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Sample records for raphidophyte alga chattonella

  1. Light spectrum regulates cell accumulation during daytime in the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua causing noxious red tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Newly discovered role of the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica, a predator of toxic or harmful dinoflagellates and raphidophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eun; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, So Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Seong, Kyeong Ah

    2017-09-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous and known to be major predators of bacteria. The feeding of free-living heterotrophic nanoflagellates on phytoplankton is poorly understood, although these two components usually co-exist. To investigate the feeding and ecological roles of major heterotrophic nanoflagellates Katablepharis spp., the feeding ability of Katablepharis japonica on bacteria and phytoplankton species and the type of the prey that K. japonica can feed on were explored. Furthermore, the growth and ingestion rates of K. japonica on the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea-a suitable algal prey item-heterotrophic bacteria, and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp., as a function of prey concentration were determined. Among the prey tested, K. japonica ingested heterotrophic bacteria, Synechococcus sp., the prasinophyte Pyramimonas sp., the cryptophytes Rhodomonas salina and Teleaulax sp., the raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella ovata, the dinoflagellates Heterocapsa rotundata, Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Alexandrium minutum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, A. sanguinea, Coolia malayensis, and the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, however, it did not feed on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium catenella, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedra, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. micans, and Scrippsiella acuminata and the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Many K. japonica cells attacked and ingested a prey cell together after pecking and rupturing the surface of the prey cell and then uptaking the materials that emerged from the ruptured cell surface. Cells of A. sanguinea supported positive growth of K. japonica, but neither heterotrophic bacteria nor Synechococcus sp. supported growth. The maximum specific growth rate of K. japonica on A. sanguinea was 1.01 d(-1). In addition, the maximum ingestion rate of K. japonica for A. sanguinea was 0.13ngC predator(-1)d(-1) (0.06 cells predator(-1)d(-1

  3. Removal Efficiency of Different Gemini Surfactants and Related Modified Clay toChattonella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Wen; Yan, Xin-Ya; Li, Yun-Hui; Yu, De-Ren; Li, Hong-Ye; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2017-11-01

      To obtain new modified clays with excellent algae removal efficiency, three gemini surfactants including ethylene bis (dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), ethylene bis (octadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and ethylene bis (dodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide) (EDAB), and a poly quaternary ammonium salt, poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride, were screened with Chattonella marina. The four chemicals all exhibited high removal efficiencies against C. marina, with EDAB achieving the highest. A series of organ-clays with different ratios of EDAB were prepared, and the associated removal efficiencies were evaluated. The removal efficiencies of the organ-clays were improved by the EDAB intercalation and the organ-clay with 15% EDAB had the highest removal efficiency. The LC50 of EDAB intercalated clay for zebrafish and shrimp was much higher than the values of intercalated clay required to obtain a desirable removal efficiency of algae. Taken together, EDAB intercalated clay might be a potential alternative to control harmful algal blooms (HABs).

  4. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing...

  5. Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what...

  6. Silver nanoparticle-algae interactions: oxidative dissolution, reactive oxygen species generation and synergistic toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Waite, T David

    2012-08-21

    The short-term toxicity of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ionic silver Ag(I) to the ichthyotoxic marine raphidophyte Chattonella marina has been examined using the fluorometric indicator alamarBlue. Aggregation and dissolution of AgNPs occurred after addition to GSe medium while uptake of dissolved Ag(I) occurred in the presence of C. marina. Based on total silver mass, toxicity was much higher for Ag(I) than for AgNPs. Cysteine, a strong Ag(I) ligand, completely removed the inhibitory effects of Ag(I) and AgNPs on the metabolic activity of C. marina, suggesting that the toxicity of AgNPs was due to the release of Ag(I). Synergistic toxic effects of AgNPs/Ag(I) and C. marina to fish gill cells were observed with these effects possibly attributable to enhancement in the generation of reactive oxygen species by C. marina on exposure of the organism to silver.

  7. Chattonella (Raphidophyceae) bloom spatio-temporal variations in Tachibana Bay and the southern area of Ariake Sea, Japan: Interregional displacement patterns with Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Onitsuka, Goh; Shimizu, Manabu; Yamatogi, Toshifumi; Ishida, Naoya; Kitahara, Shigeru; Hirano, Keiji

    2015-10-15

    In 2010, a massive bloom of the raphidophycean flagellate Chattonella occurred in the Ariake Sea and Tachibana Bay. Bloom dynamics and hydrographical conditions were examined by field survey. The development and decline of the bloom occurred three times in Tachibana Bay. First and third bloom developments synchronized with precipitation, and the second bloom developed in synchronization with a salinity decrease which occurred in relation to an increase of river discharge from the Chikugo River which takes several days to flow from the Ariake Sea. These results imply that the bloom was transported with the low salinity water from the Ariake Sea to Tachibana Bay. During blooms along the northern coast of Shimabara Peninsula, the predominant phytoplankton species changed from Chattonella to Skeletonema. Low salinity water intrusion induced an interregional difference of the Chattonella and Skeletonema bloom spatially-differentiated by the salinity in the Ariake Sea and Tachibana Bay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxic Effects of Vicicitus globosus (Class Dictyochophyceae and Chattonella marina (Class Raphidophyceae on Rotifers and Other Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fook Hoe Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of Vicicitus globosus (previously Chattonella globosa and Chattonella marina, established during the 2010 fish kill event in Mahanga Bay, Wellington Harbour, are confirmed to be cytotoxic. The aggregate potency of lipophilic cell extracts of each species were evaluated using three species each of flagellates, dinoflagellates and diatoms, and a rotifer as test organisms. The cell extract of V. globosus destroyed cells of all nine microalgae in a matter of a few minutes to less than 15 min, while that of C. marina, destroyed all species over 10 to 30 min. The lipophilic extract of V. globosus caused partial disintegration of both theca wall and cytoplasm of cells of Alexandrium catenella in a matter of minutes. This effect, however, was not observed in cells of A. catenella exposed to that of C. marina. Tests conducted on rotifers showed similar fast-acting trends, with animals exposed to a cell extract of V. globosus died in a much shorter time (Lt50 = 80 min than those exposed to that of C. marina (20 h.

  9. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  10. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  11. Feeding by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on the red-tide raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo: a potential biological method to control red tides using mass-cultured grazers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Jae Seong; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Seong Taek; Kim, Tae Hoon; Park, Myung Gil; Lee, Chang Hoon; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kang, Nam Seon; Shim, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    As part of the development of a method to control the outbreak and persistence of red tides using mass-cultured heterotrophic protist grazers, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of cultured Oxyrrhis marina (a heterotrophic dinoflagellate) on cultured Heterosigma akashiwo (a raphidophyte) in bottles in the laboratory and in mesocosms (ca. 60 liter) in nature, and those of the cultured grazer on natural populations of the red-tide organism in mesocosms set up in nature. In the bottle incubation, specific growth rates of O. marina increased rapidly with increasing concentration of cultured prey up to ca. 950 ng C ml(-1) (equivalent to 9,500 cells ml(-1)), but were saturated at higher concentrations. Maximum specific growth rate (mumax), KGR (prey concentration sustaining 0.5 mumax) and threshold prey concentration of O. marina on H. akashiwo were 1.43 d(-1), 104 ng C ml(-1), and 8.0 ng C ml(-1), respectively. Maximum ingestion and clearance rates of O. marina were 1.27 ng C grazer(-1) d(-1) and 0.3 microl grazer(-1) h(-1), respectively. Cultured O. marina grew well effectively reducing cultured and natural populations of H. akashiwo down to a very low concentration within 3 d in the mesocosms. The growth and ingestion rates of cultured O. marina on natural populations of H. akashiwo in the mesocosms were 39% and 40%, respectively, of those calculated based on the results from the bottle incubation in the laboratory, while growth and ingestion rates of cultured O. marina on cultured H. akashiwo in the mesocosms were 55% and 36%, respectively. Calculated grazing impact by O. marina on natural populations of H. akashiwo suggests that O. marina cultured on a large scale could be used for controlling red tides by H. akashiwo near aquaculture farms that are located in small ponds, lagoons, semi-enclosed bays, and large land-aqua tanks to which fresh seawater should be frequently supplied.

  12. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  13. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  14. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    and accretion. Mud surface harbours unicellular algae. Multicellular algae was dominatEd. by blue-green form on the mud surface. The benthic algae of the mud surface are representEd. by the green filamentous Enteromorpha clathrate, Rhizoclonium sp. and thalloid...

  15. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  16. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  17. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  18. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  19. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  20. Harmful algae and toxis in paranaguá bay , Brazil: bases for monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Laureno Mafra Junior

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The estuarine complex of Paranaguá - ECP (South Brazil, 25º30'S, 48º30'W is a large subtropical system, where pristine mangrove forests are still present, and fishery and aquaculture are important economic activities. This work investigated the occurrence of harmful algae in Paranaguá Bay, as well as the presence of toxins in the filter feeding mussel Mytella guyanensis, a local fishery resource. Samples along the Paranaguá sub-system were collected almost monthly from August 2002 to October 2003. Besides physical and chemical variables, cell densities of harmful species and presence of toxins in the mussel by mouse bioassay (DSP, PSP and HPLC (ASP were performed. HAB species included Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Dinophysis acuminata,Prorocentrum minimum,Gymnodinium catenatum,Phaeocystis spp., Chattonella spp. and Heterosigma akashiwo.Trichodesmium erythraeum and Coscinodiscus wailesii were also included in this study due to their potential for harmful bloom formation. Toxin results showed the occurrence of DSP (December 2002 in shellfish related to the presence of D. acuminata (max. 4,566 cells.l-1. Additionally, cultivated strains produced paralytic and amnesic toxins in laboratory. Spring (October to December, Southern Hemisphere and late summer (February to April were the periods of higher abundance of harmful algae, mainly in euhaline and inner polyhaline sectors of the ECP.O complexo estuarino de Paranaguá (CEP; 25º30'S, 48º30'W, localizado no litoral sul do Brasil, abriga extensas áreas preservadas de manguezais e tem a pesca e aqüicultura como importantes atividades econômicas. Este trabalho investigou a ocorrência de microalgas nocivas no CEP e a presença de ficotoxinas no molusco bivalve Mytella guyanensis. Para tanto, foram coletadas amostras com periodicidade aproximadamente mensal, entre agosto de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Foram avaliadas variáveis físico-químicas, densidade de espécies nocivas e a presença de toxinas nos

  1. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  3. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Algae cultivation for wastewater reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Gerbrand

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using algae to clean wastewater has recently gotten attention because wastewater is becoming a bigger problem all over the world. Many scientist and engi-neers are researching better ways to utilize the high potential of algae to clean these waters. By experimenting with algae we try to explore the potential of growing algae on a mechanical system called “algae turf scrubber” or “ATS” to absorb the excess nutrients for the production of biomass. By knowing the amount of...

  5. Progress in Understanding Algal Bloom-Mediated Fish Kills: The Role of Superoxide Radicals, Phycotoxins and Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Dorantes-Aranda

    Full Text Available Quantification of the role of reactive oxygen species, phycotoxins and fatty acids in fish toxicity by harmful marine microalgae remains inconclusive. An in vitro fish gill (from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss assay was used to simultaneously assess the effect in superoxide dismutase, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities caused by seven species of ichthyotoxic microalgae (Chattonella marina, Fibrocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Alexandrium catenella, Karlodinium veneficum, Prymnesium parvum. Quantification of superoxide production by these algae was also performed. The effect of purified phycotoxins and crude extracts was compared, and the effect of fatty acids is discussed. The raphidophyte Chattonella was the most ichthyotoxic (gill cell viability down to 35% and also the major producer of superoxide radicals (14 pmol cell-1 hr-1 especially after cell lysis. The raphidophyte Heterosigma and dinoflagellate Alexandrium were the least toxic and had low superoxide production, except when A. catenella was lysed (5.6 pmol cell-1 hr-1. Catalase showed no changes in activity in all the treatments. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and lactate dehydrogenase exhibited significant activity increases of ≤23% and 51.2% TCC (total cellular content, respectively, after exposure to C. marina, but SOD showed insignificant changes with remaining algal species. A strong relationship between gill cell viability and superoxide production or superoxide dismutase was not observed. Purified brevetoxins PbTx-2 and -3 (from Karenia brevis, LC50 of 22.1 versus 35.2 μg mL-1 and karlotoxin KmTx-2 (from Karlodinium; LC50 = 380 ng mL-1 could almost entirely account for the fish killing activity by those two dinoflagellates. However, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST GTX1&4, C1&C2, and STX did not account for Alexandrium ichthyotoxicity. Only aqueous extracts of Alexandrium were cytotoxic (≤65% decrease of viability, whereas

  6. Progress in Understanding Algal Bloom-Mediated Fish Kills: The Role of Superoxide Radicals, Phycotoxins and Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Seger, Andreas; Mardones, Jorge I; Nichols, Peter D; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the role of reactive oxygen species, phycotoxins and fatty acids in fish toxicity by harmful marine microalgae remains inconclusive. An in vitro fish gill (from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) assay was used to simultaneously assess the effect in superoxide dismutase, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities caused by seven species of ichthyotoxic microalgae (Chattonella marina, Fibrocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Alexandrium catenella, Karlodinium veneficum, Prymnesium parvum). Quantification of superoxide production by these algae was also performed. The effect of purified phycotoxins and crude extracts was compared, and the effect of fatty acids is discussed. The raphidophyte Chattonella was the most ichthyotoxic (gill cell viability down to 35%) and also the major producer of superoxide radicals (14 pmol cell-1 hr-1) especially after cell lysis. The raphidophyte Heterosigma and dinoflagellate Alexandrium were the least toxic and had low superoxide production, except when A. catenella was lysed (5.6 pmol cell-1 hr-1). Catalase showed no changes in activity in all the treatments. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase exhibited significant activity increases of ≤23% and 51.2% TCC (total cellular content), respectively, after exposure to C. marina, but SOD showed insignificant changes with remaining algal species. A strong relationship between gill cell viability and superoxide production or superoxide dismutase was not observed. Purified brevetoxins PbTx-2 and -3 (from Karenia brevis, LC50 of 22.1 versus 35.2 μg mL-1) and karlotoxin KmTx-2 (from Karlodinium; LC50 = 380 ng mL-1) could almost entirely account for the fish killing activity by those two dinoflagellates. However, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) GTX1&4, C1&C2, and STX did not account for Alexandrium ichthyotoxicity. Only aqueous extracts of Alexandrium were cytotoxic (≤65% decrease of viability), whereas crude

  7. Archives of ALGA, volume 5

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Volume 5 contains 3 articles by N.Ibragimov, an article by R. Khamitova and the English translation of V.P.Ermakov's article "Second order differential equations:conditions of complete integrability". www.bth.se/alga Choose ALGA publications

  8. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  9. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  10. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  11. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development.

  12. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  13. Biological importance of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  14. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  15. Algae: America’s Pathway to Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    The DOE program used mostly high oil- content algae grown on waste CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. Algae were chosen because of their... algae farm.79 In a single pass through an eight foot tall column of water, the algae consume up to 85% of the nitrous oxide and 40% of the CO2 . The...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ALGAE : AMERICA’S PATHWAY TO INDEPENDENCE by Commander James Custer United

  16. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Suyun Zhang; Bert van Duijn

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) ar...

  17. Cyanobacteria: algas productoras de toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Ricardo Omar; Giannuzzi, Leda; Andrinolo, Darío

    2007-01-01

    El de las Cyanobacteria es un grupo de algas con características particulares. Por su coloración, dada por los pigmentos que posee, comúnmente se las conoce como algas verde-azules. Según registros fósiles, son los primeros organismos fotosintéticos aparecidos en nuestro planeta (3000-3500 millones de años), por esto se los consideran los responsables de originar la atmósfera inicial que posibilitó la evolución del resto de los seres vivos habitantes de la Tierra. Estos organismos, desde micr...

  18. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  19. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  20. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass

  1. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  2. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  3. [A review on algae ecology in wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Xie, Liqiang; Sheng, Xiumei; Wu, Zhenbin; Xia, Yicheng

    2003-06-01

    The research advance in algae ecology in wetland was introduced in this paper, which included the algae population structure and its function, and the algae productivity and its affecting factors. Almost all kinds of algae occurred in wetland, including four assemblages: epipelon, epiphyton, metaphyton and phytoplankton, among which, diatom, green and blue algae were the predominant species. Algae were the fundamental players in the physical, chemical and biological processes that characterized wetland ecosystems. Most obvious was their role as primary producers and their place in the wetland food web. Algae were an important food resource for herbivores, and contributed to wetland nutrient cycle as the sources of dissolved organic matter and N. They could also be used as biomarkers for monitoring environment pollution. The affecting factors on algae's productivity were hydraulic factor, nutrition, temperature, illumination, herbivores and some other animals, and so on. Because of their functions in wetland, future research on algae in wetland should expand our knowledge of the environmental controls on algal biomass, productivity, and species composition in wetlands with particular in areas for which knowledge was incomplete. Included among these, may be a detailed evaluation of the proportionate contributions by epipelon, epiphyton, metaphyton, and phytoplankton to food web dynamics in wetlands, and a further study of the genetic technique in controlling hazardous algae.

  4. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  5. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is used in food only...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  9. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  10. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corguillé, Gildas; Pearson, Gareth; Valente, Marta; Viegas, Carla; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Corre, Erwan; Bailly, Xavier; Peters, Akira F; Jubin, Claire; Vacherie, Benoit; Cock, J Mark; Leblanc, Catherine

    2009-10-16

    Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists) plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including most of the available red algal and chromist

  11. Negative effects of Phaeocystis globosa on microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Jiesheng, [No Value; Van Rijssel, Marion; Yang Weidong, [No Value; Peng Xichun, [No Value; Lue Songhui, [No Value; Wang Yan, [No Value; Chen Jufang, [No Value; Wang Zhaohui, [No Value; Qi Yuzao, [No Value

    The potential allelopathic effects of the microalga, Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, on three harmful bloom algae, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Chattonella ovata Hara et Chihara were studied. The growth of C. marina and C. ovata was markedly

  12. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  13. Vanadium in marine mussels and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, K R; Bahr, B; Ott, J

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented which is sensitive enough for the determination of vanadium (V) in marine organisms such as mussels and algae. It was sufficiently checked by a reference material and it was applied to V determination in blue mussels and brown algae from the German Bight.

  14. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  15. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savcenco, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runoff water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  16. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savceno, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits; Frank, J.; van der Mei, R.; den Boer, A.; Bosman, J.; Bouman, N.; van Dam, S.; Verhoef, C.

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runo water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  17. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  18. Removal of algae by sonication-coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Panyue; Wang, Li; Wang, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Algae bloom in source water has caused serious problems in drinking water supplies, and conventional methods for its treatment have achieved only limited success. This paper reports a new technology, ultrasound assisted coagulation, for effective removal of algae cells from the source water in water treatment works. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of algae cells. Ultrasonic irradiation for 5 s increased the algae removal efficiency by more than 20% when the coagulant dose was 0.4-0.8 mg/L. To achieve the same algae removal ratio of 90%, sonication for 5 s reduced the coagulant dose by 2/3. The optimal sonication parameters were determined as follows: sonication time of 1 s, ultrasonic power of 48 W, and solution pH of 8-9. The sound frequency had little impact on the algal removal efficiency. Ultrasonic pretreatment also significantly reduced the sample turbidity.

  19. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  1. Prospects of using algae in biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Maltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture and the transport sector is associated with the use of various energy sources. Renewable energy sources, including biofuels, are highly promising in this respect. As shown by a number of scientific studies, a promising source for biofuel production that would meet modern requirements may be algal biomass. After activation of the third generation biodiesel production it was assumed that the algae would become the most advantageous source, because it is not only able to accumulate significant amounts of lipids, but could reduce the of agricultural land involved in biofuel production and improve air quality by sequestering CO2. However, a major problem is presented by the cost of algae biomass cultivation and its processing compared to the production of biodiesel from agricultural crops. In this regard, there are several directions of increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production from algae biomass. The first direction is to increase lipid content in algae cells by means of genetic engineering. The second direction is connected with the stimulation of increased accumulation of lipids by stressing algae. The third direction involves the search for new, promising strains of algae that will be characterized by faster biomass accumulation rate, higher content of TAG and the optimal proportions of accumulated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compared to the already known strains. Recently, a new approach in the search for biotechnologically valuable strains of algae has been formed on the basis of predictions of capacity for sufficient accumulation of lipids by clarifying the evolutionary relationships within the major taxonomic groups of algae. The outcome of these studies is the rapid cost reduction of biofuel production based on algae biomass. All this emphasizes the priority of any research aimed at both improving the process of production of biofuels from algae, and the search for new sources for

  2. Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger

    2009-05-01

    Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli with branching, cell differentiation and apical growth (Charales). Streptophyte algae and embryophytes form the division Streptophyta, whereas the remaining green algae are classified as Chlorophyta. The Charales (stoneworts) are often considered to be sister to land plants, suggesting progressive evolution towards cellular complexity within streptophyte green algae. Many cellular (e.g. phragmoplast, plasmodesmata, hexameric cellulose synthase, structure of flagellated cells, oogamous sexual reproduction with zygote retention) and physiological characters (e.g. type of photorespiration, phytochrome system) originated within streptophyte algae. Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Mesostigma (flagellate) and Chlorokybus (sarcinoid) form the earliest divergence within streptophytes, as sister to all other Streptophyta including embryophytes. The question whether Charales, Coleochaetales or Zygnematales are the sister to embryophytes is still (or, again) hotly debated. Projects to study genome evolution within streptophytes including protein families and polyadenylation signals have been initiated. In agreement with morphological and physiological features, many molecular traits believed to be specific for embryophytes have been shown to predate the Chlorophyta/Streptophyta split, or to have originated within streptophyte algae. Molecular phylogenies and the fossil record allow a detailed reconstruction of the early evolutionary events that led to the origin of true land plants, and shaped the current diversity and ecology of streptophyte green algae and their embryophyte descendants. The Streptophyta/Chlorophyta divergence correlates with a remarkably conservative preference for freshwater/marine habitats, and the early freshwater adaptation of streptophyte algae was a major

  3. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yihe; Gregor, Chapin; Liang, Yuanjie; Tang, Dawei; Tweed, Caitlin

    2012-04-23

    Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  4. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  5. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  6. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  7. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  8. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M H Sayadi; S D Ghatnekar; M F Kavian

    2011-01-01

    .... In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuel...

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  10. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  11. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, t...

  12. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  13. Fluorescence Properties of Chlorella sp. Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Teplicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and its fast and reliable monitoring is the challenge of the future. Design of appropriate biosensors that would be capable of non-invasive identification of water pollution is an important prerequisite for such challenge. Chlorophylls are pigments, naturally presented in all plants that absorb light. The main forms of chlorophyll in algae are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, other pigments include xantophylls and beta-carotenes. Our aim was to characterize endogenous fluorescence of the Chlorella sp. algae, present naturally in drinking water. We recorded spatial, spectral and lifetime fluorescence distribution in the native algae. We noted that the fluorescence was evenly distributed in the algae cytosol, but lacked in the nucleus and reached maximum at 680-690 nm. Fluorescence decay of chlorella sp. was double-exponential, and clearly shorter than that of its isolated pigments. For the first time, fluorescence lifetime image of the algae is presented. Study of the fluorescence properties of algae is aimed at the improvement of water supply contamination detection and cleaning.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  15. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  18. What color should glacier algae be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Roman J; Ganey, Gerard Q; Skiles, S McKenzie

    2018-01-15

    Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water. We show that purple-colored particles transfer 87-89% of solar energy absorbed by black particles. However, red-colored particles transfer nearly as much (85-87%) by absorbing peak solar wavelengths and reflecting the visible wavelengths most absorbed by nearby ice and snow crystals; this latter process may reduce potential cellular overheating when snow insulates cells. Blue and green particles transfer only 80-82% of black particle absorption. In the experiment, red-colored particles melted 87% as much snow as black particles, while blue particles melted 77%. Green-colored snow-algae naturally occupy saturated snow where water is non-limiting; red-colored snow-algae occupy drier, water-limited snow. In addition to increasing melt, we suggest esterified astaxanthin in snow-algae increases hydrophobicity to keep cells surficial. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [Algae removal of high algae raw water by coagulation enhanced by ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng-Jian; Cheng, Fang-Qin

    2009-07-15

    Apparent molecular weight distribution (AMWD) and resin fractionation were used to characterize organic matters of the raw water. Removal of algae, change and removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection by products (DBPs) control during the preozonation enhanced coagulation treatments in the jar-scale and pilot-scale experiment were studied. Algae activity (AA) was measured and used to elucidate the mechanisms of algae removal by above treatments. Results show that algae removal can be improved distinctively by proper preozonation, as the ozone dose 1.0 mg x L(-1), for instance. Algae removal could be increased from 55%-85% by traditional coagulation to 95% by enhanced coagulation after preozonation; and the best removal achieved 99.3% with ozone 1.0 mg x L(-1) and PACl 3.0 mg x L(-1); the residual THMFP (Trihalomethanes formation potential) was lowered from 117 microg x L(-1) by traditional coagulation to 46 microg x L(-1). But higher dose of ozone (as > or = 2.0 mg x L(-1)) impairs organic matter removal, although it decreases algae activity further. Significant differences were found in algae removal by AA detection between ozonation and traditional coagulation. Traditional coagulation had little effect on AA no matter the different PAC1 doses; while AA decreased clearly after ozonation. AA was lowered below 12 under 0.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) ozonation; and it kept decreasing with increase of ozone dosage. During the following coagulation, coagulant or some of its hydrolysised components enhanced the AA decrease by ozonation. Compared to the method of normal microscopy counting, AA test expresses the influence of algae living state by water treatment processes more clearly; which would provide treatment process designer with more distinct information about algae removal mechanisms and how to arrange the treatment processes to improve algae removal.

  20. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  1. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  2. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  4. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  5. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J. E-mail: iamzhu@hotmail.com; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd{sup 3+} by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 {mu}m size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 {mu}m) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  6. Magnetite and Magnetotaxis in Bacteria and Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-15

    4JUL Gemommxit~ ft o flin 4111-W410-4 --- ef I Io_ I IIII -173 -4 Magnetite and Magnetotaxis in Bacteria and Algae R.B. Frankel Francis Bitter National...motile, magnetot ctlc algae of the genus Anisonema. 1. Introduction "--; Magnetotactic bacteria that orient and swim along magnetic field lin, s are...has been isolated and cu turdd in v chemically defined medium. Iron accounts for 2 per cent of the dry eight of the organism with most of the iron

  7. Algas, helechos y musgos en dermofarmacia

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Delgado, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Algas, musgos y helechos contribuyen a la producción de cosméticos. Estos organismos pueden tener varias funciones: contribuir a las propiedades organolépticas de la formulación, a la vez que a la estabilización o conservación de ésta y, lo más importante, proporcionar a la formulación compuestos bioactivos con actividad cosmética. En este trabajo se explicará la clasificación y propiedades de algas, musgos y helechos, y ejemplos de productos presentes en el mercado, dado que ciertos co...

  8. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  9. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  10. Freshwater algae of North America: ecology and classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehr, John D; Sheath, R.G; Kociolek, J.P

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, Second Edition is an authoritative and practical treatise on the classification, biodiversity, and ecology of all known genera of freshwater algae from North America...

  11. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machmud, M. Nizar; Fahmi, Reza; Abdullah, Rohana; Kokarkin, Coco

    2013-01-01

    .... Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics...

  12. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  13. The Ecology of Turf Algae on Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jill L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet. Globally, corals are declining and algae are increasing due to anthropogenic activities. While most research and conservation efforts focus on the proliferation of macroalgae, in fact most algae on coral reefs are turf algae: heterogeneous assemblages of many species of small algae. These ubiquitous and abundant algal “shag carpets” are typically overlooked or studied as a homogenous functional group. I examine c...

  14. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

  15. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.) on juvenile crayfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ulikowski Dariusz; Chybowski Łucjan; Traczuk Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch.), in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 ...

  16. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  17. The algae of Gaborone wastewater stabilization ponds: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of algae found in the wastewater stabilization ponds in Gaborone were studied. Being the base of the food chain in any aquatic habitat, algae contribute significantly to the functioning and value of the ponds. The (liversit)' and abundance of the algae in the two pond systems at Broadhurst and Phakalane were ...

  18. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  19. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal...

  20. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  1. Composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi Reservoir, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the distribution, abundance and taxonomic composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi reservoir were carried out for 12 months (from January to December 1995). Of the 26 algal taxa identified, 14 taxa belonged to the diatoms, 8 taxa were green algae while 4 taxa belonged to the blue-green algae. Higher cell ...

  2. Agricultural importance of algae | Abdel-Raouf | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae are a large and diverse group of microorganisms that can carry out photosynthesis since they capture energy from sunlight. Algae play an important role in agriculture where they are used as biofertilizer and soil stabilizers. Algae, particularly the seaweeds, are used as fertilizers, resulting in less nitrogen and ...

  3. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  4. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  5. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  6. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  7. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  8. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  9. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  10. Taxonomic Challenges and Distribution of Gracilarioid Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the gracilarioid algae from Tanzania, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to provide names, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Our revision shows that species ...

  11. Usos industriales de las algas diatomeas.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Las diatomeas son algas microscópicas que habitan tanto en aguas dulces como marinas. Aparte de su destacado papel en la cadena trófica de los ecosistemas acuáticos, con el tiempo forman depósitos a los que el hombre ha encontrado abundantes aplicaciones prácticas.

  12. Algae, phytoplankton and eutrophication research and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief history of South African research on and management of algae-, phytoplankton- and eutrophication-related problems is presented, including their ecological, social and economic impacts, which provides a basis for formulation of future research needs. The contributions of southern African research on different ...

  13. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Habitat associations of an expanding native alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Sofie E; Glasby, Tim M; Gladstone, William; Gribben, Paul E

    2017-10-01

    There are many examples of native macrophytes becoming locally dominant and spreading outside their traditional distributions, but the causes and impacts are often not understood. In New South Wales, Australia, the green alga Caulerpa filiformis is undergoing a range expansion and has transitioned from a subdominant to a dominant alga on several rocky shores around the Sydney coastline. Here we investigated relationships between established patches of C. filiformis, the habitat it occupies and associated algal communities at multiple subtidal sites over the green alga's 700 km range. We tested the following predictions: 1) C. filiformis cover differs among substrata, being greatest on turf-forming algae; 2) C. filiformis cover is positively related to environmental variables linked to increased sedimentation (e.g. reduced reef width, surface slope, increased rugosity and distance from shore); 3) occurrence of C. filiformis is associated with a change in macrophyte community structure and a reduction of macrophyte richness; 4) intact native algal canopies inhibit C. filiformis spread, but turf-forming algae and bare sand are susceptible to invasion. Substratum associations were highly consistent among sites, but contrary to our prediction, C. filiformis was most commonly associated with rock or rock + sand substratum and less frequently associated with turf-forming algae substratum. C. filiformis cover was negatively correlated with reef width, which explained most of the variation observed, although local scale variables distance from shore, reef slope, and water depth were also correlated with C. filiformis cover. Algal diversity and community composition typically differed in the presence of C. filiformis, often with a reduction of algal abundances, in particular Sargassum spp., although results varied among substrata and sites. However, monitoring of borders suggested that C. filiformis does not invade and outcompete undisturbed adjacent canopy

  16. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors......Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  18. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  19. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Laura L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2009-06-01

    There is currently substantial interest in utilizing eukaryotic algae for the renewable production of several bioenergy carriers, including starches for alcohols, lipids for diesel fuel surrogates, and H2 for fuel cells. Relative to terrestrial biofuel feedstocks, algae can convert solar energy into fuels at higher photosynthetic efficiencies, and can thrive in salt water systems. Recently, there has been considerable progress in identifying relevant bioenergy genes and pathways in microalgae, and powerful genetic techniques have been developed to engineer some strains via the targeted disruption of endogenous genes and/or transgene expression. Collectively, the progress that has been realized in these areas is rapidly advancing our ability to genetically optimize the production of targeted biofuels.

  20. Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

    1997-09-01

    Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

  1. Studies on Polyethers Produced by Red Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cen-Pacheco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel squalene-derived triterpenes, spirodehydrovenustatriol (3 and 14-keto-dehydrothyrsiferol (4 were isolated from the red alga Laurencia viridis, together with two new and unusual C17 terpenoids, adejen A (5 and B (6. These truncated structures possess structural similarities with other known squalene metabolites and their biogenetic origin has been proposed on the basis of an oxidative process of the squalene skeleton. All the structures were elucidated by extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopic methods.

  2. "Vision" in single-celled algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateriya, Suneel; Nagel, Georg; Bamberg, Ernst; Hegemann, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Photosynthetic unicellular algae have a unique visual system. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the pigmented eye comprises the optical system and at least five different rhodopsin photoreceptors. Two of them, the channelrhodopsins, are rhodopsin-ion channel hybrids switched between closed and open states by photoisomerization of the attached retinal chromophore. They promise to become a useful tool for noninvasive control of membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations.

  3. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  4. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCatalanotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

  5. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  6. Himalayan Ice Core Analyses With Snow Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kohshima, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Seko, K.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    Snow algae in a shallow ice core (7 m in length) from the Yala Glacier, Langtang region of Nepal, were examined for potential use in ice core analyses. Ice core samples taken at 5350 m a.s.l. in 1994, contained more than 7 species of snow algae. In a vertical profile of the algal biomass, 11 distinct algal layers were observed. Seasonal observation in 1996 at the coring site indicated most algal growth to occur from late spring to late summer. Pit observation in 1991, 1992 and 1994 indicated algal layer formation to take place annually. Delta 18O, chemical ions (Na+, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-) and microparticles failed to show any clear seasonal variation, particularly so at depths exceeding 2 m, possibly due to heavy melt-water percolation. Snow algae in the ice core would thus be accurate boundary markers of annual layers in the ice cores of this region. Algal biomass in each annual layer was noted to be quite closely correlated with the following two environmental indices calculated from air temperature and precipitation at Kyangjing (3,920 m a.s.l.), the village nearest the Yala Glacier: estimated mean snow cover thickness (MST) and estimated summer mass balance (SMB) (n = 6, r = -0.975, P snow cover thickness on algal layers, which would be a major determinant of light available for algal growth on the glacier. The algal biomass was also found to be roughly correlated with air temperature (n = 7, r = 0.773, P snow algae. Snow algal biomass in an ice core should prove a good environmental marker for indicating summer mass balance which is important for understanding summer-accumulation-type glaciers in this region.

  7. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulating cellular trace metal economy in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2017-10-01

    As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell. In this review, we focus on recent progress made toward understanding the pathways by which the single-celled, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii controls its cellular trace metal economy. We also compare these mechanisms to characterized and putative processes in other algal lineages. Photosynthetic microbes continue to provide insight into cellular regulation and handling of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn as a function of the nutritional supply and cellular demand for metal cofactors. New experimental tools such as RNA-Seq and subcellular metal imaging are bringing us closer to a molecular understanding of acclimation to supply dynamics in algae and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  10. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  11. [The efficiency of algae removal from drinking water by ferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Qu, J; Zhang, J; Ge, X; Liang, M; Tian, B

    2001-03-01

    This paper studied the efficiency of algae removal by ferrate from two kinds of raw water which were collected from Donghu and Tiegang reservoir respectively. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of algae reached about 95% only through PAC coagulation when the raw water was extracted from Donghu reservoir in which most of algae was Chlorella. But dealing with Tiegang raw water in which the majority of algae were Oscillatoria, terrate was used as pre-oxidant coupling with PAC coagulation not only using PAC to flocculate and the efficiency of algae removal could be up to 97.85%. However this treatment method using ferrate as pre-oxidant overmatched the traditional method prechlorination for algae removal.

  12. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kun; Sun, Pei-Ting; Xiao, Jing-Kun; Song, Yong-Xin

    2006-12-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships’ ballast water, experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships’ ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.) is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  13. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  14. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  15. Possibility of enhancing algae drying by integrating infrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    SANG, YINGZI

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of designing an infrasound-integrated technology which can enhance the algae drying performance, this thesis provided the theoretical possibility of using infrasound as an algae dehydration technology. To test the relation between algae drying speed and other three parameters namely sound frequency, sound pressure and sample mass, four major experimental groups including initial experiments and core experiments with fifteen sub-experimental groups are designed. Results of the exp...

  16. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  17. Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ EL C R- 12 -1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments En vi ro...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL CR-12-1 April 2012 Approaches to Golden...parvum cell toxicity and stable isotope ratios. Harmful Algae 8: 247-253. Lundholm, N., and O. Moestrup. 2006. The biogeography of harmful algae. In

  18. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    role of these elements in the interactions between fuels and algae , each of the three elements Cr, Ti, and Pb were quantified in the algal assay medium...AFAMRL-TR-82-70 USE OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS SECOND ANNUAL REPORT JAN SCHERFIG PETER DIXON MARC A. PETTY...70 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED USE OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF Second Annual Re-ort POTENTIAL AQUATIC

  19. Production and characterization of algae extract from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kightlinger

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that algae extract derived from C. reinhardtii is similar, if not superior, to commercially available yeast extract in nutrient content and effects on the growth and metabolism of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Bacto™ yeast extract is valued at USD $0.15–0.35 per gram, if algae extract was sold at similar prices, it would serve as a high-value co-product in algae-based fuel processes.

  20. Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssèdre, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. Knoll states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. Teyssèdre's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some "acritarchs" and of a primitive clade of green algae, the Pyramimonadales. A paraphyletic group of unicellular green algae, named "Prasinop...

  1. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  2. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  3. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  4. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  5. Ammonium removal using algae-bacteria consortia: the effect of ammonium concentration, algae biomass, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huijun; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-12-13

    In this study, the effects of ammonium nitrogen concentration, algae biomass concentration, and light conditions (wavelength and intensity) on the ammonium removal efficiency of algae-bacteria consortia from wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium concentration and light intensity had a significant impact on nitrification. It was found that the highest ammonia concentration (430 mg N/L) in the influent resulted in the highest ammonia removal rate of 108 ± 3.6 mg N/L/days, which was two times higher than the influent with low ammonia concentration (40 mg N/L). At the lowest light intensity of 1000 Lux, algae biomass concentration, light wavelength, and light cycle did not show a significant effect on the performance of algal-bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the ammonia removal rate was approximately 83 ± 1.0 mg N/L/days, which was up to 40% faster than at the light intensity of 2500 Lux. It was concluded that the algae-bacteria consortia can effectively remove nitrogen from wastewater and the removal performance can be stabilized and enhanced using the low light intensity of 1000 Lux that is also a cost-effective strategy.

  6. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    resource in various appl ic a tions such as, rehabilitation of waste lands, enhancement of crop fields as well as the crops. A number of studies have a l ready been carried out in Southern India to harness the potential of seaweeds as a natural... fertilizer. Extracts from some se a weed s pecies have shown beneficial e f fects on crop plants. This was reflected in the physiognomy as well as physio l ogy of the crops. Algae are relatively high in nitrogen and potash, but low in phosphorus...

  7. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCBNannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  8. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  10. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  11. Dissolved Air Flotation Process for Algae Removal | Mulaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... algae such as blue-green, green, diatom and dinoflagellates was effective. At optimum coagulant dosage, algae removal from 70 percent to 90 percent, turbidity reduction of over 80 percent and color improvement of about 75 percent was achieved. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(2) 2004: 27-38.

  12. Persistence and proliferation of some unicellular algae in drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water systems have a complex structure and are characterised by the absence of light, the presence of disinfectants and by low levels of nutrients. Several kinds of bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi can be found in tap water. Little is known about the ecology of algae in drinking water systems, although their ...

  13. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  14. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-15

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  15. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  16. EnAlgae Decision Support Toolset: model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Philip; Visser, de Chris; Skarka, Johannes; Sternberg, Kirstin; Schipperus, Roelof; Silkina, Alla; Ginnever, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    One of the drivers behind the EnAlgae project is recognising and addressing the need for increased availability of information about developments in applications of algae biotechnology for energy, particularly in the NW Europe area, where activity has been less intense than in other areas of the

  17. Aspects of nitrogen assimilation by cultures of green algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, L.H.J.

    1956-01-01

    The N/C relation in green algae was about 0.2, but with N starvation this ratio may decline to 0.04. Such treatment also decreased the chlorophyll content of the cells as well as the rates of photosynthesis and growth.

    Supply of substrate N to N-starved algae resulted in formation of cells of

  18. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  19. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  20. Management of autotrophic mass cultures of micro-algae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toerien, DF

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mass cultivation of micro-algae as feed and foodstuff has existed since the turn of the century (Robinson and Toerien, 1962). Experiments using algae in photosynthetic research (Warburg, 1919) also led to an appreciation...

  1. Search for Future Viands-Algae and Fungi as Food

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Search for Future Viands - Algae and Fungi as Food. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/05/0033-0040. Keywords. Alternative food; algae; fungi; mushrooms; seaweeds. Author Affiliations.

  2. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents estimates of the monetary value of the impact of eutrophication (algae) on commercial agriculture in two different catchments in South Africa. A production function approach is applied to estimate the monetary value of the impact of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture in the Dwars River, ...

  3. PERANAN DEKOMPOSER NABATI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN POPULASI SEL ALGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Junus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has programmed units of biogas as an energy producer. By-products such as organic sludge. Liquid separation of organic sludge biogas unit will be the terrestrial and aquatic plant fertilizer. Water plant that uses a liquid organic sludge biogas unit (LOSBGU using vegetable decomposer were expected to be a very good influence on the increase of alga cells. The results showed that the addition of vegetable LOSBGU and decomposers in the media for 12 days alga could produce alga cells very significantly, however, its interaction was not significant. It was concluded that the addition of vegetable LOSBGU and decomposers in alga was very good media to enhance cell growth and its multiplication was also quite high. As suggestion, the use of  LOSBGU is needed to increase the production of alga.

  4. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Local Available Algae in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Aljabarin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at producing diesel out of algae. The production of biodiesel was performed at Tafila Technical University laboratories. The algae were brought from Almansora stream at Tafila governorate / Jordan, and afterwards dried in an oven at 80ºC for 12 hours. The dried Algae were ground using disc mill until powder was obtained. The powdered Algae underwent a distillation process with the addition of Iron Sulphate Hydrate to the Algae using a distillation column in order to extract the oil. Methanol was added to the oil, which was obtained from the distillation and using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst, the product was then separated in a funnel for about 10 hours until two layers of the solution were obtained, the organic layer represents the biodiesel. The biodiesel attributes are similar to the diesel oil, except that it reduces the emission of carbon dioxide CO2 and there is no emission of sulphur dioxide SO2

  6. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  7. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F. [Univ. de Metz (France). Centre des Sciences de l`Environnement

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  8. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  9. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  10. Effective viscosity of actively swimming algae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. "pushers" vs. "pullers"). Here we report experimental measurements of shear viscosity for suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated "puller"). We use a cone-and-plate rheometer to measure the dynamic shear viscosity for both motile and non-motile suspensions of D. primolecta. Viscosity increases with concentration for both cases, but the active suspensions of "pullers" have a comparatively lower effective viscosity than passive suspensions. This observation contrasts recently proposed theories which predict that "pullers" should instead have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions. Additionally, we observe shear-induced migration of active suspensions and consider its impact on the resulting effective shear viscosity.

  11. Marine edible algae as disease preventers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gutierrez, Claudia Mariana; Guerra-Rivas, Graciela; Soria-Mercado, Ima Esthela; Ayala-Sánchez, Nahara Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    As modern lifestyles and new feeding habits settle in the world, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have evolved to be major causes of disability in developing as well as developed countries. As a concomitant effect, there is a growing interest in natural, healthy food and an increasing awareness of risk factors and determinants of disease. This chapter describes some nutritional facts about seaweeds, which have been used as food since ancient times in China, Japan, Egypt, and India and comments on the potential utilization of marine algae as functional foods. This concept and the description of metabolic syndrome are used as a basis to comprehension of seaweeds against two dreadful illnesses of our times: high blood pressure and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stuart A; Davey, Matthew P; Dennis, John S; Horst, Irmtraud; Howe, Christopher J; Lea-Smith, David J; Smith, Alison G

    2010-06-01

    Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal biofuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C

    2015-01-01

    The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 μmol/m²/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O₂/g h; NH(4)(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the (O⁺) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O₂%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO(3)(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O₂% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO(4)(3)(-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h.

  14. Growth optimization of algae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, J L; Stuart, B J; Riefler, R Guy; Vis, M L

    2011-08-01

    Algae are favourable as a biofuel source because of the potential high oil content and fast generation of biomass. However, one of the challenges for this technology is achieving high oil content while maintaining exponential or high growth of the organism. Introducing a two-stage reactor to optimize both growth and oil content of the algae could be a solution to this hurdle. The aim of this study was to determine the reactor design parameters of the first-stage reactor, which would optimize growth of two algal strains, Oocystis sp. and Amphora sp. Growth kinetics were monitored by in vivo fluorescence and correlated to dry mass for both cultures under several environmental conditions during exponential growth. Temperatures of 25 and 30°C and light intensities of 150 and 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) provided the most robust growth for Oocystis sp. and Amphora sp., respectively. Both strains showed optimized growth at a light : dark cycle of 16 : 08. At these conditions, the doubling rate for Oocystis sp. was 0·333 d(-1) and for Amphora sp. was 0·179 d(-1) . For both cultures, growth rate was more dependent on light : dark cycle and temperature than light intensity. Both strains grew slower in this work than data reported in the literature, however agitation and air/CO(2) sparging were not incorporated in the system under study. The highest doubling rate for Amphora sp. was observed near the maximum tolerable temperature, and it is suggested to grow this strain at 30°C for a consistent high growth rate. Optimized growth conditions were determined for two lipid producing strains identified in the Aquatic Species Program summary report. An optimized, first-stage growth reactor operating at these conditions would thus offer the maximum productivity for an algal biomass feed stream into a lipid-optimized second-stage reactor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

    2015-01-01

    Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustok, I; Diaz, J G; Odlare, M; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-01-01

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.

  17. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. on juvenile crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulikowski Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch., in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 under natural thermal conditions and fed a commercial feed. The results indicated that the presence of the filamentous algae did not have a statistically significant impact on the growth of the juvenile crayfish (P > 0.05. The presence of the filamentous algae had a strong negative impact on juvenile crayfish survival and stock biomass (P < 0.05. The layer of gravel and small stones that imitated the mineral substrate of natural aquatic basins somewhat neutralized the disadvantageous impact the filamentous algae had on the crayfish.

  18. [Numerical simulation on hydrodynamic character for algae growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong

    2008-04-01

    In order to quantificationally study the direct effects of hydrodynamic condition on the growth of algae, the Microcystis aeruginosa was chosen to carry through the disturbance-experiment. By keeping the same value of illumination, temperature and nutrition and changing the rotate speed of oscillator, the growing processes of algae under different disturbance intensities were researched. The hydraulic parameter was presented to amend the formula for the growth of algae. Take Neijiang as an example. A 2-D unsteady model for algae growth was established to forecast the scope of water blooms in Neijiang. It is found that the growth of algae is obviously influenced by hydrodynamic condition, and a condign low velocity is beneficial for its growth while both the quiescence condition and high velocity will restrain its growth rate. After the close of the water gate in Leading Channel, the velocity in Neijiang will be decreased, which accelerated the growth rate of algae, and the area of water blooms will be increased to 2.5 km2 which is about 36.8 percent of the total water surface area of Neijiang. Under the quiescent condition and the improved hydrodynamic condition, the growth rate of algae will be effectively controlled and the area of water blooms will be reduced to 0.78 km2 and 0.18 km2 respectively.

  19. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  20. Cobra bite wound infection caused by Shewanella algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Yu; Shi, Zhi-Yuan; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Wu, Zong-Yen; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chang, Chih-Yen; Chen, Ying-Ju; Huang, Jin-An; Mao, Yan-Chiao; Tung, Kwong-Chung

    2014-03-01

    Shewanella wound infections after snake bites are rare. We report the case of a Shewanella algae wound infection associated with a cobra bite in a 27-year-old woman. The isolate was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene. This case expands the reported spectrum of infection caused by S. algae and raises the possibility that S. algae could be a causative pathogen in wound infections resulting from snake bites. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  2. Natural Food Colorants Obtained from Algae and Their Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Ilter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the major features that fascinate the customers and makes the foods more allurement. Due to changes of customer demands and countries’ legislations, usage of synthetic colorants is being decreased every day and food industry tends to use natural colorant. Algae have recently gained importance owing to a sustainable natural source of colorant. Algae can rapidly increase their biomass compared to plants thus they produce more pigments. This review covers the subjects about the functional properties and usage areas of natural colorants obtained from algae; phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, fucoxanthin.

  3. The biotechnological ways of blue-green algae complex processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nykyforov, Volodymyr; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Kozlovskaya, Tatyana; Novokhatko, Olha; Digtiar, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    The results of long­term research of various ways and methods of collection and processing of blue­green algae that cause “bloom” of the Dnieper reservoirs were presented. The possibility and feasibility of the blue­green algae biomass processing to biogas by methanogenesis were substantiated. It was found experimentally that preliminary mechanical cavitation of the blue­green algae biomass increases the biogas yield by 21.5 %. It was determined that the biogas produced contains up to 72 % of...

  4. Detection of green algae (Chlorophyceae) for the diagnosis of drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, S; Yoshida, M; Okii, Y; Tokiyasu, T; Watabiki, T; Akane, A

    1995-01-01

    The plankton test (generally, diatom test) is one of the methods available to diagnose the cause of death of submerged bodies. The solubilization method using tissue solubilizer Soluene-350 was used in this study to detect not only diatoms but also green algae, based on the fact that the solubilizer does not digest the cell walls of green algae which are made from cellulose. Detection of green algae from organs of submerged cadavers is very informative to determine drowning in fresh water, and also in cases where only few diatoms are detected in the organs.

  5. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae ...

  6. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  7. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemical examination of the brown alga Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    The crude methalonic extract of marine algae Stoechospermum marginatum from west coast of India was found to have spasmolytic activity. Search for the pharmacologically active compounds led to the isolation of steroids, fatty acids and an ester...

  9. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  10. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  12. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional interaction in an alga-barnacle association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J E; Rees, T A V

    1994-09-01

    Nitrogen is the major growth-limiting nutrient for marine algae. One potential source of nitrogen for marine algae is ammonium released by invertebrates. Many mid-intertidal reefs in northeastern New Zealand are dominated by a close association between the honeycomb barnacle Chamaesipho columna and an encusting brown alga Pseudolithoderma sp. Growth of Pseudolithoderma was enhanced in the presence of live C. columna, which released ammonium at a greater rate than the maximum rate of ammonium uptake by Pseudolithoderma. Algal tissue on barnacle tests had a lower C:N ratio than tissue located more than 2 cm from the nearest barnacle, suggesting the barnacle is an important source of nitrogen for the alga. The role of nutrient exchange in determining ecological patterns of species in marine communities is discussed.

  14. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control mechanisms to ..... as farmers neither quantify nor keep a record of the volumes of filamentous green algae removed, the ..... A survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an applica- tion. Sci. Total Environ. 365 105–122.

  15. Ectocarpus: a model organism for the brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    The brown algae are an interesting group of organisms from several points of view. They are the dominant organisms in many coastal ecosystems, where they often form large, underwater forests. They also have an unusual evolutionary history, being members of the stramenopiles, which are very distantly related to well-studied animal and green plant models. As a consequence of this history, brown algae have evolved many novel features, for example in terms of their cell biology and metabolic pathways. They are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic groups to have independently evolved complex multicellularity. Despite these interesting features, the brown algae have remained a relatively poorly studied group. This situation has started to change over the last few years, however, with the emergence of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus as a model system that is amenable to the genomic and genetic approaches that have proved to be so powerful in more classical model organisms such as Drosophila and Arabidopsis.

  16. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  17. Hydrobiological Study of Algae of an Urban Freshwater River | Jafari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The algal flora of polluted water bodies shows the dominance of blue green and diatoms like, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Anabena, Microcystis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, Gomphonema through out the investigation many green algae like, Pandorina, Scenedesmus, Stigeoclonium, Ankistrodesmus, Chlamydomonas, also ...

  18. Relationships between algae taxa and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Pinnularia sp., Tabellaria sp. and Lyngbya sp. are associated to low values of TDS and conductivity while Phacus sp., Closterium sp., Euglena sp. and Trachelomonas sp. thrive better in high polluted waters. The distribution of these algae ...

  19. The role of algae in agriculture: a mathematical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Venturino, Ezio

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic fertilizers and livestock manure are nowadays widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield but nitrogen and phosphorous runoff resulting from their use compromises water quality and contributes to eutrophication phenomena in waterbeds within the countryside and ultimately in the ocean. Alternatively, algae could play an important role in agriculture where they can be used as biofertilizers and soil stabilizers. To examine the possible reuse of the detritus generated by dead algae as fertilizer for crops, we develop three mathematical models building upon each other. A system is proposed in which algae recover waste nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for reuse in agricultural production. The results of our study show that in so doing, the crop yield may be increased and simultaneously the density of algae in the lake may be reduced. This could be a way to mitigate and possibly solve the environmental and economic issues nowadays facing agriculture.

  20. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  1. Pliocene Coralline Algae, South Of Safaga (Red Sea, Egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, H [حامد خليفة محمد

    1984-01-01

    Coralline algae are highly abundant in the Pliocene succession of the area south of Safaga (Red Sea, Egypt). The articulated corallines (Corallinoideae) are represented here by a single genus, Amphiroa. The crustose coralline group (Melobesioideae) are relatively common in the studied sections. They are represented only by two genera, Lithophyllum and Lithoporella. Thirteen species of coralline algae are here recorded and described, for the first time, from the Pliocene rocks of the concer...

  2. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  3. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    AFAMRL-TR-80-85 USE OF UNICELLUAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS JAN SCHERFIG PETER S. DIXON CAROL A. JUSTICE ALBERTO ACEVEDO...NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFAMRL-TR-80-85 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED USE OF UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION...Shale-derived JP-8 Dimethylhydrazine Selenastrum Morphological changes Bioassays Dunaliella Capricornutum Safe Concentration (SC) Jet Fuel JP-8 20

  4. Genome Annotation and Transcriptomics of Oil-Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Most algae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) when they are starved for essential nutrients like N, S, P (or Si in the case of some...report, performing the research, or credited with the content of the report. The form of entry is the last name, first name, middle initial, and...Abstract Most algae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) when they are starved for essential nutrients like N, S, P (or Si in the case of some diatoms

  5. Diversity and ecology of filamentous green conjugate algae

    OpenAIRE

    Strouhalová, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous conjugating algae have a cosmopolitan distribution. They often inhabit fragile freshwater habitats such as temporary hydrated ditches or puddles of melting snow. Occurrence in this environment entails having to deal with extreme conditions. That helps them to variously adaptation and also the formation of resistant stages. Algae belonging to this group have an important role in nature, because they are often the first species that inhabit newly created habitats and consequently al...

  6. Overcoming Microalgae Harvesting Barrier by Activated Algae Granules

    OpenAIRE

    Tiron, Olga; Bumbac, Costel; Manea, Elena; Stefanescu, Mihai; Nita Lazar, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    The economic factor of the microalgae harvesting step acts as a barrier to scaling up microalgae-based technology designed for wastewater treatment. In view of that, this study presents an alternative microalgae-bacteria system, which is proposed for eliminating the economic obstacle. Instead of the microalgae-bacteria (activated algae) flocs, the study aimed to develop activated algae granules comprising the microalgae Chlorella sp. as a target species. The presence of the filamentous microa...

  7. Identification of cytokinin in a green algae extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Lin, Duan; Feng, Pan; Li, Shuai; Jun-Shun, Zhang; Xin-Tong, Liu; Xiu-Geng, Fei

    1996-06-01

    Isopentenyladenosine (i6Ado) was identified, and trans-zeatin (trans-Z) and trans-zeatin riboside (trans-ZR) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) but not verified with chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cytokinin from the extracts of green algae ( Ulva pertusa (Kjellm), Enteromopha compressa and Monostroma sp.). This indicated that the green algae mixture contained cytokinin—like substances.

  8. Biofuels and algae; Biocarburants, la promesse des algues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  9. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  10. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. E-mail: msmasri@aec.org.sy; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y

    2003-07-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) for {sup 210}Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate {sup 210}Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br.

  11. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  12. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Koid

    Full Text Available Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  14. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  15. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists.

  17. Mitochondrial Genome of Prasinophyte Alga Pyramimonas parkeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdá, Štěpánka; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, Vladimír

    2017-05-01

    Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic assemblage of nine heterogeneous lineages in the Chlorophyta clade of Archaeplastida. Until now, seven complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced from four prasinophyte lineages. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome of Pyramimonas parkeae, the first representative of the prasinophyte clade I. The circular-mapping molecule is 43,294 bp long, AT rich (68.8%), very compact and it comprises two 6,671 bp long inverted repeat regions. The gene content is slightly smaller than the gene-richest prasinophyte mitochondrial genomes. The single identified intron is located in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Interestingly, two exons of cox1 are encoded on the same strand of DNA in the reverse order and the mature mRNA is formed by trans-splicing. The phylogenetic analysis using the data set of 6,037 positions assembled from 34 mtDNA-encoded proteins of 48 green algae and plants is not in compliance with the branching order of prasinophyte clades revealed on the basis of 18S rRNA genes and cpDNA-encoded proteins. However, the phylogenetic analyses based on all three genomic elements support the sister position of prasinophyte clades Pyramimonadales and Mamiellales. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Photoprotection strategies of the alga Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhutsina, Volha U; Fristedt, Rikard; Morosinotto, Tomas; Croce, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Nannochloropsis spp. are algae with high potential for biotechnological applications due to their capacity to accumulate lipids. However, little is known about their photosynthetic apparatus and acclimation/photoprotective strategies. In this work, we studied the mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), the fast response to high light stress, in Nannochloropsis gaditana by "locking" the cells in six different states during quenching activation and relaxation. Combining biochemical analysis with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we correlated each NPQ state with the presence of two well-known NPQ components: de-epoxidized xanthophylls and stress-related antenna proteins (LHCXs). We demonstrated that after exposure to strong light, the rapid quenching that takes place in the antennas of both photosystems was associated with the presence of LHCXs. At later stages, quenching occurs mainly in the antennas of PSII and correlates with the amount of de-epoxidised xanthophylls. We also observed changes in the distribution of excitation energy between photosystems, which suggests redistribution of excitation between photosystems as part of the photo-protective strategy. A multistep model for NPQ induction and relaxation in N. gaditana is discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  20. AlgaGEM--a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal'Molin, Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira; Quek, Lake-Ee; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-12-22

    Microalgae have the potential to deliver biofuels without the associated competition for land resources. In order to realise the rates and titres necessary for commercial production, however, system-level metabolic engineering will be required. Genome scale metabolic reconstructions have revolutionized microbial metabolic engineering and are used routinely for in silico analysis and design. While genome scale metabolic reconstructions have been developed for many prokaryotes and model eukaryotes, the application to less well characterized eukaryotes such as algae is challenging not at least due to a lack of compartmentalization data. We have developed a genome-scale metabolic network model (named AlgaGEM) covering the metabolism for a compartmentalized algae cell based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. AlgaGEM is a comprehensive literature-based genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for the functions of 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2249 gene-enzyme-reaction-association entries, and 1725 unique reactions. The reconstruction was compartmentalized into the cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid and microbody using available data for algae complemented with compartmentalisation data for Arabidopsis thaliana. AlgaGEM describes a functional primary metabolism of Chlamydomonas and significantly predicts distinct algal behaviours such as the catabolism or secretion rather than recycling of phosphoglycolate in photorespiration. AlgaGEM was validated through the simulation of growth and algae metabolic functions inferred from literature. Using efficient resource utilisation as the optimality criterion, AlgaGEM predicted observed metabolic effects under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. AlgaGEM predicts increased hydrogen production when cyclic electron flow is disrupted as seen in a high producing mutant derived from mutational studies. The model also predicted the physiological pathway for H2 production and identified new targets

  1. Performance of salsnes water to algae treatment (swat) technology in a continuous mode for high algae recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Barragán, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology. *KAR OK,.KONF MAI 2016* Many researchers consider efficient harvesting is the major bottleneck in cost efficient production of microalgae, contributing 20 – 30 % to total production cost. This thesis is the conclusion of a two years research project to develop Salsnes Water to Algae Treatment (SWAT) harvesting technology. SWAT uses two main processes: flocculation and filtration. The SWAT objectives were achieved, 95 % algae removal and p...

  2. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  3. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  5. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  6. Optimal control of algae growth by controlling CO 2 and nutrition flow using Pontryagin Maximum Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah; Jamil, Ahmad; Hanafi, Lukman; Sanjaya, Suharmadi

    2017-09-01

    There are so many benefit of algae. One of them is using for renewable energy and sustainable in the future. The greater growth of algae will increasing biodiesel production and the increase of algae growth is influenced by glucose, nutrients and photosynthesis process. In this paper, the optimal control problem of the growth of algae is discussed. The objective function is to maximize the concentration of dry algae while the control is the flow of carbon dioxide and the nutrition. The solution is obtained by applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. and the result show that the concentration of algae increased more than 15 %.

  7. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  8. New drugs with antiprotozoal activity from marine algae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A.E. Torres

    Full Text Available The use of indigenous or remote popular knowledge to identify new drugs against diseases or infections is a well-known approach in medicine. The inhabitants of coastal regions are known to prepare algae extracts for the treatment of disorders and ailments such as wounds, fever and stomach aches, as for the prevention of arrhythmia. Recent trends in drug research from natural sources have indicated that marine algae are a promising source of novel biochemically active compounds, especially with antiprotozoal activity. Algae survive in a competitive environment and, therefore, developed defense strategies that have resulted in a significant level of chemical structural diversity in various metabolic pathways. The exploration of these organisms for pharmaceutical and medical purposes has provided important chemical candidates for the discovery of new agents against neglected tropical diseases, stimulating the use of sophisticated physical techniques. This current review describes the main substances biosynthesized by benthic marine algae with activity against Leishmaniaspp., Trypanosoma cruziand Trypanosoma brucei; the causative agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and African trypanosomiasis, respectively. Emphasis is given to secondary metabolites and crude extracts prepared from marine algae.

  9. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  10. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  12. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  13. Overcoming Microalgae Harvesting Barrier by Activated Algae Granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, Olga; Bumbac, Costel; Manea, Elena; Stefanescu, Mihai; Nita Lazar, Mihai

    2017-07-05

    The economic factor of the microalgae harvesting step acts as a barrier to scaling up microalgae-based technology designed for wastewater treatment. In view of that, this study presents an alternative microalgae-bacteria system, which is proposed for eliminating the economic obstacle. Instead of the microalgae-bacteria (activated algae) flocs, the study aimed to develop activated algae granules comprising the microalgae Chlorella sp. as a target species. The presence of the filamentous microalgae (Phormidium sp.) was necessary for the occurrence of the granulation processes. A progressive decrease in frequency of the free Chlorella sp. cells was achieved once with the development of the activated algae granules as a result of the target microalgae being captured in the dense and tangled network of filaments. The mature activated algae granules ranged between 600 and 2,000 µm, and were characterized by a compact structure and significant settling ability (21.6 ± 0.9 m/h). In relation to the main aim of this study, a microalgae recovery efficiency of higher than 99% was achieved only by fast sedimentation of the granules; this performance highlighted the viability of the granular activated algae system for sustaining a microalgae harvesting procedure with neither cost nor energy inputs.

  14. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp. and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp. separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1 and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1 conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  16. AlgaePath: comprehensive analysis of metabolic pathways using transcript abundance data from next-generation sequencing in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han-Qin; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Chien, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Bo-Kai Justin; Liu, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Wen-Chi

    2014-03-14

    Algae are important non-vascular plants that have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, and adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, are used as ingredients in health supplements. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes has made the development of an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway essential for functional analysis and systems biology. In a currently available resource, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately, making it impossible to easily search current databases to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, in this work the novel AlgaePath database was developed to retrieve transcript abundance profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. AlgaePath is a web-based database that integrates gene information, biological pathways, and NGS datasets for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4. Users can search this database to identify transcript abundance profiles and pathway information using five query pages (Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-expression Analysis). The transcript abundance data of 45 and four samples from C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4, respectively, can be obtained directly on pathway maps. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified using Folds Search. The Gene Group Analysis page includes a pathway enrichment analysis, and can be used to easily compare the transcript abundance profiles of functionally related genes on a map. Finally, the Co-expression Analysis page can be used to search for co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The results of the searches will provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and for elucidating critical

  17. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  18. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  19. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  20. Granulados bioclásticos: algas calcárias

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Gilberto T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Os granulados bioclásticos marinhos, no Brasil, são formados principalmente por algas calcárias (Maerl e Lithothamnium, na França). Apenas as formas livres (free-living) das algas calcárias, tais como rodolitos, nódulos, e seus fragmentos, são viáveis para a exploração econômica, pois constituem depósitos sedimentares inconsolidados, facilmente coletados através de dragagens. As algas calcárias são compostas basicamente por carbonato de cálcio e carbonato de magnésio e mais de 20 oligoelement...

  1. Effects of Harmful Algae on the Physiology of Fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard

    Blooms of harmful planktonic algae causing adverse effects in aquatic environments are a global problem, causing both human morbidity and killing aquatic lifeforms worldwide. Focusing on fish kills, it is largely unknown what mechanisms of the fish’s physiology are affected during exposure...... to harmful algae. It is demonstrated that for an alga with a known mode of action, Prymnesium parvum affecting the gills, conventional readily available methods in fish physiology can be used to establish an adverse outcome pathway. More specifically, intermittent flow respirometry and observing ventilatory...... squeeze on striped bass (Morone saxatilis). In order to ensure continuous progress in research in physiology and toxicology of fishes, analytical approaches to environmental stressors are needed. One such approach is the Dynamic Energy Budget models; however, a recent paper called for solution...

  2. GROWTH-REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF THE ALGAE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Кyrychenkо

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth-regulatory activity of the complex algae extract from Spirogira sp. at pre-so wing treatment of soybean seeds was studied in green-house and field experiments. It was shown that phytoextract has stimulated seeds germination on 12%, plants growth on 11–37%, soybean productivity increased on 6–27% as well as activated the development and functional ability of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. The quantity of oligoazotrophes increased in 1,5–6,3 times, nitrogenase activity in 1,5–1,7 times. The possibility aspects of growth-regulatory activity of the algae extract in both plants and rhizospheric microorganisms is under discussion. Our results have confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the biological activity substances from the algae at soybean growing in order to increase plants productivity and improve microbiological indexes of soil.

  3. Sex pheromone of marine algae; Kaiso no sei pheromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-10-20

    The marine ecosystem skillfully uses various `odor materials` as chemical signals. In particular, this `odor materials` are indispensable for various organisms with no motor function or poor underdeveloped visual sensation in order to maintain or expand their species. German algae scholars found a male gamete induction active material secreted from a female gamete of primitive brown algae in 1971. Eleven kinds of sex pheromones have been found from brown algae up to the present since 1971. All of these found sex pheromones are hydrophobic `odor materials` composed of hydrocarbons containing 8 or 11 carbon atoms or epoxide (oxirane), and are compounds with singular chemical structures as physiological active material in the hydrosphere. Some sex pheromones govern not only inducement of spermatozoons but also discharge of spermatozoons from an antheridium. The sex pheromone with both functions of discharge and inducement was found from the culture solution of a certain tangle weed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkov V. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb in the form of chloride salts on the growth of axenic algae culture has been studied in the modelling experiments. The unicellular marine algae have a very short life cycle, therefore it is possible to use them in the experiments of studying the effect of anthropogenic factors at cellular and population levels on the test-object. With biomonitoring pollution of marine environment by heavy metals and others dangerous toxicants, the major indicators of algae community condition are the cellular cycle and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell. The subsequent lysis of cells under the influence of heavy metals leads to the excretion of secondary metabolites which can essentially affect the metal toxicity. The established scales of threshold and lethal concentration of heavy metals for algae of different taxon make it possible to use the ratio of sensitive and resistant species to heavy metals as biological markers when forecasting ecological consequences of pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals. Distinctions in the resistance of different taxon to heavy metals can result in implementing the strategy of selection of test-objects depending on the purposes of the research.

  5. Floating Algae Blooms in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Hu, Chuanmin; Wang, Mengqiu; Shang, Shaoling; Wilson, Cara

    2017-11-01

    A floating algae bloom in the East China Sea was observed in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in May 2017. Using satellite imagery from MODIS, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Ocean Land Imager, and combined with numerical particle tracing experiments and laboratory experiments, we examined the history of this bloom as well as similar blooms in previous years and attempted to trace the bloom source and identify the algae type. Results suggest that one bloom origin is offshore Zhejiang coast where algae slicks have appeared in satellite imagery almost every February-March since 2012. Following the Kuroshio Current and Taiwan Warm Current, these "initial" algae slicks are first transported to the northeast to reach South Korea (Jeju Island) and Japan coastal waters (up to 135°E) by early April 2017, and then transported to the northwest to enter the Yellow Sea by the end of April. The transport pathway covers an area known to be rich in Sargassum horneri, and spectral analysis suggests that most of the algae slicks may contain large amount of S. horneri. The bloom covers a water area of 160,000 km2 with pure algae coverage of 530 km2, which exceeds the size of most Ulva blooms that occur every May-July in the Yellow Sea. While blooms of smaller size also occurred in previous years and especially in 2015, the 2017 bloom is hypothesized to be a result of record-high water temperature, increased light availability, and continuous expansion of Porphyra aquaculture along the East China Sea coast.

  6. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  7. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source...

  8. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    OpenAIRE

    A Hamzeian; MM Taghizadeh; E Asrari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sa...

  9. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  10. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  11. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3β,6β-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  13. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  14. Bioecology of an articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima from Anjuna, Goa, Central Western Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    An articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima L. Lam. was found to exhibit spasmogenic and hypotensive activities due to the presence of a biogenic amine. This biologically active alga was studied for its bioecology. Its thallus is multiaxial...

  15. Distribution of algae, seagrasses, and coral communities from Lakshadweep islands, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Marine algae, seagrasses and coral from the intertidal, lagoon, reef and subtidal regions (up to 22 m depth) at Kavaratti, Agatti, Bangaram and Suheli islands, of Lakshadweep were studied Marine algae and seagrasses were mainly confined...

  16. Synthetic algae and cyanobacteria: Great potential but what is the exposure risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green algae and cyanobacteria (hereafter, algae) have the attractive properties of relatively simple genomes, rapid growth rates, and an ability to synthesize useful compounds using solar energy and carbon dioxide. They are attractive targets for applications of synthetic biology...

  17. Role of Symbiotic Algae in Hatching of Gemmules of the Freshwater Sponge, Rndiospongilla cerebellata : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    MUNETOSHI, KANAYAMA; YOSHIHISA, KAMISHIMA; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hirosaki University

    1990-01-01

    The role of symbiotic algae in the gemmule hatching of the freshwater green sponge, Radiospongilla cerebellata, was investigated. Under optimal conditions, gemmules of this sponge hatched almost 100% in 10 days. Dormant gemmules of the sponge colonized chlorellae in the thesocytes. These symbiotic algae were in two states: those with a high chlorophyll content (active algae) and those with little or no chlorophyll content (inactive algae). As incubation time proceeded, the ratio of thesocytes...

  18. Developing Molecular Genetic Tools to Facilitate Economic Production in Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    species they are not readily available for algae that are being identified as potential biofuel production strains. Our work was focused on developing...the genetic tools required to enable green algae to become efficient biofuel production strains. Being able to efficiently apply genetic...genomes require distinct sets of transforma Algae , Biofuels , Algal Genetic Tools, Marine Algae U U U UU 5 Stephen P. Mayfield 858-822-7743 Reset AFOSR

  19. Evolutionarily conserved Δ25(27)-olefin ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew B.; Haubrich, Brad A; Wang, Qian; Snell, William J.; Nes, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Ergosterol is the predominant sterol of fungi and green algae. Although the biosynthetic pathway for sterol synthesis in fungi is well established and is known to use C24-methylation-C24 (28)-reduction (Δ24(28)-olefin pathway) steps, little is known about the sterol pathway in green algae. Previous work has raised the possibility that these algae might use a novel pathway because the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was shown to possess a mevalonate-independent methylerythritol 4-phosphat...

  20. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  1. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-01-01

    A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae) in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, an...

  2. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Verawaty, Marieska; Melwita, Elda; Apsari, Putri; Mayumi, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a constructed wetland (CW) was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10%...

  3. Food and feed products from micro-algae: Market opportunities and challenges for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigani, M.; Parisi, C.; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Ploeg, M.; Enzing, C.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae are a new and promising source of nutrients. The main products obtainable are dried algae with high nutrients content and high-value compounds such as fatty acids, pigments and anti-oxidants. This paper analyses the market and the economic opportunities of micro-algae-based food and feed

  4. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  5. Occurrence of macro-algae in the by-catch of Beach Seine Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dense growths of macro-algae contribute to primary productivity in nearshore marine environments and their abundance has been correlated with fish catch. Though the two resources are ... The species richness of macro-algae in the catch was high and appeared to vary monthly. Biomass of macro-algae in the catch was ...

  6. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and

  7. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  8. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of light use efficiency for biofuel production in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Diana; Basso, Stefania; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge for next decades is development of competitive renewable energy sources, highly needed to compensate fossil fuels reserves and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different possibilities, which are currently under investigation, there is the exploitation of unicellular algae for production of biofuels and biodiesel in particular. Some algae species have the ability of accumulating large amount of lipids within their cells which can be exploited as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Strong research efforts are however still needed to fulfill this potential and optimize cultivation systems and biomass harvesting. Light provides the energy supporting algae growth and available radiation must be exploited with the highest possible efficiency to optimize productivity and make microalgae large scale cultivation energetically and economically sustainable. Investigation of the molecular bases influencing light use efficiency is thus seminal for the success of this biotechnology. In this work factors influencing light use efficiency in algal biomass production are reviewed, focusing on how algae genetic engineering and control of light environment within photobioreactors can improve the productivity of large scale cultivation systems. © 2013.

  10. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA barcode of coastal alga ( Chlorella sorokiniana ) from Ago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, environmental samples collected at Ago-Egun part of Lagos lagoon were cultured using Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) for different species and experimental results attributed the isolated strains to Chlorella Sorokiniana Shih. et. Krauss, (Trebouxiophyceae) a common species of green algae which grows in ...

  12. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  13. Differential sensitivity of green algae to allelopathic substances from Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Van Donk, E.; Roelofs, J.

    2003-01-01

    Three short-term laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of a mixture of Chara globularis var. globularis Thuillier and Chara contraria var. contraria A. Braun ex Kützing on three different green algae. Single phytoplankton species were exposed to filtered water

  14. Halogenated terpenoids from the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (HAUCK)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Bhat, K.L.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Harnos, S.

    ranging from 14:0 to 22:0 with palmitic acid (16:0, 67.4%) and oleic acid (18:1, 17.1%) being the major constituents, have been isolated from the pet, ether soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica...

  15. Oxytocic principle of red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Das, B.; Patnaik, G.K.

    The crude aqueous methanolic extract of the marine red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@ has been reported as exhibiting oxytocic and spasmogenic activity at a dose of 50 ~kg/ml. The activity is located in the water soluble fraction and has been found...

  16. Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment I (untreated) served as a control, Treatment II was seeded with Microcystis aeruginosa, Treatment III was seeded with green algae Chlorella ellipsoidea and Scenedesmus bijuga, and Treatment IV was seeded with a mixture of M. aeruginosa and C. ellipsoidea and S. bijuga. After 10 days, Treatment IV showed ...

  17. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized

  18. Rainfall changes affect the algae dominance in tank bromeliad ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aliny Patricia Flauzino; Leal, Juliana da Silva; Peeters, Edwin T H M

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and biodiversity loss have been reported as major disturbances in the biosphere which can trigger changes in the structure and functioning of natural ecosystems. Nonetheless, empirical studies demonstrating how both factors interact to affect shifts in aquatic ecosystems are still unexplored. Here, we experimentally test how changes in rainfall distribution and litter diversity affect the occurrence of the algae-dominated condition in tank bromeliad ecosystems. Tank bromeliads are miniature aquatic ecosystems shaped by the rainwater and allochthonous detritus accumulated in the bases of their leaves. Here, we demonstrated that changes in the rainfall distribution were able to reduce the chlorophyll-a concentration in the water of bromeliad tanks affecting significantly the occurrence of algae-dominated conditions. On the other hand, litter diversity did not affect the algae dominance irrespective to the rainfall scenario. We suggest that rainfall changes may compromise important self-reinforcing mechanisms responsible for maintaining high levels of algae on tank bromeliads ecosystems. We summarized these results into a theoretical model which suggests that tank bromeliads may show two different regimes, determined by the bromeliad ability in taking up nutrients from the water and by the total amount of light entering the tank. We concluded that predicted climate changes might promote regime shifts in tropical aquatic ecosystems by shaping their structure and the relative importance of other regulating factors.

  19. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Algae Pond Systems (IAPS) are a derivation of the Oswald-designed Algal Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (AIWPS®) and combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. IAPS technology was introduced to South Africa in 1996 and a pilot plant designed and ...

  20. Composition, Occurrences and Checklist of Periphyton Algae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    influence of sea water. Human activities on the rivers include fishing, washing or clothes and commercial activities. Methodology. Samples for the study were collected on monthly basis for eight months from December. 2001 to July 2002, for both physical and chemical factors and periphyton algae. Standard methods as ...

  1. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  2. Chemical constituents of the red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analysis of the petroleum-wither and chloroform extracts of the marine red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@ led to the isolation of a sterol, cholesterol, fatty acids, stearic, palmitic, behenic (C@d22@@) and arachidic acids (C@d20@@) and a fatty...

  3. Biogas Production from Food Wastes and Algae | Jeetah | University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Biogas Production from Food Wastes and Algae.

  4. Diversity of the Symbiotic Alga Symbiodinium in Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harboured by reef-building corals is important to understand how coral reefs will respond to global ... Most reef-building corals were found to be poor at forming symbioses with multiple symbiotic algae, indicating low adaptability to environmental change. This study ... natural biological variations, which in turn represent ...

  5. Biological removal of algae in an integrated pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of oxidation ponds in series with a biological trickling filter is described. It was known that this arrangement was incapable of reducing effectively the levels of algae present in the pond liquid even though nitrification was effected...

  6. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  7. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  8. Bioactive compounds from the alga Dictyopteris undulata | Koker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of biologically active compounds from the alga Dictyopteris undulata by bioassay-guided fractionation has led to the isolation and identification of zonarol, chromazonarol, zonaroic acid and the hitherto unreported isozonaroic acid. Their structures were determined by chemical transformation, GC and GC- ...

  9. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  10. Removal of Algae in Stabilization Ponds Effluent using Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot scale study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of natural coagulant (moringa oleifera) with respect to algae removal. Required effluent from stabilization ponds was diverted into the horizontal baffle flocculator and then treated by coagulation and flocculation using dry moringa oleifera seeds. Using moringa ...

  11. Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae have been proposed as a potential renewable fuel source. Photosynthetic CO2 fixation to substrates that can be converted to biodiesel by microalgae is thought to be a feasible technology with energy-saving and environment-friendly approach. In the present study, potential of microalgae, from wastewater ...

  12. Characterization of blue green algae isolated from Egyptian rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of blue green algae isolated from Egyptian rice field with potential anti-hepatitis C active components. ... Cell lysate was prepared from the purified strain; the efficacy of this lysate to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro was proved qualitatively and quantitatively. Lysate prepared from isolated ...

  13. Sexual reproduction and sex determination in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt+) and mating type minus (mt-), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt+ and mt- mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion. The loci of sex-limited genes and the conformation of sex-determining regions have been rearranged during the evolution of volvocine algae; however, the essential function of the sex-determining genes of the isogamous unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is conserved in the multicellular oogamous Volvox carteri. The sexual reproduction of the unicellular charophycean alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, is also focused on here. The sexual reproductive processes of heterothallic strains are controlled by two multifunctional sex pheromones, PR-IP and PR-IP Inducer, which independently promote multiple steps in conjugation at the appropriate times through different induction mechanisms. The molecules involved in sexual reproduction and sex determination have also been characterized.

  14. Diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Abstract. With the current increase in frequencies of coral bleaching events, knowledge on genetic diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium harbored by reef building corals is important in understanding how coral reefs will respond to global climate change.

  15. Algae biodiesel has potential despite inconclusive results to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Clarens, Andres F; Colosi, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of several published life cycle assessments of algae-to-energy systems was developed to better understand the environmental implications of deploying this technology at large scales. Taken together, results from these six studies seemed largely inconclusive because of differences in modeling assumptions and system boundaries. To overcome this, the models were normalized using a generic pathway for cultivating algae in open ponds, converting it into biodiesel, and processing the nonlipid fraction using anaerobic digestion. Meta-analysis results suggest that algae-based biodiesel would result in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on par with terrestrial alternatives such as corn ethanol and soy biodiesel. Net energy ratio and normalized greenhouse gas emissions were 1.4 MJ produced/MJ consumed and 0.19 kg CO(2)-equivalent/km traveled, respectively. A scenario analysis underscores the extent to which breakthroughs in key technologies are needed before algae-derived fuels become an attractive alternative to conventional biofuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T

    2011-07-01

    Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels.

  17. Rainfall changes affect the algae dominance in tank bromeliad ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aliny Patricia Flauzino; Leal, Juliana da Silva; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and biodiversity loss have been reported as major disturbances in the biosphere which can trigger changes in the structure and functioning of natural ecosystems. Nonetheless, empirical studies demonstrating how both factors interact to affect shifts in aquatic ecosystems are still unexplored. Here, we experimentally test how changes in rainfall distribution and litter diversity affect the occurrence of the algae-dominated condition in tank bromeliad ecosystems. Tank bromeliads are miniature aquatic ecosystems shaped by the rainwater and allochthonous detritus accumulated in the bases of their leaves. Here, we demonstrated that changes in the rainfall distribution were able to reduce the chlorophyll-a concentration in the water of bromeliad tanks affecting significantly the occurrence of algae-dominated conditions. On the other hand, litter diversity did not affect the algae dominance irrespective to the rainfall scenario. We suggest that rainfall changes may compromise important self-reinforcing mechanisms responsible for maintaining high levels of algae on tank bromeliads ecosystems. We summarized these results into a theoretical model which suggests that tank bromeliads may show two different regimes, determined by the bromeliad ability in taking up nutrients from the water and by the total amount of light entering the tank. We concluded that predicted climate changes might promote regime shifts in tropical aquatic ecosystems by shaping their structure and the relative importance of other regulating factors. PMID:28422988

  18. Diversity of the Symbiotic Alga Symbiodinium in Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—With the current increase in frequency of coral bleaching events, knowledge on the genetic diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium harboured by reef-building corals is important to understand how coral reefs will respond to global climate change. This study was undertaken as very little is known.

  19. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  20. The alga Trachydiscus minutus (Pseudostaurastrum minutum): growth and composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iliev, I.; Petkov, G.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Furnadzhieva, S.; Andreeva, R.; Bankova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, 3-4 (2011), 222-231 ISSN 1312-8183 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algae, * fatty acids * pilot plant cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  2. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Integrated Algae Pond Systems (IAPS) are a derivation of the Oswald-designed Algal Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems. (AIWPS®) and combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. IAPS technology was introduced to South Africa in 1996 and a pilot plant ...

  3. Transesterification of oil extracted from different species of algae for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current study, biodiesel production efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum and mixed algae culture was measured by transesterification process. Growth rate of algal species was measured on the basis of increase in their dry matter in various media. Protein, carbohydrates and lipids in all ...

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  5. Adsorption Studies of Lead by Enteromorpha Algae and Its Silicates Bonded Material

    OpenAIRE

    Hammud, Hassan H.; Ali El-Shaar; Essam Khamis; El-Sayed Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Lead adsorption by green Enteromorpha algae was studied. Adsorption capacity was 83.8 mg/g at pH 3.0 with algae (E) and 1433.5 mg/g for silicates modified algae (EM). FTIR and thermal analysis of algae materials were studied. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column model were best for adsorbent (E) and algae after reflux (ER) and Yan model for (EM) with capacity 76.2, 71.1, and 982.5 mg/g, respectively. (ER) and (EM) show less swelling and better flow rate control than (E). Nonlinear methods are more a...

  6. An Artificial Neural Network Based Short-term Dynamic Prediction of Algae Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Junyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of short-term prediction of algae bloom based on artificial neural network. Firstly, principal component analysis is applied to water environmental factors in algae bloom raceway ponds to get main factors that influence the formation of algae blooms. Then, a model of short-term dynamic prediction based on neural network is built with the current chlorophyll_a values as input and the chlorophyll_a values in the next moment as output to realize short-term dynamic prediction of algae bloom. Simulation results show that the model can realize short-term prediction of algae bloom effectively.

  7. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Arun Kumar; Marie Magnusson; Leigh C. Ward; Nicholas A. Paul; Lindsay Brown

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharide...

  8. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  9. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  10. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieska Verawaty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a constructed wetland (CW was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10% bold basal medium (BBM. The results showed both micro- and macro-algae growth and their lipid contents were higher when they were grown in effluent-BBM (9:1 v/v media. The lipid content of the micro-algae mixed culture was 16.5% while for macro-algae Oedogonium sp and Cladophora sp it was 6.90% and 6.75% respectively.

  11. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  12. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  13. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Havig, Jeff R

    2018-01-29

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO 2 throughout much of its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often darkened by the presence of photoautotrophic snow algae, resulting in accelerated melt due to lowered albedo. Few studies report the productivity of snow algal communities and the parameters which constrain their growth on supraglacial surfaces-key factors for quantifying biologically induced albedo effects (bio-albedo). We demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity is stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. Our results indicate a positive feedback between increasing CO 2 and snow algal primary productivity, underscoring the need for robust climate models of past and present glacial/interglacial oscillations to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO 2 .

  14. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  15. [Treatment of polluted urban river water using filamentous green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous green algae dominated treatment system was set up to remove contaminants from polluted urban river water under lab conditions. Experiments show that TP is decreased up to 50%, associated with 72% removal of TSS. The removal efficiencies of soluble species, PO4(3-) and NH4(+)-N, are up to 90% and 85% respectively. Under heavily polluted conditions (TP > 3.0 mg x L(-1), TN > 22.0 mg x L(-1)), the average removal efficiencies of TP and TN are 89% and 45% respectively, while under light polluted conditions (TP filamentous green algae is increased significantly (38.78%), and at the same time a large number of unicellular Chlorophytes and Cyanophytes species are occurred on the interior wall surface of experimental fertility. The maximum biomass occurs at the highest concentration of DO.

  16. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  17. Information on existing monitoring practices for Harmful Algal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily in four classes of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, diatoms and raphidophytes.

  18. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Mogeeb A A; Manssor, Hayat; Malek, Sorayya; Milow, Pozi; Salleh, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated analyses and identification of algae images were limited to only one type of algae. Automated identification system for tropical freshwater algae is even non-existent and this study is partly to fill this gap. The development of the automated freshwater algae detection system involved image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification by using Artificial neural networks (ANN). Image preprocessing was used to improve contrast and remove noise. Image segmentation using canny edge detection algorithm was then carried out on binary image to detect the algae and its boundaries. Feature extraction process was applied to extract specific feature parameters from algae image to obtain some shape and texture features of selected algae such as shape, area, perimeter, minor and major axes, and finally Fourier spectrum with principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract some of algae feature texture. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify algae images based on the extracted features. Feed-forward multilayer perceptron network was initialized with back propagation error algorithm, and trained with extracted database features of algae image samples. System's accuracy rate was obtained by comparing the results between the manual and automated classifying methods. The developed system was able to identify 93 images of selected freshwater algae genera from a total of 100 tested images which yielded accuracy rate of 93%. This study demonstrated application of automated

  19. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mark L; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S; Raven, John A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Smith, Alison Gail; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, ...

  20. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Phycology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Phycological Society of America.

  1. Algal omics: unlocking bioproduct diversity in algae cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Michael T; Pienkos, Philip T

    2015-03-01

    Rapid advances in "omic" technologies are helping to unlock the full potential of microalgae as multi-use feedstocks, with utility in an array of industrial biotechnology, biofuel, and biomedical applications. In turn, algae are emerging as highly attractive candidates for development as microbial cell factories. In this review, we examine the wide array of potential algal bioproducts, with a focus upon the role of omic technologies in driving bioproduct discovery and optimization in microalgal systems.

  2. Rare species of fungi parasitizing on algae. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following parasites of the genera Spirogyra Link, Mougeotia Agardh and Oedogonium Link are desribed: Myzocyutium irregulare, Woroninu glomerata, Harpochytrium tenuissimum, Woronina polycystis, Chytridium acuminatu, Myzocytium irregulare and Chytridumm acuminatum are new to Poland. Also, the first information on Woronina polycystis as a parasite on algae is presented. The figure of cystosori in a cell of Mougeotia mysorensis is the first graphic documentation of this species.

  3. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of “anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis”, whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell’s own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular “hydrogen metabolism” process. The latter enta...

  4. Algae (Microcystis and Scenedesmus) absorption spectra and its application on Chlorophyll a retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Chen, Maosi; Wang, Qiao; Gao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Blue algae and green algae are the dominant phytoplankton groups that contribute to the eutrophication and the water bloom in inland water of China. The absorption coefficients (spectra) of the algae, which do not change with its intrinsic optical characteristics and the observation geometry, are strictly additive quantities. The characteristics of the absorption spectra of the two algae are presented. The pure blue algae and the pure green algae cultured in the laboratory environment are diluted and mixed at ten volume ratios. The Quantitative Filter Technique was applied to measure their absorption spectra. The "hot-ethanol extraction" method was chosen to calculate their concentration of Chlorophyll a. The retrieval algorithm developed in this study extracts the mapping information between each individual alga and their Chlorophyll a concentration via Continuous Wavelet Transform, and retrieves the Chlorophyll a concentration of each alga in their mixture using a trust region optimizer. The results show that the retrieved and the measured Chlorophyll a concentrations of the blue algae and the green algae components in the ten mixture match well with the average relative error of 5.55%.

  5. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged.

  6. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  7. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  8. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal toxicity to algae under synthetic microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, L C; Mallick, N

    1993-12-01

    Impact of Cu, Ni and Fe on structure and function of a synthetic microcosm, comprising of four algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas sp., Anabaena doliolum and Oscillatoria formosa), two arthropods (Cyclops and Cypris) and a protozoan (Paramecium) was tested with respect to nutrient depletion, changes in algal population, chlorophyll a content and carbon fixation. The control (untreated) microcosm registered complete depletion of NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) on day 20, when the algal population had reached its maxima in terms of cell number, chlorophyll a content and carbon fixation. Metal treated microcosm, however, showed a delayed nutrient depletion, reduced algal maxima, and lower chlorophyll a content and carbon fixation rate than the control. Of the four algae tested Chlamydomonas sp. was found to the most sensitive and Oscillatoria formosa, the most tolerant to all the metals used. The hierarchy of metal toxicity was Cu>Ni>Fe. Cu and Ni combination interacted synergistically in contrast to the antagonism of Cu+Fe and Ni+Fe. Carbon fixation was inhibited most as compared to nutrient depletion, algal number and chlorophyll a content. A comparison of the microcosm results with batch cultures using the same metals and algae revealed a similar pattern, but a reduced degree of inhibition in the former. This study therefore, demonstrates that results of laboratory toxicity bioassays can be extrapolated to the field level though with a reduced precision.

  10. Multicellularity in green algae: Upsizing in a walled complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Domozych

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix, most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In ulvophytes, uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell-adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell’s signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the extracellular matrix. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  11. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  12. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Bechelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun, Astaxanthin (Ast, Spirulina platensis (Spir, and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA. Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis.

  13. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  14. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  15. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domozych, David S; Domozych, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In "ulvophytes," uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell's signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  16. Towards tradable permits for filamentous green algae pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Botha, A M; Oberholster, P J

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution permit systems are challenging to design and implement. Operational systems that has maintained functionality remains few and far between, particularly in developing countries. We present current progress towards developing such a system for nutrient enrichment based water pollution, mainly from commercial agriculture. We applied a production function approach to first estimate the monetary value of the impact of the pollution, which is then used as reference point for establishing a reserve price for pollution permits. The subsequent market making process is explained according to five steps including permit design, terms, conditions and transactional protocol, the monitoring system, piloting and implementation. The monetary value of the impact of pollution was estimated at R1887 per hectare per year, which not only provide a "management budget" for filamentous green algae mitigation strategies in the study area, but also enabled the calculation of a reserve price for filamentous green algae pollution permits, which was estimated between R2.25 and R111 per gram filamentous algae and R8.99 per gram at the preferred state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  18. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of Algae Biomass to Produce Energy during Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shanshan; Colosi, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are asked to improve both energy efficiency and nutrient removal efficacy. Integration of algaculture offers several potential synergies that could address these goals, including an opportunity to leverage anaerobic digestion at WRRFs. In this study, bench-scale experiments are used to measure methane yield during co-digestion of Scenedesmus dimorphus or mixed WRRF-grown algae with WRRF biosolids. The results indicate that normalized methane yield decreases with increasing algae content in a manner than can be reasonably well fit using linear regression (R(2) = 67%). It is thus possible to predict methane yield for any mixture of algae and biosolids based on the methane yield of the biosolids alone. Using revised methane yields, the energy return on investment of a typical WRRF increases from 0.53 (without algae) to 0.66 (with algae). Thus, algae-based wastewater treatment may hold promise for improving WRRF energy efficiency without compromising effluent quality.

  2. AlgaeSim: a model for integrated algal biofuel production and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Ivy L C; Joustra, Caryssa; Prieto, Ana; Bair, Robert; Yeh, Daniel H

    2014-02-01

    AlgaeSim, a dynamic multiple-systems (C, N, P) mass balance model, was developed to explore the potential for algae biomass production from wastewater by coupling two photobioreactors into the main treatment train at a municipal wastewater resource recovery facility (WRRF) in Tampa, Florida. The scoping model examined the synergy between algae cultivation and wastewater treatment through algal growth and substrate removal kinetics, as well as through macroeconomic analyses of biomass conversion to bioproducts. Sensitivity analyses showed that biomass production is strongly dependent on Monod variables and harvesting regime, with sensitivity changing with growth phase. Profitability was sensitive to processing costs and market prices of products. Under scenarios based on current market conditions and typical algae production, AlgaeSim shows that a WRRF can potentially generate significant profit if algae are processed for biodiesel, biogas, or fertilizer. Wastewater resource recovery facilities could similarly save on operating costs resulting from the reduction in aeration (for nitrification) and chemicals (for denitrification).

  3. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  4. Biosorption of heavy metals by marine algae Ulva rigida, Cystoseira barbata and C. crinita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simeonova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption properties of three different marine algae (Ulva rigida (green algae; Cystoseira barbata (brown algae and Cystoseira crinita (brown algae were investigated. They were collected from the Black Sea coastal area in Varna region, Bulgaria. Kinetics were studied to evaluate the ability of the three algae to sequester Cu (II, Zn (II, Pb (II, Ni (II, Cd (II from aqueous solution. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 2.84 mgeq Ni2+/g for Cystoseira crinita and 2.28 mgeq Cu2+/g for Cystoseira barbata at a solution pH of 5 ± 0.5. The influence of pH of the solution and algae mass on the heavy metal sorption was investigated either. Desorption using 0.05 M HNO3 was carried out and was determined that regeneration of biomass for use in multiple cycles of Cd (II biosorption –desorption should be feasible.

  5. A Novel Aeration Method for the Preparation of Algae (Dunaliella Salina) Biomass for Biofuel Production.

    OpenAIRE

    U.O. Enwereuzoh; G. N. Onyeagoro

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of algae (Dunaliela Salina) biomass in ammonia (NH4 + ) and nitrate (NO3 - ) growth media for biofuel production was investigated, with special attention on the elimination of inhibitory oxygen that adversely affects algae growth. A novel aeration method based on high and efficient transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) required to stabilize the CO2 of the algae growth medium in a short time was adopted for the elimination of the inhibitory oxygen. The novel aeration method was found...

  6. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Jack; Champagne, Pascale; Hall, Geof; Yin, Zhaochu; Liu, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte) taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the domin...

  7. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in close proximity to S. aloides, resulting in gaps in filamentous algae mats. We analyzed whether those gaps may be caused by allelopathic substances excreted by S. aloides or by nutrient depletion. We ...

  8. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Mosleh Mogeeb AA; Manssor Hayat; Malek Sorayya; Milow Pozi; Salleh Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated...

  9. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  10. Morphology and possible host range of Rhizophydium algavorum sp. Nov.. (Chytridiales) an obligate parasite of algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gromov, B.; Plujusch, A.; Mamkaeva, K.

    1999-01-01

    Culture of Rhizophydium (Chytridiales) was isolated from a little pond near St.-Petersburg and described as representative of a new species Rh. algavorum. It is an obligate parasite of algae with a very wide possible host range. From 137 strains of chlorococcalean algae examined 33 are sensitive, they represent 20 species of 5 genera. Xanthophycean alga Tribonema gayanum is sensitive as well. Parasite forms sessile sphaerical sporangia. Zoospores escape from the sporangium upon the single wid...

  11. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Domozych, David S.; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean Green Algae possess cell walls containing assemblag...

  12. Biosynthetic Pathway and Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin, an Algae-Specific Xanthophyll in Brown Seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Koji; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown...

  13. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae

    OpenAIRE

    Barott, Katie L.; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Rohwer, Forest L.

    2011-01-01

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adja...

  14. Variation in natural selection for growth and phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jormalainen, V; Honkanen, T

    2004-01-01

    .... We explore both the amount of genetic variation and variability of natural selection for growth and concentration of phenolic secondary compounds, phlorotannins, in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus...

  15. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of green algae and higher plants

  16. Biodiversity of algae and protozoa in a natural waste stabilization pond: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavathi, N C; Hosetti, B B

    2003-04-01

    A field study was carried out on the biodiversity of protozoa and algae from a natural waste stabilization pond during November, 1996 to April, 1997. The raw waste and pond samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. High dissolved oxygen (DO) coinciding with phytoplankton peak was recorded. The algae--Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Oscillatoria brevis and Nostoc piscinale and Protozoa--Paramecium caudatum, Acanthamoeba sp., Bodo saltans and Oikomonas termo were obvious as dominant species, whereas algae Ochromonas pyriformis and Synura uvella and protozoa, Didinium masutum and Stentor coerulus were noted as rare species. Totally 71 species of algae and 13 species of protozoa were identified.

  17. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  18. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium properties of the biosorption of Cu2+ by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Peckenham, John; Pinto, Jamie; Patterson, Howard

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics and equilibrium properties of freshwater algae with Cu(2+). This was a model system to explore using algae as biosensors for water quality. Methods included making luminescence measurements (fluorescence) and copper ion-selective electrode (CuISE) measurements vs. time to obtain kinetic data. Results were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order model to calculate the rate constants of Cu(2+) uptake by algae: k (p(Cu-algae)) = 0.0025 ± 0.0006 s(-1) by CuISE and k (p(Cu-algae)) = 0.0034 ± 0.0011 s(-1) by luminescence. The binding constant of Cu-algae, K (Cu-algae), was 1.62 ± 0.07 × 10(7) M(-1). Fluorescence results analyzed using the Stern-Volmer relationship indicate that algae have two types of binding sites of which only one appears to affect quenching. The fluorescence-based method was found to be able to detect the reaction of algae with Cu(2+) quickly and at a detection limit of 0.1 mg L(-1).

  20. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  1. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120μEm(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22±2°C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10μgmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative stress in the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana Catarina; Gomes, Tânia; Langford, Katherine; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2017-08-01

    The toxicity of biocides can be associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative damage, interfering with the normal function of photosynthetic organisms. This study investigated the formation and effects of ROS in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to three environmentally relevant biocides, aclonifen, dichlofluanid and triclosan. After a first screening to identify which biocides induced ROS, a 24h multi-endpoint analysis was used to verify the possible consequences. A battery of high-throughput methods was applied in algae for measuring ROS formation, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), photosystem (PS) II performance and pigments (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). Results show that only aclonifen induced ROS after the first 6h exposure, with the other two biocides not showing any ROS formation. Aclonifen, a Protox and carotenoid inhibitor, induced a concentration-dependent ROS formation, LPO and interfered with algae pigments content, while no alterations were detected in GSH content. A significant effect was also seen in the photosynthetic process, especially a reduction in the maximum and effective quantum yields, accompanied by alterations in energy dissipation in PSII reaction centers and the impairment of the electron transport rate. This study demonstrated the successful use of a battery of high-throughput methods for quickly screening biocides capacity to induce the formation of ROS and the subsequent effects in C. reinhardtii, thus revealing their mode of action (MoA) at concentrations before an impact on growth can become effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  4. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  5. Benthic marine algae of Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio; Aguilar-Rosas, L.E.; R Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Ten sites in the Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, were sampled seasonally during 1996 and 1997, in the center zone of the Gulf of California. The collections of the species was manually in the intertidal and subtidal (3 m, SCUBA) zone in the localities distributed in the bay and surroun ding islands. A total of 62 taxa of benthic marine algae were determined. Rhodophyceae was represen ted by 62 species, Phaeophyceae by 15 species and Chlorophyceae by 7 species. The families with best ...

