study showed a bactericidal effect caused by Nd:YAG laser application worthy to be evaluated in further experiments in vivo.

  7. [Bactericidal action of chloramphenicol and synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbichler, J P

    1983-01-01

    Excellent clinical results were observed with the combination therapy of chloramphenicol with beta-lactam-antibiotics in the treatment of purulent meningitis. This came as a surprise as bacteriostatic antibiotics like chloramphenicol are commonly thought to antagonize the bactericidal action of penicillin or ampicillin. We reevaluated the mode of action of chloramphenicol against the three most common meningeal pathogens after the newborn period. Chloramphenicol was found to be bactericidal against H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis at clinically achievable levels in the CSF. In addition chloramphenicol showed synergistic action with ampicillin against H. influenzae which can possess clinical relevance particularly with the high inoculum of 10(7) organisms/ml which is frequently seen in bacterial meningitis. No synergism was found against Pneumococci and Meningococci but also no antagonism of the lower MIC and MBC values seen with ampicillin and penicillin G. The combination of chloramphenicol with either penicillin or ampicillin constitutes a clinically successful therapeutic regimen which is now also proven by in vitro investigations.

  8. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-08-18

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  9. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sikora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100% to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  10. Cytokine-induced proapoptotic gene expression in insulin-producing cells is related to rapid, sustained, and nonoscillatory nuclear factor-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Crispim, Daisy

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines, such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) mediates cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Paradoxically, NF-kappaB has mostly antiapoptotic effects in other cell types......-kappaB activation in insulin-producing cells is more rapid, marked, and sustained than in fibroblasts, which correlates with a more pronounced activation of downstream genes and a proapoptotic outcome....

  11. Specific, sensitive, precise, and rapid functional chromogenic assay of activated first complement component (C1) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkvad, S; Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1990-01-01

    We present a new functional assay for the first complement component (C1) in plasma, based on its activation by inhibition of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) when monospecific antiserum to C1-inh is added to the plasma. After maximal activation, we can determine the concentration of activated ...

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarinich, Lyubov A; Burakova, Ekaterina A; Zakharov, Boris A; Boldyreva, Elena V; Babkina, Irina N; Tikunova, Nina V; Silnikov, Vladimir N

    2015-05-05

    A series of new quaternary 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for activity against several strains of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of fungus under different inoculum size. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six species of microorganisms were tested. Results show a clear structure-activity relationship between alkyl chain length of substitutions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tertiary amine sites and antimicrobial activity. In the case of compounds 4a-4k, MIC was found to decrease with the increase of the alkyl chain length from ethyl to dodecyl and then to increase at higher chain length (n > 14). The MIC values were found to be low for the compounds 4f and 4g with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 12 carbons in length (1.6 μg/ml) and were comparable to the reference drug Ciprofloxacin. Also, time-kill assay was performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Results indicated that 4f and 4g had rapid killing effects against Staphylococcus aureus, and eliminated 100% of the initial inoculum of bacteria in 2.5 h at the concentration of 10 μg/ml. In addition, compound 4g eliminate more than 99.9% of the initial inoculum of Ps. aeruginosa after 2.5 h of interaction but the activity of compound 4f against this species seems to be weak. Thus, 4g had strong bactericidal activity and could rapidly kill Gram positive S. aureus, as well as Gram negative Ps. aeruginosa at low and high inoculum size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral c