WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid assessment methodology

  1. A novel methodology for the rapid assessment of waterbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methodology for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of waterbirds to disturbance was tested at Sabaki estuary, Kenya. Three variables were employed to measure the responses of 15 species: (1) bird density, (2) minimum distance of birds from a stationary disturbance and (3) recovery times following a moving disturbance.

  2. Methodology for Computer-aided, Interactive Rapid Assessment of Local or Regional Stress Fields on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S. L.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Franklin, N. M.

    2003-03-01

    We present a method for rapid assessment of stress fields on Mars: (i) mapping geologic structures, (ii) calculating stress fields, and (iii) determining resolved stresses on faults. Preliminary results are presented for northern Utopia Planitia.

  3. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, A A; Safarov, A N; Azimov, A N; Darby, I G

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing low cost NaI(Tl) scintillation detector systems we present methodology for the rapid screening of building material samples and the determination of their Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq). Materials from Uzbekistan as a representative developing country have been measured and a correction coefficient for Radium activity is deduced. The use of the correction coefficient offers the possibility to decrease analysis times thus enabling the express measurement of a large quantity of samples. The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  5. Indicator development methodology for volunteer tourism in host communities: creating a low-cost, locally applicable, rapid assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2015-01-01

    Two prominent critiques of volunteer tourism are that it is a top-down imposed form of development treating host communities as passive recipients of international aid, and that the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities are not systematically evaluated. To address this we identified a pre-existing participatory methodology for assessing community...

  6. Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis - a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khalfan A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ivermectin and albendazole are used in annual mass drug administration (MDA for the lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes in African countries co-endemic for onchocerciasis, but have additional impact on soil transmitted helminths and the ectoparasitic mite which causes scabies. Assessing these collateral impacts at scale is difficult due to the insensitivity of available parasite detection techniques. Methods The numbers of cases diagnosed with intestinal helminths and scabies and who received prescriptions for treatment were evaluated in 50 health centres in Zanzibar. Records were examined from 2000, prior to the initiation of MDA to 2005, after six rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis had taken place. Results Health centre records showed a consistent decline in the number of cases of intestinal helminths and scabies diagnosed by community health workers in Zanzibar and the number of prescriptions issued across five age groups. A 90-98% decline in soil transmitted helminths and 68-98% decline in scabies infections were recorded. Poisson regression models aggregated to both the island-level and district-level indicated that the decline was statistically significant. Conclusions The described method of examining health centre records has the potential for use on a large scale, despite limitations, as a rapid method to evaluate the impacts resulting from both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis MDA. This would result in a reduction in the need for parasitological evaluations to determine prevalence and intensity.

  7. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  8. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  9. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  10. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    22  Figure 12. Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). ....................................... 22  iii LIST OF TABLES...Certification Program FTP File Transfer Protocol GIS Geographical Information Systems GSF gross square footage JCI Johnson Controls Energy...Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). 23 6.0 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FirstFuel chose each Performance Objective with the major project

  11. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  12. Improved rapid prototyping methodology for MPEG-4 IC development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clive K. K.; Moseler, Kathy; Levi, Sami

    1998-12-01

    One important factor in deciding the success of a new consumer product or integrated circuit is minimized time-to- market. A rapid prototyping methodology that encompasses algorithm development in the hardware design phase will have great impact on reducing time-to-market. In this paper, a proven hardware design methodology and a novel top-down design methodology based on Frontier Design's DSP Station tool are described. The proven methodology was used during development of the MC149570 H.261/H.263 video codec manufactured by Motorola. This paper discusses an improvement to this method to create an integrated environment for both system and hardware development, thereby further reducing the time-to-market. The software tool chosen is DSP Station tool by Frontier Design. The rich features of DSP Station tool will be described and then it will be shown how these features may be useful in designing from algorithm to silicon. How this methodology may be used in the development of a new MPEG4 Video Communication ASIC will be outlined. A brief comparison with a popular tool, Signal Processing WorkSystem tool by Cadence, will also be given.

  13. Nanotoxicology materials, methodologies, and assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Nelson; Alves, Oswaldo L; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    This book begins with a detailed introduction to engineered nanostructures, followed by a section on methodologies used in research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and concluding with evidence for the cyto- and genotoxicity of specific nanoparticles.

  14. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  15. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  16. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  17. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  18. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  19. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  20. A Security Assessment Methodology for Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures

  1. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  2. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  3. Population-based assessment of prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the state of Telangana, India: a cross-sectional study using the Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunkunu, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-12-15

    To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) among a rural population aged 40 years and older in the state of Telangana in India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Districts of Adilabad and Mahbubnagar in south Indian state of Telangana, India. A sample of 6150 people was selected using cluster random sampling methodology. A team comprising a trained vision technician and a field worker visited the households and conducted the eye examination. Presenting, pinhole and aided visual acuity were assessed. Anterior segment was examined using a torchlight. Lens was examined using distant direct ophthalmoscopy in a semidark room. In all, 5881 (95.6%) participants were examined from 123 study clusters. Among those examined, 2723 (46.3%) were men, 4824 (82%) had no education, 2974 (50.6%) were from Adilabad district and 1694 (28.8%) of them were using spectacles at the time of eye examination. VI was defined as presenting visual acuity glasses (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2) were protective. VI was also higher in Mahbubnagar (OR 1.0 to 1.5) district. Cataract (54.7%) was the leading cause of VI followed by uncorrected refractive errors (38.6%). VI continues to remain a challenge in rural Telangana. As over 90% of the VI is avoidable, massive eye care programmes are required to address the burden of VI in Telangana. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology.

  5. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  6. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  7. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  8. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  10. Methodology for assessing laser-based equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina-Bonilla, Gabriel; Hermsdorf, Jörg; Thombansen, Ulrich; Abels, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan; Neumann, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Methodologies for the assessment of technology's maturity are widely used in industry and research. Probably the best known are technology readiness levels (TRLs), initially pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At the beginning, only descriptively defined TRLs existed, but over time, automated assessment techniques in the form of questionnaires emerged in order to determine TRLs. Originally TRLs targeted equipment for space applications, but the demands on industrial relevant equipment are partly different in terms of, for example, overall costs, product quantities, or the presence of competitors. Therefore, we present a commonly valid assessment methodology with the aim of assessing laser-based equipment for industrial use, in general. The assessment is carried out with the help of a questionnaire, which allows for a user-friendly and easy accessible way to monitor the progress from the lab-proven state to the application-ready product throughout the complete development period. The assessment result is presented in a multidimensional metric in order to reveal the current specific strengths and weaknesses of the equipment development process, which can be used to direct the remaining development process of the equipment in the right direction.

  11. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  12. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  13. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  14. Review article: Methodology for the 'rapid review' series on musculoskeletal injuries in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Kirsten; McPhee, Megan; Bell, Anthony; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Russell, Trevor

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015. The search was repeated consistently for each topic area (injuries of the foot and ankle, knee, hand and wrist, elbow, shoulder, lumbar spine and cervical spine). English-language primary studies, systematic reviews and guidelines that were published in the last 10 years and addressed acute musculoskeletal injury management were considered for inclusion. Data extraction of each included article was conducted, followed by a quality appraisal. The extracted data from each article was synthesised to group similar evidence together. For each rapid review, the evidence has been organised in a way that a clinician can direct their attention to a specific component of the clinical cycle of care in the ED, such as the assessment, diagnostic tests, management and follow-up considerations from ED. The series of rapid reviews are designed to foster evidence-based practice within the ED, targeting the injuries most commonly presenting. The reviews provide clinicians in EDs with rapid access to the best current evidence, which has been synthesised and organised to assist decision-making. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M

    2013-10-04

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  16. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH RISKS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.

  17. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila

    2008-01-01

    stage in the product life cycle. Another very important difference among the proposals is their position towards the use of generic data. Several of the proposals argue that social impacts are connected to the conduct of the company leading to the conclusion that each individual company in the product......Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... and formulation of indicators. The indicators address a wide variety of issues; some approaches focus on impacts created in the very close proximity of the processes included in the product system, whereas others focus on the more remote societal consequences. Only very little focus has been given to the use...

  18. Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Rapid Visual Assessment of Fish Communities on Selected Reefs in the Bazaruto Archipelago. ... the Bazaruto reef types to provide a basis for their sound management and conservation. Keywords: Bazaruto Archipelago, Mozambique, ichthyofauna, fish surveys, underwater visual census, coral reefs.

  19. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  20. The strainer blockage assessment methodology used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.L.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1992 a spurious opening of a safety valve at Barseback Unit 2 in Sweden resulted in clogging of the Containment Vessel Spray System strainers in less than one hour. Instances of ECCS strainer clogging have occurred in U.S. BWRs. Given these precursors the USNRC staff initiated analyses to estimate the potential for loss of NPSH of the ECCS pumps in BWRs due to clogging of suction strainers by a combination of fibrous and particulate material. The BLOCKAGE code was developed in support of NUREG/CR-6224, a probabilistic scoping analysis of a BWR/4 with a Mark 1 containment. This paper addresses the key elements of the methodology used in the BLOCKAGE code to assess head loss across ECCS strainers. The debris generation model, the debris drywell transport, and the suppression pool models are discussed briefly. NUREG/CR-6224 provides in-depth discussions of the models used in BLOCKAGE. Additionally, user interface features of BLOCKAGE are discussed.

  1. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  2. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  3. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  4. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  5. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. 45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-assessment implementation methodology. 308.1... methodology. (a) The IV-D agency must ensure the review meets Federal requirements and must maintain... sampling methodology maintains a minimum confidence level of 90 percent for each criterion; (2) The State...

  7. Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

  8. Risk Assessment Methodology for CO2 Storage: The Scenario Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenborg, A.F.B.; Leijnse, A.L.; Kreft, E.; Nepveu, M.N.; Obdam, A.N.M.; Orlic, B.; Wipfler, E.L.; Grift, B. van der; Kesteren, W. van; Gaus, I.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Torfs, P.; Wójcik, R.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces a "scenario approach," which is used as a methodology for the long-term safety assessment of underground CO2 storage and to demonstrate its applicability in an example of safety assessment. This developed methodology consists of three main parts-scenario analysis, model

  9. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  10. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

  11. Process assessment for use in very small enterprises: the NOEMI assess-ment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    DI RENZO, Bernard; FELTUS, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to the development and the experimentation of an IT process assessment methodology especially designed to be used in very small enterprises (VSEs). This methodology, called NOEMI , has been developed as a critical part of a public research project of the Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor (Luxembourg). Initially the main objective of the NOEMI process assessment methodology was to contribute directly to the implementation of a collaborative IT-sourcing model, developed ...

  12. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Villa

    Full Text Available Ecosystem Services (ES are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services, which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  13. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  14. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  15. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  16. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). System Analytics; Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Gleason, Nathaniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Imbro, Dennis Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Sumner, Matthew C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  17. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  18. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  19. Rapid analysis & design methodologies of High-Frequency LCLC Resonant Inverter as Electrodeless Fluorescent Lamp Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Y A; Stone, D A; Bingham, Chris; Foster, M

    2007-01-01

    The papers presents methodologies for the analysis of 4th-order LCLC resonant power converters operating at 2.63 MHz as fluorescent lamp ballasts, where high frequency operation facilitates capacitive discharge into the tube, with near resonance operation at high load quality factor enabling high efficiency. State-variable dynamic descriptions of the converter are employed to rapidly determine the steady-state cyclic behaviour of the ballast during nominal operation. Simulation and experiment...

  20. [Current lines of methodology for risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results of some guidance studies assessing the risk, recently conducted at the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health, such as validation of toxicological and hygienic criteria for risk assessment upon short- and long-term human exposures to deleterious substances; development and introduction of methods for assessing health risk and damage, by applying computer technologies; elaboration of guidelines for establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of changes in health indices to those in the environment; characterization of damage caused by ambient air pollution in Russian cities and towns; possibilities of using the guidance for assessing the risk to improve sociohygienic monitoring. It also gives the results of testing scientific developments in the assessment of a multienvironmental risk in the areas exposed to emission from aluminum works (Khakasia) and chemical and petrochemical enterprises (Samara Region) and in the determination of contribution of emission from the Moscow fuel-and-energy complex to risks and damages to human health, caused by ambient air pollution. The urgent issues of further development of modern trends in risk guidance studies are determined.

  1. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  2. Current established risk assessment methodologies and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2013-01-01

    The technology behind information systems evolves at an exponential rate, while at the same time becoming more and more ubiquitous. This brings with it an implicit rise in the average complexity of systems as well as the number of external interactions. In order to allow a proper assessment of the

  3. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  4. Methodology for the economic assessment of PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Brikman, Inna; Kishore, Sheel; Kundel, Harold L.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1994-05-01

    Most economic studies of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) to date, including our own, have focused on the perspective of the radiology department and its direct costs. However, many researchers have suggested additional cost savings that may accrue to the medical center as a whole through increased operational capacity, fewer lost images, rapid simultaneous access to images, and other decreases in resource utilization. We describe here a new economic analysis framework we have developed to estimate these potential additional savings. Our framework is comprised of two parallel measurement methods. The first method estimates the cost of care actually delivered through online capture of charge entries from the hospital's billing computer and from the clinical practices' billing database. Multiple regression analyses will be used to model cost of care, length of stay, and other estimates of resource utilization. The second method is the measurement of actual resource utilization, such as technologist time, frequency and duration of film searches, and equipment utilization rates. The costs associated with changes in resource use will be estimated using wage rates and other standard economic methods. Our working hypothesis is that, after controlling for the underlying clinical and demographic differences among patients, patients imaged using a PACS will have shorter lengths of stay, shorter exam performance times, and decreased costs of care. We expect our analysis framework to explain and resolve some of the conflicting views of the cost-effectiveness of PACS.

  5. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  6. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepcha, Nor Tshering; Chettri, Chandra Kumar; Getshen, Kunzang; Rai, Bhim Bahadur; Ramaswamy, Shamanna Bindiganavale; Saibaba, Saravanan; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Demarchis, Emilia Hansson; Tabin, Geoffrey; Morley, Michael; Morley, Katharine

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness survey in Bhutan to obtain estimates of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage, outcomes and barriers among persons ≥50 years old. A total of 82 clusters of 50 people ≥50 years were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Eligible participants were selected from households using compact segment sampling, and underwent ophthalmic examination for visual acuity, followed by penlight and direct ophthalmoscopy. Participants with cataract were interviewed regarding surgical outcomes and barriers to surgery. Overall, 4046 of 4100 persons enumerated (98.7%) underwent ophthalmic examination. Adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of bilaterally blind persons with available correction was 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.89). Most blindness (67.1%) and severe visual impairment (74.1%) resulted from cataract, but 22.1% resulted from posterior segment pathology. Cataract surgical coverage for bilaterally blind persons was 72.7%. Almost 90% of patients reported moderate or good satisfaction, despite poor surgical outcomes in 23.6%. The prevalence of blindness in people aged ≥50 years in Bhutan was relatively low when compared with neighboring countries and World Health Organization sub-region estimates. Areas for improvement include community outreach, surgical outcomes, and posterior segment diseases.

  7. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  8. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis...... are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...

  9. FINAL DRAFT - Function-Based Rapid Stream Assessment Methodology

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Developed through a partnership with the Maryland Department of Environment (MDE), Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  10. METHODOLOGY FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF WATER SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Henrique Leite Silva Junior

    2017-08-01

    Este estudio tiene por objeto proponer una metodología simplificada para la evaluación rápida de la calidad ambiental de los muelles, en el contexto de las cuencas hidrográficas. Para ello, se evaluaron 11 cabeceras del Río Bacanga. Para calcular el Índice de Calidad Ambiental, aprobada el operador Fuzzy Promedio Ponderado AHP, que utiliza la metodología del Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (AHP para hacer frente a los factores ambientales implicados en el índice. De los 11 manantiales analizados, cinco fueron clasificados como clase Muy bueno, tres como Bueno, dos en la clase Media y un resorte se clasificó en la clase Mala. Ninguna fuente se ha enmarcado en la clase Muy Malo. Por lo tanto, llegamos a la conclusión de que el uso de la lógica difusa con la ayuda de AHP fue eficaz en la clasificación de la calidad del medio ambiente de resortes, que permite el seguimiento y la provisión para la gestión de componente hidrológico. Se sugiere que, para los resortes enmarcados en las clases justos y pobres, las intervenciones se hacen para la recuperación ambiental de estos. La urbanización no planificada se ha identificado como el agente principal de la degradación de las aguas estudiadas. Palabras clave: Cambio de Uso y Cobertura De La Tierra; La Lógica Difusa; Proceso Analítico Jerárquico; Río Bacanga.

  11. Methodology for Assessing Reusability of Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress-Thompson, Rhonda; Thomas, L. Dale; Farrington, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the Space Shuttle, the only Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in the world, returned to earth for the final time. Upon retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States (U.S.) no longer possessed a reusable vehicle or the capability to send American astronauts to space. With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) out of the RLV business and now only pursuing Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV), not only did companies within the U.S. start to actively pursue the development of either RLVs or reusable components, but entities around the world began to venture into the reusable market. For example, SpaceX and Blue Origin are developing reusable vehicles and engines. The Indian Space Research Organization is developing a reusable space plane and Airbus is exploring the possibility of reusing its first stage engines and avionics housed in the flyback propulsion unit referred to as the Advanced Expendable Launcher with Innovative engine Economy (Adeline). Even United Launch Alliance (ULA) has announced plans for eventually replacing the Atlas and Delta expendable rockets with a family of RLVs called Vulcan. Reuse can be categorized as either fully reusable, the situation in which the entire vehicle is recovered, or partially reusable such as the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) where only the Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) are reused. With this influx of renewed interest in reusability for space applications, it is imperative that a systematic approach be developed for assessing the reusability of spaceflight hardware. The partially reusable NSTS offered many opportunities to glean lessons learned; however, when it came to efficient operability for reuse the Space Shuttle and its associated hardware fell short primarily because of its two to four-month turnaround time. Although there have been several attempts at designing RLVs in the past with the X-33, Venture Star and Delta Clipper

  12. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments of...

  13. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  14. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  15. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  16. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dottori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS. Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia–Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  17. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  18. Recommendations for benefit-risk assessment methodologies and visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Diana; Waddingham, Ed; Mt-Isa, Shahrul

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to draw on the practical experience from the PROTECT BR case studies and make recommendations regarding the application of a number of methodologies and visual representations for benefit-risk assessment. METHODS: Eight case studies based on the benefit......-risk balance of real medicines were used to test various methodologies that had been identified from the literature as having potential applications in benefit-risk assessment. Recommendations were drawn up based on the results of the case studies. RESULTS: A general pathway through the case studies...

  19. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  20. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...

  1. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  2. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  3. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  4. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  5. Methodology for risk assessment of collapses of torrent check dams

    OpenAIRE

    Martinčič, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Slovenia has a lot of torrential check dams, but until now there was no uniform method one could apply in order to perform a review of the torrential check dams' condition and to assess their physical vulnerability. In 2013, we assessed the risk of torrential check dams on Suhelj, Belca and Pišnica torrents by applying the risk assessment methodology for large dams. Since, for various reasons, the results were deemed useless, we decided to adjust the risk assessment model for torrential ch...

  6. Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Luna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for identifying and assessing the impact of distributed generation interconnection on distribution systems using Monte Carlo techniques. This methodology consists of two analysis schemes: a technical analysis, which evaluates the reliability conditions of the distribution system; on the other hand, an economic analysis that evaluates the financial impacts on the electric utility and its customers, according to the system reliability level. The proposed methodology was applied to an IEEE test distribution system, considering different operation schemes for the distributed generation interconnection. The application of each one of these schemes provided significant improvements regarding the reliability and important economic benefits for the electric utility. However, such schemes resulted in negative profitability levels for certain customers, therefore, regulatory measures and bilateral contracts were proposed which would provide a solution for this kind of problem.

  7. Rapid Geriatric Assessment of Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanker, Jesse; Duque, Gustavo

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive geriatric assessment, combined with a battery of imaging and blood tests, should be able to identify those hip fracture patients who are at higher risk of short- and long-term complications. This comprehensive assessment should be followed by the implementation of a comprehensive multidimensional care plan aimed to prevent negative outcomes in the postoperative period (short and long term), thus assuring a safe and prompt functional recovery while also preventing future falls and fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  9. Rapid Depression Assessment in Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, George T; Beck, David; Zaidi, Syed Noman Y

    2017-08-01

    Depression is common in geriatric patients, especially in those with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Depression in older adults is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Initial screening for depression can easily be accomplished in the waiting room. Yet the clinical interview still remains the gold standard for diagnosing geriatric depression. Key components of the clinical interview are observant watching of the patient for the subtle signs of depression. Clinical interview should be done with sensitivity to the importance of privacy. Illicit substances and medical conditions may significantly contribute. Suicide assessment should be done in a step wise manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching and assessing procedural skills using simulation: metrics and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Richard L; Davenport, Moira; Korley, Frederick; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Fitch, Michael T; Narang, Aneesh T; Evans, Leigh V; Gross, Amy; Rodriguez, Elliot; Dodge, Kelly L; Hamann, Cara J; Robey, Walter C

    2008-11-01

    Simulation allows educators to develop learner-focused training and outcomes-based assessments. However, the effectiveness and validity of simulation-based training in emergency medicine (EM) requires further investigation. Teaching and testing technical skills require methods and assessment instruments that are somewhat different than those used for cognitive or team skills. Drawing from work published by other medical disciplines as well as educational, behavioral, and human factors research, the authors developed six research themes: measurement of procedural skills; development of performance standards; assessment and validation of training methods, simulator models, and assessment tools; optimization of training methods; transfer of skills learned on simulator models to patients; and prevention of skill decay over time. The article reviews relevant and established educational research methodologies and identifies gaps in our knowledge of how physicians learn procedures. The authors present questions requiring further research that, once answered, will advance understanding of simulation-based procedural training and assessment in EM.

  11. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  12. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  13. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  14. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  15. CTER—Rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penczek, Pawel A., E-mail: Pawel.A.Penczek@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Fang, Jia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan [The Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M.T. [Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300 kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03 Å without, and 3.85 Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. - Highlights: • We describe methodology for estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment. • Error estimates provide means for automated elimination of inferior micrographs. • High computational efficiency allows real-time monitoring of EM data quality. • Accurate CTF estimation yields structure of the 80S human ribosome at 3.85 Å.

  16. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  17. Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-analyses in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Sereen; Lee, Su-Min; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methodological quality of published meta-analyses related to endodontics using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool and to provide a follow-up to previously published reviews. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Embase via Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The electronic search was amended by a hand search of 6 dental journals (International Endodontic Journal; Journal of Endodontics; Australian Endodontic Journal; Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology; Endodontics and Dental Traumatology; and Journal of Dental Research). The searches were conducted to include articles published after July 2009, and the deadline for inclusion of the meta-analyses was November 30, 2016. The AMSTAR assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included studies. A total of 36 reports of meta-analyses were included. The overall quality of the meta-analyses reports was found to be medium, with an estimated mean overall AMSTAR score of 7.25 (95% confidence interval, 6.59-7.90). The most poorly assessed areas were providing an a priori design, the assessment of the status of publication, and publication bias. In recent publications in the field of endodontics, the overall quality of the reported meta-analyses is medium according to AMSTAR. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  1. Establishment of Assessment Methodology Improvement of IAEA INPRO Proliferation Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, Y. I.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. T.

    2008-03-15

    For the development of assessment methodology of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material, the PR assessment methodology which has been developed by GEN-IV PR and PP group was reviewed regarding the acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material and we proposed the research areas to develop the model of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material including misuse of fuel cycle facilities and one of the IAEA INPRO CRPs which is aiming to develop its model. From the present study, its preliminary model for acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material was obtained. For preliminary evaluation of DUPIC system using methodology of acquisition/diversion pathway of nm and review of pyro-processing system characteristics, the research direction and work procedure was established to develop the assessment methodology of User Requirement 4 of INPRO PR by; 1) selection of the possible pathway to acquire and divert the nuclear material of DUPIC system, 2) the analysis of selected pathway, 3) the development of the assessment methodology of robustness and multiplicity of an INS. And, the PR characteristics and process/material flow analysis of the Pyro-processing system were preliminarily studied. For establishment of R and D direction for an INS and supporting international cooperation research, the collaborative research project titled as 'Acquisition and Diversion pathway analysis of Proliferation Resistance' as one of activities of IAEA INPRO was proposed, since Korean Government decided to actively support the IAEA INPRO. In order to review and clarify the Terms of Reference (TOR) of a Korean Proposed Collaborative Project (ROK1), two INPRO Consultancy Meetings were held. Its results were presented at two INPRO Steering Committees and the finalized TOR of Korean Proposal submit the 12-th INPRO Steering Committee Meeting which was held Dec. 3-5 2007. Four participants including USA, Canada, China and European Community (EC

  2. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  3. A Rapid Python-Based Methodology for Target-Focused Combinatorial Library Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiliang; Song, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical space is so vast that only a small portion of it has been examined. As a complementary approach to systematically probe the chemical space, virtual combinatorial library design has extended enormous impacts on generating novel and diverse structures for drug discovery. Despite the favorable contributions, high attrition rates in drug development that mainly resulted from lack of efficacy and side effects make it increasingly challenging to discover good chemical starting points. In most cases, focused libraries, which are restricted to particular regions of the chemical space, are deftly exploited to maximize hit rate and improve efficiency at the beginning of the drug discovery and drug development pipeline. This paper presented a valid methodology for fast target-focused combinatorial library design in both reaction-based and production-based ways with the library creating rates of approximately 70,000 molecules per second. Simple, quick and convenient operating procedures are the specific features of the method. SHAFTS, a hybrid 3D similarity calculation software, was embedded to help refine the size of the libraries and improve hit rates. Two target-focused (p38-focused and COX2-focused) libraries were constructed efficiently in this study. This rapid library enumeration method is portable and applicable to any other targets for good chemical starting points identification collaborated with either structure-based or ligand-based virtual screening.

  4. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA+) - methodological framework for screening biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Berger, Markus; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    For the past 20 years, the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively because they quantify only a few impacts related to specific species and regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. Building on existing models that seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of 2 components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types. The habitat factor is calculated by means of indicators that characterize each habitat. The biodiversity status depends on parameters from impact categories. The impact functions, relating these different parameters to a given response in the biodiversity status, rely on expert judgments. To ensure the applicability for LCA practitioners, the components of the framework can be regionalized on a country scale for which LCA inventory data is more readily available. The weighting factors for the 14 major habitat types range from 0.63 to 1.82. By means of area weighting of the major habitat types in a country, country-specific weighting factors are calculated. In order to demonstrate the main part of the framework, examples of impact functions are given for the categories "freshwater eutrophication" and "freshwater ecotoxicity" in 1 major habitat type. The results confirm suitability of the methodological framework. The major advantages are the framework's user-friendliness, given that data can be used from LCA databases directly, and the complete inclusion of all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is applicable for the whole world and a wide range of impact categories. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000.

  5. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  6. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kuper, Hannah; Limburg, Hans; Polack, Sarah; Onyango, Oscar; Nyaga, Godfrey; Foster, Allen

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of avoidable blindness in > or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district, Kenya, and to evaluate the Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), a new methodology to measure the magnitude and causes of blindness. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Seventy-six clusters of 50 people 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Three thousand seven hundred eighty-four eligible subjects were selected, of whom 3503 (92.6%) were examined. Participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist, including measurement of visual acuity (VA) with a tumbling-E chart and the diagnosis of the principal cause of visual impairment. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Visual acuity and principal cause of VA or =6/60) was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.8%-6.8%) in the sample. Definite avoidable causes of blindness (i.e., cataract, refractive error, trachoma, and corneal scarring) were responsible for 69.6% of bilateral blindness and 74.9% of bilateral visual impairment. Cataract was the major cause of blindness (42.0%) and visual impairment (36.0%). The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 78% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at VA or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district was low, in part due to the high cataract surgical coverage. The RAAB is easy to use and inexpensive and provides information about the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness that can be used for planning and monitoring eye care services.

  7. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, A J; Kalb, L; Mazurek, M O; Kanne, S M; Freedman, B; Vasa, R A

    2014-11-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD.

  8. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate and program objectives focus on desired performance and results. ?Management decisions that affect how to meet these objectives now involve a complex mix of: technology, safety issues, operations, process considerations, employee considerations, regulatory requirements, financial concerns and legal issues. ?Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures. Using a risk assessment methodology is only a starting point. ?A risk assessment program provides management with important input in the decision making process. ?A pro-active organization looks to the future to avoid problems, a reactive organization can be blindsided by risks that could have been avoided. ?You get out what you put in, how useful your program is will be up to the individual organization.

  9. Rapid trachoma assessment in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary ...

  10. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  11. Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Interservice/Jndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios Brian Vogt...Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 strategies and determine if 1) only acceptable strategies are among the highest rewarded strategies and 2) only...Education Conference (1// TSEC ) 2013 {J ’ ’’/~AR+fX1;7’-’?;’/’> i> :c~t~11o)0~~ iJcMi>red:(m);t~" ’A\\::f\\0--{;101/0’ <Y?J¥~1)\\f-j’f\\!-’ + 7;J

  12. Methodology to assess coastal infrastructure resilience to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the resilience of the line, several options have been considered to evaluate and reduce climate change impacts to the railway. This paper describes the methodological approach developed to evaluate the risks of flooding for a range of scenarios in the estuary and open coast reaches of the line. Components to derive the present day and future climate change coastal conditions including some possible adaptation measures are also presented together with the results of the hindcasting analysis to assess the performance of the modelling system. An overview of the modelling results obtained to support the development of a long-term Resilience Strategy for asset management is also discussed.

  13. METHODOLOGY OF AN ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of an assessment of the results of research, development and technological works and intangible assets are given in the article. A special attention is paid to the problems of formation of fair value of such assets for clients of financial accounting. The authors compare the methods of cost measurement of accounting entities regulated by Russian Accounting Standards (RAS and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Peculiarities of detection and acknowledgement of impairment of intangible assets (loss of value are considered.

  14. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos

    2015-04-01

    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  15. Integrating Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing into Agile System Development of Healthcare IT: A Methodological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The development of more usable and effective healthcare information systems has become a critical issue. In the software industry methodologies such as agile and iterative development processes have emerged to lead to more effective and usable systems. These approaches highlight focusing on user needs and promoting iterative and flexible development practices. Evaluation and testing of iterative agile development cycles is considered an important part of the agile methodology and iterative processes for system design and re-design. However, the issue of how to effectively integrate usability testing methods into rapid and flexible agile design cycles has remained to be fully explored. In this paper we describe our application of an approach known as low-cost rapid usability testing as it has been applied within agile system development in healthcare. The advantages of the integrative approach are described, along with current methodological considerations.

  16. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  17. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  18. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    -processing, which does not capture physical interdependencies that may arise at the aircraft-level. The goal of the work that has been conducted here was the development of a methodology to develop surrogate fleet approaches that leverage the capability of physics-based aircraft models and the development of connectivity to fleet-level analysis tools to enable rapid evaluation of fuel burn and emissions metrics. Instead of requiring development of an individual physics-based model for each vehicle in the fleet, the surrogate fleet approaches seek to reduce the number of such models needed while still accurately capturing performance of the fleet. By reducing the number of models, both development time and execution time to generate fleet-level results may also be reduced. The initial steps leading to surrogate fleet formulation were a characterization of the commercial fleet into groups based on capability followed by the selection of a reference vehicle model and a reference set of operations for each group. Next, three potential surrogate fleet approaches were formulated. These approaches include the parametric correction factor approach, in which the results of a reference vehicle model are corrected to match the aggregate results of each group; the average replacement approach, in which a new vehicle model is developed to generate aggregate results of each group, and the best-in-class replacement approach, in which results for a reference vehicle are simply substituted for the entire group. Once candidate surrogate fleet approaches were developed, they were each applied to and evaluated over the set of reference operations. Then each approach was evaluated for their ability to model variations in operations. Finally, the ability of each surrogate fleet approach to capture implementation of different technology suites along with corresponding interdependencies between fuel burn and emissions was evaluated using the concept of a virtual fleet to simulate the technology response

  19. A risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy set in FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2010-12-01

    Most current risk assessment methods use the risk priority number (RPN) value to evaluate the risk of failure. However, conventional RPN methodology has been criticised as having five main shortcomings as follows: (1) the assumption that the RPN elements are equally weighted leads to over simplification; (2) the RPN scale itself has some non-intuitive statistical properties; (3) the RPN elements have many duplicate numbers; (4) the RPN is derived from only three factors mainly in terms of safety; and (5) the conventional RPN method has not considered indirect relations between components. To address the above issues, an efficient and comprehensive algorithm to evaluate the risk of failure is needed. This article proposes an innovative approach, which integrates the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach on risk assessment. The proposed approach resolves some of the shortcomings of the conventional RPN method. A case study, which assesses the risk of 0.15 µm DRAM etching process, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, the result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of risk assessment methods.

  20. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  1. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  3. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments.

  4. rapid assessment of polio virus antibodies prevalence amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    northern Nigeria. There is paucity of information as it relates to polio antibody prevalence amongst children in the state. Periodic serologic assessment is needed to determine the quality and effectiveness of routine vaccination campaigns carried in the state to rapidly build immunity against poliovirus. Children were.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Tree Debris Following Urban Forest Ice Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Angela J. Hauer; Dudley R. Hartel; Jill R. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid assessment method to estimate urban tree debris following an ice storm. Data were collected from 60 communities to quantify tree debris volumes, mostly from public rights-of-way, following ice storms based on community infrastructure, weather parameters, and urban forest structure. Ice thickness, area of a community, and street distance are...

  6. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  7. Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... timely intervention in covering missed children and helps in careful interpretation of the usual over 100% coverage often recorded during NIDs. It is recommended that this be practiced widely to improve quality of NIDs for early global eradication of poliomyelitis. Keywords: rapid assessment, evaluation, polio immunization

  8. Methodologies For A Physically Based Rockfall Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Guzzetti, F.; Marian, M.

    Rockfall hazard assessment is an important land planning tool in alpine areas, where settlements progressively expand across rockfall prone areas, rising the vulnerability of the elements at risk, the worth of potential losses and the restoration costs. Nev- ertheless, hazard definition is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. In addition, the high mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope insta- bilities for which runout is minimal. When coping with rockfalls, hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". The local occurrence probability must derive from the combination of the triggering probability (related to the geomechanical susceptibility of rock masses to fail) and the transit or impact probability at a given location (related to the motion of falling blocks). The intensity (or magnitude) of a rockfall is a complex function of mass, velocity and fly height of involved blocks that can be defined in many different ways depending on the adopted physical description and "destructiveness" criterion. This work is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of numerical modelling performed by an original 3D rockfall simulation program. This is based on a kinematic algorithm and allows the spatially distributed simulation of rockfall motions on a three-dimensional topography described by a DTM. The code provides raster maps portraying the max- imum frequency of transit, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. The results of some three dimensional rockfall models, performed at both regional and lo- cal scale in areas where rockfall related problems are well known, have been used to assess rockfall hazard, by adopting an objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing a positional

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...... these ranges, we identified direct emissions at the plant as the main contributor to the total GHG emissions for fossil fuels, with thermal efficiency being the most determining parameter. Nevertheless, with high thermal efficiency fuel provision becomes increasingly important (e.g. natural gas combined cycle...

  10. Methodological approaches to climate change vulnerability assessment of Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana N. Lipka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Russia's territory make species and ecosystems conservation in Protected Areas a more difficult challenge. Additional adaptation measures are required. Before they are developed, it is important to assess the vulnerability of a territory: what exactly, and to which extent, is exposed to adverse climate impacts? The accomplished research will help develop an action plan consistent with the current unstable climate and extreme weather events, as well as with projections by the leading research institutions of Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Science. Today, methodologies have been developed and successfully tested for some natural zones. The conservation science is now facing a new challenge: how to combine collected information with climate projections and identify development perspectives for concrete territories.

  11. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails: joseluisrt@iee.unsj.edu.ar, colome@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  12. METHODOLOGY OF SYSTEM APPROACHE TO SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT AND REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Abakarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ensuring of urban areas seismic safety is a task which do not require delay. But it cannot be solved by separate parts. It is essential that all components of the seismic hazard must be grouped together in one problem based on the system approach. In the present paper is presented not only the main flowchart of systems approach to ensuring the territory seismic safety but also the flowcharts of components of each main unit. They cover the whole package of measures for a full assessment of territory seismic hazard, seismic risk and its reduction.The proposed methodology can be carried out for design and implementation of regional territory seismic safety programs. 

  13. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  14. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  15. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  16. Towards the evaluation of current wind farm assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, J.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Wind Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Canada's wind energy industry is experiencing significant growth. Government initiatives such as the wind power production incentive program (WPPI) may result in a cumulative installed wind energy capacity of up to 10,000 MW by 2015. However, the methods used to assess wind farm performance have never been thoroughly investigated in a specifically Canadian context. This project was conducted to provide a more accurate understanding of the limitations of various wind farm performance measuring methods and recommend effective methodologies based on the effect of terrain, the position of the wind turbines, and wind characteristics. The study was conducted at 5 wind farms in various Canadian locations, including Prince Edward Island (PEI). A full year of data for each wind farm was used to determine wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, power, and Nacelle orientation. Various wind resource assessment software programs were analyzed in order to evaluate topography and roughness effects, wake analyses, and to compare results from the models with actual wind speed data. tabs., figs.

  17. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  18. MODERN METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS SELF-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Astanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of standardization of foreign language training at the higher school is becoming currently topical. With regard to the processes of globalization, the international educational projects and students exchange programs gain greater international recognition. Such international programmes involve foreign language knowledge graded as not only high certified academic levels but also as basic language skills. The lack of foreign language competence becomes the obstacle for successful training, depriving a future graduate of a part of chances to become the competitive and popular expert in the chosen profession. The success of a foreign language course completion among students depends on many factors; the most important factor is motivation which can affect self-assessment of training results. The aim of the study is to describe possibilities of the CanDos tools implementation for the organization of students self-consciousness and self-assessment of own achievements in order to influence the motivation for mastering a foreign language.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on competencybased approach. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. The questionnaire developed for the experiment helped to collect the data concerning the effectiveness of the CanDos software implementation for self-assessment of students’ foreign language skills. The corresponding self-assessment helps students to carry out a self-reflection of own knowledge and abilities, and to find “weak points” in language proficiency which need additional practice and improvement. By regularly using CanDos software as self-assessment tools, students learn to identify the correspondence of their language competence to the external requirements and standards of education. Orientation to training results will help future experts to create self-motivation that positively

  19. Rapid Risk Assessment: FY05 Annual Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Millard, W. David; Gelston, Gariann M.; Pelton, Mitch A.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Strenge, Dennis L.; Lee, Cheegwan; Sivaraman, Chitra; Simpson, Mary J.; Young, Joan K.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Downing, Timothy R.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Hachmeister, Lon E.

    2006-03-06

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing decision support tools that will assist in the transition of incident information into Protective Action Recommendations (PARs) that are understandable and can be executed in a real-world, operational environment. During emergencies, responders must rapidly assess risks and decide on the best course of action—all within minutes to hours. PNNL is blending existing modeling and decision support technology to develop new methods for transitioning science-based threat assessment to PARs. The rapid risk assessment tool will be both understandable and applicable to the emergency management community and would be a valuable tool during any water security-related incident. In 2005, PNNL demonstrated the integration of the multi-thematic modeling with emergency management decision support tools to create a Rapid Risk Assessment (RRA) tool that will transition risk to PARs that assist in responding to or mitigating the direct and indirect impacts of the incident(s). The RRA tool does this by aligning multi-thematic modeling capabilities with real-world response zones established by emergency and site operations managers. The RRA tool uses the risk assessment tool to drive prognostic models that use the type of incident, time of impact, severity of impact, and duration of impact to select the most appropriate PAR. Because PARs (and the thresholds by which they are selected) are jointly established by the technologists and the emergency management and operations decision makers, the science-based risk assessment can transition into a recommendation that can be understood and executed by people in the field.

  20. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  1. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  2. A Systematic Methodology for Gearbox Health Assessment and Fault Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology for gearbox health assessment and fault classification is developed and evaluated for 560 data sets of gearbox vibration data provided by the Prognostics and Health Management Society for the 2009 data challenge competition. A comprehensive set of signal processing and feature extraction methods are used to extract over 200 features, including features extracted from the raw time signal, time synchronous signal, wavelet decomposition signal, frequency domain spectrum, envelope spectrum, among others. A regime segmentation approach using the tachometer signal, a spectrum similarity metric, and gear mesh frequency peak information are used to segment the data by gear type, input shaft speed, and braking torque load. A health assessment method that finds the minimum feature vector sum in each regime is used to classify and find the 80 baseline healthy data sets. A fault diagnosis method based on a distance calculation from normal along with specific features correlated to different fault signatures is used to diagnosis specific faults. The fault diagnosis method is evaluated for the diagnosis of a gear tooth breakage, input shaft imbalance, bent shaft, bearing inner race defect, and bad key, and the method could be further extended for other faults as long as a set of features can be correlated with a known fault signature. Future work looks to further refine the distance calculation algorithm for fault diagnosis, as well as further evaluate other signal processing method such as the empirical mode decomposition to see if an improved set of features can be used to improve the fault diagnosis accuracy.

  3. The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Greene, Nigel

    2018-02-01

    The field of experimental toxicology is rapidly advancing by incorporating novel techniques and methods that provide a much more granular view into the mechanisms of potential adverse effects of chemical exposures on human health. The data from various in vitro assays and computational models are useful not only for increasing confidence in hazard and risk decisions, but also are enabling better, faster and cheaper assessment of a greater number of compounds, mixtures, and complex products. This is of special value to the field of green chemistry where design of new materials or alternative uses of existing ones is driven, at least in part, by considerations of safety. This article reviews the state of the science and decision-making in scenarios when little to no data may be available to draw conclusions about which choice in green chemistry is "safer." It is clear that there is no "one size fits all" solution and multiple data streams need to be weighed in making a decision. Moreover, the overall level of familiarity of the decision-makers and scientists alike with new assessment methodologies, their validity, value and limitations is evolving. Thus, while the "impact" of the new developments in toxicology on the field of green chemistry is great already, it is premature to conclude that the data from new assessment methodologies have been widely accepted yet. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Development and Validation of a Rapid Assessment Tool of Primary Care in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Liang, Yuan; Shi, LeiYu; Zhao, JingGe; Wang, YuTan; Kuang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. With Chinese health care reform increasingly emphasizing the importance of primary care, the need for a tool to evaluate primary care performance and service delivery is clear. This study presents a methodology for a rapid assessment of primary care organizations and service delivery in China. Methods. The study translated and adapted the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AE) into a Chinese version to measure core dimensions of primary care, namely, first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese Rapid Primary Care Assessment Tool (CR-PCAT). Eight community health centers in Guangdong province have been selected to participate in the survey. Results. A total of 1465 effective samples were included for data analysis. Eight items were eliminated following principal component analysis and reliability testing. The principal component analysis extracted five multiple-item scales (first contact utilization, first contact accessibility, ongoing care, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The tests of scaling assumptions were basically met. Conclusion. The standard psychometric evaluation indicates that the scales have achieved relatively good reliability and validity. The CR-PCAT provides a rapid and reliable measure of four core dimensions of primary care, which could be applied in various scenarios. PMID:26885509

  5. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  6. Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS): User’s Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-14

    287 THE RON CORPORATION 1801 Randolph Road. S E. Albuquerque, NM 87106 0 505) 848-5000 Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ...S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106 * (505) 848-5000 RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SOFTWARE SUPPORTABILITY ( RAMSS ) USER’S HANDBOOK April 14, 1986 BDM/A.-85...NThe Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ) was developed for the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC) to

  7. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  8. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  9. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M.; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  10. Model-driven methodology for rapid deployment of smart spaces based on resource-oriented architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  11. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  12. A rapid test for soy aeroallergens exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Simon, Daniel; Cruz, María-Jesús; Untoria, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan R; Morell, Ferran; Gómez-Ollés, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Determining soy aeroallergens levels is extremely important in the assessment of health risks due to these airborne substances. Currently, soy aeroallergens exposure in the environment is monitored using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) which must be evaluated in a specialized laboratory by skilled personnel. To describe the development and performance of a rapid immunochromatography assay for the detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples. A test strip using gold labeled anti-soy hull low molecular weight extract (SHLMWE) antibody for the rapid detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples was developed. One hundred nineteen airborne samples were analysed in parallel by the strip assay and the anti-SHLMWE sandwich EIA. The assay results were visually analysed by three independent observers who ranked samples as: -, + or ++. Strips were also scanned and analysed by densitometry. The rapid test detected a range of concentrations from 6.25 to 25 ng/mL. Agreement in strip assay interpretations between evaluators was substantial (Kappa = 0.63; CI 0.544-0.715). Visual interpretation also gave a good concordance with EIA results, with sensitivity ranging from 77.3 to 100 and specificity from 65 to 83.5 depending on the observer. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between densitometry results of strip assay and EIA determinations. The strip assay developed is rapid, simple, and sensitive and does not require expensive equipment or specific skills. It has considerable potential in the environmental monitoring field for screening soy aeroallergens levels in port cities where allergen measurements are not currently performed. Due to its simplicity, the test will improve the management of soy allergic patients by controlling environmental allergen exposure without the need for apparatus or skilled personnel.

  13. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J. Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A.; Siller, Héctor R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers. PMID:27196904

  14. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A; Siller, Héctor R

    2016-05-16

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers.

  15. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Israel Martínez-López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  17. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  18. A Rapid and Cheap Methodology for CRISPR/Cas9 Zebrafish Mutant Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Ylenia; Locascio, Annamaria; Ristoratore, Filomena; Sordino, Paolo; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Borra, Marco; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new genome editing tools such as ZFNs, TALENs and, more recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, has greatly expanded the ability to knock-out genes in different animal models, including zebrafish. However, time and costs required for the screening of a huge number of animals, aimed to identify first founder fishes (F0), and then carriers (F1) are still a bottleneck. Currently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is the most efficient technology for large-scale InDels detection, but the very expensive equipment demanded for its application may represent a limitation for research laboratories. Here, we propose a rapid and cheap method for high-throughput genotyping that displays efficiency rate similar to the HRM. In fact, using a common ViiA™7 real-time PCR system and optimizing the parameters of the melting analysis, we demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between the mutant and the wild type melting curves. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cheapness, our method can be used as a preliminary one-step approach for massive screening, in order to restrict the scope at a limited number of embryos and to focus merely on them for the next sequencing step, necessary for the exact sequence identification of the induced mutation. Moreover, thanks to its versatility, this simple approach can be readily adapted to the detection of any kind of genome editing approach directed to genes or regulatory regions and can be applied to many other animal models.

  19. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  20. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-12-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with (/sup 3/H)-labeled flunitrazepam at 37/sup 0/C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37/sup 0/C until just prior to filtration.

  1. Rapid microwave pyrolysis of coal: methodology and examination of the residual and volatile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsef-Mirzai, P.; Ravindran, M.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Burchill, P. (Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Substances such as CuO, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and even metallurgical coke (termed 'receptors') heat rapidly in a microwave oven at 2.45 GHz. The receptor, when mixed with Creswell coal and subjected to microwave radiation, induces rapid pyrolysis of the coal. Condensable tar yields of 20 wt% are obtained with coke, 27 wt% with Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and as high as 49 wt% in some experiments with CuO. Despite the high final temperature (1200-1300[degree]C after 3 min), analyses suggest that the volatiles are released in the lower part of the temperature regime but that some secondary cracking does occur. The tars are similar in composition, although with coke the proportion of aromatic hydrogen is greater than with CuO and Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that both pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen are present in the tars and chars, and that the dominant form of tar sulfur is thiophenic. There is evidence that mineral sulfur is immobilized when CuO in particular is the receptor. The chars formed show a degree of graphitization and are themselves excellent microwave receptors. In the presence of oxide receptors, char-oxide redox reactions occur, with loss of char, reduction of oxide and enhanced yields of CO and CO[sub 2]. Of the lighter hydrocarbons identified in the gas phase, methane predominates. The data obtained are compared with those for other pyrolysis methods. 22 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  2. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methodology for Integrated Socio-economic Assessment of Multi-use Offshore Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koundouri, Phoebe; Dávila, Osiel G.; Stithou, Mavra; Babalos, Vasilis; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Antypas, Antonis; Kourogenis, Nikolaos; Mousoulides, Aris; Mousoulides, Marianna; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Zagonari, Fabio; Lange, Manfred A.; Jimenez, Carlos; Rosén, Lars; Lindhe, Andreas; Norrman, Jenny; Söderqvist, Tore; Troianos, Dimitris; Frentzos, Athanasios; Krontira, Yukiko; Diaz Simal, Pedro; Guanche, Raul; Bel, de Mark; He, Wei; Kabdasali, Sedat; Elginoz, Nilay; Bagci, Taylan; Bas, Bilge; Cantu, Matteo; Masotti, Matteo; Suffredini, Roberto; Stuiver, M.; Giannakis, Elias; Tsani, Stella

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the methodology employed for the Integrated Socio-Economic Assessment (MISEA) of different designs of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms (MUOPs). The methodology allows for the identification, the valuation and the assessment of the potential impacts and their magnitude. The analysis

  4. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and

  5. Soil-plant interrelations: the significance of soil degradation and the risk assessment methodology for salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagyó, A.; Tóth, T.; Bloem, E.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Horváth, E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous methodologies are used in the EU Member States to assess the risk for different soil threats related to various agricultural practices (erosion, salinisation, organic matter decline, compaction and landslides). Our aim was to evaluate the risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) utilized for

  6. Health assessments for health governance-concepts and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Alexanderson, Kristina; Favaretti, Carlo; de Jong, Judith; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lim, Tek-Ang; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Mekel, Odile C L; Michelsen, Kai; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Verschuuren, Marieke; de Waure, Chiara; Zeegers Paget, Dineke

    2017-08-01

    For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment. The approach is exploratory and includes: applying an agreed set of comparative criteria; circulating and supplementing synoptic tables; and interpreting the results. Two of the assessments deal with the question 'Where do we stand?', two others with variants of 'What if' questions. Economic Assessment can take place in combination with any of the others. The assessments involve both overall 'procedures' and a variety of 'methods' which inescapably reflect some subjective assumptions and decisions, e.g. on issue framing. Resources and assistance exist for all these assessments. The paper indicates which type of assessment is appropriate for what purpose. Although scientific soundness of health assessments is not trivial to secure, existing types of health assessment can be interpreted as a useful 'toolkit' for supporting governance. If current traces of 'silo' thinking can be overcome, the attainability of a more unified culture of health assessments increases and such assessments might more widely be recognized as a prime, 'tried and tested' way to voice Public Health knowledge and to support rational governance and policy-making.

  7. Face and Convergent Validity of Persian Version of Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Armal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Rapid Office Stress Assessment (ROSA checklist. Material & Methods: This methodological study was conducted according of IQOLA method. 100 office worker were selected in order to carry out a psychometric evaluation of the ROSA checklist by performing validity (face and convergent analyses. The convergent validity was evaluated using RULA checklist. Results: Upon major changes made to the ROSA checklist during the translation/cultural adaptation process, face validity of the Persian version was obtained. Spearman correlation coefficient between total score of ROSA check list and RULA checklist was significant (r=0.76, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the translated version of the ROSA checklist is acceptable in terms of face validity, convergent validity in target society, and hence provides a useful instrument for assessing Iranian office workers

  8. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  9. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  10. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  11. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy’s path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter’s message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  12. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  13. Rapid Assessment of Habitat Diversity Along the Araras Stream, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel Barboza Bentos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agriculture, urbanization, and industrialization are some of the anthropogenic activities that constantly generate negative impacts on natural environments. Part of this degradation directly affects aquatic systems. This study aimed to evaluate the visual characteristics of the Araras Stream, located in the municipality of Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil. Data was collected at six different assessment sites along the river in both rural and urban areas. The evaluation used a Rapid Habitat Diversity Assessment (RHDA protocol composed of 22 parameters, which define levels of preservation of ecological conditions. According to this protocol, the 32 Km-long study transect along the Araras Stream was rated as impacted (39.6 points. A separate assessment by transects showed that only Transect 1 presented a natural level of preservation (71.8 points. Transects located in the urban area contributed the most to impacts on the aquatic environment. The RHDA protocol proved to be an important tool to evaluate and monitor aquatic environments.

  14. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  15. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  16. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  17. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  18. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  19. Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)

  20. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  1. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  2. Development of a Malicious Insider Composite Vulnerability Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... There are very few vulnerability and impact models capable of providing information owners with the ability to comprehensively assess the effectiveness an organization's malicious insider mitigation strategies...

  3. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated.

  4. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

  6. Dietary Assessment Methodology for Adolescents: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and/or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires ...

  7. Advanced Bridge Capacity and Structural Integrity Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    bridges , including reinforced concrete bridges with continuous girders across a support and prestressed structures. Identifying the class of...assessment of reinforced concrete bridges by making improved estimates of the level of longitudinal and shear reinforcement. The pro- posed assessment...Figure 7. AASHTO HS20-44 Truck (Precast/ Prestressed Concrete Institute 2003). ......................... 11 Figure 8. California Permit Truck (Caltrans

  8. Life cycle assessment of aquaculture systems-a review of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Guinée, Jeroen B; Kleijn, René; de Snoo, Geert R

    As capture fishery production has reached its limits and global demand for aquatic products is still increasing, aquaculture has become the world's fastest growing animal production sector. In attempts to evaluate the environmental consequences of this rapid expansion, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a frequently used method. The present review of current peer-reviewed literature focusing on LCA of aquaculture systems is intended to clarify the methodological choices made, identify possible data gaps, and provide recommendations for future development within this field of research. The results of this review will also serve as a start-up activity of the EU FP7 SEAT (Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade) project, which aims to perform several LCA studies on aquaculture systems in Asia over the next few years. From a full analysis of methodology in LCA, six phases were identified to differ the most amongst ten peer-reviewed articles and two PhD theses (functional unit, system boundaries, data and data quality, allocation, impact assessment methods, interpretation methods). Each phase is discussed with regards to differences amongst the studies, current LCA literature followed by recommendations where appropriate. The conclusions and recommendations section reflects on aquaculture-specific scenarios as well as on some more general issues in LCA. Aquaculture LCAs often require large system boundaries, including fisheries, agriculture, and livestock production systems from around the globe. The reviewed studies offered limited coverage of production in developing countries, low-intensity farming practices, and non-finfish species, although most farmed aquatic products originate from a wide range of farming practices in Asia. Apart from different choices of functional unit, system boundaries and impact assessment methods, the studies also differed in their choice of allocation factors and data sourcing. Interpretation of results also differed amongst the studies

  9. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  10. Axiomatic safety-critical assessment process (ASCAP) simulation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, L.M.; Giras, T.C. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Center for Safety-Critical Ssytems

    2000-07-01

    The ASCAP simulation methodology models continuous train movement using a hybrid simulation consisting of both time and event driven portions. The actual train movement is predicated upon the solution of a series of discrete equations to determine its velocity, acceleration and braking profile at a specific time in tandem with the behavior of the train crew and the dispatcher agents in relationship to the behavioral states of the various stationary and mobile objects that a given train encounters. From this hybrid simulation, it is possible to generate accident scenarios. By performing multiple experiments to collect data for various accident scenarios, it will be possible to statistically quantify the risk associated with the various accident scenarios that are identified. (orig.)

  11. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  12. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  13. Risk assessment methodology for the forniture industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Matilde A.

    2014-01-01

    Companies need to constantly make decisions about risk. They need to decide if a certain risk level is low enough or if some measures for its reduction are still needed. In this regard, risk assessment appears as a basis for the decision-making about risks. However, risk acceptance is an important issue related to the risk assessment process, which may put into question its appropriateness. Despite the importance of risk acceptance, this subject is insufficiently discussed in the literature r...

  14. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    , various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved...

  15. Comparison of three assessment methodologies of virtual learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin INSUASTY PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to exemplify the evaluation of a Learning Object «Construir la Geometría» using three different proposals that produce similar results for the object being evaluated. We describe two ways to perform an assessment, the internal and external; are used for evaluating proposals Rodríguez Sanz, Dodero et al. (2008, Morales Morgado (2007 and the assessment instrument used in the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes (Mexico.

  16. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  17. RAPID EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF NATIONWIDE RIVER FLOOD FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kwak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers, and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS, a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  18. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  19. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, J. del; de la Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process. PMID:25564243

  20. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no recent data on the prevalence and causes of blindness in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the population aged 50 years and above in the Occupied Palestinian Territories using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB survey method. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 40 people who were 50 years and above were selected with probability proportionate to size using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Participants received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in their homes, including visual acuity testing by one of three experienced ophthalmologists. The principal cause for visual loss was determined by an experienced ophthalmologist using portable diagnostic instruments. Information about previous cataract surgery, satisfaction with surgery and barriers to cataract surgery were collected. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was also determined. The prevalence of bilateral blindness (VAor=3/60 and or=6/60 and or=6/18, 23.2% had a borderline outcome (VAor=6/60 and 22.3% had a poor outcome (VAor=50 year age group was 26.4% (95% CI: 24.9-27.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness suggests that significant numbers of people in the Occupied Palestinian Territories exist who do not access eye care - predominantly women and those residing in Gaza. Programmes need to focus on maximizing the use of current services by these excluded groups.

  1. Competence of Litter Ants for Rapid Biodiversity Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Saumya E. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Biodiversity Assessment approaches associated with focusing taxa have overcome many of the problems related to large scale surveys. This study examined the suitability of litter ants as a focusing taxon by checking whether diversity and species assemblages of litter ants reflect the overall picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter in two vegetation types: secondary forest and pine plantation in Upper Hanthana forest reserve, Sri Lanka. In each vegetation type, arthropods were sampled using three sampling methods (Winkler extraction, hand collection, and pitfall traps along three 100 m line transects. From the two sites, 1887 litter ants (34 species and 3488 litter arthropods (52 species were collected. Species assemblages composition of both ants and other arthropods differed significantly between the two sites (ANOSIM, p=0.001 with both groups generating distinct clusters for the two sites (SIMPROF, p=0.001. But there was no significant correlation (p>0.05 between abundance and richness of litter ants and those of other arthropods in both vegetation types. The overall finding suggests that the litter ants do not reflect the holistic picture of arthropod diversity and assemblages in leaf litter, but the quality of the habitat for the survival of all litter arthropods.

  2. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  3. Quality Assessment of Sharpened Images: Challenges, Methodology, and Objective Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukas; Le Callet, Patrick; Fliegel, Karel; Klima, Milos

    2017-01-10

    Most of the effort in image quality assessment (QA) has been so far dedicated to the degradation of the image. However, there are also many algorithms in the image processing chain that can enhance the quality of an input image. These include procedures for contrast enhancement, deblurring, sharpening, up-sampling, denoising, transfer function compensation, etc. In this work, possible strategies for the quality assessment of sharpened images are investigated. This task is not trivial because the sharpening techniques can increase the perceived quality, as well as introduce artifacts leading to the quality drop (over-sharpening). Here, the framework specifically adapted for the quality assessment of sharpened images and objective metrics comparison in this context is introduced. However, the framework can be adopted in other quality assessment areas as well. The problem of selecting the correct procedure for subjective evaluation was addressed and a subjective test on blurred, sharpened, and over-sharpened images was performed in order to demonstrate the use of the framework. The obtained ground-truth data were used for testing the suitability of state-ofthe- art objective quality metrics for the assessment of sharpened images. The comparison was performed by novel procedure using ROC analyses which is found more appropriate for the task than standard methods. Furthermore, seven possible augmentations of the no-reference S3 metric adapted for sharpened images are proposed. The performance of the metric is significantly improved and also superior over the rest of the tested quality criteria with respect to the subjective data.

  4. Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2013-07-01

    Excessive internet use is becoming a concern, and some have proposed that it may involve addiction. We evaluated the dimensions assessed by, and psychometric properties of, a range of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction. Fourteen questionnaires were identified purporting to assess internet addiction among adolescents and adults published between January 1993 and October 2011. Their reported dimensional structure, construct, discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were assessed, as well as the methods used to derive these. Methods used to evaluate internet addiction questionnaires varied considerably. Three dimensions of addiction predominated: compulsive use (79%), negative outcomes (86%) and salience (71%). Less common were escapism (21%), withdrawal symptoms (36%) and other dimensions. Measures of validity and reliability were found to be within normally acceptable limits. There is a broad convergence of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction suggesting that compulsive use, negative outcome and salience should be covered and the questionnaires show adequate psychometric properties. However, the methods used to evaluate the questionnaires vary widely and possible factors contributing to excessive use such as social motivation do not appear to be covered. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Methodological development: structured outcome assessment and community risk monitoring (SORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grann, Martin; Sturidsson, Knut; Haggård-Grann, Ulrika; Hiscoke, Ulrika L; Alm, Per-Olof; Dernevik, Mats; Gumpert, Clara; Hallqvist, Johan; Hallquist, Tommy; Kullgren, Gunnar; Långström, Niklas; Lotterberg, Malin; Nordström, Kristina; Ståhle, Birgitta; Woodhouse, Anni

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a clinical tool for the continuous monitoring of risk for violence in forensic mental health clients who have left their institutions and who are dwelling in the community on a conditional release basis. The model is called Structured Outcome Assessment and Community Risk Monitoring (SORM). The SORM consists of 30 dynamic factors and each factor in SORM is assessed in two ways: The current absence, presence or partial och intermittent presence of the factors, which is an actuarial (systematized and 'objective') assessment. Secondly, the risk effect, i.e. whether the presence/absence of factors currently increases, decreases or is perceived as unrelated to violence risk, is a clinical (or impressionistic) assessment. Thus, the factors considered via the SORM can be coded as risk factors or protective factors (or as factors unimportant to risk of violence) depending on circumstances that apply in the individual case. Further, the SORM has a built-in module for gathering idiographical information about risk-affecting contextual factors. The use of the SORM and its potential as a risk monitoring instrument is illustrated via preliminary data and case vignettes from an ongoing multicenter project. In this research project, patients leaving any of the 9 participating forensic hospitals in Sweden is assessed at release on a variety of static background factors, and the SORM is then administered every 30 days for 2 years.

  6. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  7. Integrating groundwater into land planning: a risk assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-05-01

    Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of tyre/road noise assessment methodology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Boodihal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this research study was to develop a methodology to evaluate tyre/road noise of the various road types and sections in Bangalore. The scope of the effort included field noise measurements of the 17 conventional asphalt concrete (AC, four Portland cement concrete (PCC, and two plastic modified asphalt concrete (PMAC in Bangalore city covering about 24 km of roadway stretches at varying traffic speeds. Field noise measurements were performed using a noise meter mounted underneath a trailer developed in this study and attached to the parent vehicle. Overall, PMAC sections produced the highest noise levels than the PCC followed by the conventional AC sections; PMAC mix type had an average difference of about 6–8 decibels (dB(A compared with the AC mix, and 1–2 dB(A in comparison with the PCC mix types. It is noteworthy that although many traffic noise studies have been conducted in India, the contribution of tyre/road noise to the overall noise has not been developed and/or established till date. The approach taken in this study is first of its kind within the framework of tyre/road noise research and development in India.

  9. A New Rapid In Vitro Assay for Assessing Reactivity of Acyl Glucuronides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Jones, Russell; Lu, Wenzhe; Schadt, Simone; Ottaviani, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry since complex and multifactorial steps are involved, the dose-dependency is unclear, and its occurrence is not reliably predictable. Whereas the exact mechanisms leading to idiosyncratic toxicity remain elusive in many cases, there are often hints at the involvement of reactive metabolites, such as acyl glucuronides formed by conjugation of carboxylic acids with glucuronic acid. Because the patient-related susceptibilities leading to idiosyncratic toxicity are not sufficiently understood, the best option for the pharmaceutical industry is to minimize drug-related risk factors such as potential acyl glucuronide formation. Here, we describe a rapid in vitro assay for the assessment of the reactivity of acyl glucuronides, on the basis of acyl glucuronide migration, that can support the selection of low-risk drug candidates in the drug discovery phase. Twenty marketed compounds with a wide range of half-lives were tested, their acyl glucuronide migration rates were determined and compared with the half-lives of the respective acyl glucuronides. Ranking of acyl glucuronide stability using this method compared well with the results from existing methodologies. With this method, migration rates >20% would indicate higher risk of reactivity. This simpler approach using the acyl glucuronide migration rate is not dependent on authentic standards, therefore eliminating the requirement for either lengthy chemical synthesis or in vitro biosynthesis and purification of the 1-O-β-glucuronide. This methodology provides a rapid in vitro assay to assess acyl glucuronide stability and reactivity that is well suited for use early in the drug discovery phase. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  11. Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Van Bruggen, Jan; Hermans, Henry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Burgers, Jan; Koper, Rob; Latour, Ignace

    2005-01-01

    Giesbers, B., van Bruggen, J., Hermans, H., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Burgers, J., Koper, R., & Latour, I. (2007). Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 237-247.

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BUSINESS ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMMES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan-Cristian Dabija; Catalin Postelnicu; Nicolae Al Pop

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master's and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators...

  13. Status of sperm morphology assessment: an evaluation of methodology and clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, L. van den; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Verbeet, J.G.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize methodological changes in sperm morphology assessment and to correlate sperm morphology with clinical outcome. DESIGN: In this observational study, sperm morphology profiles of patients were analyzed. The percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa were evaluated

  14. The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Richard

    2006-03-31

    In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS.

  15. A qualitative risk assessment methodology for scientific expert panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; Plée, L; Moutou, F; Boisseleau, D; Chartier, C; Durand, B; Ganière, J P; Guillotin, J; Lancelot, R; Saegerman, C; Thébault, A; Hattenberger, A M; Toma, B

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment can be either quantitative, i.e. providing a numeric estimate of the probability of risk and the magnitude of the consequences, or qualitative, using a descriptive approach. The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), formerly the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), bases its assessments on the opinions of scientific panels, such as the ANSES Animal Health Scientific Panel (AH-SP). Owing to the lack of relevant data and the very short period of time usually allowed to assess animal health risks on particular topics, this panel has been using a qualitative risk method for evaluating animal health risks or crises for the past few years. Some experts have drawn attention to the limitations of this method, such as the need to extend the range of adjectives used for the lower probabilities and to develop a way to assess consequences. The aim of this paper is to describe the improved method now established by the AH-SP, taking into account the limitations of the first version. The authors describe a new set of levels for probabilities, as well as the items considered when addressing either animal or human health consequences.

  16. Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.N.; Misra, R.V.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient-balance assessments are valuable tools for delineating the consequences of farming on soil fertility. Various approaches and methods for different situations have been used. This bulletin presents a state-of-the-art overview of nutrient-balance studies. It brings out the evolution of the

  17. Regional-scale risk assessment methodology using the Relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... paper presents an integrated approach to carry out regional-scale ecological risk assessments using a Relative Risk Model. (RRM) adapted ..... Recreational activities. Dams&wiers. Plantations. Gold mine. Habitat alteration. Sugar mill. Sugar. Mixed. Flow alterations. Forestry. 1. Irrigation - dam. Exotic fish.

  18. Assessment of intelligibility using children's spontaneous speech: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerberg, Tove B; Åsberg, Jakob; Hartelius, Lena; Persson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Intelligibility is a speaker's ability to convey a message to a listener. Including an assessment of intelligibility is essential in both research and clinical work relating to individuals with communication disorders due to speech impairment. Assessment of the intelligibility of spontaneous speech can be used as an overall indicator of the severity of a speech disorder. There is a lack of methods for measuring intelligibility on the basis of spontaneous speech. To investigate the validity and reliability of a method where listeners transcribe understandable words and an intelligibility score is calculated on the basis of the percentage of syllables perceived as understood. Spontaneous speech from ten children with speech-sound disorders (mean age = 6.0 years) and ten children with typical speech and language development (mean age = 5.9 years) was recorded and presented to 20 listeners. Results were compared between the two groups and correlation with percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was examined. The intelligibility scores obtained correlated with PCC in single words and differed significantly between the two groups, indicating high validity. Inter-judge reliability, analysed using intra-class correlation (ICC), was excellent in terms of the average measure for several listeners. The results suggest that this method can be recommended for assessing intelligibility, especially if the mean across several listeners is used. It could also be used in clinical settings when evaluating intelligibility over time, provided that the same listener makes the assessments. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  19. Methodological Considerations in the Assessment of Depression in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Michie N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared three instruments assessing depression in alcoholics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI D), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The number of subjects who were diagnosed as "depressed" varied considerably according to the…

  20. The methodology of multicriterial assessment of Petri nets’ apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the effectiveness and relevance of the using of the apparatus of Petri nets for modeling of complex computing systems. Due to the fact that the methods of analysis existing in this theory do not allow estimating the resources required to build the desired model of the system, there is a problem of shortage of criteria for its evaluation in terms of the complexity of the construction. In the article we consider the method of analysis of a random Petri net based on the complexity of its building and relationships of internal units - subnets. The purpose of this article is a software implementation of such an assessment within the theory of PN structures. Due to the fact, that structural approach allows to perform the operation of decomposition of the original system, this model can be divided into subnets of minimal dimension, that will allow to make its quantitative assessment - ranking. To determine the total assessment of the input and output data of the system we will perform the analysis of head and tail positions of the net taking into account the weights of the input and output arcs of these positions. In order to identify an extent of the cost required to build the system, the number of operations of union of subnet transitions and positions. These subnets have minimal dimension in the original PN. Thus, the article demonstrates the formal implementation of assessment technique modules with using of algebra of sets, and the rules of splitting the PN structure into elementary blocks are formulated. The example of a comparative assessment of the two Petri nets based on the proposed complexity criteria is given; the plots of PN in different coordinate systems are displayed. The article presents the results of the research - a plot of PN structures in three-dimensional space, implemented using described software. It demonstrates the accuracy of PN assessment by structural analysis in comparing with a non

  1. Uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage: results from a rapid assessment of refractive error survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Keeffe, Jill E; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in subjects aged 15-50 years using rapid assessment methodology in the Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 3,300 subjects from 55 clusters. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity was assessed using a LogMAR chart at a distance of 4 meters. Near vision was assessed using N notation chart. Uncorrected refractive error was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 but improving to at least 6/12 or better on using a pinhole. Presbyopia is defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects aged more than 35 years with binocular distance visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Of the 3,300 subjects enumerated from 55 clusters, 3,203 (97%) subjects were available for examination. Of these, 1,496 (46.7%) were females and 930 (29%) were > or = 40 years. Age and gender adjusted prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors causing visual impairment in the better eye was 2.7% (95% CI, 2.1-3.2%). Presbyopia was present in 690 (63.7%, 95% CI, 60.8-66.6%) subjects aged over 35 years. Spectacle coverage for refractive error was 29% and for presbyopia it was 19%. There is a large unmet need for refractive correction in this area in India. Rapid assessment methods are an effective means of assessing the need for services and the impact of models of care.

  2. Published methodological quality of randomized controlled trials does not reflect the actual quality assessed in protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Magazin, Anja; Soares, Heloisa P.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether reported methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reflect the actual methodological quality, and to evaluate the association of effect size (ES) and sample size with methodological quality. Study design Systematic review Setting Retrospective analysis of all consecutive phase III RCTs published by 8 National Cancer Institute Cooperative Groups until year 2006. Data were extracted from protocols (actual quality) and publications (reported quality) for each study. Results 429 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Overall reporting of methodological quality was poor and did not reflect the actual high methodological quality of RCTs. The results showed no association between sample size and actual methodological quality of a trial. Poor reporting of allocation concealment and blinding exaggerated the ES by 6% (ratio of hazard ratio [RHR]: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.88, 0.99) and 24% (RHR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.43), respectively. However, actual quality assessment showed no association between ES and methodological quality. Conclusion The largest study to-date shows poor quality of reporting does not reflect the actual high methodological quality. Assessment of the impact of quality on the ES based on reported quality can produce misleading results. PMID:22424985

  3. Tracer methodology: an appropriate tool for assessing compliance with accreditation standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Chantal; Jean, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Tracer methodology has been used by Accreditation Canada since 2008 to collect evidence on the quality and safety of care and services, and to assess compliance with accreditation standards. Given the importance of this methodology in the accreditation program, the objective of this study is to assess the quality of the methodology and identify its strengths and weaknesses. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate consistency, appropriateness, effectiveness and stakeholder synergy in applying the methodology. An online questionnaire was sent to 468 Accreditation Canada surveyors. According to surveyors' perceptions, tracer methodology is an effective tool for collecting useful, credible and reliable information to assess compliance with Qmentum program standards and priority processes. The results show good coherence between methodology components (appropriateness of the priority processes evaluated, activities to evaluate a tracer, etc.). The main weaknesses are the time constraints faced by surveyors and management's lack of cooperation during the evaluation of tracers. The inadequate amount of time allowed for the methodology to be applied properly raises questions about the quality of the information obtained. This study paves the way for a future, more in-depth exploration of the identified weaknesses to help the accreditation organization make more targeted improvements to the methodology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Assessment of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis using ATC/DDD methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Fatma; Kaya, Safak; Gulsun, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Deveci, Özcan; Dayan, Saim; Hoşoglu, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In the light of international experience and guidelines and in order to improve the quality of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP), various hospitals have set up their own multidisciplinary healthcare teams and have evaluated the density of PAP through close supervision and interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare the density, quality, and cost of PAP before and after an intervention implemented at our hospital in order to increase the quality of PAP. PAP was monitored using a form prepared in line with the international guidelines, which was completed by the infection control nurse under the supervision of the infectious diseases specialist. In order to reduce the frequent errors in our PAP procedures, an intervention was implemented, and the period before this intervention (January-April 2011) was compared with the post-intervention period 1 year later (January-April 2012). The density of PAP was calculated according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) methodology. A total of 2398 patients received PAP during this period. The most frequently used antibiotic before and after the intervention was cefazolin. Its use further increased after the intervention (pDDD/100 procedures=3.1 DDD/procedure to 162.1 DDD/100 procedures=1.6 DDD/procedure. The quality of PAP may be improved through better compliance with healthcare guidelines, close supervision, and training activities. Also, surgical site infections and the cost of PAP may be reduced through more appropriate antibiotic use, thus contributing to the national healthcare budget. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  6. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  7. Assessment: A Military Methodology in Need of an Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    important, it can lead the assessment team to fall victim to the old adage of losing the forest for the trees. High- tempo operations thus lead to a...entered. 1 BioMed Central, “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making,” BioMed Central, http...Success." Strategic Finance 93, no. 5 (November 2011): 27-33. BioMed Central. “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making.” BioMed Central. http

  8. A Risk Assessment Methodology and Excel Tool for Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    RAND colleague Elliot Axelband for their thoughtful and constructive reviews of this document; Paul Deluca for his comments on an earlier draft of...2010, pp. 79–109. Kranz, Gordon M., Systems Engineering and Integration Challenges and Opportunities, briefing, July 2, 2009. Lebron, Ruben A...Lawrence Gresko, Ray Lowe, and Peter Nolte, System Readiness: Assessing Technical Risk Throughout the Lifecycle, PowerPoint Presentation, Office of

  9. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  10. Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) for active shooter incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechem, C Crawford; Bossert, Richard; Baldini, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of active shooter incidents in recent years. The traditional emergency medical services (EMS) response to such incidents has been to stage at a safe distance until the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Such an approach may lead to unnecessary delays in medical care and potentially needless loss of life. To address this issue locally, the Philadelphia Fire Department (PFD) and the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD) collaborated to develop the Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) program. All PFD paramedics have been equipped and trained to move with PPD officers into a scene that has been cleared by police but not yet secured in order to initiate emergency care, with an emphasis on hemorrhage control. Patients are then extracted to awaiting EMS resources in the cold zone. The history behind the program and the challenges and obstacles that had to be addressed in its development are described. These included initial and ongoing training and funding sources; buy-in from risk management, labor, and the individual providers; whether only paramedics should be included in the RAMS program or if the PFD's firefighter-EMTs should be included as well; the potential for mission creep as police recognized the value of this asset and its potential application to other scenarios; and how to involve the many nonmunicipal ambulance services that are not involved in the routine operation of Philadelphia's 9-1-1 system. To date, RAMS teams have been activated on multiple occasions, but fortunately the incidents were resolved without injury or loss of life. However, the program provides another valuable tool with which the City of Philadelphia can respond should another active shooter incident occur.

  11. The Merapi 2010 eruption: An interdisciplinary impact assessment methodology for studying pyroclastic density current dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Baxter, P. J.; Spence, R.; Picquout, A.; Lavigne, F.; Surono

    2013-07-01

    The large explosive eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia, in 2010 presented a key, and rare, opportunity to study the impacts of a major explosive eruption in a densely populated area. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) produced throughout the 2010 eruption were unusually destructive, causing near complete devastation across a 22 km2 swath of the densely populated southern flanks and casualties to the end of their runout at 15.5 km from the volcano. The majority (> 120) of the more than 200 fatalities occurred more than 12 km from the volcano, where many people were caught in PDCs as they were evacuating. The 2010 eruption (VEI 4) exhibited a range of PDC behaviour in a complex multi-stage event that marked a change in eruption behaviour at Merapi, being the first eruption of this magnitude and style since 1872. This shift in style may mark a change in regime, and so understanding the potential impact of such large explosive eruptions is essential for future risk-assessment at Merapi. We describe a new impact assessment methodology that allowed us to collect important empirical geological, damage and casualty information and reconstruct impact dynamics associated with the PDCs. In contrast to previous PDC impact studies, we combined remote, field, laboratory and GIS assessments and were able to enter the affected areas safely and before their disturbance by rains or human activity. By integrating the results of our geological, damage and medical studies, we could reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics of the PDCs and their main hazard characteristics. Our interdisciplinary methods and preliminary findings are discussed here. In the areas damaged by PDCs, we used empirical damage data and calculations of material and structural resistance to lateral force to estimate approximate dynamic pressures. Dynamic pressures associated with the 5 November paroxysm exceeded 15 kPa more than 6 km from source and rapidly attenuated over a distance of less than 1 km at

  12. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  13. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  14. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  15. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  16. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequential techniques, epidemiological techniques and systemic techniques, where the marine accidents are included in the epidemiological technique. This study compares the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART methodology and the 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model, which are applied to assess marine accidents. Furthermore, the MOP model can effectively describe the relationships of other factors which affect the accidents; whereas, the HEART methodology is only focused on human factors.

  17. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, L M G; Vrijhoef, H J M; van Merode, G G; Severens, J L; Spreeuwenberg, C

    2004-09-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of disease management cannot properly be measured with the existing methodologic quality assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent existing instruments are useful in assessing the methodologic quality of HTA of disease management. An inventory was made of the problems that arise when assessing the methodologic quality of six HTAs of disease management with three different instruments. Based on these findings, a new instrument is proposed and validated. Problems mainly concern the items related to the study design, criteria for selection and restriction of patients, baseline and outcome measures, blinding of patients and providers, and the description of (co)-interventions. With its more specific characteristics, the HTA-DM addresses the problems mentioned. The HTA-DM is a reliable instrument for methodologic quality assessment of HTA of disease management in comparison with the other three instruments.

  18. Quantitative assessment of brain volumes in fish: comparison of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Cowin, Gary; Collin, Shaun P

    2010-01-01

    When correlating brain areas with behavioral and environmental characteristics, a variety of techniques are employed. In fishes (elasmobranchs and teleosts), 2 methods, histology and the idealized ellipsoid and/or half-ellipsoid technique, are primarily used to calculate the volume of a brain area and therefore its relationship to social or ecological complexity. In this study on a perciform teleost, we have quantitatively compared brain volumes obtained using the conventional techniques of histology and approximating brain volume to an idealized ellipsoid (or half ellipsoid) and magnetic resonance imaging, an established clinical tool typically used for assessing brain volume in other vertebrates. Our results indicate that, when compared to brain volumes measured using magnetic resonance imaging of brain regions in situ, variations in brain shape and histological artifacts can lead to significant differences in brain volume, especially in the telencephalon and optic tecta. Consequently, in comparative studies of brain volumes, we advise caution when using the histological and/or ellipsoid methods to make correlations between brain area size and environmental, behavioral and social characteristics and, when possible, we propose the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Incremental Sampling Methodology: Applications for Background Screening Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Penelope S; Goodrum, Philip E; Crumbling, Deana; Stuchal, Leah D; Roberts, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a numerical simulation study that was conducted to evaluate the performance of alternative statistical analysis methods for background screening assessments when data sets are generated with incremental sampling methods (ISMs). A wide range of background and site conditions are represented in order to test different ISM sampling designs. Both hypothesis tests and upper tolerance limit (UTL) screening methods were implemented following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance for specifying error rates. The simulations show that hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests can meet standard performance criteria under a wide range of conditions, even with relatively small sample sizes. Key factors that affect the performance include unequal population variances and small absolute differences in population means. UTL methods are generally not recommended due to conceptual limitations in the technique when applied to ISM data sets from single decision units and due to insufficient power given standard statistical sample sizes from ISM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  2. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  4. Assessment of methodological quality of economic evaluations in belgian drug reimbursement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations included in Belgian reimbursement applications for Class 1 drugs. For 19 reimbursement applications submitted during 2011 and Spring 2012, a descriptive analysis assessed the methodological quality of the economic evaluation, evaluated the assessment of that economic evaluation by the Drug Reimbursement Committee and the response to that assessment by the company. Compliance with methodological guidelines issued by the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre was assessed using a detailed checklist of 23 methodological items. The rate of compliance was calculated based on the number of economic evaluations for which the item was applicable. Economic evaluations tended to comply with guidelines regarding perspective, target population, subgroup analyses, comparator, use of comparative clinical data and final outcome measures, calculation of costs, incremental analysis, discounting and time horizon. However, more attention needs to be paid to the description of limitations of indirect comparisons, the choice of an appropriate analytic technique, the expression of unit costs in values for the current year, the estimation and valuation of outcomes, the presentation of results of sensitivity analyses, and testing the face validity of model inputs and outputs. Also, a large variation was observed in the scope and depth of the quality assessment by the Drug Reimbursement Committee. Although general guidelines exist, pharmaceutical companies and the Drug Reimbursement Committee would benefit from the existence of a more detailed checklist of methodological items that need to be reported in an economic evaluation.

  5. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  6. Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2013-07-26

    We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

  7. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  8. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  9. A methodology for assessment of road structures for the PBS pilot project in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology that is being used for the performance assessment of PBS vehicles in terms of road structures as part of the PBS pilot project in South Africa. The assessment approach has evolved from the standard “bridge...

  10. ARAMIS : Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Olivier; Kirchsteiger, C.; Delvosalle, Christian; Duijm, Nijs-Jan; Casal, J.; Goosens, L.; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Lebecki, K.; Wybo, J.L.; Dusserre, Gilles; Londiche, H.; Calzia, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the ARAMIS project accepted for funding in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, which should start end 2001. ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised implementation of the SEVESO II Directive.

  11. The usefulness and significance of assessing rapidly progressive spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is possible and clinically relevant to distinguish between slow and rapid progressive spermatozoa in basic semen analysis. This is discussed in light of the different purposes of semen analysis for the subfertile couple and the male patient. The two groups of progressive spermatozoa should be distinguished to help ensure that pertinent information available in the semen sample is not neglected. PMID:20111079

  12. Rapid Carbon Assessment Project: Data Summary and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Skye; Loecke, Terry; Roecker, Stephen; Beaudette, Dylan; Libohova, Zamir; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    The Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) project was undertaken to estimate regional soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the conterminous United States (CONUS) as a one-time event. Sample locations were selected randomly using the NRI (National Resource Inventory) sampling framework covering all areas in CONUS with SSURGO certified maps as of Dec 2012. Within each of 17 regions, sites were selected by a combination of soil and land use/cover groups (LUGR). At each of more than 6,000 sites five pedons were described and sampled to a depth of 100cm (one central and 4 satellites 30m in each cardinal direction). There were 144,833 samples described from 32,084 pedons at 6, 017 sites. A combination of measurement and modeled bulk density was used for all samples. A visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrophotometer was used to scan each sample for prediction of soil carbon contents. The samples of each central pedon were analyzed by the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory for combustion carbon and calcimeter inorganic carbon. SOC stocks were calculated for each pedon using a standard fixed depth technique to depths of 5, 30 and 100cm. Pedon SOC stocks were transformed to better approach normality before LUGR, regional and land use/cover summaries were calculated. The values reported are geometric means. A detailed spatial map can be produced using LUGR mean assignment to correlated pixels. LUGR values range from 1 to 3,000 Mg ha-1. While some artifacts are visible due to the stratified nature of sampling and extrapolation, the predictions are generally smooth and highlight some distinct geomorphic features including the sandhills in the Great Plains in the central US, mountainous regions in the West and coastal wetlands in the East. Regional averages range from 46 Mg ha-1 in the desert Southwest to 182 Mg ha-1 in the Northeast. Regional trends correlate to climate variables such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. While land use/cover classes vary in mean values

  13. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lisianski, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at French Frigate, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Asuncion, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Molokai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maug, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kure, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rota, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M.L.; Morrow, R C; Calva, J.J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated ...

  6. Warm-ups for military fitness testing: rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeno, Stacey A; Purvis, Dianna; Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Lisman, Peter; Deuster, Patricia A

    2013-07-01

    Warm-up exercises are commonly used before exercise as a method to physiologically prepare for strenuous physical activity. Various warm-up exercises are often implemented but without scientific merit and, at times, may be detrimental to performance. To date, no systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of warm-up exercises for military physical fitness test (PFT) or combat fitness test (CFT). The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment of the literature was to examine the quantity, quality, and effectiveness of warm-up exercises for PFT and identify those that might increase PFT and/or CFT scores, as reported in the literature. Literature searches of randomized controlled trials were performed across various databases from database inception to May 2011. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) 50 criteria for randomized controlled trial designs, and studies were individually described. Subject matter experts summarized the results applicable or generalizable to military testing. The search yielded a total of 1177 citations, with 37 fitting our inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular warm-ups increased sprint/running time, but dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups had the most positive outcome for the various exercise tests examined. Systematically, static stretching had no beneficial or detrimental effect on exercise performance but did improve range of movement exercises. Selected warm-up exercise may increase PFT and possibly CFT scores. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups.

  7. Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment and the Nephrology Rapid Response Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Topete, Lilia Maria; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting more than 10 million people around the world annually and resulting in poor outcomes. It has been suggested that late recognition of the syndrome may lead to delayed interventions with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely therapeutic strategies may be the cornerstone of future improvement in outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical model to identify patients at high risk for AKI in different environments, with the goal to prevent AKI. We describe the AKI Risk Assessment (ARA) as a proposed algorithm that systematically evaluates the patient in high-risk situations of AKI in a simple way no matter where the patient is located, and allows different medical specialists to approach patients as a team with a nephrologist to improve outcomes. The goal of the nephrology rapid response team (NRRT) is to prevent AKI or start treatment if AKI is already diagnosed as a consequence of progressive events that can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney tissues and eventual decline in renal function and to ensure appropriate follow-up of patients at risk for progressive chronic kidney disease after the episode of AKI. Prevention is the key to avoid mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. Integration of these assessment tools in a global methodology that includes a multi-disciplinary team (NRRT) is critical to success. Video Journal Club 'Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco' at http://www.karger.com/?doi=452402. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cancer risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: a critical review of methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, J.

    1998-01-01

    This review provides a discussion of cancer risk assessment methodology pertinent to developing a strategy for extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Approaches taken for chemical agents or ionizing radiation in six key topic areas are briefly reviewed, and then those areas are examined from the perspective of EMF, identifying issues to be addressed in developing a risk assessment strategy. The following recommendations are offered: 1) risk assessment should be viewed as ...

  9. Triangulation for the assessment of clinical nursing skills: a review of theory, use and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Diane

    2010-03-01

    To review the use and usefulness of the methodological strategy of triangulation in the assessment of skill in nursing curricula. Systematic search of the literature relevant to the definition and assessment of skill, reliability and validity of assessment methods and triangulation of assessment strategies. One hundred and twenty papers from nursing, medical, educational and social scientific databases, relevant websites and relevant books were reviewed. Forty papers were included based on their relevance to the theory and methodology of clinical skills assessment of health care professionals, particularly nurses. Papers concerning vocational skills assessment and the assessment of skill in school children were excluded. There is a current imperative within the field of health care professional education to assess clinical skills and to quantify this assessment. However, clinical skill, as it relates to cognition, is poorly defined concept and may be viewed as a quality of the practitioner and, as such, is difficult to quantify. Very many methods of assessing clinical skill have been documented and there are inherent issues in ensuring both reliability and validity of these assessment strategies for clinical skill. This has led commentators to suggest that the process of triangulation should be employed. The paper fundamentally questions whether the concept of triangulation can be applied to skills assessment without dependable measures of reliability and validity of the tools of assessment and concludes that the process of applying multiple modes of assessment should not be confused with the process of triangulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid Assessment of Loiasis in parts of the Niger Delta, in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of loiasis was rapidly assessed based on the World Health Organisation RAPLOA technique in 24 rural communities of the Niger Delta Area of Imo State, Nigeria using 78-82 adults per community. The rapid assessment was based on history of eye worm and Calabar swellings from individual, as well as ...

  11. M&A Performance and Economic Impact: Integration and Critical Assessment of Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Andriuskevicius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Existing methodologies employed within the M&A performance framework are investigated and critically discuss. Methodology/methods: The research has been carried out as a structured assessment of past literature. The findings from scientific articles and studies by various scholars have been categorized, grouped and summarized to discern a meta-analytic view of the work carried out to date. Scientific aim: The conducted research seeks to ascertain and evaluate theoretically existing methodologies used in empirical studies that would allow proper and critical understanding of the results of various findings in the holistic and global M&As area. Findings: The research elaborates on several key developments in M&A methodology and performance studies carried out in empirical works during the last two decades. The findings help to independently and objectively assess performance of M&A from a holistic perspective. Conclusions: Each methodology measuring either M&A performance on a corporate level or effects of M&A on the economy level shall be interpreted and relied on with caution as each of them dispose their limitations whereas application of these methodologies is subject to data availability and case specific.

  12. ATES Contribution to the Housing Energy Balance: a Simple Assessment Methodology Contribution du stockage d’énergie thermique en aquifère au bilan énergétique lié à l’habitat : méthodologie d’évaluation rapide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbiaux B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of Green-House Gas Emissions (GHGE goes through a sum of solutions that need to be tuned to the local context in terms of energy needs and resources, and also to the demand and offer variations with time. The housing heat consumption is particularly concerned as it is seasonal and rarely in phase with the deliverability of alternative or renewable energy sources. This paper studies heat storage in saline untapped aquifers as a solution to overcome the time lag between production and consumption. This process applies to heat networks that supply dense housing complexes. Firstly, a methodology is described to size an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES project as a function of the heat production and consumption characteristics on the one hand, and of the recovery factor of the stored heat on the other hand. The major role played by this recovery factor leads to a review of thermal losses of various origins and to a sensitivity study of influent reservoir parameters such as the aquifer thickness, productivity and heterogeneity, for the purpose of aquifer selection and storage project management. La reduction des Gaz a Effet de Serre (GES passe par un ensemble de solutions qui doivent etre adaptees au contexte local des besoins et ressources en energie, ainsi qu’aux variations de l’offre et la demande au cours du temps. Ce constat concerne en particulier la consommation d’energie calorifique destinee a l’habitat. En effet, cette consommation de chaleur est saisonniere et rarement en phase avec la disponibilite des sources d’energie alternatives ou renouvelables. Cet article etudie le stockage de chaleur dans des aquiferes salins inexploites en tant que solution pour pallier ce dephasage entre production et consommation. Ce procede concerne les reseaux de chaleur desservant un habitat concentre. En premier lieu, une methodologie quantitative est decrite pour dimensionner le projet de stockage d’energie thermique en

  13. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars of sustai......Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars...... of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S......-LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...

  14. Rapid Damage Assessment by Means of Multi-Temporal SAR — A Comprehensive Review and Outlook to Sentinel-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast crisis response after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tropical storms, is necessary to support, for instance, rescue, humanitarian, and reconstruction operations in the crisis area. Therefore, rapid damage mapping after a disaster is crucial, i.e., to detect the affected area, including grade and type of damage. Thereby, satellite remote sensing plays a key role due to its fast response, wide field of view, and low cost. With the increasing availability of remote sensing data, numerous methods have been developed for damage assessment. This article gives a comprehensive review of these techniques focusing on multi-temporal SAR procedures for rapid damage assessment: interferometric coherence and intensity correlation. The review is divided into six parts: First, methods based on coherence; second, the ones using intensity correlation; and third, techniques using both methodologies combined to increase the accuracy of the damage assessment are reviewed. Next, studies using additional data (e.g., GIS and optical imagery to support the damage assessment and increase its accuracy are reported. Moreover, selected studies on post-event SAR damage assessment techniques and examples of other applications of the interferometric coherence are presented. Then, the preconditions for a successful worldwide application of multi-temporal SAR methods for damage assessment and the limitations of current SAR satellite missions are reported. Finally, an outlook to the Sentinel-1 SAR mission shows possible solutions of these limitations, enabling a worldwide applicability of the presented damage assessment methods.

  15. Towards the development of a global probabilistic tsunami risk assessment methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of tsunami risk is on many levels still ambiguous and under discussion. Over the last two decades, various methodologies and models have been developed to quantify tsunami risk, most of the time on a local or regional level, with either deterministic or probabilistic background. Probabilistic modelling has significant difficulties, as the underlying tsunami hazard modelling demands an immense amount of computational time and thus limits the assessment substantially, being often limited to either institutes with supercomputing access or the modellers are forced to reduce modelling resolution either quantitatively or qualitatively. Furthermore, data on the vulnerability of infrastructure and buildings is empirically limited to a few disasters in the recent years. Thus, a reliable quantification of socio-economic vulnerability is still questionable. Nonetheless, significant improvements have been developed recently on both the methodological site as well as computationally. This study, introduces a methodological framework for a globally uniform probabilistic tsunami risk assessment. Here, the power of recently developed hardware for desktop-based parallel computing plays a crucial role in the calculation of numerical tsunami wave propagation, while large-scale parametric models and paleo-seismological data enhances the return period assessment of tsunami-genic megathrust earthquake events. Adaptation of empirical tsunami vulnerability functions in conjunction with methodologies from flood modelling support a more reliable vulnerability quantification. In addition, methodologies for exposure modelling in coastal areas are introduced focusing on the diversity of coastal exposure landscapes and data availability. Overall, this study introduces a first overview of how a global tsunami risk modelling framework may be accomplished, while covering methodological, computational and data-driven aspects.

  16. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  17. Impact Assessment of University Libraries: A Consideration of Issues and Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on impact assessment of libraries and considers potentially useful methodologies for measuring the impact of university libraries, i.e., how library use affects students' academic performance. Topics discussed include categories of library use, purposes of library use, and indicators of library impact. The user panel methodology…

  18. Using Delphi Methodology to Design Assessments of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizade, Agida Gabil; Mason, Marguerite M.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of methodologies that can be used to create items for assessing teachers' "professionally situated" knowledge are lacking in mathematics education research literature. In this study, researchers described and used the Delphi method to design an instrument to measure teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. The instrument focused on a…

  19. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.; Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as “PHM methodology” or

  20. Using Critical Thinking Drills to Teach and Assess Proficiency in Methodological and Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Ted V.

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of critical thinking drills (CTDs), a repetitious classroom activity designed to improve methodological and statistical thinking in relation to psychological claims embedded in popular press articles. In each of four separate CTDs, students critically analyzed a brief article reporting a recent psychological…

  1. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  2. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  3. European Unconventional Oil and Gas Assessment (EUOGA) - Development and application of a unified methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelskamp, S.; Zijp, M.; Doornenbal, H.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Bocin-Dumitriu, A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, various international and national assessments of shale gas and shale oil resources for most EU-countries have been published. Due to methodological differences and in fundamental assumptions related to the quality and quantity of underlying geological information, these

  4. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate a semi-automated text analytics approach for the identification and categorization of information that can be used for country logistics assessments. In this paper, we develop the methodology on a set of documents for 21 countries using...... and the text analyst. Implications are discussed and future work is outlined....

  5. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  6. Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Silla, A.; Johanssen, C.; Bell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS

  7. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    agreement is limited to main lines and methodology has not yet been fully developed. A major problem to be solved is the poor accordance between impact as calculated in LCA and the expected occurrence of actual impact. Until recently, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) typically focused on substance...

  8. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  9. Methodology for constructive assessment of IT-based systems in an organisational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, J

    1999-12-01

    Even if painted in black and white, there is no doubt that the assumptions for the application of traditional approaches for user requirements specification are more or less unfulfilled. This indicates a need for evolutionary system development combined with constructive assessment throughout the life-cycle of an IT-based solution. A methodology for constructive technology assessment is presented, which 1) covers the entire system life-cycle; 2) has users from the application domain of the future system, or their representatives, as the target users of the assessment methodology; 3) enables constructive assessment during the development of an IT-based solution; 4) is applicable independently of the system development approach; and 5) provides users of the IT-based solution with information enabling them to decide whether or not to take the system into real-life clinical usage.

  10. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  11. A probabilistic assessment of the rapidity of PETM onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Hull, Pincelli M; Kump, Lee R; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-08-25

    Knowledge of the onset duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum-the largest known greenhouse-gas-driven global warming event of the Cenozoic-is central to drawing inferences for future climate change. Single-foraminifera measurements of the associated carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise (South Atlantic Ocean) are controversial, as they seem to indicate geologically instantaneous carbon release and anomalously long ocean mixing. Here, we fundamentally reinterpret this record and extract the likely PETM onset duration. First, we employ an Earth system model to illustrate how the response of ocean circulation to warming does not support the interpretation of instantaneous carbon release. Instead, we use a novel sediment-mixing model to show how changes in the relative population sizes of calcareous plankton, combined with sediment mixing, can explain the observations. Furthermore, for any plausible PETM onset duration and sampling methodology, we place a probability on not sampling an intermediate, syn-excursion isotopic value. Assuming mixed-layer carbonate production continued at Maud Rise, we deduce the PETM onset was likely <5 kyr.Single-foraminifera measurements of the PETM carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise have been interpreted as indicating geologically instantaneous carbon release. Here, the authors explain these records using an Earth system model and a sediment-mixing model and extract the likely PETM onset duration.

  12. Novel methodologies and technologies to assess mid-palatal suture maturation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Isfeld, Darren; Lagravere, Manuel; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. Methods A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until ...

  13. The development of methodological tools to assess the health sector with the resulting standardized index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansuvarova Evgenia Adolfovna

    2016-10-01

    The proposed assessment methodology resulting standardized health index in the various countries of the world allows you to define the country implementing an effective management strategy in the health sector. The leading positions belong to the countries where the state health policy has shown its greatest efficiency. This technique can be used not only for point scoring result of a standardized health index in the world, but also to assess in a particular country.

  14. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  15. Methodological approach to assessment of organizational resources of the productive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem connected with development of theoretical and methodological provisions of formation of the assessment procedure of organizational resources of the productive activity. Theoretical results of our research are: improvement of the concept of development of organizational resources of the productive activity; identifying the impact of organizational resources on the productive activity; justification of the basic principles of formation of the assessment system of efficiency of the organizational resources' use. We proposed a unified methodological approach allowing to combine the complexity of assessment of both quantity of core resources of the productive activity and organizational resources, which significantly develops traditional systems of the productive activity management based on identifying quantitative parameters of the subsystems, their assessment, comparison and analysis. We also substantiated our opinion on assessment of organizational resources' values. It is focused on the development of the productive activity and allows to use the developed tools of the methodological approach for forecast assessment of the impact of the quantity of core resources, used in the productive activity, and organizational resources of the productive activity on the economic results of the enterprise.

  16. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  17. Rapid assessment of cataract surgical coverage in rural Zululand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) is a useful indicator of the degree of success of a cataract intervention programme. However, because previously described methods are time-consuming and labour-intensive, they are rarely performed. This study describes a simple and inexpensive assessment of CSC based ...

  18. Application of Master Curve Methodology for Structural Integrity Assessments of Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari-Far, Iradj [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallin, Kim [VTT, Esbo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    The objective was to perform an in-depth investigation of the Master Curve methodology and also based on this method develop a procedure for fracture assessments of nuclear components. The project has sufficiently illustrated the capabilities of the Master Curve methodology for fracture assessments of nuclear components. Within the scope of this work, the theoretical background of the methodology and its validation on small and large specimens has been studied and presented to a sufficiently large extent, as well as the correlations between the charpy-V data and the Master Curve T{sub 0} reference temperature in the evaluation of fracture toughness. The work gives a comprehensive report of the background theory and the different applications of the Master Curve methodology. The main results of the work have shown that the cleavage fracture toughness is characterized by a large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region, it is specimen size dependent and it should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. The Master Curve methodology is able to make use of statistical data in a consistent way. Furthermore, the Master Curve methodology provides a more precise prediction of the fracture toughness of embrittled materials in comparison with the ASME K{sub IC} reference curve, which often gives over-conservative results. The suggested procedure in this study, concerning the application of the Master Curve method in fracture assessments of ferritic steels in the transition region and the low shelf regions, is valid for the temperatures range T{sub 0}-50{<=}T{<=}T{sub 0}+50 deg C. If only approximate information is required, the Master Curve may well be extrapolated outside this temperature range. The suggested procedure has also been illustrated for some examples.

  19. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to [email protected] , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  20. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population.

  1. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  2. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...... to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen...

  3. Assessment of a methodology for transmission expansion planning around the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnert, Stefan; Farahmand, Hossein; Voeller, Steve; Wolfgang, Ove; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The expected increase of wind power production in the North Sea area requires the access to resources of flexible power production. Since the Nordic hydro-based power system can provide such resources, a stronger interconnection between continental Europe and the Nordic is required. Transmission expansion planning is necessary to assess the benefit of potential new transmission lines. A transmission expansion methodology is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on merchant lines and is applied to a 2030 scenario of the Northern European power system. (orig.)

  4. A Hybrid Dynamic System Assessment Methodology for Multi-Modal Transportation-Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.T. van der Wardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrified transportation, be it in the form of buses, trains, or cars have become an emerging form of mobility. Electric vehicles (EVs, especially, are set to expand the amount of electric miles driven and energy consumed. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether EVs will be technically feasible within infrastructure systems. Fundamentally, EVs interact with three interconnected systems: the (physical transportation system, the electric power grid, and their supporting information systems. Coupling of the two physical systems essentially forms a nexus, the transportation-electricity nexus (TEN. This paper presents a hybrid dynamic system assessment methodology for multi-modal transportation-electrification. At its core, it utilizes a mathematical model which consists of a marked Petri-net model superimposed on the continuous time microscopic traffic dynamics and the electrical state evolution. The methodology consists of four steps: (1 establish the TEN structure; (2 establish the TEN behavior; (3 establish the TEN Intelligent Transportation-Energy System (ITES decision-making; and (4 assess the TEN performance. In the presentation of the methodology, the Symmetrica test case is used throughout as an illustrative example. Consequently, values for several measures of performance are provided. This methodology is presented generically and may be used to assess the effects of transportation-electrification in any city or area; opening up possibilities for many future studies.

  5. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  6. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiot...

  7. Novel methodologies and technologies to assess mid-palatal suture maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfeld, Darren; Lagravere, Manuel; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-06-14

    A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until October 5, 2016. A supplemental hand search was completed of references from retrieved articles that met the final inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine abstracts met the initial inclusion criteria. Following assessment of full articles, only five met the final inclusion criteria. The number of subjects involved and quality of studies varied, ranging from an in-vitro study using autopsy material to prospective studies with in vivo human patients. Three types of evaluations were identified: quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Four of the five studies utilized computed tomography (CT), while the remaining study utilized non-invasive ultrasonography (US). No methodology was validated against a histological-based reference standard. Weak limited evidence exists to support the newest technologies and proposed methodologies to assess midpalatal suture maturation. Due to the lack of reference standard validation, it is advised that clinicians still use a multitude of diagnostic criteria to subjectively assess palatal suture maturation and drive clinical decision-making.

  8. [Assessment of the methodological quality of theses submitted to the Faculty of Medicine Fez].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, A; Tachfouti, N; Zohoungbogbo, I S S; Achhab, Y El; Nejjari, C

    2014-06-09

    A thesis in medicine is a scientific work which allows a medical student to acquire a Doctor of Medicine degree. It is therefore recommended that theses presented by students fulfill essential methodological criteria in order to obtain scientifically credible results and recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the methodology of thesis presented to the Faculty of Medicine in Fez in 2008. We developed an evaluation table containing questions on the different sections of the IMRAD structure on which these theses were based and we estimated the proportion of theses that conformed to each criterion. There were 160 theses on various specialties presented in 2008. The majority of the theses (79.3%) were case series. Research questions were clearly expressed in 62.0% but the primary objectives were pertinent in only 52.0%. Our study shows that there were important deficiencies in the methodological rigor of the theses and very little representation of the theses in publications.

  9. Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marzo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA. Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs, the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.

  10. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Definition of a short-cut methodology for assessing earthquake-related Na-Tech risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busini, Valentina; Marzo, Enrico; Callioni, Andrea; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-15

    Na-Tech (Natural and Technological) refers to industrial accidents triggered by natural events such as storms, earthquakes, flooding, and lightning. Herein, a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of earthquake Na-Tech risk has been developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA). The proposed methodology, through suitable Key Hazard Indicators (KHIs), identifies the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation (i.e., a process plant located in a given territory), using the Analytical Hierarchy Process as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such KHIs. The developed methodology was validated by comparing its computational results with QRA results that involved Na-Tech events previously presented in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Damage Assessment. Volume I. Methodology for Selecting Repair Area of Ordnance-Damaged Pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    capacitance. Once the charge has been detected, the information must be detected at the terminal . There are many different methods to detect this...4U 4J~ 4)J 43- L xe37 to a common terminal . The second method utilizes a transfer switch for each pixel, but the pixels are sampled...Function-| S Controller Proceso R- Ext. Video Refresh Memory F Video Output RGB (64 Kilobytes !Gen. (OPTICOLOR 3 ®) Mono (RMP) (STC) IRefresh Memory sync and

  13. Development of a Methodology for Strategic Environmental Assessment: Application to the Assessment of Golf Course Installation Policy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related

  14. Development of a methodology for strategic environmental assessment: application to the assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related

  15. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  16. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  17. Steps towards the international regulatory acceptance of non-animal methodology in safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Doe, John; Gellatly, Nichola; Ragan, Ian; Burden, Natalie

    2017-10-01

    The current animal-based paradigm for safety assessment must change. In September 2016, the UK National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, academia and industry to review progress in bringing new methodology into regulatory use, and to identify ways to expedite progress. Progress has been slow. Science is advancing to make this possible but changes are necessary. The new paradigm should allow new methodology to be adopted once it is developed rather than being based on a fixed set of studies. Regulatory authorities can help by developing Performance-Based Standards. The most pressing need is in repeat dose toxicology, although setting standards will be more complex than in areas such as sensitization. Performance standards should be aimed directly at human safety, not at reproducing the results of animal studies. Regulatory authorities can also aid progress towards the acceptance of non-animal based methodology by promoting "safe-haven" trials where traditional and new methodology data can be submitted in parallel to build up experience in the new methods. Industry can play its part in the acceptance of new methodology, by contributing to the setting of performance standards and by actively contributing to "safe-haven" trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  19. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  20. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  1. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  2. Assessment of changes in smile after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated changes in the smile characteristics of patients with maxillary constriction submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample consisted of 81 extraoral photographs of maximum smile of 27 patients with mean age of 10 years, before expansion and 3 and 6 months after fixation of the expanding screw. The photographs were analyzed on the software Cef X 2001, with achievement of the following measurements: Transverse smile area, buccal corridors, exposure of maxillary incisors, gingival exposure of maxillary incisors, smile height, upper and lower lip thickness, smile symmetry and smile arch. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: RME promoted statistically significant increase in the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors; maintenance of right and left side smile symmetry and of the lack of parallelism between the curvature of the maxillary incisal edges and lower lip border. CONCLUSIONS: RME was beneficial for the smile esthetics with the increase of the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors.INTRODUÇÃO: esse estudo avaliou as alterações das características do sorriso de pacientes com atresia maxilar submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 81 fotografias extrabucais do sorriso máximo de 27 pacientes, com idade média de 10 anos, antes da expansão e aos três e seis meses após a fixação do parafuso expansor. As análises das fotografias foram realizadas por meio do programa Cef X 2001, e as seguintes medidas foram analisadas: dimensão transversal do sorriso, corredores bucais, quantidade de exposição dos incisivos superiores, exposição gengival dos incisivos superiores, altura do sorriso, espessuras dos lábios superior e inferior, simetria e arco do sorriso. As alterações no sorriso durante

  3. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  4. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. • The concepts of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. • Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) were performed and updated. • This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety issues using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) proposed by Generation IV Forum Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO). In ongoing nuclear energy research such as Generation IV fission power plant (GEN-IV), new methodology based on Technology-Neutral Framework (TNF) has been applied for safety assessment. In this methodology, design and regulatory requirements for safety of nuclear power plants are considered simultaneously. The design based on regulatory requirements can save resource, time, and manpower while maintaining high level safety. ISAM is one of the options to apply TNF in K-DEMO. We have performed safety studies for K-DEMO using Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) which are constitutive part of ISAM. Considering the design phase of K-DEMO, the current study focused on PIRT and OPT for K-DEMO. Results have been reviewed and updated by Korean fusion advisory group after considering the views of specialists from domestic universities, industries, and national institutes in South Korea.

  5. Improving life cycle assessment methodology for the application of decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology for the app......There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology...... for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. From a decision maker’s (DM’s) point of view there are at least three main “illness” factors influencing the quality of the information that the DM uses for making decisions. The factors are not independent of each other, but it seems...... helpful to use the following separations for clarification: • Uncertainty • Costs • Time Improvements in just one of these three factors can swiftly lead to an improvement of the others since they are highly dependent on each other. The focus of this PhD project has been on uncertainty. Most application...

  6. "Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of possible airborne impact from nuclear risk sites - Part I: methodology for probabilistic atmospheric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A. A.; Mahura, A. G.

    2003-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment, and to test this methodology through estimation of a nuclear risk to population in the Northern European countries in case of a severe accident at the nuclear risk sites. For assessment of the probabilistic risk and vulnerability, a combination of social-geophysical factors and probabilities are considered. The main focus of this paper is the description of methodology for evaluation of the atmospheric transport of radioactive releases from the risk site regions. The suggested methodology is given from the probabilistic point of view. The main questions stated are: What are probabilities and times for radionuclide atmospheric transport to different neighbouring countries and territories in case of the hypothetical accidental release at the nuclear risk site? Which geographical territories or countries are at the highest risk from the hypothetical accidental releases? To answer this question we suggest applying the following research tools for probabilistic atmospheric studies. First, it is atmospheric modelling to calculate multiyear forward trajectories originated over the sites. Second, it is statistical analysis tools to explore temporal and spatial structure of calculated trajectories in order to evaluate different probabilistic impact indicators: atmospheric transport pathways, airflow, fast transport, typical transport time, maximum possible impact zone, maximum reaching distance, etc. These indicators are applicable for further GIS-analysis and integration to estimate regional risk and vulnerability in case of accidental releases at the risk sites and for planning the emergency response and preparedness systems.

  8. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  9. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  10. Microwave Hematoma Detector for the Rapid Assessment of Head Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadded, W.; Chang, J.; Rosenbury, T.; Dallum, G.; Welsch, P.; Scott, D.; Duarte, D.; Acevedo-Bolton, V.

    2000-02-11

    A non-invasive microwave device for the detection of epi/subdural hemorrhaging (hematoma) is under current development. The final device will be highly portable and allow real time assessment of head injuries, thereby satisfying early detection needs of the field technician as well as providing a tool for repetitious monitoring of high-risk individuals. The device will adopt the advanced technology of micropower impulse radar (MIR) which is a state of the art low cost ultra wide band (UWB) microwave radar developed here at LLNL. It will consist of a MIR transmitting and receiving module, a computer based signal processing module, and a device-to-patient signal coupling module--the UWB antenna. The prototype design is being guided by the needs of the patient and the practitioner along with the prerequisites of the technology including issues such as the specificity of the device, efficacy of diagnosis, accuracy, robustness, and patient comfort. The prototype development follows a concurrent approach which .includes experiments designed to evaluate requirements of the radar and antenna design, phantom development to facilitate laboratory investigations, and investigation into the limits of adapting pre-existing non-medical MIR devices to medical applications. This report will present the accomplishments and project highlights to date in the fiscal year 1999. Future project projections will also be discussed.

  11. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    relative health of the ecosystem. The IBI, though originally for Midwestern streams, has been successfully adapted to other ecoregions and taxa (macroinvertebrates, Lombard and Goldstein, 2004) and has become an important tool for scientists and regulatory agencies alike in determining health of stream ecosystems. The IBI is a specific type of a larger group of methods and procedures referred to as Rapid Bioassessment (RBA). These protocols have the advantage of directly measuring the organisms affected by system perturbations, thus providing an integrated evaluation of system health because the organisms themselves integrate all aspects of their environment and its condition. In addition to the IBI, the RBA concept has also been applied to seep wetlands (Paller et al. 2005) and terrestrial systems (O'Connell et al. 1998, Kremen et al. 1993, Rodriguez et al. 1998, Rosenberg et al. 1986). Terrestrial RBA methods have lagged somewhat behind those for aquatic systems because terrestrial systems are less distinctly defined and seem to have a less universal distribution of an all-inclusive taxon, such as fish in the IBI, upon which to base an RBA. In the last decade, primarily in Australia, extensive development of an RBA using ant communities has shown great promise. Ants have the same advantage for terrestrial RBAs that fish do for aquatic systems in that they are an essential and ubiquitous component of virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. They occupy a broad range of niches, functional groups, and trophic levels and they possess one very important characteristic that makes them ideal for RBA because, similar to the fishes, there is a wide range of tolerance to conditions within the larger taxa. Within ant communities there are certain groups, genera, or species that may be very robust and abundant under even the harshest impacts. There are also taxa that are very sensitive to disturbance and change and their presence or absence is also indicative of the local

  12. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  13. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  14. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Methodology to assess quality of estimated disturbances in active disturbance rejection control structure for mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, A David; Velazquez, V Karla; Olivares, F Luz; Camacho, T Adrian; Williams, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess the quality of estimation of disturbances in mechanical systems, by state observers, in the control structure with active compensation of disturbances (ADRC) is presented. Evaluation is carried out by four performance indices that depend on the steady-state error between reference signals and output of the plant. These indices are related with the accuracy and precision of the closed loop system in the sense of norms L2 and L∞, for a set of reference signals representing the typical operating conditions of the mechanism. The effectiveness of the methodology is illustrated with the quality assessment of the estimated disturbance of five state observers to control of a simple pendulum and validated on a SCARA robot arm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new methodology for assessing health policy and systems research and analysis capacity in African universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Gillian; Mirzoev, Tolib; Orgill, Marsha; Erasmus, Ermin; Lehmann, Uta; Okeyo, Stephen; Goudge, Jane; Maluka, Stephen; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Aikins, Moses; de Savigny, Don; Tomson, Goran; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-08

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been increasingly recognised, but it is still unclear how most effectively to strengthen the capacity of the different organisations involved in this field. Universities are particularly crucial but the expansive literature on capacity development has little to offer the unique needs of HPSR+A activity within universities, and often overlooks the pivotal contribution of capacity assessments to capacity strengthening. The Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa 2011-2015 designed and implemented a new framework for capacity assessment for HPSR+A within universities. The methodology is reported in detail. Our reflections on developing and conducting the assessment generated four lessons for colleagues in the field. Notably, there are currently no published capacity assessment methodologies for HPSR+A that focus solely on universities - we report a first for the field to initiate the dialogue and exchange of experiences with others. Second, in HPSR+A, the unit of assessment can be a challenge, because HPSR+A groups within universities tend to overlap between academic departments and are embedded in different networks. Third, capacity assessment experience can itself be capacity strengthening, even when taking into account that doing such assessments require capacity. From our experience, we propose that future systematic assessments of HPSR+A capacity need to focus on both capacity assets and needs and assess capacity at individual, organisational, and systems levels, whilst taking into account the networked nature of HPSR+A activity. A genuine partnership process between evaluators and those participating in an assessment can improve the quality of assessment and uptake of results in capacity strengthening.

  17. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenour, William R.; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occ...

  18. Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores service design as a relevant method for service assessment and creation in a library environment. Service design allows for a holistic and systemic look at the various systems that make a library function. This methodology is a co-creative process conducted with library staff and patrons. By working together, librarians and patrons can create more relevant services or refine current services to be more effective and efficient.

  19. Assessing the methodological quality of clinical guidelines for preventing falls of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Majkusová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the methodological quality of selected clinical practice guidelines (CPGs for preventing risk of falling in adult patients in acute and long-term institutional care. Design: Descriptive study using qualitative research techniques. Methods: CPGs were systematically searched in databases of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, electronic databases, and websites of organizations and professional societies, based on predefined criteria and keywords fo the period 2000-2015. After sorting and analysing 53 documents, the methodological quality of seven selected CPGs were assessed with the AGREE II generic instrument. Results: All CPGs obtained highest domain scores in the dimensions Clarity and Framework, and Purpose, while the lowest standardized scores were achieved by the Applicability and Editorial independence domains. The Rigor of development and Stakeholder Involvement domains achieved an average score. A total of three recommended guidelines showed high methodological quality: Falls. Assessment and prevention of falls in older people - 572 b., 84 % (NICE, 2013; Preventing Falls and Harm From Falls in Older People. Best Practice Guidelines for Australian Hospitals - 556 b., 84 % (ACSQHC, 2009; and Prevention of falls and fall injuries in the older adult - 559 b., 82 % (RNAO, 2005. Conclusion: Assessing the methodological quality of clinical guidelines using the AGREE instrument is one of the key steps in the process of their adaptation for other socio-cultural and organizational conditions. It would be possible to adapt and use all of the three most highly-rated CPGs to reduce risk of falling of inpatients in the Czech organizational and socio-cultural context.

  20. Assessing the economics of large Energy Storage Plants with an optimisation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, G; Palerma, E; Mancini, M

    2015-01-01

    Power plants, such as wind farms, that harvest renewable energy are increasing their share of the energy portfolio in several countries, including the United Kingdom. Their inability to match demand power profiles is stimulating an increasing need for large ESP (Energy Storage Plants), capable of balancing their instability and shifting power produced during low demand to peak periods. This paper presents and applies an innovative methodology to assess the economics of ESP utilising UK electr...

  1. Methodological issues in assessing psychological adjustment in child witnesses of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Caroline M; Oxtoby, Claire; Ogle, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes a growing number of methodological concerns emerging from research on child witnesses of intimate partner violence (IPV). A brief summary of various psychological, biological, and cognitive impairments associated with witnessing IPV is presented. Directions for future research in this area are explored with particular attention paid to experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs are evaluated. Suggested improvements include the use of multiple informants, behavioral observations, and prospective, longitudinal assessment.

  2. Outline for a human-based assessment methodology of urban projects. The case of Polis Gondomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Marcolin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a preliminary research project proposing an assessment methodology for the actual impacts of urban projects on city development[1]. At this stage, the research has focused on the identification of indicators about the success of urban projects according to the accomplishment, functioning and use of public spaces. A case study is presented as a means for exploring these indicators: the intervention made by the Polis Programme at Gondomar.

  3. Proposing a Research Methodology to Evaluate the Relation Between Training Needs Assessment and Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Research.pdf Creswell , J. W. (2012). Educational research : Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Upper...assessment processes via the Internet: System design and qualitative study. Internet Research , 16(4), 427–449. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org...Bahrain. The study design is quantitative in nature, investigating via statistical tools that propose a research methodology including a survey of

  4. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle; Mayhew, Alain; Skidmore, Becky; Stevens, Adrienne; Boutron, Isabelle; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Bjerre, Lise M; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David

    2017-06-19

    The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® were searched from January 1990 to October 16, 2014, for reports assessing MQ and/or RQ of SRs. Title, abstract, and full-text screening of all reports were conducted independently by two reviewers. Reports assessing the MQ and/or RQ of a cohort of ten or more SRs of interventions were included. All results are reported as frequencies and percentages of reports. Of 20,765 unique records retrieved, 1189 of them were reviewed for full-text review, of which 76 reports were included. Eight previously published approaches to assessing MQ or reporting guidelines used as proxy to assess RQ were used in 80% (61/76) of identified reports. These included two reporting guidelines (PRISMA and QUOROM) and five quality assessment tools (AMSTAR, R-AMSTAR, OQAQ, Mulrow, Sacks) and GRADE criteria. The remaining 24% (18/76) of reports developed their own criteria. PRISMA, OQAQ, and AMSTAR were the most commonly used published tools to assess MQ or RQ. In conjunction with other approaches, published tools were used in 29% (22/76) of reports, with 36% (8/22) assessing adherence to both PRISMA and AMSTAR criteria and 26% (6/22) using QUOROM and OQAQ. The methods used to assess quality of SRs are diverse, and none has become universally accepted. The most commonly used quality assessment tools are AMSTAR, OQAQ, and PRISMA. As new tools and guidelines are

  5. Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, Marco; D' Alberti, Vincenzo; Franzitta, Vincenzo [DREAM - Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed Ambientali Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, edif. 9-90128 Palermo (Italy); Columba, Pietro [DESAF - Dipartimento di Economia dei Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, and civil and industrial users have been stored in the GIS to define potential areas for gathering the residues coming from the pruning of olive groves, vineyards, and other agricultural crops, and to assess biomass available for energy cultivation. Further, it was possible to assess the potential of biodiesel production, supposing the cultivation of rapeseed in arable crop areas. For the biomass used for direct combustion purposes, the economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass and comparing it with other fuels. This assessment has shown the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in an efficient way. Moreover, the economic potential of biodiesel was assessed considering the on-going financial regime for fuel. At the same time, the study has shown a significant competitiveness of the finished biomass (pellets), and good potential for a long-term development of this market. An important result was the determination of biofuel production potential in Sicily. An outcome of the study was to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System and Rural Development Plan. (author)

  6. The sensitivity of agricultural impacts assessment to climate data and scenario methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on the agricultural sector are crucially important from the farm- to global levels. While impacts assessments have made wide and creative use of data products, climate models, and methods for downscaling and scenario generation, this variety also hinders our ability to compare impacts from one study to other assessments. The unique nature of many impacts assessments is especially problematic when evaluating the impacts of climate change on large agricultural regions and global production; a crucial scale in understanding the economic impacts and market influence on food security and land use. This presentation examines the influence of methodological choices on agricultural impacts assessment by describing results from several projects. First, the utility of a wide variety of global and regional observational data products are compared for an agricultural system in the Florida Panhandle to determine the influence of observational uncertainties, reanalysis products, remotely sensed information, and downscaled models on impacts assessment. Second, the role of future climate scenarios is isolated by running the same Panhandle station with scenarios generated through a variety of generation methods with a focus on downscaling methodologies and the climate statistics allowed to change. Finally, an ensemble of weather generators are compared across an ensemble of wheat models in a variety of major agricultural regions, isolating important sensitivities in the crop models and corresponding strengths and weaknesses in the weather generators.

  7. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Costa Gondim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices’ limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class–amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS–against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests. After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  8. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  9. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  10. A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

  11. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gondim, João José; de Oliveira Albuquerque, Robson; Clayton Alves Nascimento, Anderson; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-11-04

    Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT) cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices' limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class-amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS)-against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests). After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS) attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  12. Identifying items to assess methodological quality in physical therapy trials: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Cummings, Greta G; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-09-01

    Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items.

  13. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  14. A Methodology for the Development of a Reliability Database for an Advanced Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, Dave; Brunett, Acacia J.; Bucknor, Matthew

    2016-06-26

    GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) and Argonne National Laboratory are currently engaged in a joint effort to modernize and develop probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for advanced non-light water reactors. At a high level the primary outcome of this project will be the development of next-generation PRA methodologies that will enable risk-informed prioritization of safety- and reliability-focused research and development, while also identifying gaps that may be resolved through additional research. A subset of this effort is the development of a reliability database (RDB) methodology to determine applicable reliability data for inclusion in the quantification of the PRA. The RDB method developed during this project seeks to satisfy the requirements of the Data Analysis element of the ASME/ANS Non-LWR PRA standard. The RDB methodology utilizes a relevancy test to examine reliability data and determine whether it is appropriate to include as part of the reliability database for the PRA. The relevancy test compares three component properties to establish the level of similarity to components examined as part of the PRA. These properties include the component function, the component failure modes, and the environment/boundary conditions of the component. The relevancy test is used to gauge the quality of data found in a variety of sources, such as advanced reactor-specific databases, non-advanced reactor nuclear databases, and non-nuclear databases. The RDB also establishes the integration of expert judgment or separate reliability analysis with past reliability data. This paper provides details on the RDB methodology, and includes an example application of the RDB methodology for determining the reliability of the intermediate heat exchanger of a sodium fast reactor. The example explores a variety of reliability data sources, and assesses their applicability for the PRA of interest through the use of the relevancy test.

  15. Methodological framework for ex-ante assessment of active policies on the labor market - experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2017-03-01

    The article presents a methodological framework for ex-ante assessment of active measures for the employment growth in the context of rural areas, on the bases of efficiency, effectiveness and coherence criteria. Ex-ante social impact assessment of an active policy can have beneficial effects on employment under quantitative and qualitative aspects. The novelty of the article consist in the specific, experimental approach of the development and of ex-ante evaluation of active labor market policies, in the context of rural areas.

  16. A methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply of entrepreneurial microcredit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Gavriel Ayayi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply for microcredit. We show that the total demand is a combination of the demand that stems from the active poor plus the demand generated by a motivator agent among the entrepreneurial non-motivated poor. We use French data to provide an illustration of the assessment of potential demand for microcredit. We also show that the proportion of the potential demand satisfied by a microfinance institution depends on its objective i.e. either it is socially oriented or a profit maximizer.

  17. A Methodological Approach to User Evaluation and Assessment of a Virtual Environment Hangout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in virtual reality and motion sensing devices is pushing the development of virtual communication platforms towards completely immersive scenarios, which require full user interaction and create complex sensory experiences. This evolution influences user experiences and creates new paradigms for interaction, leading to an increased importance of user evaluation and assessment on new systems interfaces and usability, to validate platform design and development from the users’ point of view. The REVERIE research project aims to develop a virtual environment service for realistic inter-personal interaction. This paper describes the design challenges faced during the development process of user interfaces and the adopted methodological approach to user evaluation and assessment.

  18. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodology for Thermal Behaviour Assessment of Homogeneous Façades in Heritage Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is fundamental to study the thermal behaviour in all architectural constructions throughout their useful life, in order to detect early deterioration ensuring durability, in addition to achieving and maintaining the interior comfort with the minimum energy consumption possible. This research has developed a methodology to assess the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings. This paper presents methodology validation and verification (V & V through a laboratory experiment. Guidelines and conclusions are extracted with the employment of three techniques in this experiment (thermal sensors, thermal imaging camera, and 3D thermal simulation in finite element software. A small portion of a homogeneous façade has been reproduced with indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. A closed chamber was constructed with wood panels and thermal insulation, leaving only one face exposed to the outside conditions, with a heat source inside the chamber that induces a temperature gradient in the wall. With this methodology, it is possible to better understand the thermal behaviour of the façade and to detect possible damage with the calibration and comparison of the results obtained by the experimental and theoretical techniques. This methodology can be extrapolated to the analysis of the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings, usually made up of homogeneous material.

  20. An Introduction to a Novel and Rapid nZEB Skill-Mapping and Qualification Framework Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cromwijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful design and construction processes aiming towards nearly zero energy building (nZEB standards are a challenge for the whole construction industry in Europe. Realizing nZEB buildings requires innovative design processes, and technologies based on an integrated design approach facilitated by multidisciplinary work teams. The collaboration between architects, engineers, technical experts and building managers, is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the specific involvement of each profession in order to develop mutual understanding of each others’ disciplines. Additionally, it is vital to provide professionals with the skills needed to achieve optimal nZEB construction and retrofitting in terms of quality, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness. However, this approach is not yet common, as the building sector is still very fragmented. The EU-funded H2020 project PROF/TRAC aims to tackle this issue by developing an Open Training Platform and a methodology for fast and valid co-creation of interdisciplinary qualification schemes for task-based Continuous Professional Development (CPD for all professions involved. A common methodology for the mapping of skills and qualifications in the form of an Excel tool was developed as a basis, together with a guidance document. This paper presents the skill-mapping methodology, the use of its results to develop national roadmaps, and the BUILD UP Skills advisor app.

  1. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  2. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of Cathare code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F.; Faydide, B. [CEA - Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology, status and plans for the development, assessment and uncertainty evaluation of the Cathare code. Cathare is a thermalhydraulic code developed by CEA (DRN), IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME for PWR safety analysis. First, the status of the code development and assessment is presented. The general strategy used for the development and the assessment of the code is presented. Analytical experiments with separate effect tests, and component tests are used for the development and the validation of closure laws. Successive Revisions of constitutive laws are implemented in successive Versions of the code and assessed. System tests or integral tests are used to validate the general consistency of the Revision. Each delivery of a code Version + Revision is fully assessed and documented. A methodology is being developed to determine the uncertainty on all constitutive laws of the code using calculations of many analytical tests and applying the Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Method (DASM). At last, the plans for the future developments of the code are presented. They concern the optimization of the code performance through parallel computing - the code will be used for real time full scope plant simulators - the coupling with many other codes (neutronic codes, severe accident codes), the application of the code for containment thermalhydraulics. Also, physical improvements are required in the field of low pressure transients and in the modeling for the 3-D model.

  3. sUAS for Rapid Pre-Storm Coastal Characterization and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, K. L.; Slocum, R. K.; Spore, N.

    2015-12-01

    Open coast beaches and surf-zones are dynamic three-dimensional environments that can evolve rapidly on the time-scale of hours in response to changing environmental conditions. Up-to-date knowledge about the pre-storm morphology of the coast can be instrumental in making accurate predictions about coastal change and damage during large storms like Hurricanes and Nor'Easters. For example, alongshore variations in the shape of ephemeral sandbars along the coastline can focus wave energy, subjecting different stretches of coastline to significantly higher waves. Variations in beach slope and width can also alter wave runup, causing higher wave-induced water levels which can cause overwash or inlet breaching. Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) offer a new capability to rapidly and inexpensively map vulnerable coastlines in advance of approaching storms. Here we present results from a prototype system that maps coastal topography and surf-zone morphology utilizing a multi-camera sensor. Structure-from-motion algorithms are used to generate topography and also constrain the trajectory of the sUAS. These data, in combination with mount boresight information, are used to rectify images from ocean-facing cameras. Images from all cameras are merged to generate a wide field of view allowing up to 5 minutes of continuous imagery time-series to be collected as the sUAS transits the coastline. Water imagery is then analyzed using wave-kinematics algorithms to provide information on surf-zone bathymetry. To assess this methodology, the absolute and relative accuracy of topographic data are evaluated in relation to simultaneously collected terrestrial lidar data. Ortho-rectification of water imagery is investigated using visible fixed targets installed in the surf-zone, and through comparison to stationary tower-based imagery. Future work will focus on evaluating how topographic and bathymetric data from this sUAS approach can be used to update forcing parameters in both

  4. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The systems of insulation and a methodology for assessing the durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiantcev Boris M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of effective insulation possible only taking into account features of the insulation layer in the construction and use of high quality materials, preserving their characteristics as in the early stages of operation, and for the entire billing period. The operational stability of the heat-insulating material is determined not only by its properties, but also the ability to withstand long-term operating loads without a significant change in properties. Processing load on the heater may be divided into three groups: the load during transportation and storage, loading and mounting load during operation. Methodology for assessing the properties of insulation products includes two main components: the installation for testing and test methods, as well as the methodology for assessing the operational stability. The methodology of the accelerated testing and forecasting durability tested for mineral wool products laminating, corrugating and volume-oriented structure. The test results give good agreement with the methods recommended by the building codes. Accelerated test plates on the compressibility and compressive strength at 10% deformation after exposure to boiling water over the useful spending for operational control properties of materials, as well as when examining the state of the exploited mineral wool insulation in buildings and heat piping

  6. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  7. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  8. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  9. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  10. Assessing the adequacy of workload measurement tools using a quality-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria Fuensanta Hellín; Montesinos, Maria José López; Llor, Ana Myriam Seva; Bas, Maria Pilar Ferrer; Soler, Maria Loreto Maciá

    2017-01-01

    determine which tool (NEMS and NAS) is most suitable for use in intensive care units using a quality-based methodology. after identifying the opportunity for improvement "Inadequacy of the NEMS for determining nursing workload in the intensive care unit (ICU)", we assessed the NEMS and the NAS, as a proposed improvement to the NEMS, using quality improvement cycles methodology based on the following criteria: measurement of daily nursing workload on a daily and shift basis; the tool encompasses all nursing activities undertaken in the ICU; and workload assessed per patient and unit. there was no significant difference in level of compliance for the NEMS (67%). The comparison NEMS-NAS showed that there was a statistically significant improvement for all criteria except criterion 1. The NEMS only assesses criterion 1 (64.22%); while the NAS assessed all four criteria, obtaining a compliance rate of 64.74% for criteria 1, 2, and 4, and 100% for criterion 3. the NAS is more suitable for measuring nursing workload in UCIs.

  11. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Katulskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence at the enterprise znanievyh resources determines its capacity for sustainable and competitive development. The set of knowledge, skills and abilities (which has operational and management personnel, including transformed in intangible and other assets are considered to be the intellectual capital of the enterprise. Empirically, the presence of the intellectual capital of the enterprise can be identified by its success in the market and the ability to generate a high value added product. However, scientific and methodological point of view, approaches to assessing intellectual capital are currently not standardized and do not provide an objective valuation of the capital.This paper presents an overview of the methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of companies and shows the problems of using these approaches in analytical procedures. Based on the materials conclusion about the necessity of further development of the intellectual capital evaluation methods enterprises it was made.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of basic methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of enterprises. Moreover, among the main tasks is to provide: an analysis of the most frequently used techniques in the Russian and international practice, assessment of intellectual capital.Methodology. The article is a content analysis of the theoretical and scientific-methodical positions, describing the key and the most frequently used Russian and international approaches to the evaluation of the intellectual capital of enterprises.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of this paper is to identify the main issues that arise in the evaluation of the intellectual capital of the enterprises, which determines the need for further scientific development and complement the currently used evaluation methods.

  12. Nondestructive Semistatic Testing Methodology for Assessing Fish Textural Characteristics via Closed-Form Mathematical Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimogianopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology based on semistatic nondestructive testing of fish for the analytical computation of its textural characteristics via closed-form mathematical expressions. The novelty is that, unlike alternatives, explicit values for both stiffness and viscoelastic textural attributes may be computed, even if fish of different size/weight are tested. Furthermore, the testing procedure may be adapted to the specifications (sampling rate and accuracy of the available equipment. The experimental testing involves a fish placed on the pan of a digital weigh scale, which is subsequently tested with a ramp-like load profile in a custom-made installation. The ramp slope is (to some extent adjustable according to the specification (sampling rate and accuracy of the equipment. The scale’s reaction to fish loading, namely, the reactive force, is collected throughout time and is shown to depend on the fish textural attributes according to a closed-form mathematical formula. The latter is subsequently used along with collected data in order to compute these attributes rapidly and effectively. Four whole raw sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of various sizes and textures were tested. Changes in texture, related to different viscoelastic characteristics among the four fish, were correctly detected and quantified using the proposed methodology.

  13. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  14. Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Jonathan M; Buman, Matthew P; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients survey (REAP) as a valid tool for analyzing eating behaviors of NCAA Division-I male and female athletes using pattern identification. Also, to investigate the relationships between derived eating behavior patterns and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) while stratifying by sex and aesthetic nature of the sport. Two independent samples of male (n = 86; n = 139) and female (n = 64; n = 102) collegiate athletes completed the REAP in June-August 2011 (n = 150) and June-August 2012 (n = 241). Principal component analysis (PCA) determined possible factors using wave-1 athletes. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined factors accounting for error and confirmed model fit in wave-2 athletes. Wave-2 athletes' BMI and WC were recorded during a physical exam and sport participation determined classification in aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport. Mean differences in eating behavior pattern score were explored. Regression models examined interactions between pattern scores, participation in aesthetic or non-aesthetic sport, and BMI and waist circumference controlling for age and race. A 5-factor PCA solution accounting for 60.3% of sample variance determined fourteen questions for EFA and CFA. A confirmed solution revealed patterns of Desserts, Healthy food, Meats, High-fat food, and Dairy. Pattern score (mean ± SE) differences were found, as non-aesthetic sport males had a higher (better) Dessert score than aesthetic sport males (2.16 ± 0.07 vs. 1.93 ± 0.11). Female aesthetic athletes had a higher score

  15. Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Jean-Pierre; Grinbaum, Alexei

    2005-03-01

    The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that it is, paradoxically, a matter of forming a project on the basis of a fixed future which one does not want, and this in a coordinated way at the level of social institutions. Ongoing assessment may be viewed as a prescription to live with uncertainty, in a particular sense of the term, in order for a future catastrophe not to occur. The assessment is necessarily normative in that it must include the anticipation of a retrospective ethical judgment on present choices (notion of moral luck). To cite this article: J.-P. Dupuy, A. Grinbaum, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  16. Risk assessment of cryogenic installations – implementation, applicability of methodologies and challenges at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    For the safe design of a cryogenic installation, it is essential to carry out a comprehensive hazard identification and risk estimate in order to put in place the necessary control measures for an adequate risk mitigation. According to CERN Safety Rules, it is mandatory that the organic unit owning a cryogenic facility conducts and documents a risk assessment. This requirement is also given by the European Directive 2014/68/EU to manufacturers of pressure equipment. During the talk, some of the challenges CERN faces in the development of risk assessments across the broad array of activities involving cryogenic equipment in the organization will be discussed. Challenges such as the choice of the best-suited risk assessment methodology based on the features and complexity of the installation/activities, the efforts to develop tools to facilitate hazard identification, risk analysis and definition of related measures to protect the health and safety of workers, such as streamlined guidelines, forms and check...

  17. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  18. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  19. A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-05-15

    The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas.

  20. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  1. A Methodology for Assessing the Sustainability of Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for assessing the sustainability of hydrogen production using solid fuels is introduced, in which three sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociological and technological are considered along with ten indicators for each dimension. Values for each indicator are assigned on a 10-point scale based on a high of 1 and a low of 0, depending on the characteristic of the criteria associated with each element or process, utilizing data reported in the literature. An illustrative example is presented to compare two solid fuels for hydrogen production: coal and biomass. The results suggest that qualitative sustainability indicators can be reasonably defined based on evaluations of system feasibility, and that adequate flexibility and comprehensiveness is provided through the use of ten indicators for each of the dimensions for every process or element involved in hydrogen production using solid fuels. Also, the assessment index values suggest that biomasses have better sustainability than coals, and that it may be advantageous to use coals in combination with biomass to increase their ecological and social sustainability. The sustainability assessment methodology can be made increasingly quantitative, and is likely extendable to other energy systems, but additional research and development is needed to lead to a more fully developed approach.

  2. [Methodological and operational notes for the assessment and management of the risk of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Francesco; Ratti, Elisabetta Ceppi

    2011-01-01

    Today the Italian national debate over the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology is rather heated. Several methodological proposals and guidelines have been published in recent months, not least those by the "Commissione Consultiva". But despite this wide range of proposals, it appears that there is still a lack of attention to some of the basic methodological issues that must be taken into account in order to correctly implement the above-mentioned guidelines. The aim of this paper is to outline these methodological issues. In order to achieve this, the most authoritative methodological proposals and guidelines have been reviewed. The study focuses in particular on the methodological issues that could lead to important biases if not considered properly. The study leads to some considerations about the methodological validity of a Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment based exclusively on the literal interpretation of the considered proposals. Furthermore, the study provides some hints and working hypotheses on how to overcome these methodological limits. This study should be considered as a starting point for further investigations and debate on the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology on a national level.

  3. A deviation based assessment methodology for multiple machine health patterns classification and fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Jin, Chao; Buzza, Matt; Di, Yuan; Siegel, David; Lee, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Successful applications of Diffusion Map (DM) in machine failure detection and diagnosis have been reported in several recent studies. DM provides an efficient way to visualize the high-dimensional, complex and nonlinear machine data, and thus suggests more knowledge about the machine under monitoring. In this paper, a DM based methodology named as DM-EVD is proposed for machine degradation assessment, abnormality detection and diagnosis in an online fashion. Several limitations and challenges of using DM for machine health monitoring have been analyzed and addressed. Based on the proposed DM-EVD, a deviation based methodology is then proposed to include more dimension reduction methods. In this work, the incorporation of Laplacian Eigen-map and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are explored, and the latter algorithm is named as PCA-Dev and is validated in the case study. To show the successful application of the proposed methodology, case studies from diverse fields are presented and investigated in this work. Improved results are reported by benchmarking with other machine learning algorithms.

  4. Assessing EEG sleep spindle propagation. Part 1: theory and proposed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-01-15

    A convergence of studies has revealed sleep spindles to be associated with sleep-related cognitive processing and even with fundamental waking state capacities such as intelligence. However, some spindle characteristics, such as propagation direction and delay, may play a decisive role but are only infrequently investigated because of technical complexities. A new methodology for assessing sleep spindle propagation over the human scalp using noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) is described. This approach is based on the alignment of time-frequency representations of spindle activity across recording channels. This first of a two-part series concentrates on framing theoretical considerations related to EEG spindle propagation and on detailing the methodology. A short example application is provided that illustrates the repeatability of results obtained with the new propagation measure in a sample of 32 night recordings. A more comprehensive experimental investigation is presented in part two of the series. Compared to existing methods, this approach is particularly well adapted for studying the propagation of sleep spindles because it estimates time delays rather than phase synchrony and it computes propagation properties for every individual spindle with windows adjusted to the specific spindle duration. The proposed methodology is effective in tracking the propagation of spindles across the scalp and may thus help in elucidating the temporal aspects of sleep spindle dynamics, as well as other transient EEG and MEG events. A software implementation (the Spyndle Python package) is provided as open source software. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia; Silvestre, José D.; Flores-Colen, Inês; Viegas, Cristina A.; de Brito, Jorge; Kurad, Rawaz; Demertzi, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Innovation in construction materials (CM) implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission) No. 1907/2006 (REACH—Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and Regulation (European Commission) No. 1272/2008 (CLP—Classification, Labelling and Packaging). Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability. PMID:28773011

  6. Assessment of radiotherapy photon beams: A practical and low cost methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C. Q. M.; Nicolucci, P.

    2017-02-01

    Dosimetric properties of radiation beams used in radiotherapy are directly related to the energy spectrum produced by the treatment unit. Therefore, the development of methodologies to evaluate in a simple and accurate way the spectra of clinical beams can help establishing the quality control of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to present a practical and low cost methodology for determining primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams from transmission measurements in attenuators of aluminum and using the method of the inverse Laplace transform. Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE code was used in order to evaluate and validate the reconstructed spectra by the calculation of dosimetric parameters that characterize the beam. Percentage depth dose values simulated with a 6 MV reconstructed spectrum shows maximum difference of 4.4% when compared to values measured at the corresponding clinical beam. For a 10 MV beam that difference was around 4.2%. Results obtained in this study confirm the adequacy of the proposed methodology for assessing primary photon beams produced by clinical accelerators.

  7. Developing the P2/6 methodology [to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ron; Strbac, Goran; Djapic, Predrag; Jarrett, Keith [Manchester Univ. Inst. of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-29

    The main objective of the project was to use the methodology developed in the previous Methodology project (ETSU/FES Project K/EL/00287) to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation in order to review Table 2 and related text of Engineering Recommendation P2/5, and to propose information and results that could be used to create a new P2/6 that takes into account modern types of generating units; unit numbers; unit availabilities; and capacities. Technical issues raised in the previous study but held over until this project include: Treatment of single unit generation systems; Effect of shape of load duration curves; Persistence of intermittent generation, T{sub m}; Time resolution of intermittent generation output profiles; Ride-through capability; Risk to loss of supply. Three main ways of implementing the methodology were recommended: Look-up table(s), Graphical, and Computer program. The specification for the computer program was to produce a simple spreadsheet application package that an engineer with a reasonably knowledge of the approach could use. This prototype package has been developed in conjunction with Workstream 3. Its objective is to calculate the capability contribution to security of supply from distributed generation connected to a particular demand group. The application has been developed using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. New Tables for inclusion in P2/6 are included. (UK)

  8. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in construction materials (CM implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission No. 1907/2006 (REACH—Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals and Regulation (European Commission No. 1272/2008 (CLP—Classification, Labelling and Packaging. Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability.

  9. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia; Silvestre, José D; Flores-Colen, Inês; Viegas, Cristina A; de Brito, Jorge; Kurad, Rawaz; Demertzi, Martha

    2017-06-13

    Innovation in construction materials (CM) implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission) No. 1907/2006 (REACH-Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and Regulation (European Commission) No. 1272/2008 (CLP-Classification, Labelling and Packaging). Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability.

  10. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  11. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Simulated Building Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report describes a methodology developed for assessing the performance of no touch building audit tools and presents results for an available tool. Building audits are conducted in many commercial buildings to reduce building energy costs and improve building operation. Because the audits typically require significant input obtained by building engineers, they are usually only affordable for larger commercial building owners. In an effort to help small building and business owners gain the benefits of an audit at a lower cost, no touch building audit tools have been developed to remotely analyze a building's energy consumption.

  12. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  13. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...

  14. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention

  15. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, William R; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2012-03-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occupational or environmental studies. Three commonly used DNA extraction methodologies (UltraClean Soil kit, High Pure PCR Template kit, and EluQuik/DNeasy kit) were compared in terms of sensitivity and susceptibility to PCR inhibitors in dust for three common fungal bioaerosols, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus microsporus and Wallemia sebi. Environmental dust samples were then studied using each extraction methodology and results were compared to viable culture data. The extraction methods differed in terms of their ability to efficiently extract DNA from particular species of fungi (e.g. Aspergillus versicolor). In addition, the ability to remove PCR inhibitors from dust samples was most effective using the soil DNA extraction kit. The species composition varied greatly between ITS clone libraries generated with the different DNA extraction kits. However, compared to viable culture data, ITS clone libraries included additional fungal species that are incapable of growth on solid culture medium. Collectively, our data indicated that DNA extraction methodologies used in ITS sequencing studies of occupational or environmental dust samples can greatly influence the fungal species that are detected. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives.

  17. Assessment of a generalizable methodology to assess learning from manikin-based simulation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Dominic A; McGregor, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study combined a learning outcomes-based checklist and salient characteristics derived from wisdom-of-crowds theory to test whether differing groups of judges (diversity maximized versus expertise maximized) would be able to appropriately assess videotaped, manikin-based simulation scenarios. Methods : Two groups of 3 judges scored 9 videos of interns managing a simulated cardiac event. The first group had a diverse range of knowledge of simulation procedures, while the second group was more homogeneous in their knowledge and had greater simulation expertise. All judges viewed 3 types of videos (predebriefing, postdebriefing, and 6 month follow-up) in a blinded fashion and provided their scores independently. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the reliability of judges as related to group membership. Scores from each group of judges were averaged to determine the impact of group on scores. Results : Results revealed strong ICCs for both groups of judges (diverse, 0.89; expert, 0.97), with the diverse group of judges having a much wider 95% confidence interval for the ICC. Analysis of variance of the average checklist scores indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups of judges for any of the types of videotapes assessed (F = 0.72, p = .4094). There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the types of videos (F = 14.39, p = .0004), with higher scores at the postdebrief and 6-month follow-up time periods. Conclusions : Results obtained in this study provide optimism for assessment procedures in simulation using learning outcomes-based checklists and a small panel of judges.

  18. Assessment of a generalizable methodology to assess learning from manikin-based simulation technology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Dominic A.; McGregor, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study combined a learning outcomes-based checklist and salient characteristics derived from wisdom-of-crowds theory to test whether differing groups of judges (diversity maximized versus expertise maximized) would be able to appropriately assess videotaped, manikin-based simulation scenarios. Methods Two groups of 3 judges scored 9 videos of interns managing a simulated cardiac event. The first group had a diverse range of knowledge of simulation procedures, while the second group was more homogeneous in their knowledge and had greater simulation expertise. All judges viewed 3 types of videos (predebriefing, postdebriefing, and 6 month follow-up) in a blinded fashion and provided their scores independently. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the reliability of judges as related to group membership. Scores from each group of judges were averaged to determine the impact of group on scores. Results Results revealed strong ICCs for both groups of judges (diverse, 0.89; expert, 0.97), with the diverse group of judges having a much wider 95% confidence interval for the ICC. Analysis of variance of the average checklist scores indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups of judges for any of the types of videotapes assessed (F = 0.72, p = .4094). There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the types of videos (F = 14.39, p = .0004), with higher scores at the postdebrief and 6-month follow-up time periods. Conclusions Results obtained in this study provide optimism for assessment procedures in simulation using learning outcomes-based checklists and a small panel of judges. PMID:24576004

  19. Assessment and selection of the best treatment alternative for infectious waste by modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ata; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Parmy, Saeid; Mahvi, Amirhosein; Yunesian, Masud; Khaefi, Mehran; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Improper treatment of infectious waste can cause numerous adverse environmental and health effects such as transmission of diseases through health personnel and other susceptible groups,who come in contact with such wastes. On the other hand, selection of appropriate treatment alternatives in infectious waste management has become a challenging task for public health authorities especially in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to select the best infectious waste treatment alternative by the modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (SAT) methodology, developed by the International Environmental Technology Center of the United Nations Environment Program (IETC-UNEP). SAT methodology consists of three main components, including screening, scoping and detailed assessment. In screening, different infectious waste treatment alternatives undergo screening using the finalized environmental and technical criteria. Short-listed treatment options from the previous step, then go through the comprehensive scoping and detailed assessment (2nd and 3rd components) which is more qualitative and quantitative in nature. An empirical case in Tehran, the largest city in Iran, is provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed methodology. According to the final score, "Hydroclave", was the most suitable infectious treatment technology. The ranking order of the treatment alternatives were "Autoclave with a shredder", "Autoclave", "Central Incineration" and "chemical treatment" on the basis of technical, economical, social and environmental aspects and their related criteria. According to the results it could be concluded that the top ranking technologies basically have higher scores in all the aspects. Hence it is easier to arrive at a decision for the final technology selection based on the principles of sustainability.

  20. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  1. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 3: how to assess methodological limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe-Kaas, Heather; Bohren, Meghan A; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Noyes, Jane; Tunçalp, Özge; Booth, Andrew; Garside, Ruth; Colvin, Christopher J; Wainwright, Megan; Rashidian, Arash; Flottorp, Signe; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on CERQual's methodological limitations component. We developed the methodological limitations component by searching the literature for definitions, gathering feedback from relevant research communities and developing consensus through project group meetings. We tested the CERQual methodological limitations component within several qualitative evidence syntheses before agreeing on the current definition and principles for application. When applying CERQual, we define methodological limitations as the extent to which there are concerns about the design or conduct of the primary studies that contributed evidence to an individual review finding. In this paper, we describe the methodological limitations component and its rationale and offer guidance on how to assess methodological limitations of a review finding as part of the CERQual approach. This guidance outlines the information required to assess methodological limitations component, the steps that need to be taken to assess methodological limitations of data contributing to a review finding and examples of methodological limitation assessments. This paper provides guidance for review authors and others on undertaking an assessment of methodological limitations in the context of the CERQual

  2. Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Agribusiness Activity Based on the Environmentally Responsible Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonovna Anfinogentova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research and development of quality evaluation methods of agro-industrial enterprises activity in the regional economy with the use of the ecological approach. The hypothesis of the study is that the activity of the economic entities (as well as of agribusiness must be assessed not only in the context of economic efficiency and effectiveness, but also in the context of environmental ethics and environmental aggression. As the initial data, we have used the indicators of economic statistics of Russian agrarian-oriented regions, as well as the data received from management reporting on the sample of enterprises of three regions (the Belgorod and Moscow regions, Krasnodar Territory. The article offers the economic and mathematical approach for measuring the level of the environmental responsibility of agro-industrial enterprises on the basic formula of the Mandelbrot set and statistical indicator of Hurst. Our scientific contribution is the development of a modified methodology for assessing the quality of the activity of agro-industrial enterprises using the parameter characterizing the level of environmental ethics and environmental aggression of these entities. The main result of the study is the approbation of the method, which has shown its practical applicability and relative coherence with certain indicators of regional ecological statistics. The proposed method is characterized by the integration of the different mathematical approaches and as an adaptive assessment tool that can be used to assess the quality of the activity of both agro-industrial enterprises and enterprises of other industries and fields of the economy. In the further works, the authors plan to develop methodological approaches to the assessment of the quality of agro-industrial products. At the same time, the main attention will be paid to the ecological and social component of the quality.

  3. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio, E-mail: julio.bastos@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz, Jose, E-mail: josemaria.munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Stenbock-Fermor, Anja, E-mail: stenbock@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Muñoz, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muraviev, Dmitri N., E-mail: Dimitri.Muraviev@uab.es [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.cespedes@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Tsarkova, Larisa A., E-mail: tsarkova@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Baeza, Mireia, E-mail: MariaDelMar.Baeza@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  4. Specification of Energy Assessment Methodologies to Satisfy ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Harish

    Energy management has become more crucial for industrial sector as a way to lower their cost of production and in reducing their carbon footprint. Environmental regulations also force the industrial sector to increase the efficiency of their energy usage. Hence industrial sector started relying on energy management consultancies for improvements in energy efficiency. With the development of ISO 50001 standard, the entire energy management took a new dimension involving top level management and getting their commitment on energy efficiency. One of the key requirements of ISO 50001 is to demonstrate continual improvement in their (industry) energy efficiency. The major aim of this work is to develop an energy assessment methodology and reporting format to tailor the needs of ISO 50001. The developed methodology integrates the energy reduction aspect of an energy assessment with the requirements of sections 4.4.3 (Energy Review) to 4.4.6 (Objectives, Targets and Action Plans) in ISO 50001 and thus helping the facilities in easy implementation of ISO 50001.

  5. Methodology to account for uncertainties and tradeoffs in pharmaceutical environmental hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2012-05-15

    Many pharmaceutical products find their way into receiving waters, giving rise to concerns regarding their environmental impact. A procedure was proposed that enables ranking of the hazard to aquatic species and human health due to such products. In the procedure, hazard assessment is based on five of the pharmaceutical product's individual physico-chemical properties. These properties are aggregated using the weighted Euclidian distance as the utility function. The weights and physico-chemical properties are considered as random variables. Physico-chemical property uncertainty criteria are obtained from a literature review. Weight uncertainty is based on a hazard ranking from a panel of experts, the histogram of which is converted into a continuous probability density function using statistical Kernel smoothing technique. The hazard-ranking procedure was applied to a list of common pharmaceuticals used in Switzerland. The procedure is target-specific. Two rankings were presented: One giving priority to environmental protection and the other to human health. For most substances, the hazard rank depends on the target. For the Swiss case study, the ranking procedure led to the conclusion that the hormones ethinylestradiol and testosterone, along with the antibiotic erythromycin A, should be in all cases included in risk-assessment methodologies, environmental concentration estimates and regular measurement campaigns. The methodology proposed is flexible and can be extrapolated to other substances and groups of experts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A multi-methodological evaluation approach for assessing the impact of neighbourhood quality on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppio, Alessandra; Bottero, Marta; Giordano, Giulio; Arcidiacono, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a growing interest for urban neighbourhood health effects, the purpose of this paper is to suggest a multi-methodological approach for providing a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of open spaces under the urban design perspective. Despite the growing body of research and empirical evidence about the relationship among quality of built environment and public health, there is still a lack of studies on urban quality assessment. This paper brings forward a multi-methodological approach for assessing the quality of open spaces by the assignment of a composite score. The study combines Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) with the aim of proposing urban quality maps. Open spaces, including green and walkable areas, streets and squares are evaluated with respect to the following attributes: accessibility, liveability, vitality, and identity. The urban quality maps provide a robust basis to run different kind of analysis and to support cross-sectorial policies towards the improvement of public health.

  7. A Methodology for Assessing Islanding of Microgrids: Between Utility Dependence and Off-Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Colmenar-Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for assessing islanding microgrids from the economical and functional perspective, for various stakeholders. The paper proposes the triggers for competitive deployment of microgeneration, storage, microgrid islanding, the market conditions that apply, and discusses the future tendencies and the policy recommendations to foster microgrid benefits. The validation of the proposed scheme is based on real market cases, where the triggers for autogeneration and islanding microgrids are present. Additionally, the new concept of grid independence cycle is presented and analyzed. The policy implications of a situation where grid consumption reduction leads to higher energy prices are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of prioritized technical and regulatory recommendations, proposed as a result of the assessment.

  8. Do farmers need relief seed? A methodology for assessing seed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Catherine; Dominguez, Carlos; Saide, Momade A; Leonardo, Wilson José

    2002-12-01

    This article outlines a methodology to help agencies better determine whether or not relief seed is needed by farmers affected by disaster. A brief review of current seed needs assessment procedures in southern Somalia and Mozambique illustrates problems of knowing which crops and households are affected, the importance of seed access (not just availability) and the need to plan interventions earlier than at present. The development of a Seed Systems Profile (SSP) is proposed to understand better both the socio-economic and agro-ecological aspects of farmers' seed systems. A five-step framework for assessing seed systems in disaster situations is also presented. These tools are currently being tested and further refined in Mozambique. A better understanding of farmers' seed systems will allow for the development of relief and rehabilitation interventions that effectively enhance the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of these systems.

  9. Assessment of women's perspectives and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care using Q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, N P; Ahmed, H M; Yasin, M Y

    2015-10-02

    To complement standard measures of maternity care outcomes, an assessment of women's satisfaction with care is needed. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives and experiences of Iraqi women about childbirth and postnatal care services. The study participants were a sample of 37 women of different educational and socioeconomic status who had given birth during the previous 6 months. Q-methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Three distinct viewpoints and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care services were identified: a general perception of poor childbirth and postnatal care with lack of appropriate interpersonal care and support; a high satisfaction and positive experience with childbirth and postnatal care services among the confident and well-supported women; and poor satisfaction with the childbirth and postnatal care services in terms of meeting traditional cultural practices. Needs assessment around providers' skills and attitudes and the wider sociocultural environment of childbirth and postnatal care is necessary in Iraq.

  10. Social Life Cycle Assessment as a Management Tool: Methodology for Application in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As is widely known, sustainability is an important factor in competition, increasing the added value of a company in terms of image and credibility. However, it is important that sustainability assessments are effectively addressed in a global perspective. Therefore, life cycle tools are adopted to evaluate environmental and social impacts. Among these, and of particular significance, appears the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA, which, although in its early stage of development, seems to have extremely promising methodological features. For this reason, it seemed interesting to propose a first application to the tourism sector, which could be better than other methods, studied in terms of social sustainability data. The particular characteristics of service delivery lend themselves more to the development of data related to social sustainability than other sectors. In this paper the results of a case study carried out using social accounting and business management tools are shown.

  11. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    Several articles within the area of green chemistry often promote new techniques or products as ‘green’ or ‘more environmentally benign’ than their conventional counterpart although these articles often do not quantitatively assess the environmental performance. In order to do this, life cycle...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals......, for example eutrophication and the use of land.To assess the environmental performance of green chemicals, quantitative methods are needed. For this purpose, both simple metrics and more comprehensive methods have been developed, one recognised method being LCA. However, this method is often too time...

  12. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Soldatini

    Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  13. The Self Diagnosis Method. A new methodology to assess environmental management in sea ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Ronza, A; Casal, J; Stojanovic, T A; Wooldridge, C

    2004-03-01

    A methodology has been designed to assess the performance of the environmental management in sea ports. The Self Diagnosis Method, developed by two research teams and about sixty sea ports, allows the comparison of the current environmental situation with that corresponding to previous years and the assessment of the opportunities for improvement. The main objective is to review the management activities and procedures that affect the environment and the way the port authority handles significant environmental aspects. It has been designed as a "first level" tool: it can be applied in approximately six hours by a non-expert user. It is based on the ISO 14001 vocabulary, requirements and structure, and it can be considered as a first step in the voluntary implementation of an environmental management system for port communities.

  14. A Rapid Assessment Tool for affirming good practice in midwifery education programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Judith T; Johnson, Peter; Lobe, Erika; Myint, Khine Haymar; Aung, Nan Nan; Moe, Thida; Linn, Nay Aung

    2016-03-01

    to design a criterion-referenced assessment tool that could be used globally in a rapid assessment of good practices and bottlenecks in midwifery education programs. a standard tool development process was followed, to generate standards and reference criteria; followed by external review and field testing to document psychometric properties. review of standards and scoring criteria were conducted by stakeholders around the globe. Field testing of the tool was conducted in Myanmar. eleven of Myanmar׳s 22 midwifery education programs participated in the assessment. the clinimetric tool was demonstrated to have content validity and high inter-rater reliability in use. a globally validated tool, and accompanying user guide and handbook are now available for conducting rapid assessments of compliance with good practice criteria in midwifery education programming. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Fire Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review of the Methodology and Functional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Moshashaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a physical and social phenomenon that affects both individuals and the environment. Fire risk assessment is a critical part of a fire prevention program. In this process, the fire risk associated with the possibility of occurrence and severity of damage resulting from the fire is estimated and calculated. In this paper, a classification scheme and a systematic literature review are presented in order to classify and interpret the current researches on fire risk assessment methodologies and applications. Based on the scheme, 93 scholarly papers from 13 journals are categorized into application areas and other categories. The application areas include the papers on the topics of environmental impact, production and industry, transportation, buildings, power industry, oil and gas industry, urban fires and other topics. Scholarly papers are also classified by (1 year of publication, (2 journal of publication, (3 year of publication and application areas and (4 authors’ nationality. The survey results show that the largest number of papers was published during the period 2010-2012 with 31 (33.33%, the most of the studies have been carried out on environmental impact (47.31%, the journal of Forest Ecology and Management had the highest percentage of articles with 26.88%. It is hoped that the paper can meet the needs of researchers for easy references of fire risk assessment methodologies and applications. Therefore, this work would be able to provide useful insights into the anatomy of the fire-risk assessment methods, and suggest academic researchers and experts a framework for future attempts and researches.

  16. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for th...

  17. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of different methodologies for assessing wind farm performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.-D.; Fotsing, I. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Germanischer Lloyd (GL) undertakes wind farm performance assessment in order to provide periodic independent reporting to wind farm operators, owners and insurers. The company also updates long-term budgeted energy yield with reduced uncertainty during mergers and acquisitions or project refinancing; targets end-of-warranty or periodic inspections; fine-tunes forecasting tools; and provides feedback on wind flow and wind farm models. This presentation discussed the advantages and disadvantages of different methodologies for assessing wind farm performance. A corporate overview of GL, renewables group was first presented, followed by a discussion on wind farm performance assessment. Turbine condition and health monitoring were addressed and performance assessment objectives were identified. Methods to calculate expected power were also presented along with a performance assessment example. Turbine model input options include permanent meteorological mast; nacelle anemometry; and power output of neighbouring representative wind turbines. It was concluded that using wind flow and wake models is not precise enough for short time scales and should only be used to validate pre-construction models. figs.

  19. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to continue research. 14. SUBJECT TERMS systems engineering, model based systems engineering, fuel consumption , close air support, ground combat...distribution is unlimited A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION by Team...SUBTITLE A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR

  20. Rapid Evidence Assessments of Research to Inform Social Policy: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Newman, Mark; Oliver, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    There is a tension between conducting comprehensive systematic reviews and completing them in time to meet policy-making deadlines. The "rapid evidence assessment" has been proposed as a solution to this; offering rigorous reviews in a condensed timescale. While used frequently in healthcare, this mode of reviewing presents considerable…

  1. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a ...

  2. The quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of rapid HIV testing in South Africa. Method: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select HCT sites in eight provinces of South Africa. The study employed both semi-structured interviews with HIV testers and observation of testing sessions as a means of ...

  3. Rapid Geriatric Assessment: Secondary Prevention to Stop Age-Associated Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2017-08-01

    The Rapid Geriatric Assessment (RGA) measures frailty, sarcopenia, anorexia, cognition, and advanced directives. The RGA is a screen for primary care physicians to be able to detect geriatric syndromes. Early intervention when geriatric syndromes are recognized can decrease disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid assessment of wildfire damage using Forest Inventory data: A case in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Harper; John W. Coulsten; Jeffery A. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters is essential for planning the appropriate amount of disaster relief funds and public communication. Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data provided initial estimates of damage to timberland in a timely manner to State leaders during the 2007 Georgia Bay Complex Wildfire in southeast Georgia. FIA plots...

  5. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  6. A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.

  7. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  8. A Methodology for Texture Feature-based Quality Assessment in Nucleus Segmentation of Histopathology Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Si; Kurc, Tahsin M; Gao, Yi; Zhao, Tianhao; Saltz, Joel H; Zhu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation pipelines often are sensitive to algorithm input parameters. Algorithm parameters optimized for a set of images do not necessarily produce good-quality-segmentation results for other images. Even within an image, some regions may not be well segmented due to a number of factors, including multiple pieces of tissue with distinct characteristics, differences in staining of the tissue, normal versus tumor regions, and tumor heterogeneity. Evaluation of quality of segmentation results is an important step in image analysis. It is very labor intensive to do quality assessment manually with large image datasets because a whole-slide tissue image may have hundreds of thousands of nuclei. Semi-automatic mechanisms are needed to assist researchers and application developers to detect image regions with bad segmentations efficiently. Our goal is to develop and evaluate a machine-learning-based semi-automated workflow to assess quality of nucleus segmentation results in a large set of whole-slide tissue images. We propose a quality control methodology, in which machine-learning algorithms are trained with image intensity and texture features to produce a classification model. This model is applied to image patches in a whole-slide tissue image to predict the quality of nucleus segmentation in each patch. The training step of our methodology involves the selection and labeling of regions by a pathologist in a set of images to create the training dataset. The image regions are partitioned into patches. A set of intensity and texture features is computed for each patch. A classifier is trained with the features and the labels assigned by the pathologist. At the end of this process, a classification model is generated. The classification step applies the classification model to unlabeled test images. Each test image is partitioned into patches. The classification model is applied to each patch to predict the patch's label. The proposed methodology has been

  9. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot

  10. St. John, USVI benthic habitat assessment and monitoring data (2001 - Present) using Rapid Habitat Assessment (RHA) survey methodology: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  11. Structural integrity assessments of steam generator tubes using the FAD methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, Marcos A., E-mail: marcos.bergant@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia CAREM, Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Yawny, Alejandro A., E-mail: yawny@cab.cnea.gov.ar [División Física de Metales, Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA)/CONICET, Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Perez Ipiña, Juan E., E-mail: juan.perezipina@fain.uncoma.edu.ar [Grupo Mecánica de Fractura, Universidad Nacional del Comahue/CONICET, Buenos Aires 1400, Neuquén 8300 (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) is used to assess cracked steam generator tubes. • Typical loading conditions and reported tensile and fracture properties are used. • The FAD is capable to predict the failure mode for different cracks and loads. • The FAD can be used to reduce the conservatism of the current plugging criteria. • Appropriate tensile and fracture properties at operating conditions are required. - Abstract: Steam generator tubes (SGTs) represents up to 60% of the total primary pressure retaining boundary area of a nuclear power plant. They have been found susceptible to diverse degradation mechanisms during service. Due to the significance of a SGT failure on the plant safe operation, nuclear regulatory authorities have established tube plugging or repairing criteria which are based on the defect depth. The widespreadly used “40% criterion” proposed in the 70s is an example whose use is still recommended in the last editions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In the present work, an alternative, more realistic and less conservative methodology for SGT integrity evaluation is proposed. It is based on the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) and takes advantage of the recent developments in non-destructive techniques which allow a more comprehensive characterization of tube defects, i.e., depth, length, orientation and type. The proposed approach has been applied to: the study of the influence of primary and secondary stresses on tube integrity; the prediction of failure mode (i.e., ductile fracture or plastic collapse) of defective SGTs for varied crack geometries and loading conditions; the analysis of the sensibility of tensile and fracture properties with temperature. The potentiality of the FAD as a comprehensive methodology for predicting the failure loads and failure modes of flawed SGTs is highlighted.

  12. Methodology for Assessing the Work of Small Business at the Municipal Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evgen’evich Kremin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable socio-economic development in a municipality, its local authorities face the task of establishing an industrial and financial base on their territory, it will help increase its level of economic independence. On the basis of foreign experience and domestic research on territorial development it can be concluded that one of the most effective ways to enhance the level of socio-economic development of the municipality is to boost its small business. Effective management of this economic sector requires adequate assessment of its functioning at the municipal level. The analysis of existing methodologies for assessing the functioning of small business at the municipal level shows that none of them meets the criteria that the author of the present paper has selected and that are necessary for efficient research into the small business sector. In this regard, a methodology for estimating the work of small business at the municipal level was elaborated, and tested on the statistic data of municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast. The study reveals municipalities with the highest and lowest levels of small business development. In addition, municipalities were grouped in three blocks that represent different characteristics of their functioning. Taking into account the problems of business subjects, the study has developed measures to increase the level of development for each group of municipalities. Implementing these activities will help intensify the work of the sector of the economy under consideration, and increase the economic independence of territorial formations in the region. The paper can be used to assess the effectiveness of activities aimed to support small business in the region and to help regional and municipal authorities to work out a strategy for further development of this economic sector

  13. Methodology for risk assessment and reliability applied for pipeline engineering design and industrial valves operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Dierci [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgia. Lab. de Sistemas de Producao e Petroleo e Gas], e-mail: dsilveira@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Batista, Fabiano [CICERO, Rio das Ostras, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Two kinds of situations may be distinguished for estimating the operating reliability when maneuvering industrial valves and the probability of undesired events in pipelines and industrial plants: situations in which the risk is identified in repetitive cycles of operations and situations in which there is a permanent hazard due to project configurations introduced by decisions during the engineering design definition stage. The estimation of reliability based on the influence of design options requires the choice of a numerical index, which may include a composite of human operating parameters based on biomechanics and ergonomics data. We first consider the design conditions under which the plant or pipeline operator reliability concepts can be applied when operating industrial valves, and then describe in details the ergonomics and biomechanics risks that would lend itself to engineering design database development and human reliability modeling and assessment. This engineering design database development and reliability modeling is based on a group of engineering design and biomechanics parameters likely to lead to over-exertion forces and working postures, which are themselves associated with the functioning of a particular plant or pipeline. This approach to construct based on ergonomics and biomechanics for a more common industrial valve positioning in the plant layout is proposed through the development of a methodology to assess physical efforts and operator reach, combining various elementary operations situations. These procedures can be combined with the genetic algorithm modeling and four elements of the man-machine systems: the individual, the task, the machinery and the environment. The proposed methodology should be viewed not as competing to traditional reliability and risk assessment bur rather as complementary, since it provides parameters related to physical efforts values for valves operation and workspace design and usability. (author)

  14. Survey of methodologies for developing media screening values for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Wharton, Steven R

    2005-11-01

    This review evaluates the methodologies of 13 screening value (SV) compilations that have been commonly used in ecological risk assessment (ERA), including compilations from state and U.S. federal agencies, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Canada, The Netherlands, and Australia. The majority of surfacewater SVs were primarily derived for the protection of aquatic organisms using 2 approaches: (1) a statistical assessment of toxicity values by species groupings, such as "ambient water quality criteria," or (2) extrapolation of a lowest observed adverse effect level determined from limited toxicity data using an uncertainty factor. Sediment SVs were primarily derived for the protection of benthic invertebrates using 2 approaches: (1) statistical interpretations of databases on the incidence of biological effects and chemical concentrations in sediment, or (2) values derived from equilibrium partitioning based on a surfacewater SV. Soil SVs were derived using a diversity of approaches and were usually based on the lowest value determined from soil toxicity to terrestrial plants or invertebrates and, less frequently, from modeled, incidental soil ingestion or chemical accumulation in terrestrial organisms. The various SV compilations and methodologies had varying levels of conservatism and were not consistent in the pathways and receptors considered in the SV derivation. Many SVs were derived from other compilations and were based on outdated values, or they relied on only older toxicity data. Risk assessors involved in ERA should carefully evaluate the technical basis of SVs and consider the uncertainty in any value used to determine the presence or absence of risk and the need for further assessment.

  15. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  16. Direct potable reuse microbial risk assessment methodology: Sensitivity analysis and application to State log credit allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E; Nappier, Sharon P

    2018-01-01

    Understanding pathogen risks is a critically important consideration in the design of water treatment, particularly for potable reuse projects. As an extension to our published microbial risk assessment methodology to estimate infection risks associated with Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) treatment train unit process combinations, herein, we (1) provide an updated compilation of pathogen density data in raw wastewater and dose-response models; (2) conduct a series of sensitivity analyses to consider potential risk implications using updated data; (3) evaluate the risks associated with log credit allocations in the United States; and (4) identify reference pathogen reductions needed to consistently meet currently applied benchmark risk levels. Sensitivity analyses illustrated changes in cumulative annual risks estimates, the significance of which depends on the pathogen group driving the risk for a given treatment train. For example, updates to norovirus (NoV) raw wastewater values and use of a NoV dose-response approach, capturing the full range of uncertainty, increased risks associated with one of the treatment trains evaluated, but not the other. Additionally, compared to traditional log-credit allocation approaches, our results indicate that the risk methodology provides more nuanced information about how consistently public health benchmarks are achieved. Our results indicate that viruses need to be reduced by 14 logs or more to consistently achieve currently applied benchmark levels of protection associated with DPR. The refined methodology, updated model inputs, and log credit allocation comparisons will be useful to regulators considering DPR projects and design engineers as they consider which unit treatment processes should be employed for particular projects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. UPC Scaling-up methodology for Deterministic Safety Assessment and Support to Plant Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Quiroga, V.; Reventós, F.; Batet, Il.

    2015-07-01

    Best Estimate codes along with necessary nodalizations are widely used tools in nuclear engineering for both Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) and Support to Plant Operation and Control. In this framework, the application of quality assurance procedures in both codes and nodalizations becomes an essential step prior any significant study. Along these lines the present paper introduces the UPC SCUP, a systematic methodology based on the extrapolation of the Integral Test Facilities (ITF) post-test simulations by means of scaling analyses. In that sense, SCUP fulfills a gap in current nodalization qualification procedures, the related with the validation of NPP nodalizations for Design Basis Accidents conditions. Three are the pillars that support SCUP: judicial selection of the experimental transients, full confidence in the quality of the ITF simulations, and simplicity in justifying discrepancies that appear between ITF and NPP counterpart transients. The techniques that are presented include the socalled Kv scaled calculations as well as the use of two new approaches, ”Hybrid nodalizations” and ”Scaled-up nodalizations”. These last two methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The study of both LSTF and PKL counterpart tests have allowed to qualify the methodology by the comparison with experimental data. Post-test simulations at different sizes allowed to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by system codes and which not, in this way also establishing the basis for the extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. Furthermore, the application of the UPC SCUP methodology demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design. (Author)

  18. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment.Patients and methods: We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation.Results: We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups.Conclusion: The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor

  19. Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methodology to reduce feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia: before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, Carol; Clark, Elizabeth

    2004-08-28

    Despite lack of evidence that enteral feeding tubes benefit patients with dementia, and often contrary to the wishes of patient and family, patients with dementia who have difficulty swallowing or reduced food intake often receive feeding tubes when hospitalised for an acute illness. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes between March and September 2002. QI interventions including a palliative care consulting service and educational programmes were instituted. We conducted a second chart review for all patients receiving feeding tubes between March and September 2003. 652 bed urban acute care hospital. We measured the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia, the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia capable of taking food by mouth, and the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia with an advance directive stating the wish to forgo artificial nutrition and hydration. Medical and allied health staff received educational programmes on end of life care and on feeding management of patients with dementia. A palliative care consulting team was established. After the interventions, the number of feeding tubes placed in all patients and in patients with dementia was greatly reduced. Multidisciplinary involvement, including participation by the administration, was essential to effect change in practice. The intensive focus on a particular issue and rapid change led to "culture shift" within the hospital community. The need to establish unified goals of care for each patient was highlighted. A growing body of research over the past decade has questioned the utility of placing feeding tubes (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or jejunostomy) in patients with advanced dementia. Studies have found no evidence that feeding tubes in this population prevent aspiration, prolong life, improve overall function, or reduce pressure sores

  20. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment.

  1. The landscape of systematic reviews in urology (1998 to 2015): an assessment of methodological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Julia L; Gandhi, Shreyas; Bockoven, Crystal G; Narayan, Vikram M; Dahm, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    To assess the quality of published systematic reviews in the urology literature (an extension of our previously reported work), as high-quality systematic reviews play a paramount role in informing evidence-based clinical practice. Our focus was on systematic reviews in the urology literature that incorporated questions of prevention and therapy. To identify such reviews published during a 36-month period (2013-2015), we systematically searched PubMed and hand-searched the table of contents of four major urology journals. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of those reviews, using the 11-point 'Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews' (AMSTAR) instrument. We performed protocol-driven analyses of the data from our present study's 36-month period alone, as well as in aggregate with the data from our previously reported work's study periods (2009-2012 and 1998-2008). In our literature search of the 36-month period (2013-2015), we initially identified 490 possibly relevant reviews, of which 125 met our inclusion criteria. The most common topic of reviews for the 2013-2015 period was oncology (51.2%; n = 64), followed by voiding dysfunction (21.6%; n = 27). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] AMSTAR score in the 2013-2015 period (n = 125) was 4.8 (2.4); 2009-2012 (n = 113), 5.4 (2.3); and 1998-2008 (n = 57), 4.8 (2.0) (P = 0.127). In the 2013-2015 period, the mean (SD) AMSTAR score for the BJU International (n = 25) was 5.6 (2.9); for The Journal of Urology (n = 20), 5.1 (2.6); for European Urology (n = 60), 4.5 (2.2); and for Urology (n = 20), 4.4 (2.2) (P = 0.106). The number of systematic reviews published in the urology literature has exponentially increased, year by year, but their methodological quality has stagnated. To enhance the validity and impact of systematic reviews, all authors and editors must apply established methodological standards. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley

  2. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  3. A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grezio Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA, in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.. In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis and we demonstrate how the triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in short-term analysis of the tsunami hazard. In two target sites (the city of Naples and the island of Ischia in Italy we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA methodology in the multi—source case considering near submarine seismic sources and submarine mass failures in the study area. The TotPTHA indicated that the tsunami hazard increases significantly by considering both the potential submarine mass failures and the submarine seismic events. Finally, the importance of the source interactions is evaluated by applying a triggering seismic event that causes relevant changes in the short-term TotPTHA.

  4. Novel methodology for assessing biomaterial-biofluid interaction in cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Francis, Antony; Widmer Soyka, René P; Ferguson, Stephen J; Hall, Richard M; Kapur, Nikil

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the cement flow behaviour and accurately predicting the cement placement within the vertebral body is extremely challenging. Vertebral cancellous bone displays highly complex geometrical structures and architectural inhomogeneities over a range of length scales, thus making the scientific understanding of the cement injection behaviour difficult in clinical or cadaveric studies. Previous experimental studies on cement flow have used open-porous aluminum foam to represent osteoporotic bone. Although the porosity was well controlled, the geometrical structure of each of the foams was inherently unique. This paper presents novel methodology using customized, reproducible and pathologically representative three-dimensional bone surrogates to help study biomaterial--biofluid interaction. The aim was to provide a robust tool for comprehensive assessment of biomaterial injection behaviour through controlling the bone surrogate morphology and the injection parameters (i.e. needle gauge, needle placement, flow rate and injected volume), measuring the injection pressure, and allowing the visualization and quantitative analysis of the spreading distribution. This methodology provides a clinically relevant representation of cement flow patterns and a tool for validating computational simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  6. Comparative assessment of CFD Tools and the Eurocode Methodology in describing Externally Venting Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asimakopoulou Eleni K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of currently available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tools to adequately describe Externally Venting Flames (EVF is assessed, aiming to demonstrate compliance with performance-based fire safety regulations. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS CFD tool is used to simulate the EVF characteristics in a corridor-compartment-façade configuration exposed to natural fire conditions. Numerical results of the temporal evolution of gas velocity, gas temperatures and flame shape are obtained for both the interior and the exterior of the compartment. Predictions are compared to respective experimental data, as well as to correlations suggested by the Eurocode methodology. The effects of ventilation conditions are investigated by simulating both Forced Draught (FD and No Forced Draught (NoFD test cases. The obtained results suggest that currently available CFD tools are capable of achieving good qualitative agreement with experimental data and, in certain cases (e.g. FD conditions, adequate quantitative agreement, that generally outperforms the Eurocode prescriptive methodology.

  7. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating a methodology for assessing the strategic alignment of a mining company recruitment function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelé Janse van Rensburg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the human capital era, the strategic importance of measurement is unmistakable.  Therefore, the  objective  of  this  study  was  to  qualitatively  evaluate  a  methodology  for  assessing  the strategic alignment of a recruitment function. Persons working in the recruitment best practice community of a mining company were targeted as the case study for this research.  Individual (one-on-one and focus group interviews were conducted to elicit the research data.  Thematic coding was used to identify the emerging themes from the research data.  The findings indicated that  this methodology can be used effectively  to determine  the alignment of  the  recruitment function with the strategic objectives of the company.  However, the bottom line contribution is still unclear.

  9. A New Collaborative Methodology for Assessment and Management of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Segura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative management is a new framework to help implement programmes in protected areas. Within this context, the aim of this work is twofold. First, to propose a robust methodology to implement collaborative management focused on ecosystem services. Second, to develop indicators for the main functions of ecosystem services. Decision makers, technical staff and other stakeholders are included in the process from the beginning, by identifying ecosystem services and eliciting preferences using the AHP method. Qualitative and quantitative data are then integrated into a PROMETHEE based method in order to obtain indicators for provisioning, maintenance and direct to citizens services. This methodology, which has been applied in a forest area, provides a tool for exploiting available technical and social data in a continuous process, as well as providing easy to understand graphical results. This approach also overcomes the difficulties found in prioritizing management objectives in a multiple criteria context with limited resources and facilitates consensus between all of the people involved. The new indicators define an innovative approach to assessing the ecosystem services from the supply perspective and provide basic information to help establish payment systems for environmental services and compensation for natural disasters.

  10. Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by

  11. Rapid methodology via mass spectrometry to quantify addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil: A comparison with traditional methods adopted by food industry to identify fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Roberta; Vágula, Julianna Matias; de Lima Figueiredo, Ingrid; Claus, Thiago; Galuch, Marilia Bellanda; Santos Junior, Oscar Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2017-12-01

    Fast and innovative methodology to monitors the addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil was developed employing ESI-MS with ionization operating in positive mode. A certified extra virgin olive oil and refined soybean oil samples were analyzed by direct infusion, the identification of a natural lipid marker present only in soybean oil (m/z 886.68 [TAG+NH4]+) was possible. The certified extra virgin olive oil was purposely adulterated with soybean oil in different levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 90%) being possible to observe that the new methodology is able to detect even small fraud concentration, such as 1% (v/v). Additionally, commercial samples were analyzed and were observed the addition of soybean oil as a common fraud in this segment. This powerful analytical method proposed could be applied as routine analysis by control organization, as well as food industries, considering its pronounced advantages; simplicity, rapidity, elevated detectability and minor amounts of sample and solvent consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacteria-material surface interactions: methodological development for the assessment of implant surface induced antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Welch, Ken; Brånemark, Rickard; Khalilpour, Poroshat; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The choice of material for implanted prostheses is of great importance concerning bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Consequently, methods to investigate bacterial behavior are needed in order to develop new infection resistant surfaces. In this study, different methodological setups were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photocatalytic titanium oxide and silver surfaces. Biofilm formation and eradication under static and dynamic culture conditions were studied with the use of the following analytical techniques: viable colony-forming unit (CFU) counting, imprinting, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The present study demonstrates that different methods are needed in order to evaluate the prophylactic and treatment effects on planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to assess the antimicrobial effect of different surface treatments/coatings. Choosing the right antibacterial testing model for the specific application is also of great importance. Both in situ approaches and indirect methods provide valuable complementary information. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports...... requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute...... bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction...

  14. Using the Simulated Patient Methodology to Assess Paracetamol-Related Counselling for Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Nejc; Koder, Marko; Kos, Mitja

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Firstly, to assess paracetamol-related counselling. Secondly, to evaluate the patient’s approach as a determinant of counselling and to test the acceptability of the simulated patient method in Slovenian pharmacies. Methods The simulated patient methodology was used in 17 community pharmacies. Three scenarios related to self-medication for headaches were developed and used in all participating pharmacies. Two scenarios were direct product requests: scenario 1: a patient with an uncomplicated short-term headache; scenario 2: a patient with a severe, long-duration headache who takes paracetamol for too long and concurrently drinks alcohol. Scenario 3 was a symptom-based request: a patient asking for medicine for a headache. Pharmacy visits were audio recorded and scored according to predetermined criteria arranged in two categories: counselling content and manner of counselling. The acceptability of the methodology used was evaluated by surveying the participating pharmacists. Results The symptom-based request was scored significantly better (a mean 2.17 out of a possible 4 points) than the direct product requests (means of 1.64 and 0.67 out of a possible 4 points for scenario 1 and 2, respectively). The most common information provided was dosage and adverse effects. Only the symptom-based request stimulated spontaneous counselling. No statistically significant differences in the duration of the consultation between the scenarios were found. There were also no significant differences in the quality of counselling between the Masters of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Technicians. The acceptability of the SP method was not as high as in other countries. Conclusion The assessment of paracetamol-related counselling demonstrates room for practice improvement. PMID:23300691

  15. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  16. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  17. [Health impact assessment methodology for urban planning projects in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Ruano, Luis A; Candau-Bejarano, Ana; Rodríguez-Rasero, Francisco J; Ruiz-Fernández, Josefa; Vela-Ríos, José

    To describe the tool developed in Andalusia (Spain) to conduct an analysis and prospective assessment of health impacts from urban planning projects as well as the process followed to design it. On the one hand, direct and indirect relationships between urban setting and health were identified in light of the best scientific evidence available; and, on the other hand, methods and tools in impact assessment were reviewed. After the design of the tool, it was tested via both internal and external validation processes (meetings, workshops and interviews with key informants). The tool consists of seven phases, structured in two stages. A first descriptive stage shows how to obtain information about goals, objectives and general points pertaining the project and also to characterise the potentially affected population. The second one indicates, in several phases, how to identify and sort out potential impacts from the project using different supporting tools. Both in the testing phase and through its implementation since the entry into force of Andalusian Decree 169/2014 (16 June 2015) and forced all urban planning projects to be subjected to an Health Impact Assessment, this methodology has proved responsive, identifying major potential health impacts from the measures included in those projects. However, the tool has been shaped as a living tool and will be adapted in line with the experience acquired in its use. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  19. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  20. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard

  1. The need for a usable assessment tool to analyse the efficacy of emergency care systems in developing countries: proposal to use the TEWS methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jared H; Twomey, Michele; Tran, Jeffrey; Wallis, Lee A

    2012-11-01

    Ninety percent of emergency incidents occur in developing countries, and this is only expected to get worse as these nations develop. As a result, governments in developing countries are establishing emergency care systems. However, there is currently no widely-usable, objective method to monitor or research the rapid growth of emergency care in the developing world. Analysis of current quantitative methods to assess emergency care in developing countries, and the proposal of a more appropriate method. Currently accepted methods to quantitatively assess the efficacy of emergency care systems cannot be performed in most developing countries due to weak record-keeping infrastructure and the inappropriateness of applying Western derived coefficients to developing country conditions. As a result, although emergency care in the developing world is rapidly growing, researchers and clinicians are unable to objectively measure its progress or determine which policies work best in their respective countries. We propose the TEWS methodology, a simple analytical tool that can be handled by low-resource, developing countries. By relying on the most basic universal parameters, simplest calculations and straightforward protocol, the TEWS methodology allows for widespread analysis of emergency care in the developing world. This could become essential in the establishment and growth of new emergency care systems worldwide.

  2. Critical assessment of jet erosion test methodologies for cohesive soil and sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamigolbaghi, Maliheh; Ghaneeizad, Seyed Mohammad; Atkinson, Joseph F.; Bennett, Sean J.; Wells, Robert R.

    2017-10-01

    The submerged Jet Erosion Test (JET) is a commonly used technique to assess the erodibility of cohesive soil. Employing a linear excess shear stress equation and impinging jet theory, simple numerical methods have been developed to analyze data collected using a JET to determine the critical shear stress and erodibility coefficient of soil. These include the Blaisdell, Iterative, and Scour Depth Methods, and all have been organized into easy to use spreadsheet routines. The analytical framework of the JET and its associated methods, however, are based on many assumptions that may not be satisfied in field and laboratory settings. The main objective of this study is to critically assess this analytical framework and these methodologies. Part of this assessment is to include the effect of flow confinement on the JET. The possible relationship between the derived erodibility coefficient and critical shear stress, a practical tool in soil erosion assessment, is examined, and a review of the deficiencies in the JET methodology also is presented. Using a large database of JET results from the United States and data from literature, it is shown that each method can generate an acceptable curve fit through the scour depth measurements as a function of time. The analysis shows, however, that the Scour Depth and Iterative Methods may result in physically unrealistic values for the erosion parameters. The effect of flow confinement of the impinging jet increases the derived critical shear stress and decreases the erodibility coefficient by a factor of 2.4 relative to unconfined flow assumption. For a given critical shear stress, the length of time over which scour depth data are collected also affects the calculation of erosion parameters. In general, there is a lack of consensus relating the derived soil erodibility coefficient to the derived critical shear stress. Although empirical relationships are statistically significant, the calculated erodibility coefficient for a

  3. Rapid quantitative assessment of visible injury to vegetation and visual amenity effects of fluoride air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doley, D

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative measures of visible injury are proposed for the protection of the aesthetic acceptability and health of ecosystems. Visible indications of air pollutant injury symptoms can be assessed rapidly and economically over large areas of mixed species such as native ecosystems. Reliable indication requires close attention to the criteria for assessment, species selection, and the influence of other environmental conditions on plant response to a pollutant. The estimation of fluoride-induced visible injury in dicotyledonous species may require techniques that are more varied than the measurement of necrosis in linear-leaved monocotyledons and conifers. A scheme is described for quantitative estimates of necrosis, chlorosis and deformation of leaves using an approximately geometric series of injury categories that permits rapid and sufficiently consistent determination and recognises degrees of aesthetic offence associated with foliar injury to plants.

  4. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciabue, P.C

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment.

  5. Development of a methodological tool for the assessment of the hydromorphological conditions of lakes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Argillier, Christine; Reynaud, Nathalie; Nicolas, Delphine; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of the ecological status of surface waters considering the biological, physico-chemical and hydromorphological conditions is requested by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). If research efforts have particularly concentrated on rivers, lakes have yet received less attention. Nevertheless, due to their function of receptacles of inland waters, the habitats they provide to an important biodiversity and the numerous services they support (water supply, recreational activities, hydroelectricity), assessing the ecological quality of lakes becomes crucial for their protection. Still, this task remains challenging, especially considering the hydromorphological compartments. Indeed, while promising tools already exist to assess the lake biological and physico-chemical status, our comprehension of the impact of hydromophological impairments on the global ecosystem functioning remains poor and existing tools to assess such impacts often focus only on morphological aspects and in a qualitative rather than quantitative way. In this context, our study aims at providing stakeholders with a methodology to assess quantitatively the hydrological and morphological quality of lakes in Europe. The developed methodology, LAKe HYdromorphological Conditions tool (LAKHYC tool) is based on our current knowledge of the functioning of lakes and pre-existing works (e.g., Rowan et al., 2012; Rinaldi et al., 2013). The LAKHYC tool integrates the six parameters requested by the WFD, each one being assessed by at least three descriptors that are calculated as Ecological Quality Ratios, i.e. as the deviation from a reference condition. The originality of the present method lies in the fact that specific reference conditions are defined for each descriptor. In this way, we avoid using a predetermined set of lakes considered as not impacted by human activities and which often corresponds to natural lakes in specific areas (e.g., mountains) and do not represent the diversity

  6. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Barletta; Jon Larborn; Mahesh Mani; Björn Johannson

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste) and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of...

  7. ARAMIS project : Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS in the framework of SEVESO II directive

    OpenAIRE

    Hourtolou, David; Salvi, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the ARAMIS project accepted for funding in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, which started on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support the harmonised implementation of the SEVESO II Dir...

  8. EU-Project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of the SEVESO II directive)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    International audience; ARAMIS overall objective is to build up a new Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries that combines the strengths of both deterministic and risk-based approaches. This paper intends to summarise the major features of the methodology and to show how the needs of ARAMIS potential users were addressed. In a second part, the objectives of the case studies that are presently under progress will be discussed.

  9. Rapid health needs assessment following hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-18

    Following the impact phase of Hurricane Andrew in Florida (August 24) and Louisiana (August 26) (Figure 1), the primary objectives of the public health response have been to address the health and medical needs of residents in the storm-damaged areas and to provide data for relief interventions and decision-making. This report presents the combined findings from rapid health needs assessment surveys conducted by state health departments with CDC assistance 3-10 days postimpact.

  10. The FIBRO System: A Rapid Strategy for Assessment and Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex disorder of widespread pain and tenderness associated with numerous other symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, nonrestorative sleep, depression, anxiety, and stiffness. While new diagnostic criteria and previous management guidelines require quantitation of the severity of associated FMS symptoms experienced by individual patients, no system for rapid patient assessment has been made available to provide a basis for diagnosis, treatment s...

  11. Value of databases other than medline for rapid health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Dennett, Liz; Clement, Fiona

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the degree to which databases other than MEDLINE contribute studies relevant for inclusion in rapid health technology assessments (HTA). We determined the extent to which the clinical, economic, and social studies included in twenty-one full and four rapid HTAs published by three Canadian HTA agencies from 2007 to 2012 were indexed in MEDLINE. Other electronic databases, including EMBASE, were then searched, in sequence, to assess whether or not they indexed studies not found in MEDLINE. Assessment topics ranged from purely clinical (e.g., drug-eluting stents) to those with broader social implications (e.g., spousal violence). MEDLINE contributed the majority of studies in all but two HTA reports, indexing a mean of 89.6 percent of clinical studies across all HTAs, and 88.3 percent of all clinical, economic, and social studies in twenty-four of twenty-five HTAs. While EMBASE contributed unique studies to twenty-two of twenty-five HTAs, three rapid HTAs did not include any EMBASE studies. In some instances, PsycINFO and CINAHL contributed as many, if not more, non-MEDLINE studies than EMBASE. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing the topic-specific relative value of including EMBASE, or more specialized databases, in HTA search protocols. Although MEDLINE continues to be a key resource for HTAs, the time and resource limitations inherent in the production of rapid HTAs require that researchers carefully consider the value and limitations of other information sources to identify relevant studies.

  12. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF OSAI METHODOLOGY IN ASSESSING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF AN ENGINEERING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Biletskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to generalize and highlight the practical application of certain science-based approaches to assessment of an engineering company’s organizational culture. The OSAI method application has enabled determining the type of the organizational culture existing within a company and the desirable type thereof, i.e. the one which would produce a positive effect on the competitive status of a company, as well as on the utilization of its human resources. This is important because an appropriate level of the organizational culture within a company would enhance the psychological climate within a company and would provide an opportunity for improving its performance. Methodology. In order to attain the goal of our research, it is necessary to diagnose the type of the organizational culture of some selected companies and draw a conclusion as to amendment of their organizational culture. In order to ensure the successful outcome of the corporate organizational culture diagnosing procedure, let us use the OSAI tool to determine the foundation of such culture. This organizational culture assessment tool helps to define the organizational culture which members of a company are to achieve in order to meet the demands and to respond to the dynamic changes in the business environment. The results showed that the assessment of organizational culture using the method made it possible to determine the OSAI required type of organizational culture on the test plants. Practical implications. Definition of recommendation type of organizational culture has enabled the leadership to change the style of his behavior and better motivate the labor collective. Pay attention to the existing problems and improve the psychological atmosphere in the team, as well as improve the efficiency of plant personnel. Value/originality. The data obtained for the four businesses lead to the conclusion that it is the method of evaluation the optimum procedure for

  13. Assessing changes in high school students' environmental decision-making skills: Some methodological contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Anne C.

    In this study, I developed three methods for the assessment of high-school students' environmental decision-making skills. The three methods were developed based on perspectives of decision-making expertise in psychology and are named Satisfying Results, Coherence, and Process Decomposition . Satisfying Results looked directly at the choices students made. Coherence looked at the match between students' choices and their values, and Satisfying Results focused on individual steps of decision-making, with my focus being consequential thinking. With these three methods. I examined changes in 172 secondary students' environmental decision-making skills. The students in the sample studied the first unit of Investigations in Environmental Science: A Case-Based Approach to the Study of Environmental Science (CASES), a curriculum designed for grades 9-12. Integrated with the science content in CASES, students were introduced to the Stakeholder-Consequences Decision Making (SCDM) process. I pre- and post-tested students who experienced the first out of three units of CASES. I used the New Ecological Paradigm scale to look at students' values, as that was necessary for the Coherence perspective. The students' results varied with the decision-making perspective as well as with instruction of two CASES teachers. Relative to instruction, classroom management and the values exemplified by the teacher were examined. The overall results reflect that the assessment methods were able to detect positive gains based on particular goals that CASES stated for teaching environmental decision-making. Specifically, there was evidence of progress with both the "Coherence" and "Process Decomposition" results, which were goals of CASES. The methodology used in this study may be useful for grounding future studies of students' decision-making skills. In particular, the methods developed here can be utilized for matching assessment methods to teaching goals, as well as to entering the realm of

  14. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, Eva [iSens Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ferré, Joan, E-mail: joan.ferre@urv.cat [Chemometrics, Qualimetrics and Nanosensors Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Boqué, Ricard [Chemometrics, Qualimetrics and Nanosensors Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga [iSens Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2015-09-03

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment. - Highlights: • Multivariate data fusion is used in food authentication and quality assessment. • Data fusion approaches and their applications are reviewed. • Data preprocessing, variable selection and feature extraction are considered. • Model selection and validation are also considered.

  15. Scenario Methodology for Modelling of Future Landscape Developments as Basis for Assessing Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of our intensively used European landscapes produce a variety of natural goods and services for the benefit of humankind, and secure the basics and quality of life. Because these ecosystems are still undergoing fundamental changes, the interest of the society is to know more about future developments and their ecological impacts. To describe and analyze these changes, scenarios can be developed and an assessment of the ecological changes can be carried out subsequently. In the project „Landscape Saxony 2050“; a methodology for the construction of exploratory scenarios was worked out. The presented methodology provides a possibility to identify the driving forces (socio-cultural, economic and ecological conditions of the landscape development. It allows to indicate possible future paths which lead to a change of structures and processes in the landscape and can influence the capability to provide ecosystem services. One essential component of the applied technique is that an approach for the assessment of the effects of the landscape changes on ecosystem services is integrated into the developed scenario methodology. Another is, that the methodology is strong designed as participatory, i.e. stakeholders are integrated actively. The method is a seven phase model which provides the option for the integration of the stakeholders‘ participation at all levels of scenario development. The scenario framework was applied to the district of Görlitz, an area of 2100 sq km located at the eastern border of Germany. The region is affected by strong demographic as well as economic changes. The core issue focused on the examination of landscape change in terms of biodiversity. Together with stakeholders, a trend scenario and two alternative scenarios were developed. The changes of the landscape structure are represented in story lines, maps and tables. On basis of the driving forces of the issue areas „cultural / social values“ and

  16. A methodology for texture feature-based quality assessment in nucleus segmentation of histopathology image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Image segmentation pipelines often are sensitive to algorithm input parameters. Algorithm parameters optimized for a set of images do not necessarily produce good-quality-segmentation results for other images. Even within an image, some regions may not be well segmented due to a number of factors, including multiple pieces of tissue with distinct characteristics, differences in staining of the tissue, normal versus tumor regions, and tumor heterogeneity. Evaluation of quality of segmentation results is an important step in image analysis. It is very labor intensive to do quality assessment manually with large image datasets because a whole-slide tissue image may have hundreds of thousands of nuclei. Semi-automatic mechanisms are needed to assist researchers and application developers to detect image regions with bad segmentations efficiently. Aims: Our goal is to develop and evaluate a machine-learning-based semi-automated workflow to assess quality of nucleus segmentation results in a large set of whole-slide tissue images. Methods: We propose a quality control methodology, in which machine-learning algorithms are trained with image intensity and texture features to produce a classification model. This model is applied to image patches in a whole-slide tissue image to predict the quality of nucleus segmentation in each patch. The training step of our methodology involves the selection and labeling of regions by a pathologist in a set of images to create the training dataset. The image regions are partitioned into patches. A set of intensity and texture features is computed for each patch. A classifier is trained with the features and the labels assigned by the pathologist. At the end of this process, a classification model is generated. The classification step applies the classification model to unlabeled test images. Each test image is partitioned into patches. The classification model is applied to each patch to predict the patch

  17. Using exposure bands for rapid decision making in the RISK21 tiered exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarco, M; Zaleski, R; Gaborek, B J; Qian, H; Bellin, C A; Egeghy, P; Heard, N; Jolliet, O; Lander, D R; Sunger, N; Stylianou, K S; Tanir, J Y

    2017-04-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment. This paper describes the exposure tiers of the RISK21 matrix and the approaches to adapt readily available information to more quickly inform exposure at a screening level. In particular, exposure look-up tables were developed from available exposure tools (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) for worker exposure, ECETOC TRA, European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) for consumer exposure, and USEtox(®) for indirect exposure to humans via the environment) and were tested in a hypothetical mosquito bed netting case study. A detailed WHO risk assessment for a similar mosquito net use served as a benchmark for the performance of the RISK21 approach. The case study demonstrated that the screening methodologies provided suitable conservative exposure estimates for risk assessment. The results of this effort showed that the RISK21 approach is useful for defining future assessment efforts, focusing assessment activities and visualizing results.

  18. Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodologies in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassellöv, Martin; Readman, James W; Ranville, James F; Tiede, Karen

    2008-07-01

    Environmental risk assessments of engineered nanoparticles require thorough characterization of nanoparticles and their aggregates. Furthermore, quantitative analytical methods are required to determine environmental concentrations and enable both effect and exposure assessments. Many methods still need optimization and development, especially for new types of nanoparticles in water, but extensive experience can be gained from the fields of environmental chemistry of natural nanomaterials and from fundamental colloid chemistry. This review briefly describes most methods that are being exploited in nanoecotoxicology for analysis and characterization of nanomaterials. Methodological aspects are discussed in relation to the fields of nanometrology, particle size analysis and analytical chemistry. Differences in both the type of size measures (length, radius, aspect ratio, etc.), and the type of average or distributions afforded by the specific measures are compared. The strengths of single particle methods, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, with respect to imaging, shape determinations and application to particle process studies are discussed, together with their limitations in terms of counting statistics and sample preparation. Methods based on the measurement of particle populations are discussed in terms of their quantitative analyses, but the necessity of knowing their limitations in size range and concentration range is also considered. The advantage of combining complementary methods is highlighted.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MILK-PRODUCING FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Rempel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for assessing the environmental sustainability of milk-producing farms, which consists of a set of spreadsheets (MS-Excel platform comprising nine parameters (waste disposal, water sources, environmentally protected area, legal reserve, use of pesticides and fertilizers, property slope gradient, erosion, forest fires and land uses sub-divided into 13 sub-parameters. From these indicators, weighing matrices were constructed with sub-parameters, in which quantitative data obtained in field and laboratory were transformed into impact indices, numerically expressed. This proposal was developed and applied as a pilot project on four dairy farms in the municipality of Arroio do Meio/RS/BRAZIL, where field diagnosis, map use and land cover designs and the construction of an environmental sustainability index were carried out. The environmental assessment allows the producer/administrator to determine which attributes of the activity may be inconsistent with sustainability and the decision-maker to have an indication of measures to promote or control the activities according to local development plans; moreover, it provides an objective unit to measure the impact so as to assist in the qualification and certification of agricultural activities.