  6. A fibrinolytic enzyme from a marine green alga, Codium latum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Hori, K; Matsuura, Y; Miyazawa, K

    1999-11-01

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from a marine green alga, Codium latum, and designated C. latum protease (CLP). It also had fibrinogenolytic activity, hydrolyzing A alpha, B beta and gamma chains with preference in this order. As CLP hydrolyzed oxidized insulin B chain at position Arg22-Gly23, and the peptide map of lysozyme digested with CLP was similar to that with trypsin, CLP would be expected to have a high substrate specificity, similar to that of trypsin. Protease activity peaked at pH 10, and was completely inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Therefore, we conclude that CLP is a trypsin-like serine protease.

  7. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  8. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  9. The role of algae in mine drainage bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, J. (Lambda Bioremediation Systems, Inc., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The effect of mine drainage effluent on aquatic ecosystems has been abundantly documented and remediation efforts to data have always been costly and temporary at best. Bioremediation, using natural environmental microbes, to treat acid mine drainage has shown great promise as an affordable, permanent treatment. At Lambda, we used mixatrophic cultures of bacteria, algae, protozoans and fungal groups on four different jobs and it has proven effective. The role of two particular algal groups, the Euglena mutabilis and the Ochramonas sp. are particularly of phycological interest.

  10. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  11. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  12. A Fluorescence Based Miniaturized Detection Module for Toxin Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, S. E.; Mistlberger, G.; Troi, L.; Lang, A.; Holly, C.; Klimant, I.

    2016-12-01

    Algal blooms are sensitive to external environmental conditions and may pose a serious threat to marine and human life having an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Harmful algal blooms can produce different toxins, which can lead to massive fish kills or to human disorders. Facing these problems, miniaturized and low-cost instrumentation for an early detection and identification of harmful algae classes has become more important over the last years. 1,2Based on the characteristic pigment pattern of different algae classes, we developed a miniaturized detection module, which is able to detect and identify algae classes after analyzing their spectral behavior. Our device combines features of a flow-cytometer and fluorimeter and is build up as a miniaturized and low-cost device of modular design. Similar to a fluorimeter, it excites cells in the capillary with up to 8 different excitation wavelengths recording the emitted fluorescence at 4 different emission channels. Furthermore, the device operates in a flow-through mode similar to a flow-cytometer, however, using only low-cost elements such as LEDs and photodiodes. Due to its miniaturized design, the sensitivity and selectivity increase, whereas background effects are reduced. With a sampling frequency of 140 Hz, we try to detect and count particular cell events even at a concentration of 2 cells / 7.3 µL illuminated volume. Using a self-learning multivariate algorithm, the data are evaluated autonomously on the device enabling an in-situ analysis. The flexibility in choosing excitation and emission wavelengths as well as the high sampling rate enables laboratory applications such as measuring induction kinetics. However, in its first application, the device is part of an open and modular monitoring system enabling the sensing of chemical compounds such as toxic and essential Hg, Cd, Pb, As and Cu trace metal species, nutrients and species related to the carbon cycle, VOCs and potentially toxic algae classes (FP7

  13. Green algae as a platform to express therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Oyler, George A

    2009-06-01

    Proteins produced by DNA recombinant technology have been playing important roles in modern medicine ever since the first such protein drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about three decades ago. However the inherent high cost of producing recombinant proteins, particularly those produced from mammalian cells, has hampered their broad application. Other protein expression systems that can reduce the cost yet still maintain the high-level therapeutic activities of the recombinant proteins are a top R&D priority. Eukaryotic unicellular green algae cells may provide a good solution to this long-standing challenge.

  14. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces. PMID:19518757

  15. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Taraka T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  16. Hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    1987-02-01

    Recently, Antarctic continent has been the center for diverse research activities. This has resulted in a large number of research and supply vessels visiting Antarctica, which may lead to the contamination of Antarctic environment due to unintentional release of petroleum products. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in water, sediment, flora and fauna of this region which may also serve as a baseline data for future comparison. With this in view, total hydrocarbon concentration in some marine benthic algae collected from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  18. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  19. ALGAE PROLIFERATION ON SUBSTRATES IMMERSED IN BIOLOGICALLY TREATED SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due fast biomass production, high affinity for N and P and possibilities to CO2 sequestration microalgae are currently in the spotlight, especially in renewable energy technologies sector. The majority of studies focus their attention on microalgae cultivation with respect to biomass production. Fuel produced from algal biomass can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional fossil fuels and be a remedy for a rising energy crisis and global warming induced by air pollution. Some authors opt for possibilities of using sewage as a nutrient medium in algae cultivation. Other scientists go one step further and present concepts to introduce microalgal systems as an integral part of wastewater treatment plants. High costs of different microalgal harvesting methods caused introduction of the idea of algae immobilization in a form of periphyton on artificial substrates. In the present study the attention has focused on possibilities of using waste materials as substrates to proliferation of periphyton in biologically treated sewage that contained certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  1. Biokinetic aspects of tissue-bound tritium in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, S; Kistner, G

    1978-01-01

    For the estimate of the radiation exposure of man and for the calculation of the risk of artificial tritium from nuclear power plants, organic tissue-bound tritium is of decisive importance. In model experiments, a tritium incorporation of 61 to 71% was found from tritiated water (HTO) into organic matter of planctonic algae under under reproducible conditions and this was related to the theoretical value. In further experiments the tritium release from these high tritiated algae was of interest. Kept in darkness in tritium-free, non-sterile river water, so that autolytic processes and bacterial decomposition could occur, the concentration of HTO was measured over a period of three weeks. A relatively long half-life of tissue-bound tritium was found under various temperature conditions. Therefore it must be considered that a significant retention of tritium in biological matter has to be taken into account in a natural ecosystem. In streams into which the cooling water of a nuclear reactor is released all conditions are found already for a long turnover and cycling of artificial tritium in living organisms as well as the conditions for a favourable transport of tritium by food chains to man.

  2. Balamuthia mandrillaris: in vitro interactions with selected protozoa and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, José L; Torres, Benjamin Nogueda; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2013-01-01

    Although Balamuthia mandrillaris was identified more than two decades ago as an agent of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other animals, little is known about its ecological niche, biological behavior in the environment, food preferences and predators, if any. When infecting humans or other animals, Balamuthia feeds on tissues; and in vitro culture, it feeds on mammalian cells (monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblasts, and human microvascular endothelial cells). According to recent reports, it is believed that Balamuthia feeds on small amebae, for example, Acanthamoeba that are present in its ecological niche. To test this hypothesis, we associated Balamuthia on a one-on-one basis with selected protozoa and algae. We videotaped the behavior of Balamuthia in the presence of a potential prey, its ability to hunt and attack its food, and the time required to eat and cause damage to the target cell by direct contact. We found that B. mandrillaris ingested trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri, Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba spp., Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, and Giardia. However, it did not feed on Acanthamoeba cysts or algae. Balamuthia caused cytolysis of T. cruzi epimastigotes and T. gondii tachyzoites by direct contact. Balamuthia trophozoites and cysts were, however, eaten by Paramecium sp. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  3. Structure of phycobilisome from the red alga Griffithsia pacifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Ma, Jianfei; Liu, Desheng; Qin, Song; Sun, Shan; Zhao, Jindong; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2017-10-18

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis for its conversion of solar energy to chemical energy. Photosynthetic organisms have developed a variety of light-harvesting systems to capture sunlight. The largest light-harvesting complex is the phycobilisome (PBS), the main light-harvesting antenna in cyanobacteria and red algae. It is composed of phycobiliproteins and linker proteins but the assembly mechanisms and energy transfer pathways of the PBS are not well understood. Here we report the structure of a 16.8-megadalton PBS from a red alga at 3.5 Å resolution obtained by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. We modelled 862 protein subunits, including 4 linkers in the core, 16 rod-core linkers and 52 rod linkers, and located a total of 2,048 chromophores. This structure reveals the mechanisms underlying specific interactions between linkers and phycobiliproteins, and the formation of linker skeletons. These results provide a firm structural basis for our understanding of complex assembly and the mechanisms of energy transfer within the PBS.

  4. Naphthenic acid biodegradation by the unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Dean M; Bhaskar, Iyswarya M; Gieg, Lisa M; Chua, Gordon

    2011-07-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to toxicity in tailings waste generated from bitumen production in the Athabasca Oil Sands region. While investigations have shown that bacteria can biodegrade NAs and reduce tailings toxicity, the potential of algae to biodegrade NAs and the biochemical mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we discovered that the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta is able to tolerate five model NAs (cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, cyclohexaneacetic acid, cyclohexanepropionic acid, cyclohexanebutyric acid and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid) at 300mgL(-1), a level which exceeds that of any single or combination of NAs typically found in tailings ponds. Moreover, we show that D. tertiolecta can metabolize four of the model NAs. Analysis of NA-amended cultures of D. tertiolecta via low resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed us to quantify decreasing NA levels, identify metabolites, and formulate putative mechanisms of biodegradation. Degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid and cyclohexanepropionic acid proceeded via β-oxidation and resulted in the transient accumulation of cyclohexaneacetic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, respectively. Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid was metabolized via 1-cyclohexenecarboxylic acid suggesting that further degradation may occur by step-wise β-oxidation. When D. tertiolecta was inoculated in the presence of oil sands tailings water from the Athabasca region, biodegradation of single-ring NAs was observed relative to controls. This result corroborates the trend we observed with the single-ring model NAs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unlocking nature's treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Stephen P; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N; Black, Kenneth D; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G

    2015-07-23

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for "health-foods" and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation.

  6. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark L; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S; Raven, John A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

  7. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development.

  9. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (−0.6‰ appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (−1.4‰, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  10. Sulfur utilization of corals is enhanced by endosymbiotic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11 was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis. In this study, we performed autoradiography using 35S-labeled sulfate ions (35SO4 2− to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae. Incorporated 35SO4 2− was detected in symbiotic algal cells, nematocysts, ectodermal cells and calicoblast cells. The combined results of 35S autoradiography and Alcian Blue staining showed that incorporated 35S accumulated as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the ectodermal cell layer. We also compared the relative incorporation of 35SO4 2− into coral tissues and endosymbiotic algae, and their chemical fractions in dark versus light (photosynthetic conditions. The amount of sulfur compounds, such as GAGs and lipids, generated from 35SO4 2− was higher under photosynthetic conditions. Together with the upregulation of sulfate transporters by symbiosis, our results suggest that photosynthesis of algal endosymbionts contributes to the synthesis and utilization of sulfur compounds in corals.

  11. Photobiology of sea ice algae during initial spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a series of measurements of photophysiological parameters of sea ice algae over 12 days of early spring growth in a West Greenland Fjord, by variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Imaging of the ice–water interface showed the development of ice algae in 0.3–0.4 mm wide brine chan...

  12. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  13. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, H.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed.

  14. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  15. The potential of optimized process design to advance LCA performance of algae production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Perez-Lopez, P.; Breitmayer, E.; Slegers, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact is an essential aspect for the introduction of algae production systems. As information of large scale algae production is hardly available, process simulation is the only way to evaluate environmental sustainability in an early phase of process design. Simulation results allow

  16. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wild

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km: Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore, Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore, and Lighthouse Reef (offshore. In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29% when compared to the other sites (4–19%. The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia, particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  17. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  18. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  19. Design and construction of the microalgal pilot facility AlgaePARC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.; Vree, de J.H.; Slegers, P.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae gained much interest from industry as promising sustainable feedstock for the production of food, feed, bulk chemicals, and biofuels. Pilot scale research on microalgae is needed to bridge the gap between laboratory scale research and commercial applications. The AlgaePARC (Algae

  20. Chytridium polysiphoniae - a fungal pathogen on the Red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne, from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    occurred at 25 x 10 3 salinity and 30 degrees C temperature. The infection was restricted to one locality (Anjuna), although the host alga was found at other sites in Goa. Chytridium polysiphoniae could not infect killed host alga and it could...

  1. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  2. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  3. Infochemical-mediated trophic interactions between the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and its food algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, A.M.; Zadereev, Y.S.; Mooij, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied how chemicals obtained as filtrates from algal monocultures (algal chemicals) and from rotifer cultures with or without algae (rotifer chemicals) affected feeding rates of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus on its food algae, both directly and indirectly (through chemical-induced changes

  4. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  5. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  6. Use of Fluorescently Labeled Algae to Measure the Clearance Rate of the Rotifer Keratella-Cochlearis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telesh, I.V.; Ooms-Wilms, A.L.; Gulati, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fluorescently labelled algae (FLA) were used to measure clearance rates of the rotifer Keratella cochlearis. The freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris and Stichococcus bacillaris were labelled with a fluorescent dye, 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2- yl) aminofluorescein (DTAF), following a modified

  7. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense

  8. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierts, T.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal

  9. How Embryophytic is the Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoids and their Derivatives in Streptophyte Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; de Vries, Sophie; Slamovits, Claudio H; Rose, Laura E; Archibald, John M

    2017-05-01

    The origin of land plants from algae is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that many characters that were once assumed to be 'embryophyte specific' can in fact be found in their closest algal relatives, the streptophyte algae. One such case is the phenylpropanoid pathway. While biochemical data indicate that streptophyte algae harbor lignin-like components, the phenylpropanoid core pathway, which serves as the backbone of lignin biosynthesis, has been proposed to have arisen at the base of the land plants. Here we revisit this hypothesis using a wealth of new sequence data from streptophyte algae. Tracing the biochemical pathway towards lignin biogenesis, we show that most of the genes required for phenylpropanoid synthesis and the precursors for lignin production were already present in streptophyte algae. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses and protein structure predictions of one of the key enzyme classes in lignin production, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), suggest that CADs of streptophyte algae are more similar to sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenases (SADs). This suggests that the end-products of the pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis in streptophyte algae may facilitate the production of lignin-like compounds and defense molecules. We hypothesize that streptophyte algae already possessed the genetic toolkit from which the capacity to produce lignin later evolved in vascular plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Composition, mineral profiles and characterization of the ash component in 12 algae samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae have been used as food, feed, fertilizer, and lately as an attractive biomass for renewable energy. Key advantages of algae include prolific growth rates, the ability to grow on lands that are marginal for other agricultural purposes, and the ability to clean up water resources with excess nu...

  11. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  12. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Van Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in

  13. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-04-22

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent coral tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent coral cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on corals. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure coral reefs.

  14. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'boule, D.; Chivall, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments using free and immobilized phytoplanktonic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Giacco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediments play an important role in the accumulation-storage and/or release of contaminants in seawaters; sedimets bioassays provide for general information on pollutant bioavailability. This work points out the importance to utilize free and immobilised (Na-alginate marine algae for the ecotoxicological evaluation of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu as well as of elutriates and whole sediment samples collected in harbour sites. The bioassay was carried out with the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica; algal growth inhibition was determined after 24 and 48 hours as percent growth in comparison to controls. After 24 hours a lower toxicity of metals for the immobilised algae than for free algae was observed; this trend decreased in time. Algae exposed to whole sediment ahowed a greater reduction of growth than algae exposed to the relative elutriate. This result emphasizes that the whole sediments seem to be suitable to detect the toxicity of such complex environmental matrix.

  16. Benthic soft-bodied algae as bioindicators of stream water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the state-of-the-art of benthic soft-bodied algae as biondicators of stream and river water quality, with emphasis on bioassessments set by the legislation (e.g., European Water Framework Directive, USA Clean Water Act to promote the restoration and ensure ecological sustainability of water resources. The advantages and shortcomings of a variety of bioassessment field and laboratory methods for algae are discussed. The increasing use of soft-bodied algae in biotic indices to assess individual anthropogenic stressors, and in multimetric indices of biotic integrity to evaluate ecological condition in streams is summarized. Rapid microscopic and molecular approaches for inferring nutrient supply with heterocystous cyanobacteria and other sensitive algae are proposed. The need of better understanding of soft-bodied algae as bioindicators is discussed and suggestions are made for obtaining meaningful bioassessment information with cost-efficient efforts.

  17. Application of rbcL based molecular diversity analysis to algae in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G

    2011-02-01

    The molecular diversity of algae in the final clarifier or denitrification filter outfall from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with activated sludge based treatment was analyzed using the rbcL gene as a phylogenetic marker. The rbcL gene encodes the large subunit of the CO(2) fixing enzyme RuBisCO. Among algae identified at the WWTPs were diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophyceae, and unknown heterokonts. A high level of diversity was observed within WWTPs with 19-24 unique rbcL sequences detected at each plant. Algae composition also varied between treatment plants. Our results show that the rbcL gene can be used as a phylogenetic marker for algae diversity analysis in a wastewater treatment context. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae......Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal...... for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending...

  19. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  20. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  1. [Numerical simulation for effects of hydrodynamic condition on algae growth in Chongqing reaches of Jialing River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tian-yu; Meng, Guo-hu; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Wei-hua

    2010-07-01

    By introducing two parameters which express the optimal velocity and the velocity range for alga growth, a new velocity factor was put forward for the formula of alga growth. The 2-D unsteady ecological dynamic model for algae growth was established to analyze the effects of hydrodynamic condition on algae growth in Chongqing reaches of Jialing River. The space-time distribution of concentration for Chl-a was simulated numerically for various water levels under climate condition in the period of high frequency for water blooms in Three Gorges Reservoir and nutrition condition at present. The corresponding location and area of water blooms were forecasted. The results stated that about 0.04 m x s(-1) was the optimal velocity for algae growth.

  2. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  3. Adsorption Studies of Lead by Enteromorpha Algae and Its Silicates Bonded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. Hammud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead adsorption by green Enteromorpha algae was studied. Adsorption capacity was 83.8 mg/g at pH 3.0 with algae (E and 1433.5 mg/g for silicates modified algae (EM. FTIR and thermal analysis of algae materials were studied. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column model were best for adsorbent (E and algae after reflux (ER and Yan model for (EM with capacity 76.2, 71.1, and 982.5 mg/g, respectively. (ER and (EM show less swelling and better flow rate control than (E. Nonlinear methods are more appropriate technique. Error function calculations proved valuable for predicting the best adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and column models.

  4. Distribution and biomass evaluation of drifting brown algae from Moorea lagoon (French Polynesia) for eco-friendly agricultural use

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zubia; Andréfouët, Serge; Payri, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of two native brown algae, Turbinaria ornata and Sargassum pacificum, was observed on high islands of French Polynesia since the early 1980s. High swells frequently remove algae from their substratum, floating algae concentrate due to local currents in specific lagoon locations, and large compact rafts eventually form. A study of the prospective industrial use of drifting algae was conducted, including estimates of biomass, biomass renewal and agronomical trials. Harvesting ...

  5. The effects of nutrient enrichment and herbivore abundance on the ability of turf algae to overgrow coral in the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Turf algae are multispecies communities of small marine macrophytes that are becoming a dominant component of coral reef communities around the world. To assess the impact of turf algae on corals, we investigated the effects of increased nutrients (eutrophication on the interaction between the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis and turf algae at their growth boundary. We also assessed whether herbivores are capable of reducing the abundance of turf algae at coral-algae boundaries. We found that turf algae cause visible (overgrowth and invisible negative effects (reduced fitness on neighbouring corals. Corals can overgrow neighbouring turf algae very slowly (at a rate of 0.12 mm 3 wk(-1 at ambient nutrient concentrations, but turf algae overgrew corals (at a rate of 0.34 mm 3 wk(-1 when nutrients were experimentally increased. Exclusion of herbivores had no measurable effect on the rate turf algae overgrew corals. We also used PAM fluorometry (a common approach for measuring of a colony's "fitness" to detect the effects of turf algae on the photophysiology of neighboring corals. Turf algae always reduced the effective photochemical efficiency of neighbouring corals, regardless of nutrient and/or herbivore conditions. The findings that herbivores are not capable of controlling the abundance of turf algae and that nutrient enrichment gives turf algae an overall competitive advantage over corals together have serious implications for the health of Caribbean coral reef systems. At ambient nutrient levels, traditional conservation measures aimed at reversing coral-to-algae phase shifts by reducing algal abundance (i.e., increasing herbivore populations by establishing Marine Protected Areas or tightening fishing regulations will not necessarily reduce the negative impact of turf algae on local coral communities. Because turf algae have become the most abundant benthic group on Curaçao (and likely elsewhere in the Caribbean, new conservation

  6. High iron content and bioavailability in humans from four species of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria N; Pereira, Ana C; Leets, Irene; Ramírez, José; Quiroga, Maria F

    2007-12-01

    Searching for economical, nonconventional sources of iron is important in underdeveloped countries to combat iron deficiency and anemia. Our objective was to study iron, vitamin C, and phytic acid composition and also iron bioavailability from 4 species of marine algae included in a rice-based meal. Marine algae (Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp) were analyzed for monthly variations in iron and for ascorbic acid and phytic acid concentrations. A total of 96 subjects received rice-based meals containing the 4 species of marine algae in different proportions, raw or cooked. All meals contained radioactive iron. Absorption was evaluated by calculating the radioactive iron incorporation in subjects' blood. Iron concentrations in algae were high and varied widely, depending on the species and time of year. The highest iron concentrations were found in Sargassum (157 mg/100 g) and Gracilariopsis (196 mg/100 g). Phytates were not detected in the algae and ascorbic acid concentration fluctuated between 38 microg/g dry weight (Ulva) and 362 microg/g dry weight (Sargassum). Algae significantly increased iron absorption in rice-based meals. Cooking did not affect iron absorption compared with raw algae. Results indicate that Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp are good sources of ascorbic acid and bioavailable iron. The percentage of iron absorption was similar among all algae tested, although Sargassum sp resulted in the highest iron intake. Based on these results, and on the high reproduction rates of algae during certain seasons, promoting algae consumption in some countries could help to improve iron nutrition.

  7. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  8. Characterization of ash in algae and other materials by determination of wet acid indigestible ash and microscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are known for high ash content. It is important to properly characterize their ash for value added utilization of algae as food, feed, and feedstock for biofuels. In this study, 12 algae of different sources were measured for proximate composition and mineral profile. Results showed that the r...

  9. Control of cytokinin and auxin homeostasis in cyanobacteria and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižková, Eva; Kubeš, Martin; Dobrev, Petre I; Přibyl, Pavel; Šimura, Jan; Zahajská, Lenka; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Motyka, Václav

    2017-01-01

    The metabolism of cytokinins (CKs) and auxins in vascular plants is relatively well understood, but data concerning their metabolic pathways in non-vascular plants are still rather rare. With the aim of filling this gap, 20 representatives of taxonomically major lineages of cyanobacteria and algae from Cyanophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae were analysed for endogenous profiles of CKs and auxins and some of them were used for studies of the metabolic fate of exogenously applied radiolabelled CK, [3H]trans-zeatin (transZ) and auxin ([3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)), and the dynamics of endogenous CK and auxin pools during algal growth and cell division. Quantification of phytohormone levels was performed by high-performance or ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS, UHPLC-MS/MS). The dynamics of exogenously applied [3H]transZ and [3H]IAA in cell cultures were monitored by HPLC with on-line radioactivity detection. The comprehensive screen of selected cyanobacteria and algae for endogenous CKs revealed a predominance of bioactive and phosphate CK forms while O- and N-glucosides evidently did not contribute greatly to the total CK pool. The abundance of cis-zeatin-type CKs and occurrence of CK 2-methylthio derivatives pointed to the tRNA pathway as a substantial source of CKs. The importance of the tRNA biosynthetic pathway was proved by the detection of tRNA-bound CKs during the course of Scenedesmus obliquus growth. Among auxins, free IAA and its oxidation catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid represented the prevailing endogenous forms. After treatment with [3H]IAA, IAA-aspartate and indole-3-acetyl-1-glucosyl ester were detected as major auxin metabolites. Moreover, different dynamics of endogenous CKs and auxin profiles during S. obliquus culture clearly demonstrated diverse roles of both

  10. Study of Harmful Algae Blooms Using UAS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriu, Ileana; Spacher, Peter; Halfman, John

    2017-04-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occurrence has increased in recent decades. The transient nature of HABs in both space and time result in monitoring challenges, which add to the difficulty in understanding the criteria that trigger HABs. Traditional monitoring programs are expensive and time consuming. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) assures high-resolution space and time monitoring for HABs, and is economical for small bodies of water. By using UAS (Matrice100 and Phantom3) we obtained aerial photographs of eight Finger Lakes which span the oligotrophic to eutrophic spectrum of algal productivity. Water samples were collected and analyzed simultaneously. The Green/Blue (G/B) ratio extracted from the aerial photos was proportional to chlorophyll-a abundance. The algal pigments are also characterized by unique light absorbance and reflectance features, and spectral images obtained from two up-down visible spectrometers revealed a prominent feature 790 nm which correlates to the concentration of algae in the water.

  11. Testing an Algae-Based Air-Regeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, James

    1998-01-01

    The potential of an air-regeneration system based on the growth of unicellular algae on the surface of porous ceramic tubes was evaluated. The system is fairly robust with respect to environmental conditions and is capable of maintaining algal cultures for up to 365 days. Under standard conditions (50-66 micro mol/sq mm s (PPF), 450 micro mol mol of CO2), mature tubes can remove CO2 at a rate of up to 90 micro mol/sq m min. Under these conditions, approximately 200 square meters of area would be required for each member of the crew. However, the rate of uptake increases with both photon flux and CO2 concentration in accordance with Michaelis-Menton dynamics. An extrapolation to conditions of saturating light and carbon dioxide indicates that the area required can be reduced by a factor of at least 2.5.

  12. Unicellular cyanobacterium symbiotic with a single-celled eukaryotic alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne W; Foster, Rachel A; Krupke, Andreas; Carter, Brandon J; Musat, Niculina; Vaulot, Daniel; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-09-21

    Symbioses between nitrogen (N)(2)-fixing prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes are important for nitrogen acquisition in N-limited environments. Recently, a widely distributed planktonic uncultured nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) was found to have unprecedented genome reduction, including the lack of oxygen-evolving photosystem II and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which suggested partnership in a symbiosis. We showed that UCYN-A has a symbiotic association with a unicellular prymnesiophyte, closely related to calcifying taxa present in the fossil record. The partnership is mutualistic, because the prymnesiophyte receives fixed N in exchange for transferring fixed carbon to UCYN-A. This unusual partnership between a cyanobacterium and a unicellular alga is a model for symbiosis and is analogous to plastid and organismal evolution, and if calcifying, may have important implications for past and present oceanic N(2) fixation.

  13. The effect of low temperature on Antarctic endolithic green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Morris, G. J.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5 degrees C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C or -10 degrees C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50 degrees C. 14CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20 degrees C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.

  14. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  15. [Gamma-radiation action on cells of algae Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.

  16. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  17. Photoperiod influences endogenous indoleamines in cultured green alga Dunaliella bardawil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, A; Dayananda, C; Giridhar, P; Rajasekaran, T; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-03-01

    Effect of light intensity and photoperiod on growth, indoleamines and carotenoid production was studied in unicellular green algae D. bardawil. Maximum biomass and carotenoid contents were found when cultures were grown in light (intensity of 2.0 Klux) at a photoperiod of 16/8h light and dark cycle. There was a profound influence of tested photoperiod conditions of light:dark viz. 8:16, 10:14, and 12:12 hr, continuous light on indoleamines (SER and MEL) production as estimated by HPLC and confirmed by mass spectral data obtained from LC-MS-ESI studies. Serotonin level increased from 908 to 1765 pg/g fresh wt with increase in light duration and melatonin level increased from 267 to 584 pg/g fresh wt during increase in dark phase. Carotenoids production was high in continuous light than other tested conditions.

  18. [Analysis of the cable structure of blue-green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S A; Potapova, T V; Skulachev, V P; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    1982-01-01

    Peculiarities of electrical responses under local illumination of filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Phormidium uncinatum were studied by means of extracellular electrodes. Recording of electrical responses at different distances from the exposure place and comparison of these data with the results obtained on physical model of Ph. uncinatum end expected response parameters computed made it possible to estimate the parameters of the cable which can serve as the object model: RC=440 c/cm2 and lambda min greater than or equal to 0.07 cm. According to these values and taking membrane capacity as C=10(-6) phi/cm2, intracellular resistance Rm=10(7) Ohm and conductivity of the surface membrane G less than or equal to 10(-6) I/Ohm cm2 were estimated.

  19. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Rasala

    Full Text Available Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  20. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  1. Genomic insights from the oleaginous model alga Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Robert E; Radakovits, Randor; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species have emerged as leading phototrophic microorganisms for the production of biofuels. Several isolates produce large quantities of triacylglycerols, grow rapidly, and can be cultivated at industrial scales. Recently, the mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes of Nannochloropsis gaditana were sequenced. Genomic interrogation revealed several key features that likely facilitate the oleaginous phenotype observed in Nannochloropsis, including an over-representation of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Here we present additional analyses on gene orientation, vitamin B12 requiring enzymes, the acetyl-CoA metabolic node, and codon usage in N. gaditana. Nuclear genome transformation methods are established with exogenous DNA integration occurring via either random incorporation or by homologous recombination, making Nannochloropsis amenable to both forward and reverse genetic engineering. Completion of a draft genomic sequence, establishment of transformation techniques, and robust outdoor growth properties have positioned Nannochloropsis as a new model alga with significant potential for further development into an integrated photons-to-fuel production platform.

  2. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  3. The Occurrence of Hormesis in Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C; Kudsk, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...... increase ranged from 9±1% to 16±16% of the control growth rate, while if measured on a dry weight basis the response increase was 38±13% and 43±23% for the two terrestrial species. Hormesis was found in >70% of the curves with the herbicides glyphosate and metsulfuron-methyl, and in >50% of the curves...... compared to relative growth rates. Evaluating hormesis for relative growth rates for all species showed that 25% to 76% of the curves for each species had treatments above 105% of the control. Fitting the data with a dose-response model including a parameter for hormesis showed that the average growth...

  4. Rhodovulum algae sp. nov., isolated from an algal mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Tushar, L; Dave, Bharti; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-09-01

    A reddish-brown-pigmented, phototrophic bacterium, designated strain JA877T, was isolated from a brown algae mat sample collected from Jalandhar beach, Gujarat, India. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain JA877T belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and is closely related to the type strains Rhodovulum viride JA756T (99.0 %), Rhodovulum sulfidophilum Hansen W4T (98.9 %), Rhodovulumvisakhapatnamense JA181T (98.8 %),Rhodovulum kholense JA297T (97.5 %) and Rhodovulum salis JA746T (97.0). However, strain JA877T showed only 20-45 % relatedness with its phylogenetic neighbours and had a ∆Tm between 5.8 and 7.0 °C. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q10), and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified sulfolipids and five unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω5c, C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 64.5 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological data, and chemotaxonomic and molecular differences, strain JA877T is significantly different from other species of the genus Rhodovulum and represents a novel species, for which the name Rhodovulum algae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA877T (=LMG 29228T= KCTC 42963T).

  5. Landfill leachate--a water and nutrient resource for algae-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Scott J; Wilkie, Ann C

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need for sustainable renewable fuels that do not negatively impact food and water resources. Algae have great potential for the production of renewable biofuels but require significant water and fertilizer resources for large-scale production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate (LL) was evaluated as a cultivation medium to reduce both water and elemental fertilizer demands of algae cultivation. Daily growth rate and cell yield of two isolated species of algae (Scenedesmus cf. rubescens and Chlorella cf. ellipsoidea) were cultivated in MSW LL and compared with Bold's Basal Medium (BBM). Results suggest that LL can be used as a nutrient resource and medium for the cultivation of algae biomass. S. cf. rubescens grew well in 100% LL, when pH was regulated, with a mean growth rate and cell yield 91.2% and 92.8% of those observed in BBM, respectively. S. cf. rubescens was more adaptable than C. cf. ellipsoidea to the LL tested. The LL used in this study supported a maximum volumetric productivity of 0.55 g/L/day of S. cf. rubescens biomass. The leachate had sufficient nitrogen to supply 17.8 g/L of algae biomass, but was limited by total phosphorus. Cultivation of algae on LL offsets both water and fertilizer consumption, reducing the environmental footprint and increasing the potential sustainability of algae-based biofuels.

  6. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet of algae in fish feed (aquafeed resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal, Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp. for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar. Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination, in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  7. Effect of CaCO3(S) nucleation modes on algae removal from alkaline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Yong; Kinney, Kerry A; Katz, Lynn E

    2016-02-29

    The role of calcite heterogeneous nucleation was studied in a particle coagulation treatment process for removing microalgae from water. Batch experiments were conducted with Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. in the presence and absence of carbonate and in the presence and absence of Mg to delineate the role of CaCO3(S) nucleation on microalgae removal. The results indicate that effective algae coagulation (e.g., up to 81 % algae removal efficiency) can be achieved via heterogeneous nucleation with CaCO3(S); however, supersaturation ratios between 120 and 200 are required to achieve at least 50% algae removal, depending on ion concentrations. Algae removal was attributed to adsorption of Ca2+ onto the cell surface which provides nucleation sites for CaCO3(S) precipitation. Bridging of calcite particles between the algal cells led to rapid aggregation and formation of larger flocs. However, at higher supersaturation conditions, algae removal was diminished due to the dominance of homogeneous nucleation of CaCO3(S). Removal of algae in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ required higher supersaturation values; however, the shift from heteronucleation to homonucleation with increasing supersaturation was still evident. The results suggest that water chemistry, pH, ionic strength, alkalinity and Ca2+ concentration can be optimized for algae removal via coagulation-sedimentation.

  8. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  9. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2014-10-15

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  11. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  12. Algae, macrofaunal assemblages and temperature: a quantitative approach to intertidal ecosystems of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Free; Guerra-García, José M.

    2005-11-01

    Algae and the associated macrofauna in two Icelandic intertidal ecosystems under cold and warm influence, respectively, were studied with respect to algae-macrofauna relationships and a possible effect of temperature on community structure. Two sites in Iceland were selected, Sandgerdi ligthhouse (64°8'N 22°40'W) on the southwestern coast, and Grimsey Island (66°33'N 18°04'W), in the north, on the Arctic Circle, where sea temperature is considerably lower (5° approximately). The biomass of algae and the number of species of algae and macrofauna were higher in Sandgerdi than in Grimsey, and the patterns of diversity, evenness, biomass and abundance also differed between the sites. In the intertidal zone of Sandgerdi, a total of 28 species of algae and 45 species of macrofauna were identified whereas only 16 algal species and 27 macrofaunal species were found in Grimsey. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) using algal biomass as the environmental variable were conducted, and revealed significant relationships between algae composition and the associated macrofauna; some macrofauna taxa showed specific trophic or refuge relationships with algal species. According to the CCA, Corallina officinalis showed the highest correlation with macrofaunal assemblages in both study sites. However, correlations between macrofauna and other algae differed between Grimsey and Sandgerdi. The present study, together with additional observations in Greenland waters, shows a general decrease of species richness and diversity towards the north which may primarily be due to the temperature regime.

  13. Production and release of selenocyanate by different green freshwater algae in environmental and laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kelly L; Smith, Matthew S; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-06-05

    In a previous study, selenocyanate was tentatively identified as a biotransformation product when green algae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of selenate. In this follow-up study, we confirm conclusively the presence of selenocyanate in Chlorella vulgaris culture medium by electrospray mass spectrometry, based on selenium's known isotopic pattern. We also demonstrate that the observed phenomenon extends to other green algae (Chlorella kesslerii and Scenedesmus obliquus) and at least one species of blue-green algae (Synechococcus leopoliensis). Further laboratory experiments show that selenocyanate production by algae is enhanced by addition of nitrate, which appears to serve as a source of cyanide produced in the algae. Ultimately, this biotransformation process was confirmed in field experiments where trace amounts of selenocyanate (0.215 ± 0.010 ppb) were observed in a eutrophic, selenium-impacted river with massive algal blooms, which consisted of filamentous green algae (Cladophora genus) and blue-green algae (Anabaena genus). Selenocyanate abundance was low despite elevated selenium concentrations, apparently due to suppression of selenate uptake by sulfate, and insufficient nitrogen concentrations. Finally, trace levels of several other unidentified selenium-containing compounds were observed in these river water samples; preliminary suggestions for their identities include thioselenate and small organic Se species.

  14. Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Susan H; Blouin, Nicolas A; Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Glen L; Lohr, Martin; Goodson, Holly V; Jenkins, Jerry W; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Helliwell, Katherine E; Chan, Cheong Xin; Marriage, Tara N; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Klein, Anita S; Badis, Yacine; Brodie, Juliet; Cao, Yuanyu; Collén, Jonas; Dittami, Simon M; Gachon, Claire M M; Green, Beverley R; Karpowicz, Steven J; Kim, Jay W; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Lin, Senjie; Michel, Gurvan; Mittag, Maria; Olson, Bradley J S C; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Qiu, Huan; Shu, Shengqiang; Singer, John T; Smith, Alison G; Sprecher, Brittany N; Wagner, Volker; Wang, Wenfei; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Juying; Yarish, Charles; Zäuner-Riek, Simone; Zhuang, Yunyun; Zou, Yong; Lindquist, Erika A; Grimwood, Jane; Barry, Kerrie W; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stiller, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Prochnik, Simon E

    2017-08-01

    Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.

  15. Freshwater algae competition and correlation between their growth and microcystin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Xana; Valero, Enrique; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    There are some different freshwater algae in Eutrophic reservoirs which bloom with specific environmental conditions, and some of them are cyanobacteria. In this investigation, we have cultivated microalgae present in natural water samples from a eutrophic reservoir. Variations in temperature and light were evaluated, as well as the competition among different green algae and cyanobacteria. There were three different freshwater algae growing together, Scenedesmus sp., Kirchneriella sp. and Microcystis aeruginosa, this cyanobacterium was the algae that reached the highest development and growth during the culture. While the algae grew, the concentration of toxin (microcystin-LR) increased until it reached the highest levels at 570 μg g-1. Blooms occurred at temperatures of 28 ± 1.5 °C and light cycles of longer hours of light than dark. This took place during the summer months, from June to September (in the study area). At temperatures below 18 °C, algae did not grow. Blooms were reproduced to a laboratory scale in different conditions in order to understand the development of freshwater algae, as well as to help decision-making about water supply from that reservoir.

  16. Toxicity of 13 different antibiotics towards freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and their modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Huang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Xiaohong; Su, Limin; Li, Chao; Zhao, Yuanhui

    2017-02-01

    Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae. On the other hand, the cell wall synthesis inhibitors, such as cefotaxime and amoxicillin, show relatively low toxic effects to the algae. The concentrations determined by HPLC indicate that quinocetone and amoxicillin can be easily photodegraded or hydrolyzed during the toxic tests. The toxic effects of quinocetone and amoxicillin to the algae are attributed to not only their parent compounds, but also their metabolites. Investigation on the mode of action shows that, except rifampicin, all the tested antibiotics exhibit excess toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (P. subcapitata). These antibiotics can be identified as reactive modes of action to the algae. They act as electrophilic mechanism of action to P. subcapitata. These results are valuable for the understanding of the toxic mechanism to algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thicker three-dimensional tissue from a "symbiotic recycling system" combining mammalian cells and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Kagawa, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we report an in vitro co-culture system that combines mammalian cells and algae, Chlorococcum littorale, to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue. While the C2C12 mouse myoblasts and rat cardiac cells consumed oxygen actively, intense oxygen production was accounted for by the algae even in the co-culture system. Although cell metabolism within thicker cardiac cell-layered tissues showed anaerobic respiration, the introduction of innovative co-cultivation partially changed the metabolism to aerobic respiration. Moreover, the amount of glucose consumption and lactate production in the cardiac tissues and the amount of ammonia in the culture media decreased significantly when co-cultivated with algae. In the cardiac tissues devoid of algae, delamination was observed histologically, and the release of creatine kinase (CK) from the tissues showed severe cardiac cell damage. On the other hand, the layered cell tissues with algae were observed to be in a good histological condition, with less than one-fifth decline in CK release. The co-cultivation with algae improved the culture condition of the thicker tissues, resulting in the formation of 160 μm-thick cardiac tissues. Thus, the present study proposes the possibility of creating an in vitro "symbiotic recycling system" composed of mammalian cells and algae.

  18. Rapid in situ assessment for predicting soil quality using an algae-soaked disc seeding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Hakyeong; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-11-16

    The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations. Herein, we describe a convenient and rapid algae-soaked disc seeding assay for assessing soil quality in the field based on soil algae. The collection of algae is easy and rapid and the method predicts the short-term quality of contaminated, remediated, and amended farm and paddy soils. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is yet to be extensively evaluated, and the method cannot be applied to loamy sand soil in in situ evaluations. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is recommended for prediction of soil quality in in situ evaluations because it reflects all variations in the environment. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay will help to develop management strategies for in situ evaluation.

  19. [Bacterial communities of brown and red algae from Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleneva, I A; Zhukova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The structure of microbial communities of brown algae, red algae, and of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa, healthy and affected with rotten thallus, were comparatively investigated; 61 strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Most of them were identified to the genus level, some Vibrio spp., to the species level according to their phenotypic properties and the fatty acid composition of cellular lipids. The composition of the microflora of two species of brown algae was different. In Chordaria flagelliformis, Pseudomonas spp. prevailed, and in Desmarestia viridis, Bacillus spp. The composition of the microflora of two red algae, G. verrucosa and Camphylaephora hyphaeoides, differed mainly in the ratio of prevailing groups of bacteria. The most abundant were bacteria of the CFB cluster and pseudoalteromonads. In addition, the following bacteria were found on the surface of the algae: Sulfitobacter spp., Halomonas spp., Acinetobacter sp., Planococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Agromyces sp. From tissues of the affected G. verrucosa, only vibrios were isolated, both agarolytic and nonagarolytic. The existence of specific bacterial communities characteristic of different species of algae is suggested and the relation of Vibrio sp. to the pathological process in the tissues of G. verrucosa is supposed.

  20. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the dominance of green algae, chlorophyceae, in WSP#2, to the dominance of aquatic macrophytes, embryophyta, in WSP#4, was observed and corresponded to field observations. Correlation of the abundances to nutrient parameters suggested that the macronutrient rich conditions in WSP#2 allowed floating green algae to proliferate against macrophytes. In WSP#1 and WSP#4, macrophytes competed against algae and thrived, due to their adaptability to lower nutrient conditions. The pH increases occurred primarily in WSP#2 and were not buffered or reduced in WSP#1 and WSP#4. Two alternatives strategies for pH control were recommended for the system: decreasing algae growth in WSP#2 through duckweed seeding or macronutrient loading reduction; or designing and implementing a constructed wetland (CW in WSP#4 with soil and vegetation to buffer pH prior to release.

  1. Environmental impacts of algae-derived biodiesel and bioelectricity for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Nassau, Hagai; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2011-09-01

    Algae are a widely touted source of bioenergy with high yields, appreciable lipid contents, and an ability to be cultivated on marginal land without directly competing with food crops. Nevertheless, recent work has suggested that large-scale deployment of algae bioenergy systems could have unexpectedly high environmental burdens. In this study, a "well-to-wheel" life cycle assessment was undertaken to evaluate algae's potential use as a transportation energy source for passenger vehicles. Four algae conversion pathways resulting in combinations of bioelectricity and biodiesel were assessed for several relevant nutrient procurement scenarios. Results suggest that algae-to-energy systems can be either net energy positive or negative depending on the specific combination of cultivation and conversion processes used. Conversion pathways involving direct combustion for bioelectricity production generally outperformed systems involving anaerobic digestion and biodiesel production, and they were found to generate four and fifteen times as many vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) per hectare as switchgrass or canola, respectively. Despite this, algae systems exhibited mixed performance for environmental impacts (energy use, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions) on a "per km" basis relative to the benchmark crops. This suggests that both cultivation and conversion processes must be carefully considered to ensure the environmental viability of algae-to-energy processes.

  2. Natural impacted freshwaters: in situ use of alginate immobilized algae to the assessment of algal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A X R; Tamanaha, M S; Horita, C O; Radetski, M R; Corrêa, R; Radetski, C M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an in situ phytotoxicity test using alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days, in the assessment of water quality in an impacted small peri-urban stream. After laboratory optimization of algae immobilization/de-immobilization processes, the performance of immobilized/de-immobilized algae was compared to the performance of free algae in terms of specific algal growth and sensitivity. This was done by comparing 72 h EC50 values obtained with zinc and the pesticides clomazone and carbofuran. The results showed a similar performance, which allow us to conclude that immobilization for 60 days do not cause any significant alteration in algae physiology. In the field, immobilized algae were exposed at different times (2, 4 and 7 days) to water samples in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Both laboratory and field experiments indicated that alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days were sufficiently sensitive for use in the in situ assessment of water quality.

  3. Photosynthetic recovery following desiccation of desert green algae (Chlorophyta) and their aquatic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Lewis, Louise A; Cardon, Zoe G

    2007-10-01

    Recent molecular data suggest that desert green algae have evolved from freshwater ancestors at least 14 times in three major classes (Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Charophyceae), offering a unique opportunity to study the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to life on land in a comparative phylogenetic framework. We examined the photorecovery of phylogenetically matched desert and aquatic algae after desiccation in darkness and under illumination. Desert algae survived desiccation for at least 4 weeks when dried in darkness, and recovered high levels of photosynthetic quantum yield within 1 h of rehydration in darkness. However, when 4 weeks of desiccation was accompanied by illumination, three of six desert taxa lost their ability to recover quantum yield during rehydration in the dark. Aquatic algae, in contrast, recovered very little during dark rehydration following even just 24 h of desiccation. Re-illuminating rehydrated algae produced a nearly complete recovery of quantum yield in all desert and two of five aquatic taxa. These contrasts provide physiological evidence that desert green algae possess mechanisms for photosynthetic recovery after desiccation distinct from those in aquatic relatives, corroborating molecular evidence that they are not happenstance, short-term visitors from aquatic environments. Photosensitivity during desiccation among desert algae further suggests that they may reside in protected microsites within crusts, and species specificity of photosensitivity suggests that disturbances physically disrupting crusts could lead to shifts or losses of taxonomic diversity within these habitats.

  4. Changes of cellular superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during cultivation from two anemones found in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Wang, Guangce

    2008-02-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  5. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  6. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

  7. Bioavailability of mineral-bound iron to a snow algae-bacteria co-culture and implications for albedo-altering snow algae blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Z R; Hausrath, E M; Garcia, A H; Murray, A E; Tschauner, O; Raymond, J; Huang, S

    2018-01-26

    Snow algae can form large-scale blooms across the snowpack surface and near-surface environments. These pigmented blooms can decrease snow albedo, increase local melt rates, and may impact the global heat budget and water cycle. Yet, underlying causes for the geospatial occurrence of these blooms remain unconstrained. One possible factor contributing to snow algae blooms is the presence of mineral dust as a micronutrient source. We investigated the bioavailability of iron (Fe) -bearing minerals, including forsterite (Fo 90 , Mg 1.8 Fe 0.2 SiO 4 ), goethite, smectite and pyrite as Fe sources for a Chloromonas brevispina - bacteria co-culture through laboratory-based experimentation. Fo 90 was capable of stimulating snow algal growth and increased the algal growth rate in otherwise Fe-depleted co-cultures. Fo 90 -bearing systems also exhibited a decrease in bacteria:algae ratios compared to Fe-depleted conditions, suggesting a shift in microbial community structure. The C. brevispina co-culture also increased the rate of Fo 90 dissolution relative to an abiotic control. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the co-culture identified Gammaproteobacteria , Betaprotoeobacteria and Sphingobacteria , all of which are commonly found in snow and ice environments. Archaea were not detected. Collimonas and Pseudomonas , which are known to enhance mineral weathering rates, comprised two of the top eight (> 1 %) OTUs. These data provide unequivocal evidence that mineral dust can support elevated snow algae growth under otherwise Fe-depleted growth conditions, and that snow algae can enhance mineral dissolution under these conditions. IMPORTANCE Fe, a key micronutrient for photosynthetic growth, is necessary to support the formation of high-density snow algae blooms. The laboratory experiments described herein allow for a systematic investigation of snow algae-bacteria-mineral interactions and their ability to mobilize and uptake mineral-bound Fe. Results provide unequivocal and

  8. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  9. Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-09-24

    Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production.

  10. PYROLYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS OBTAINED FROM HIGH RATE ALGAE PONDS APPLIED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda eVargas E Silva; Luiz Olinto Monteggia

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high-rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP) were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3 mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735 mg/l. The alga...

  11. The Dynamics of a Diffusive Nutrient-Algae Model Based upon the Sanyang Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability and spatiotemporal dynamics of a diffusive nutrient-algae model are investigated mathematically and numerically. Mathematical theoretical studies have considered the positivity and boundedness of the solution and the existence, local stability, and global stability of equilibria. Turing instability has also been studied. Furthermore, a series of numerical simulations was performed and a complex Turing pattern found. These results indicate that the nutrient input rate has an important influence on the density and spatial distribution of algae populations. This may help us to obtain a better understanding of the interactions of nutrient and algae and to investigate plankton dynamics in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Estudio de la influencia de factores ecológicos sobre comunidades marinas de algas

    OpenAIRE

    López Alcarria, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Las algas utilizan distintas estrategias para adaptarse a los factores que condicionan el medio que las rodea. Dependiendo de las estrategias utilizadas se pueden clasificar en diferentes grupos funcionales. Los grupos funcionales descritos por Grime (1977) para las plantas sirven para clasificar las algas y para evaluar la calidad ecológica y de las aguas que bañan a estas comunidades. Se han estudiado distintas comunidades de algas marinas en Tabarca, Cabo de las Huertas y en Agua Amarga pa...

  13. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator) Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey) Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Vishnupriya; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Park, Sichoon; Igou, Thomas; Yi, Christine; Fu, Hao; Johnston, Rachel; Snell, Terry; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-08-31

    A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer-B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was <0.1 ppm while the alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II). The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm) had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction.

  14. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer—B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was <0.1 ppm while the alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II. The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction.

  15. Effects of extreme seasonality on community structure and functional group dynamics of coral reef algae in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Breeman, A. M.

    Spatial and temporal variation in the biomass of four functional groups of coral reef algae (canopy algae, foliose algae, turf algae and crustose corallines) was investigated in the southern Red Sea. This region is characterised by extremely high summer temperatures (ca. 35 degrees C). Strong

  16. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  17. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Palgae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2015-01-01

    Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000 cells mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6 mm3 L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds.

  19. Changes in the marine green alga @iChaetomorpha media@@ on infection by a fungal pathogen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Chandramohan, D.

    Biochemical changes in the green filamentous alga @iChaetomorpha media@@ Kutzing infected with a holocarpic endobiotic fungus@@ Pontisma lagenidioides@@ Petersen were studied. Healthy plants of @iC. media@@ were inoculated with the infected material...

  20. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  1. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  3. Prospective function of FtsZ proteins in the secondary plastid of chlorarachniophyte algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Ishida, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    .... In several algal lineages, complex plastids, the "secondary plastids", have been acquired by the endosymbiotic uptake of primary plastid-bearing algae, and are surrounded by three or four membranes...

  4. NOTES ON INDONESIAN FRESHWATER ALGAE II*Ichthyodontum, a new desmid genus from Sumatra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR M. SCOTT

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Described and figured are Ichthyodontum, a new genus belongingto the desmidiaceous algae, with I.sachlanii, a new species with its newvariety parorthium, showing a peculiar bipolarity. From souther Sumatra.

  5. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Murillo Muñoz; Enrique Javier Peña Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber...

  6. Alga-PrAS (Algal Protein Annotation Suite): A Database of Comprehensive Annotation in Algal Proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Atsushi; Yamada, Yutaka; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Algae are smaller organisms than land plants and offer clear advantages in research over terrestrial species in terms of rapid production, short generation time and varied commercial applications. Thus, studies investigating the practical development of effective algal production are important and will improve our understanding of both aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study we estimated multiple physicochemical and secondary structural properties of protein sequences, the predicted presence of post-translational modification (PTM) sites, and subcellular localization using a total of 510,123 protein sequences from the proteomes of 31 algal and three plant species. Algal species were broadly selected from green and red algae, glaucophytes, oomycetes, diatoms and other microalgal groups. The results were deposited in the Algal Protein Annotation Suite database (Alga-PrAS; http://alga-pras.riken.jp/), which can be freely accessed online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Trans-Himalayan Alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve: e0118255

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jatinder Kumar; Priyanka Dhar; Amol B Tayade; Damodar Gupta; Om P Chaurasia; Dalip K Upreti; Kiran Toppo; Rajesh Arora; M R Suseela; Ravi B Srivastava

    2015-01-01

      The freshwater alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve, a filamentous charophyte, collected from the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert, was identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical characters...

  8. Optimization of liquid media and biosafety assessment for algae-lysing bacterium NP23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Chunli; Liu, Xiaobo; Shan, Linna

    2014-01-01

    To control algal bloom caused by nutrient pollution, a wild-type algae-lysing bacterium was isolated from the Baiguishan reservoir in Henan province of China and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain NP23...

  9. Allelopathic effects of Alexandrium tamarense on other algae: evidence from mixed growth experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tillmann, Urban; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    period, even though cell concentrations of Alex5 became very high (2 × 104 cells ml-1). As both strains contained comparable amounts of PST, this confirmed previous suggestions that so far unidentified compounds are causing the negative effects on other algae. Sensitivity of the tested algae to Alex2...... differed considerably. The growth of some species was affected at very low Alex2 cell concentrations (cells ml-1), while the growth of other algae was not affected until cell concentrations exceeded 103 cells ml-1. While a complete dieoff was the ultimate fate for almost all target species when grown....... tamarense, similar in their cellular paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) content, were selected because of their fundamentally different lytic potencies. The Alex2 strain clearly affected all target algae while the Alex5 strain had no negative effect on the growth of any of the target species during the study...

  10. Temporal and spatial dynamics of ephemeral drift-algae in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Olesen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    ) suggesting that variability in algal cover may go by undetected in monthly assessments. The changes in cover were caused either by algal growth or by physical forces moving large aggregations of algae into or out of the study area. Within plots (1 m2) variability was even higher and algal cover changed...... regularly between observations (days). Hence, the algae were continuously rearranged within the eelgrass beds; also during periods with no change in average algal cover. The variability in cover of individual plots was negatively correlated to eelgrass cover, suggesting that algae were retained...... by the eelgrass leaves. This highly dynamic nature of filamentous macroalgal aggregations in eelgrass beds should be considered when evaluating implications of macroalgal blooms for seagrass growth and survival. A frequent relocation of drift-algae at small spatial scale may moderate the formation of poor oxygen...

  11. Meta-analysis and Harmonization of Life Cycle Assessment Studies for Algae Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Eckelman, Matthew; Zimmerman, Julie

    2017-09-05

    Algae biodiesel (BioD) and renewable diesel (RD) have been recognized as potential solutions to mitigating fossil-fuel consumption and the associated environmental issues. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used by many researchers to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of these algae-derived fuels, yielding a wide range of results and, in some cases, even differing on indicating whether these fuels are preferred to petroleum-derived fuels or not. This meta-analysis reviews the methodological preferences and results for energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption for 54 LCA studies that considered algae BioD and RD. The significant variation in reported results can be primarily attributed to the difference in scope, assumptions, and data sources. To minimize the variation in life cycle inventory calculations, a harmonized inventory data set including both nominal and uncertainty data is calculated for each stage of the algae-derived fuel life cycle.

  12. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 1, July 1--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Augenstein, D.C.; Wise, D.L.

    1977-10-14

    Progress is reported in research designed to develop an economically competitive process for producing acetic acid from biomass for the purpose of sparing petroleum for other uses, to evaluate marine algae as a potential source of biomass, and to document the feasibility of running fermentations in fixed packed bed fermenters. It was demonstrated that marine algae can be fermented to acetic acid. Initial rates of up to 168 meq/1 day were observed. These rates are substantially in excess of the 47 meq/1 day used in the economic projections. Also, when using marine algae as a substrate, acid levels were generated equivalent to the highest reported with other substrates. It was also demonstrated that a 4-foot fixed packet bed fermenter may be operated with marine algae as a substrate at 20 percent solids or 200 meq/1.

  13. Control and separation of algae particles from WSP effluent by using floating aquatic plant root mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Kim, W J; Chung, P G; Pipes, W O

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the potential uses of water hyacinth and its root mats for separating algae particles in the effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) were discussed. Pilot-scale integrated processes consisting of WSPs and multiple WHPs (water hyacinth ponds) were operated in order to extract effects of the root mats on the reduction of algae concentrations. Root mats in the bottom of WHPs separated significant amount of the algae cells through attachment as the effluent from WSPs passed through them. Attachment of the algae particles to the surface of live roots was found to be similar to adsorption phenomena but it lasted even at saturation, probably due to the continuous reproduction of active attachment sites by detachment and growth of the roots. Additionally, this paper discusses attachment mechanisms and other issues concerning design and polishing of the WSPs effluent by WHPs.

  14. Interfacing living unicellular algae cells with biocompatible polyelectrolyte-stabilised magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Shlykova, Lubov V; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Osin, Yuri N; García-Alonso, Javier; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2010-10-08

    Green algae are a promising platform for the development of biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Here we report a reliable single-step technique for the functionalisation of living unicellular green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biocompatible 15 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles stabilised with poly(allylamine hydrochloride). The magnetised algae cells can be manipulated and immobilised using external permanent magnets. The distribution of the nanoparticles on the cell walls of C. pyrenoidosa was studied by optical and fluorescence microscopy, TEM, SEM and EDX spectroscopy. The viability and the magnetic properties of the magnetised algae are studied in comparison with the native cells. The technique may find a number of potential applications in biotechnology and bioelectronics.

  15. The effect of temporal variability in salinity on the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2012-01-01

    become abundant in many shallow, soft-bottom estuaries. Salinity is important for the local and regional distribution of algae. The distribution of G. vermiculophylla in Europe suggests that it thrives well in hyposaline environments and that it may be more fit than some native algae under...... such conditions. Little, however, is known about the ecophysiology of G. vermiculophylla and it is therefore difficult to predict its spread and future distribution. Laboratory experiments with G. vermiculophylla showed that steady-state salinity above 15 psu was optimal for growth and that the growth rate...... was reduced at salinities below 15 psu. Variable salinity reduced the growth rate and larger oscillations were more stressful than small ones. Exposure to very low salinity (0–5 psu) was stressful for the alga and algae exposed to these low levels for 2–4 days were unable to recover fully. Gracilaria...

  16. Mycoalgae biofilm: development of a novel platform technology using algae and fungal cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajendran, Aravindan; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    ... in the algae based processes. The objective of this research is to mimic the growth of natural lichen and develop a novel biofilm platform technology using filamentous fungi and microalgae to form a lichen type of biofilm...

  17. Algae-based biofilm productivity utilizing dairy wastewater: effects of temperature and organic carbon concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fica, Zachary T; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    .... The dairy industry is a significant source of wastewater worldwide that could provide an inexpensive and nutrient rich feedstock for the cultivation of algae biomass for use in downstream processing...

  18. A mathematical model of algae growth in a pelagic-benthic coupled shallow aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jimin; Shi, Junping; Chang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-08-01

    A coupled system of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations is proposed to describe the interaction of pelagic algae, benthic algae and one essential nutrient in an oligotrophic shallow aquatic ecosystem with ample supply of light. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative steady states are completely determined for all possible parameter range, and these results characterize sharp threshold conditions for the regime shift from extinction to coexistence of pelagic and benthic algae. The influence of environmental parameters on algal biomass density is also considered, which is an important indicator of algal blooms. Our studies suggest that the nutrient recycling from loss of algal biomass may be an important factor in the algal blooms process; and the presence of benthic algae may limit the pelagic algal biomass density as they consume common resources even if the sediment nutrient level is high.

  19. Biodegradation of naproxen by freshwater algae Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda and the comparative toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tengda; Lin, Kunde; Yang, Bo; Yang, Mengting; Li, Juying; Li, Wenying; Gan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Naproxen is one of the most prevalent pharmaceuticals and of great environment concern. Information about bioremediation of naproxen by algae remains limited and no study has been reported on the degradation mechanism and the toxicity of NPX on algae. In this study, both Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed complete growth inhibition (100%) at 100mgL-1 within 24h. Biochemical characteristics including chlorophyll a, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities for these two microalgae were affected by NPX at relatively high concentrations after 4d of exposure. Degradation of naproxen was accelerated by both algae species. Cymbella sp. showed a more satisfactive effect in the bioremediation of NPX with higher removal efficiency. A total of 12 metabolites were identified by LC-MS/MS and the degradation pathways of naproxen in two algae were proposed. Hydroxylation, decarboxylation, demethylation, tyrosine conjunction and glucuronidation contributed to naproxen transformation in algal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally...