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Sample records for rapeseed oil ro

  1. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rapeseed oil. 184.1555 Section 184.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1555 Rapeseed oil. (a) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides in which the fatty acid composition is a mixture of...

  2. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  3. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  4. Investigation of rapeseed oil at Riga Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudriniece, E.; Strele, M.; Serzhane, R.

    2002-01-01

    Literature data on investigation of rapeseed oil have been summarized, particular attention paid to the investigations carried out at the Riga Technical University (RTU). The results obtained by scientists of the RTU have revealed following opportunities: to produce high-quality rapeseed oil in Latvia; to simplify the refinement procedure of rapeseed oil - to combine the process of hydration with neutralization using local materials, for example, Ca(OH) 2 ; to utilize the absorbents obtained from Latvian clay deposits for the bleaching of rapeseed oil; to organize the production of bio fuel at the experimental factory. (authors)

  5. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  6. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  7. An investigation on rapeseed oil as potential insulating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katim, N. I. A.; Nasir, M. S. M.; Ishak, M. T.; Hamid, M. H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Insulation oils are a vital part in power transformers. Insulation oil is not only work as electrical insulation but also as a coolant inside the transformer. Due to the increasing tight regulations on the environment and safety in recent years, vegetable oils are being considered for insulation oils in power transformer. This paper presents two conditions of Rapeseed Oil (RO), which are as received (new) and dried (dry) under difference uniform field electrodes configuration (mushroom-to-mushroom and sphere-to-sphere) with gap distance at 2.5 mm as recommended by the international standards. A comparative study of AC breakdown voltage, dissipation factor (tan δ), and resistivity under variation of temperature were investigated. The experimental works were done according to the IEC 60156 and IEC 60247 standards. The results indicated that the breakdown voltages of both condition are comparable to mineral oil. The dielectric constant and resistivity of two conditions are decreased along with the increasing temperature. However, the dissipation factor properties rose up along with the temperature. The Weibull distribution was used to determine the withstand voltages at 1% and 50% for RO in two probabilities conditions.

  8. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  9. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  10. Biodiesel in Belgium. From rapeseed oil to used vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkmans, L.

    1997-01-01

    There are two motives for the search for alternative motor fuels: reducing the growing pressure of traffic on environment, and looking for a replacement for petrol and diesel oil that are bound to be worn-out in a few decades. A promising alternative motor fuel is biodiesel. The author's institute is involved in its second biodiesel demonstration project. In the first project RME (rapeseed methyl ester) was used undiluted in five passenger cars for two years. There were no technical problems and a clear environmental advantage was noticed. However, the price remains a problem. The use of waste vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel could help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a second biodiesel demonstration project was started in which UVOME (used vegetable oil methyl ester) is used. The preliminary results show a great similarity with the RME results and no technical problems in real life use. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  11. The Comparison of Co, Ni, Mo, CoMo and NiMo Sulfided Catalysts in Rapeseed Oil Hydrodeoxygenation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Kubička, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2017), s. 333-341 ISSN 1878-5190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-22490S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : triolein hydrodeoxygenation scheme * rapeseed oil * sulfide catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  12. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques.

  13. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  14. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples were...... faster in the presence of RO allowing more room for the conformational changes to occur. Final SFC decreased with increasing RO content. Shear applied in 20 and 30 % blends caused the destruction of b0-related 3L structure leaving only 2L packing. In AMF and statically crystallized samples, both 3L and 2......L packing existed. Shear did not affect the amount of b crystals formed. The study shows that both shear and RO affect the polymorphic behavior of milk fat, and that 1H NMR is able to detect polymorphic transition in blends with up to 30 % w/w RO....

  15. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  16. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  17. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  19. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  20. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  1. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  2. Enhanced fish oil-in-water emulsions enabled by rapeseed lecithins obtained under different processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingbo; Pedersen, Jacob Nedergaard; Anankanbil, Sampson; Guo, Zheng

    2018-10-30

    It is hypothesized that rapeseed lecithins may have different emulsifying and antioxidant properties in delivering fish oil compared to soy lecithin based on previous studies. The results showed that in vitro antioxidant activities of rapeseed lecithins were stronger than those of soy lecithin. Emulsions stabilized by rapeseed based lecithins and DATEM were stable over 3 months at 4 °C, whereas the creaming of emulsions containing soy lecithin started immediately after its preparation. Zeta-potential of rapeseed lecithins was higher than soy lecithin and DATEM, which partially contributed to the emulsion stability. Although the particle sizes of emulsions prepared by rapeseed lecithins increased after 14 days storage, no creaming was observed. Lipid oxidation as indicated by TBARS values suggested that DATEM was the most unfavorable, followed by soy lecithin. It is concluded that rapeseed lecithins are better than soy lecithin and DATEM in terms of emulsion stability and antioxidant capability, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min -1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min -1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

  4. Additives for rapeseed oil fuel. Influence on the exhaust gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastl, Johannes; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to fossil diesel fuel, the use of additives is not common in rapeseed oil fuel. In a preceding research project the efficacy of several additives, that are commercially available for the use in fossil diesel or FAME, has been investigated for rapeseed oil fuel in the lab. Four additives could be identified, which have a significant influence on the ignition delay or the low temperature flow behaviour of rapeseed oil fuel. To investigate whether there are negative effects of the additives on other fuel-related properties in practical use, a test series on an agricultural tractor capable of running on vegetable oils has been conducted. Attention is focused on the operating parameters like power, torque or fuel consumption as well as on regulated emissions (CO, HC, particulate matter or NOx) and non-regulated emissions like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the influence of the additives on the storage stability of rapeseed oil fuel is investigated in long term studies. No negative influence of the additives on the regulated emissions could be seen in the experiments, the data of the non-regulated emissions is still being analysed. This paper will focus on the emissions testing; results of the long term studies will be given in the presentation. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  6. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  7. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Ryo-ichi; Imai, Masanao; Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes an enzyme inactivation. This paper presents enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L™ usi...

  8. Hydrogenation of rapeseed oil for production of liquid bio-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, F.; Martins, S.; Gonçalves, M.; Costa, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Alves, A.; Mendes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production of renewable liquid hydrocarbons through rapeseed oil hydrogenation. ► Hydrogenation at lower temperature and lower hydrogen pressures. ► Test of a catalyst commonly employed in petrochemical industry. ► Improve of hydrogenation process viability by decreasing operational costs. ► Analysis of hydrogenated product applications as bio-chemicals. -- Abstract: The main objective of rapeseed oil hydrogenation tests was the production of liquid bio-chemicals to be used as renewable raw material for the production of several chemicals and in chemical synthesis to substitute petroleum derived stuff. As, hydrogenation of vegetable oils is already applied for the production of biofuels, the work done focused in producing aromatic compounds, due to their economic value. The effect of experimental conditions on rapeseed oil hydrogenation was studied, namely, reaction temperature and time with the aim of selecting the most favourable conditions to convert rapeseed oil into liquid valuable bio-chemicals. Rapeseed oil was hydrogenated at a hydrogen initial pressure of 1.10 MPa. Reaction temperature varied in the range from 200 °C to 400 °C, while reaction times between 6 and 180 min were tested. The performance of a commercial cobalt and molybdenum catalyst was also studied. The highest hydrocarbons yields were obtained at the highest temperature and reaction times tested. At a temperature of 400 °C and at the reaction time of 120 min hydrocarbons yield was about 92% in catalyst presence, while in the absence of the catalyst this value decreased to 85%. Hydrocarbons yield was even higher when the reaction time of 180 min was used in the presence of catalyst, as the yield of 97% was observed. At these conditions hydrocarbons formed had a high content of aromatic compounds, around 50%. For this reason, the viscosity values of hydrogenated oils were lower than that established by EN590, which together with hydrogenated liquids composition

  9. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  10. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  11. Transesterification of rapeseed and palm oils in supercritical methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biktashev, Sh.A.; Usmanov, R.A.; Gabitov, R.R.; Gazizov, R.A.; Gumerov, F.M.; Gabitov, F.R.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Yarullin, R.S.; Yakushev, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. The studies were performed using the experimental setups which are working in batch and continuous regimes. The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. Also the effect of preliminary ultrasonic treatment (ultrasonic irradiation, emulsification of immiscible oil and alcohol mixture) of the initial reagents (emulsion preparation) on the stage before transesterification reaction conduction on the conversion yield was studied. We found that the preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the initial reagents increases considerably the conversion yield. Optimal technological conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure within 20-30 MPa, temperature within 573-623 K. The optimal values of the oil to alcohol ratio strongly depend on preliminary treatment of the reaction mixture. The study showed that the conversion yield at the same temperature with 96 wt.% of ethanol is higher than with 100 wt.% of methanol. -- Highlights: → The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. → The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. → Transesterification of vegetable oil with supercritical alcohols. → Effect of temperature and pressure on conversion yield. → Preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the vegetable oil+methanol mixture.

  12. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  13. Tribological study on rapeseed oil with nano-additives in close contact sliding situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev Nayan; Harsha, A. P.; Singh, Sagar

    2018-02-01

    The present work deals with the tribological evaluation of three types of nano-additives, i.e., copper oxide (CuO; ≈ 151.2 nm), cerium oxide (CeO2; ≈ 80 nm) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; ≈ 90.4 nm) with rapeseed oil under steel-steel sliding contacts. The nano-additives concentrations in the base oil were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% w/v for the lubricant formulation. Further, the rapeseed oil was also epoxidized by a chemical method and the tribological behavior was compared with the base oil (unmodified oil) at similar nano-additives concentrations. The ASTM standards were followed for the study of wear preventive and extreme-pressure analysis of nanolubricants, and it was carried out using four-ball tester. In the antiwear test, CeO2 and PTFE nano-additives have shown the significant reduction in the wear scar diameter at the concentration of 0.1% w/v. In the extreme-pressure test, 0.5% w/v concentration was optimum for oxide nanoparticles; however, PTFE nanoparticles did not show positive effect with both the base oils. Different characterization techniques were employed to confirm the oil modification and for the study of the worn surfaces.

  14. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  15. Enzymatic interesterification of butterfat with rapeseed oil in a continuous packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Yang, Tiankui; Mu, Huiling

    2005-01-01

    , whereafter it dramatically decreased over the next 10 days to an activity level of 40%. In general, the study shows no significant difference for butterfat interesterification in terms of enzyme behavior from normal vegetable oils and fats even though it contains short-chain fatty acids and cholesterol......Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of butterfat blended with rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) was investigated both in batch and in continuous reactions. Six commercially available immobilized lipases were screened in batch experiments, and the lipases, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM, were chosen...

  16. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The total consumption of edible oil amounted to 2.381 million tons during 2007 - 2008; local production of edible oil was estimated at 0.833 million tons and the remaining ... susceptible to a number of pests, insect control need more care to reduce losses and check costly pesticide damaging to honeybees ...

  17. Rapeseed oil as feedstock for high functionality polyol synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirpluks, M.; Kalnbunde, D.; Walterová, Zuzana; Cabulis, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, 3-4 (2017), s. 258-270 ISSN 2164-6325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyols * polyurethane foams * renewable raw materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2016

  18. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  19. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  20. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...

  1. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NO x emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min -1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min -1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O 2 , 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

  2. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... of the catalyst particles. In this paper, this negative effect was further investigated and confirmed in ethanolysis of rapeseed oil. A dyeing method was developed for in situ visualization of glycerol in order to study its partitioning and accumulation during the ethanolysis reaction. The method was used...

  3. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  4. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  6. Improved rapeseed oil extraction yield and quality via cold separation of ethanol miscella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citeau Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction of vegetable oils, the idea of using ethanol as a solvent, allowing solvent recycling without distillation, can be attested as early as 1948 (Beckel, yet it is now seldom envisaged. The development of organic farming and a growing demand for a more natural diet prompted us to revisit this approach, which takes advantage of the relatively low affinity of ethanol for lipids to produce pure crude oils and meal with higher protein content. This method is based on the change of oil solubility in ethanol with temperature. Rapeseed oil extraction was carried out by hot pressurized ethanol (subcritical extraction condition. Oil was then recovered by cooling the miscella and demixing of two phases, an oil-rich phase and a solvent-rich phase. This study, after verifying the kinetics of extraction, focused on the optimization of the demixing temperature based on the amount and quality of recovered oil. The results show that ethanol extraction followed by cold demixing of the miscella makes it possible to obtain a high quality oil, free of free fatty acids and phospholipids.

  7. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kadzińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32 of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90. Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (ΔE increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  8. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  9. Micro-pressing of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds for evaluation of the oil extractability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoire Raphaëlle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pressing is a crucial step in the crushing process of rapeseed seeds, regarding its major effect on the oil extraction yield, the energy consumption and the quality of the meal. In order to study and model in a rigorous way the behaviour of rapeseed seeds, and the oil extraction during pressing, the potential of a micro-pressing technique using a instrumented micro press adapted to quantities of seeds as low as 10 g for rapeseed and 3 g for Arabidopsis thaliana was examined and discussed. Using a phenomenological model, data from the pressing process and the material behaviour (compressibility modules were obtained with a good precision, highlighting small differences between samples. The well-known positive effect of the temperature on the oil extraction yield was confirmed with A. thaliana. Micro-pressing of ground and cooked rapeseed seeds did not lead to the results usually reported in the literature for continuous pressing. The results strongly suggest that the performance of the static micro-pressing is related to the macro-and micro-structure of seeds and is less sensitive to the moisture than continuous pressing. Further experiments are needed to confirm that the micro-pressing could be an effective tool for predicting the extractability of oil and therefore, contribute to plant breeding programmes in the future.

  10. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  11. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-11-01

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  13. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...... of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability...

  14. Influence of de-hulled rapeseed roasting on the physicochemical composition and oxidative state of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Siger, A.; Wroniak, M.; Ścibisz, I.; Derewiaka, D.; Anders, A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of roasting time on the contents of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds), antioxidant capacity and physicochemical properties of rapeseed oil pressed from de-hulled seeds was investigated. The de-hulled seeds were roasted at a temperature of 165 °C for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The results of this study show that a roasting pre-treatment led to a gradual increase in canolol content (from 1.34 to 117.33 mg/100 g), total phytosterols (from 573.51 to 609.86 mg/100 g) and total carotenoids (0.82 to 2.41 mg/100 g), while only slight changes in the contents of tocopherols were noted. With the increase in roasting time a gradual increase in oxidative stability (from 4.27 to 6.85 h), and antioxidant capacity, seen mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of oil (from 0.32 to 2.30 mmol TEAC/l) was found. Although roasting resulted in the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products, the quality parameters of oils were within Codex Alimentarius limits. [es

  15. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oil: The effects of roasting and seed moisture on the antioxi- dant activity, canolol, and tocopherol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siger, Aleksander; Józefiak, Marta; Górnaś, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The paper looks at the levels of canolol, tocopherols and antioxidant activity in cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oils produced from seeds of various moisture levels (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). The paper also considers the effects of seed roasting on the levels of these compounds. The material used for the tests was rapeseed cv. Adrianna. The quality of the oils obtained is determined using peroxide and acid values. The levels of canolol and tocopherols are analyzed using HPLC. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity method for oil samples and phenolic extract from oils was used. It has been demonstrated that the oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content, and   in particular from cold-pressed oils, were characterized by the lowest peroxide values. Cold-pressed oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content were characterized by higher levels of tocopherols and plastochromanol-8. In the case of hot-pressed oils, the highest levels of tocopherols were found in oils pro- duced from seeds with a 7.5% moisture content, and the greatest amount of PC-8 (more than 4 mg/100 g) was found in oils produced from seeds with a 10% moisture content. Hot-pressed oils have been shown to have higher levels of these compounds than cold-pressed oils. Both roasting and hot pressing led to an increase in the amount of canolol in the oils investigated. When analysing the antioxidant activity of the oils and phenolic extracts it was shown that phenolic compounds are responsible for approx. 10% of total antioxidant activity. Various levels of biologically active compounds were shown to be present in the rapeseed oil obtained from raw materials of a varying moisture content. The type of pressing process (cold-pressing or hot-pressing) and whether the seeds have undergone roasting has also been shown to affect the resulting oil and the level of native antioxidants it contains.

  18. Surface tension and wetting properties of rapeseed oil to biofuel conversion by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Sujak, Agnieszka; Stępniewski, Andrzej; Kornarzyński, Krzysztof; Ejtel, Marta; Kowal, Natalia; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szcześniak, Emil; Tomczyńska-Mleko, Marta; Mleko, Stanisław

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a study on the surface tension, density and wetting behaviour of distilled glycerol, technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction. The research was conducted to expand the knowledge about the physical properties of wastes from the rapeseed oil biofuel production. The results show that the densities of technical grade glycerol (1.300 g cm-3) and distilled glycerol (1.267 g cm-3) did not differ and were significantly lower than the density of the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (1.579 g cm-3). Furthermore, the surface tension of distilled glycerol (49.6 mN m-1) was significantly higher than the matter organic non-glycerin fraction (32.7 mN m-1) and technical grade glycerol (29.5 mN m-1). As a result, both technical grade glycerol and the matter organic non-glycerin fraction had lower contact angles than distilled glycerol. The examined physical properties of distilled glycerol were found to be very close to that of the commercially available pure glycerol. The results suggest that technical grade glycerol may have potential application in the production of glycerol/fuel blends or biosurfactants. The presented results indicate that surface tension measurements are more useful when examining the quality of biofuel wastes than is density determination, as they allow for a more accurate analysis of the effects of impurities on the physical properties of the biofuel by-products.

  19. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major contributions to

  1. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  2. Exploring genotypic variations for improved oil content and healthy fatty acids composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad; Razi, Raziuddin; Khan, Sabaz Ali

    2017-04-01

    Development of new genotypes having high oil content and desirable levels of fatty acid compositions is a major objective of rapeseed breeding programmes. In the current study combining ability was determined for oil, protein, glucosinolates and various fatty acids content using 8 × 8 full diallel in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Highly significant genotypic differences were observed for oil, protein, glucosinolates, oleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid content. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) for biochemical traits. Parental line AUP-17 for high oil content and low glucosinolates, genotype AUP-2 for high protein and oleic acids, and AUP-18 for low lenolenic and erucic acid were best general combiners. Based on desirable SCA effects, F 1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20; AUP-2 × AUP-8; AUP-7 × AUP-14; AUP-2 × AUP-9; AUP-7 × AUP-14 and AUP-2 × AUP-9 were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. F 1 hybrids AUP-17 × AUP-20 (for oil content); AUP-2 × AUP-8 (for protein content); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for glucosinolates); AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for oleic acid); AUP-7 × AUP-14 (for linolenic acid) and AUP-2 × AUP-9 (for erucic acid) were found superior involving at least one best general combiner. As reciprocal crosses of AUP-14 with AUP-7 and AUP-8 were superior had low × low and low × high GCA effects for glucosinolates and oleic acid, respectively therefore, these could be exploited in future rapeseed breeding programmes to develop new lines with good quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Synergetic Use of Principal Component Analysis Applied to Normed Physicochemical Measurements and GC × GC-MS to Reveal the Stabilization Effect of Selected Essential Oils on Heated Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Lefèvre, Fanny; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to the formation of volatile compounds and very often to off-flavors. In the case of the heating of rapeseed oil, unpleasant odors, characterized as a fishy odor, are emitted. In this study, 2 different essential oils (coriander and nutmeg essential oils) were added to refined rapeseed oil as odor masking agents. The aim of this work was to determine a potential antioxidant effect of these essential oils on the thermal stability of rapeseed oil subject to heating cycles between room temperature and 180 °C. For this purpose, normed determinations of different parameters (peroxide value, anisidine value, and the content of total polar compounds, free fatty acids and tocopherols) were carried out to examine the differences between pure and degraded oil. No significant difference was observed between pure rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil with essential oils for each parameter separately. However, a stabilizing effect of the essential oils, with a higher effect for the nutmeg essential oil was highlighted by principal component analysis applied on physicochemical dataset. Moreover, the analysis of the volatile compounds performed by GC × GC showed a substantial loss of the volatile compounds of the essential oils from the first heating cycle. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  5. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofuel by isomerizing metathesis of rapeseed oil esters with (bio)ethylene for use in contemporary diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Kai F; Baader, Sabrina; Baader, Mathias; Berndt, Silvia; Goossen, Lukas J

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste. It demonstrates that the pressing challenge of increasing the fraction of renewables in engine fuel may be addressed purely chemically rather than by motor engineering.

  7. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  8. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  9. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  10. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  11. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil Características de um motor de trator alimentado com combustíveis mineral e biodisel misturados com óleo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Godeša

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unfavourable characteristics of crude vegetable oil when used as the fuel is the high viscosity. To improve this weakness, oil can be blended with mineral diesel or biodiesel fuels. This study was designed to evaluate how the use of mineral diesel or biodiesel blend with cold pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus oil affects the engine power, torque and fuel consumption. A tractor equipped with direct injection, water cooling system and three-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiment. Fuels used were standard diesel fuel (diesel, rapeseed oil methyl ester - biodiesel (B100 and their mixtures with 10, 30 and 50 vol. % of cold pressed rapeseed oil (RO. Increased portion of RO in diesel fuel blends had almost no effect on the torque measured on the tractor PTO shaft; it however decreased the maximal power. Fuel blends with B100 and rising RO content (up to 50% gave a positive correlation with maximal torque and power. By increasing the portion of RO from 0 to 50%, the minimal specific fuel consumption increased by 6.65% with diesel and decreased by 2.98% with B100 based fuel.Uma das características mais desfavoráveis dos óleos vegetais crus usados como combustível é a alta viscosidade. Para melhorar este ponto fraco, o óleo pode ser misturado com diesel mineral ou biodiesel. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar como o uso de diesel mineral ou biodiesel misturado a oleo de colza (Brassica napus extraído por pressão a frio afeta a potência do motor, o torque e o consumo de combustível, empregando um trator equipado com injeção direta, sistema de refrigeração de água e um motor de três cilindros. Os combustíveis utilizados foram o diesel padrão (diesel, éster metílico de óleo de sementes de colza - biodiesel (B100 e suas misturas com 10, 30 e 50 % vol. de óleo de semente de colza pressionado a frio (RO. Maiores proporções de RO nas misturas de diesel praticamente não tiveram efeito sobre o torque

  12. Impact of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. alpha-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas gamma- and delta-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  13. Impact of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. α-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas γ- and δ-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  14. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Czerwinski, J.; Leníček, J.; Sekyra, M.; Topinka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, 14 JUNE (2012), s. 253-261 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0142 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA101/08/1717; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0568; project MEDETOX(XE) LIFE10ENV/CZ/651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : diesel engine * diesel emissions * particulate matter Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2012

  16. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  18. Optimization of Process Parameters for Palm Oil and Rapeseed Oil Hot Pot Soup Stock%棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料关键工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 车振明; 肖文艳; 黄清吉

    2014-01-01

    采用响应曲面分析法对棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料关键工艺参数进行了优化。在单因素试验的基础上,以火锅底料的感观综合评分为响应值,进行了棕榈油与菜籽油用油量、油配比、熬制时间3个因素的显著性和交互作用分析,优化得到其最佳工艺参数条件:用油量为52%(m/m),棕榈油与菜籽油配比为3∶2∶3(5℃棕榈油∶8℃棕榈油∶菜籽油),熬制时间为26 min。在此条件下对棕榈油与菜籽油复合火锅底料进行感官综合评分,其中组织形态89.16分、浑汤度88.83分、色泽89.02分、香味92.87分、滋味87.29分,感官综合评分为89.65分。%The critical processing parameters of palm oil and rapesee d oil blend hot pot soup stock are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM).Use sensory scores to evaluate the response value,and the significance and interactions of three factors,including content of palm oil and rapeseed oil,oils ra-tio and stewing time.The optimal process parameters are obtained as follows:oil content is 5 2%(m/m),ratio of palm oil and rapeseed oil is 3∶2∶3 (palm oil with melting point of 5 ℃∶palm oil with melting point of 8 ℃∶rapeseed oil),the optimum stewing time established is 26 min.Under such conditions,the sensory evaluation score for palm oil and rapeseed oil hot pot soup stock is 89.16 for appearance,88.83 for turbidity,89.02 for color,92.87 for smell,87.29 for taste,and the overall sensory evaluation score is excellent at 89.65.

  19. Chemical composition and resistance to oxidation of high-oleic rapeseed oil pressed from microwave pre-treated intact and de-hulled seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Wroniak, M.; Siger, A.; Ścibisz, I.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of a microwave (MV) pre-treatment (3, 6, 9 min, 800W) on the physicochemical properties of high-oleic rapeseed oil prepared from intact (HORO) and de-hulled seeds (DHORO) was investigated in this study. A control DHORO contained higher levels of total tocopherols and carotenoids, while higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls were detected in the HORO. The MV pre-treatment caused a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids content that was more evident for the DHOROs. The microwaving time significantly affected phytochemical contents and the color of both types of oils. A vast increase in canolol concentration was noticeable following 9 min of microwaving, which increased 506- and 155-fold in the HORO and DHORO, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of oil produced from MV pre-treated seeds for 9 min was nearly 4 times higher than that of the control oil for both types of oils. [es

  20. Improved tribological properties of the synthesized copper/carbon nanotube nanocomposites for rapeseed oil-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ruirui; Song, Haojie; Jia, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with uniform copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were successfully prepared via a facile approach towards surface modification of CNTs with spontaneous polydopamine (PDA). The structures and morphologies of the nanocomposites were investigated by different kinds of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were fabricated by growing the Cu NPs with an average diameter of 5 nm on the surfaces of PDA-modified CNTs. The CNTs functionalized with PDA layer not only provide an anchoring platform for the Cu NPs immobilization, but also endow Cu/PDA/CNTs with good dispersion stability when Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were used as lubricant additive. The tribological performance of the nanocomposites as the rapeseed oil lubricant additive, as well as Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs, was also investigated using a MS-T3000 ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the 0.2 wt% Cu/PDA/CNTs nanoadditive simultaneously reduce the friction and wear by 33.5% and 23.7%, respectively, outperformed the tribological performance of Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs nanoadditives. In addition, the presence of active sites in Cu/PDA/CNTs was beneficial to reduce the time of running-in period, give rise to the fastest speed to be stable of the friction coefficient curve as compared to the other nanoadditives. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy of the worn surfaces lubricated by the soybean oil with Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites showed that formation of low shear strength tribofilms containing Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites and its self-lubricating property was key factor in reduction of the friction and protection against wear and deformation.

  1. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yong-Lu; Tian, Song-Jiang; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Milcová, Alena; Schmuczerová, Jana; Mazac, M.; Pechout, M.; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 1 (2012), s. 11-17 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0142; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Grant - others:project MEDETOX(XE) LIFE10ENV/CZ/651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biodiesel * diesel emissions * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.145, year: 2012

  3. Degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomers in rapeseed biodiesel and hydrogenated vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaghi, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) are currently viewed by the transportation sector as the most viable alternative fuels to replace petroleum-based fuels. The use of biodiesel has, however, been limited by the deteriorative effect of biodiesel on rubber parts in automobile fuel systems. This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen ...

  4. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwafor, O.M.I.; Rice, G.; Ogbonna, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

  5. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on metabolic conversions of 14C erucic acid by the livers of rat fed with rapeseed or ground nut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecerf, J.; Bezard, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol to diets containing rapeseed or ground nut oil on the metabolic conversion of 14 14 C erudic and 9-10 3 H oleic acid were studied in the rat liver. Whatever the diet more 14 C than 3 H radioactivity was recovered in liver lipids 2 and 19 hours after injection of labelled fatty acids. Ethanol has little effect on this incorporation. Only small amounts of 3 H oleic acid were converted. In all cases, the metabolic conversion of erucic acid was identical: the main part of 14 C was not recovered as erucic acid but was present in other mono unsaturated fatty acids n-9:oleic acid (18:1), which was the most labelled acid, 16:1, 20:1 and nervonic acid (24:1). The amount of erucic acid converted to shorter chain fatty acids was unchanged by addition of ethanol but the alcohol increased the proportion of 14 C radioactivity recovered as nervonic acid. This latter effect was opposite to the effect of rapeseed oil diet, which consisted in a decrease in the conversion of erucic to nervonic acid. A high amount of 14 C radioactivity was recovered in the F.F.A. fraction of the liver as an unknown compound (13 and 80% of 14 C radioacitivty respectively after 2 and 19h). Its identification is presently under investigation [fr

  6. Determination of the agricultural and process-related boundary conditions for the use of rapeseed oil and its refinery products as motor fuel. Final report; Ermittlung der landwirtschaftlichen, prozesstechnischen und verfahrenstechnischen Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Rapsoel und seiner Umwandlungsprodukte als Kraftstoff. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliephake, D; Hacker, C M

    1994-11-01

    The use of rapeseed oil as a motor fuel is viewed from various angles: Production aspects; environmental aspects; marketing aspects in agriculture; business management aspects in the Federal Republic of Germany; production and refining of rapeseed oil; use of rapeseed oil methyl ester as diesel fuel and in mineral oil processing plants; engine performance. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dem vorliegenden Bericht wird der Einsatz von Rapsoel als Kraftstoff aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln betrachtet: Produktionsaspekte, Umweltaspekte, marktwirtschaftliche Aspekte in der Landwirtschaft; betriebswirtschaftliche Aspekte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Herstellung und Raffination von Rapsoel; Einsatz von Rapsoelmethylester als Dieselkraftstoff und in Anlagen der Mineraloelverarbeitung; Motortechnische Untersuchungsergebnisse. (orig./SR)

  7. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  8. Comparison of the effect of sinapic and ferulic acids derivatives (4-vinylsyringol vs. 4-vinylguaiacol) as antioxidants of rapeseed, flaxseed, and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Mikołajczak, Natalia; Konopka, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the work is to compare the antioxidant activity of 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VQ) and 4-vinylsyringol (4-VS) added to stabilize three (flaxseed, olive and rapeseed) commercial oils. The phenolics were added at concentration of 20, 40 and 80mg per 100g of oil. The oils were oxidized in a Rancimat test at 110°C. The linear dependences between the concentrations of each of these compounds and the induction period (IP) were found. Generally, 4-VQ was more effective, since the determined IP increase after its addition was from 5 to 25-fold higher than for the same addition of 4-VS. The highest increase was noted for flaxseed oil, for which 80mg 4-VQ addition per 100g of oil resulted in 50% IP increase. The highest absolute values of IP were reached by extra virgin olive oil, naturally abundant in phenolic compounds and with the lowest fatty acids oxidation index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The flotation of Roşia Poieni copper ore in column machine, with non-polar oils addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocani V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important natural resource of copper in Romania is the ore deposit of Roşia Poieni. At present, the utilization of Roşia Poieni poorphyry copper ore is possible by extraction in quarry of the mass ore and mineral processing into a technological flux with modest results for the value of metal recovery in concentrate 70-72 % and an average contents of 16,5 % Cu. Our researches were directed to studies regarding test and utilisation of special procedure of flotation – addition of the non-polar oil – applied to advanced grinding ore with column type machines.

  10. A general computation model based on inverse analysis principle used for rheological analysis of W/O rapeseed and soybean oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintila, Iuliana; Gavrus, Adinel

    2017-10-01

    The present research paper proposes the validation of a rigorous computation model used as a numerical tool to identify rheological behavior of complex emulsions W/O. Considering a three-dimensional description of a general viscoplastic flow it is detailed the thermo-mechanical equations used to identify fluid or soft material's rheological laws starting from global experimental measurements. Analyses are conducted for complex emulsions W/O having generally a Bingham behavior using the shear stress - strain rate dependency based on a power law and using an improved analytical model. Experimental results are investigated in case of rheological behavior for crude and refined rapeseed/soybean oils and four types of corresponding W/O emulsions using different physical-chemical composition. The rheological behavior model was correlated with the thermo-mechanical analysis of a plane-plane rheometer, oil content, chemical composition, particle size and emulsifier's concentration. The parameters of rheological laws describing the industrial oils and the W/O concentrated emulsions behavior were computed from estimated shear stresses using a non-linear regression technique and from experimental torques using the inverse analysis tool designed by A. Gavrus (1992-2000).

  11. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  12. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal from rapeseed through in-situ alkaline transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Yang, Qiuhui; Sun, Fuan; He, Mingyang; Chen, Qun; Yun, Zhi; Qin, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    In-situ alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel and nontoxic rapeseed meal was carried out. Water removal from milled rapeseed by methanol washing was more effective than vacuum drying. The conversion rate of rapeseed oil into FAME was 92%, FAME mass was 8.81 g, glucosinolates content in remaining rapeseed meal was 0.12% by methanol washing, while by vacuum drying the values were 46%, 4.44 g, 0.58%, respectively. In the presence of 0.10 mol/L NaOH in methanol, with methanol/oil molar ratio of 180:1 and a 3h reaction at 40 °C, a conversion rate of 98% was achieved, and the glucosinolates content was reduce to 0.07%, a value which below the GB/T 22514-2008 standard in China. Thus the rapeseed meal can be used as a source of protein in animal feed. The FAME prepared through in-situ alkaline transesterification met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  15. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  16. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  17. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  18. Applying Mendelian rules in rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the most important sources of edible oil, raw material for industry, as well as feed. The yield and quality of rapeseed have significantly been improved in recent decades as a result of intensive breeding and optimized production technology. The application of Mendel's rules in introducing monogenic traits has also contributed to success in rapeseed breeding. Rule 1, which refers to the uniformity of F1 generation, is now the basis of widespread development of rapeseed hybrids. Rule 2, dealing with genetic segregation in the F2 generation, is the basis for understanding the process of breeding lines. Rule 3, regarding the independent segregation of genes and traits, while exempting linked traits, is the basis of combining different desirable properties by selection. In the last few decades, the systematic use of Mendel's rules has contributed to the improvement of many properties of rapeseed, including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, yield and seed quality. Particular progress has been made in breeding for resistance to diseases, including the identification of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. The next objective of rapeseed breeding is to create varieties with improved tolerance to environmental stress (e.g. frost, heat, and drought. Based on Mendel's rules, classical breeding methods and the latest developments in the field of molecular genetics and breeding, future progress is expected in the field of rapeseed breeding with an emphasis on polygenic, quantitative traits such as biomass, seed, and oil yield.

  19. Polyurethane foams based entirely on recycled polyols derived from natural oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Beneš, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 9 (2015), s. 579-585 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/133 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane foam * recycled polyol * rapeseed oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  20. The effect of rapeseed oil biodiesel fuel on combustion, performance, and the emission formation process within a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lešnik, Luka; Biluš, Ignacijo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-models for parameter determination can be derived using experimental results. • Proposed sub-models can be used for calculation of model parameters. • Biodiesel fuel reduces emissions compared to diesel fuel on full engine load. • Usage of biodiesel fuel slow down the emission formation rate. • Oxygen content in biodiesel fuel decreases the amount of formatted CO emissions. - Abstract: This study presents the influence of biodiesel fuel and blends with mineral diesel fuel on diesel engine performance, the combustion process, and the formation of emissions. The study was conducted numerically and experimentally. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of replacing mineral diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel made from rapeseed oil. Pure biodiesel fuel and three blends of biodiesel fuel with mineral diesel fuel were tested experimentally for that purpose on a heavy-duty bus diesel engine. The engine’s performance, in-cylinder pressure, fuel consumption, and the amount of produced NO_x and CO emissions were monitored during experimental measurements, which were repeated numerically using the AVL BOOST simulation program. New empirical sub-models are proposed for determining a combustion model and emission models parameters. The proposed sub-models allow the determination of necessary combustion and emission model parameters regarding the properties of the tested fuel and the engine speed. When increasing the percentage of biodiesel fuel within the fuel blends, the reduction in engine torque and brake mean effective pressures are obtained for most of the test regimes. The reduction is caused due to the lower calorific value of the biodiesel fuel. Higher oxygen content in biodiesel fuel contributes to a better oxidation process within the combustion chamber when running on pure biodiesel or its blends. Better oxidation further results in a reduction of the formatted carbon and nitrogen oxides. The reduction of carbon emission is also

  1. Cluster Analysis in Rapeseed (Brassica Napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasi, J.M

    2002-01-01

    With widening edible deficit, Kenya has become increasingly dependent on imported edible oils. Many oilseed crops (e.g. sunflower, soya beans, rapeseed/mustard, sesame, groundnuts etc) can be grown in Kenya. But oilseed rape is preferred because it very high yielding (1.5 tons-4.0 tons/ha) with oil content of 42-46%. Other uses include fitting in various cropping systems as; relay/inter crops, rotational crops, trap crops and fodder. It is soft seeded hence oil extraction is relatively easy. The meal is high in protein and very useful in livestock supplementation. Rapeseed can be straight combined using adjusted wheat combines. The priority is to expand domestic oilseed production, hence the need to introduce improved rapeseed germplasm from other countries. The success of any crop improvement programme depends on the extent of genetic diversity in the material. Hence, it is essential to understand the adaptation of introduced genotypes and the similarities if any among them. Evaluation trials were carried out on 17 rapeseed genotypes (nine Canadian origin and eight of European origin) grown at 4 locations namely Endebess, Njoro, Timau and Mau Narok in three years (1992, 1993 and 1994). Results for 1993 were discarded due to severe drought. An analysis of variance was carried out only on seed yields and the treatments were found to be significantly different. Cluster analysis was then carried out on mean seed yields and based on this analysis; only one major group exists within the material. In 1992, varieties 2,3,8 and 9 didn't fall in the same cluster as the rest. Variety 8 was the only one not classified with the rest of the Canadian varieties. Three European varieties (2,3 and 9) were however not classified with the others. In 1994, varieties 10 and 6 didn't fall in the major cluster. Of these two, variety 10 is of Canadian origin. Varieties were more similar in 1994 than 1992 due to favorable weather. It is evident that, genotypes from different geographical

  2. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  4. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruczynska, Eliza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  5. Using decommissioned offshore oil/gas platforms for nuclear/RO desalination: the ONDP (Offshore Nuclear Desalination Platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Ankesh

    2010-01-01

    Oil platforms are manmade concrete and steel giant structures standing high on ocean floor weighing anywhere between 10,000 tonnes and 150,000 tonnes or more and designed to withstand cruel forces of nature, having an average life of 70 years. With the declining petrol reserves within next 30 years, hundreds of platforms will be scheduled for decommissioning. This issue is a hot topic as oil companies tussle with environmentalists and state lawmakers over the future. The cash strapped oil companies have a legal obligation to remove each rig entirely, returning the ocean floor to its original condition. Lean times in oil industry mean a tight cash flow. Safely removing massive structures from deep waters and shipping the pile to the shores for reuse and recycling presents a technological challenge for operators. Some conceptual applications investigated to reuse them are the conversion of offshore structures into fish farms, prisons, military outposts, hotels, for Search and Rescue operations or Centers for Waste Processing and Disposal. Decommissioning oil and gas installation is exorbitantly expensive. On an average, removing a complete platform with or without pipeline in sea waters with 'clean sea approach' costs $15 million to $ 6 billion depending on location. Global warming has adversely affected world climate. Water levels in ground and reservoirs have shown drastic decrement. In future there will be need for more and more water all over the world. Fossil fuel energy based desalination is expensive and not eco-friendly so is dismantling of oil platform with its pipeline. The oil platforms are far located from population, have sufficient tank capacity and pipeline structure to store and pump water to shore. When found economically unviable these mammoth structures with modifications can be installed with 02 or more small or medium sized nuclear reactors such as KLT 40S with required module to desalinate water and co generate electricity which can be sent to

  6. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  7. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E.; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Thybaut, Joris W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas

  8. Morphological characterization of local landraces of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salik Ram Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var toria is the main source of edible oil for Nepalese people. 54 rapeseed lines were collected from different hilly district of Nepal ranging from 987 m to 2550 m altitude. These lines were planted in augmented design for its traits characterization in Khumaltar 2013. Different traits of local rapeseed were characterized, and evaluated. NGRC 02778 performed better followed by SR-02 than local checks Morang-2, Chitwan Local and Unnati in terms of yield, days to maturity and pest infestation. Similarly, genotype SR-18 was late and SR-16 was earlier in terms of days to maturity. In conclusion, SR-02 was found better genotype based on different characteristics measured among all local rapeseeds planted in Khumaltar 2013. Thus SR-2 can be used as parents in crossing material for further breeding purposes and it can also be tested in further trial.

  9. Influence of de-hulled rapeseed roasting on the physicochemical composition and oxidative state of oil; Influencia del tostado de colza descascarillada sobre la composición fisicoquímica y el estado oxidativo del aceite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rękas, A.; Siger, A.; Wroniak, M.; Ścibisz, I.; Derewiaka, D.; Anders, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of roasting time on the contents of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds), antioxidant capacity and physicochemical properties of rapeseed oil pressed from de-hulled seeds was investigated. The de-hulled seeds were roasted at a temperature of 165 °C for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The results of this study show that a roasting pre-treatment led to a gradual increase in canolol content (from 1.34 to 117.33 mg/100 g), total phytosterols (from 573.51 to 609.86 mg/100 g) and total carotenoids (0.82 to 2.41 mg/100 g), while only slight changes in the contents of tocopherols were noted. With the increase in roasting time a gradual increase in oxidative stability (from 4.27 to 6.85 h), and antioxidant capacity, seen mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of oil (from 0.32 to 2.30 mmol TEAC/l) was found. Although roasting resulted in the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products, the quality parameters of oils were within Codex Alimentarius limits. [Spanish] Se estudió el efecto del tiempo de tostado sobre el contenido de compuestos bioactivos (tocoferoles, fitoesteroles, compuestos fenólicos), capacidad antioxidante y propiedades fisicoquímicas del aceite de prensado de semillas descascarilladas de colza. Las semillas descascarilladas se tostaron a una temperatura de 165 ºC durante 20, 40, 60, 80 y 100 min. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el pretratamiento con tostado condujo a un aumento gradual del contenido de canolol (de 1,34 a 117,33 mg/100 g), fitosteroles totales (de 573,51 a 609,86 mg/100 g) y carotenoides totales (0,82 a 2,41 mg/ 100 g). Sólo se observaron ligeros cambios en el contenido de tocoferoles. Con el incremento del tiempo de tostado se observó un aumento gradual de la estabilidad oxidativa (de 4,27 a 6,85 h) y se encontró capacidad antioxidante, observada principalmente en la fracción hidrofílica de aceite (de 0,32 a 2,30 mmol TEAC/l). Aunque, el tostado produjo formación de

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  11. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  12. Integrated control of Rapeseed pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U.; Hamed, M.

    1990-06-01

    Rapeseed crop is attacked by different insects amongst which cabbage butterfly in Pakistan. Integrated control was conducted and results are mentioned in this report. The mortality in the remaining insecticides varied from 55-83% which was significantly higher than control. The higher dosages of gamma radiation ranged between 60-225 krad and results revealed that the mortality response increased with the post-irradiation time. Mortality was also significantly higher at 80-120 krad as compared to control. These results concluded that mortality was dose dependent. (A.B.)

  13. Sinapinic and protocatechuic acids found in rapeseed: isolation, characterisation and potential benefits for human health as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Leah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the world’s major oilseeds, and rapeseed oil is produced by pressing of the seeds. This process results in the production of a low-economic-value by-product, rapeseed meal, which is commonly used as animal feed. Rapeseed meal is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, including sinapinic acid (SA and protocatechuic acid (PCA. Isolation of these bioactive compounds from a by-product of rapeseed oil production is largely in agreement with the current concept of the circular economy and total utilisation of crop harvest using a biorefinery approach. In this review, current information concerning traditional and novel methods to isolate phenolic compounds – including SA and PCA – from rapeseed meal, along with in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the bioactivity of SA and PCA and their associated health effects, is collated. These health effects include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes activities, along with histone deacetylase inhibition and protective cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic effects. The traditional extraction methods include use of solvents and/or enzymes. However, a need for simpler, more efficient methodologies has led to the development of novel extraction processes, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrical discharge extraction processes.

  14. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots.

  15. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat......) and three fat-supplemented rations with either rapeseed cake (RSC), whole cracked rape seed (WCR), or rapeseed oil (RSO). The correlation coefficients among duodenal enzyme activities and the relationship between α-amylase and protease activities were examined. Diurnal samples were taken from the duodenum...

  16. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Lingjuan; Fritsche, Steffi; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Zhang, Wenying; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38) is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH) population, its reconstructed F(2) (RC-F(2)) population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel). Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2) populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used for marker-assisted selection of oilseed rape lines with superior tocopherol

  17. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  18. RoMo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Warming; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    In TUIs, physical/digital conflicts can occur when the digital model does not match the model implied by the spatial lay- out of tangibles. We show how tangible tabletop interfaces (TTI) can be modified to allow robot movement of tangi- bles, thereby avoiding conflicts. We present RoMo, an open...... source Java library that allow existing TTI applications to perform robot movement, and demonstrate its functionality with three applications....

  19. Energy and environmental analysis of a rapeseed biorefinery conversion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Balzan, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    )-based environmental assessment of a Danish biorefinery system was carried out to thoroughly analyze and optimize the concept and address future research. The LCA study was based on case-specific mass and energy balances and inventory data, and was conducted using consequential LCA approach to take into account market...... mechanisms determining the fate of products, lost opportunities and marginal productions. The results show that introduction of enzymatic transesterification and improved oil extraction procedure result in environmental benefits compared to a traditional process. Utilization of rapeseed straw seems to have...... positive effects on the greenhouse gases (GHG) footprint of the biorefinery system, with improvements in the range of 9 % to 29 %, depending on the considered alternative. The mass and energy balances showed the potential for improvement of straw treatment processes (hydrothermal pre-treatment and dark...

  20. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  1. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  2. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  3. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  4. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  5. Properties of a membrane-bound triglyceride lipase of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnitschek, I; Theimer, R R

    1980-04-01

    The properties of the alkaline lipase activity (EC 3.1.1.3) that was recovered almost completely from a microsomal membrane fraction of 4-d-old rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons were studied employing a titrimetric test procedure. The apparent KM was 6.5 mmol l(-1), with emulgated sunflower oil as the substrate. The products of triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro were glycerol, free fatty acids, and minor amounts of mono- and diglycerides. Maximum lipase activity depended on the preincubation of the lipolytic membrane fraction in 0.15 mol l(-1) NaCl and on the presence of at least 0.1 mol l(-1) NaCl in the test mixture. Desoxycholate and up to 0.1 mol l(-1) CaCl2 also activated the enzyme while EDTA and detergents such as trito x-100, digitonin, tween 85, and sodium dodecylsulfate were inhibitory. The rapeseed lipase displayed a conspicuous substrate selectivity among different plant triglycerides; the activity was inversely correlated with the oleic acid content of the oils. Water-soluble triacetin and the phospholipid lecithin were not hydrolyzed. Increasing amounts of free fatty acids reduced lipase activity; erucic acid, a major component of rapeseed oil, exhibited the strongest effect, suggesting a possible role in the regulation of lipase activity in vivo. The data demonstrate that the lipolytic membrane fraction houses a triglyceride lipase with properties similar to other plant and animal lipases. It can both qualitatively and quantitatively account for the fat degradation in rapeseed cotyledons. The evidence that provides further reason to acknowledge the membranous appendices of the spherosomes as the intracellular site of lipolysis is discussed.

  6. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  7. Chemical composition and resistance to oxidation of high-oleic rapeseed oil pressed from microwave pre-treated intact and de-hulled seeds; Composición química y resistencia a la oxidación de aceite de colza alto oleico prensado de semillas intactas y descascarilladas pre-tratadas con microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rękas, A.; Wroniak, M.; Siger, A.; Ścibisz, I.

    2017-07-01

    The influence of a microwave (MV) pre-treatment (3, 6, 9 min, 800W) on the physicochemical properties of high-oleic rapeseed oil prepared from intact (HORO) and de-hulled seeds (DHORO) was investigated in this study. A control DHORO contained higher levels of total tocopherols and carotenoids, while higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls were detected in the HORO. The MV pre-treatment caused a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids content that was more evident for the DHOROs. The microwaving time significantly affected phytochemical contents and the color of both types of oils. A vast increase in canolol concentration was noticeable following 9 min of microwaving, which increased 506- and 155-fold in the HORO and DHORO, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of oil produced from MV pre-treated seeds for 9 min was nearly 4 times higher than that of the control oil for both types of oils. [Spanish] En este estudio se investigó la influencia del pretratamiento con microondas (MV) en las propiedades fisicoquímicas del aceite de colza alto oleico preparado a partir de semillas húmedas (HORO) y descascarilladas (DHORO) (3, 6, 9 min, 800W). El control DHORO contenía un nivel más alto de tocoferoles totales y carotenoides, mientras que se detectó una mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y clorofilas en el HORO. El pretratamiento de MV provocó una disminución en el contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados que fue más evidente para los DHOROs. El tiempo de microondas afectó significativamente al contenido fitoquímico y al color de ambos tipos de aceites. Se observó un gran aumento de la concentración de canolol después de 9 min de microondas, que aumentó 506 y 155 veces en el HORO y DHORO, respectivamente. Al mismo tiempo, la capacidad antioxidante del aceite producido a partir de semillas pretratadas de MV durante 9 min fue casi 4 veces mayor que la del aceite de control para ambos tipos de

  8. Fixed-bed hydrogen pyrolysis of rapeseed: product yields and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M.; Gaines, A.F.; Snape, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The fixed-bed hydro pyrolysis tests have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to investigate the effect of hydro pyrolysis on the yields and chemical structures of bio-oils, with a view to improving overall product quality. A ammonium dioxydithiomolybdenate catalyst has been used in some tests to further increase conversion. The maximum bio-oil yield of 84% was obtained in hydrogen atmosphere (with catalyst) at hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa, hydrogen flow rate of 10 dm 3 min -1 , hydro pyrolysis temperature of 520 degree C, and heating rate of 5 o Cmin -1 . Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and some spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. And finally, this bio-oil yield and chemical composition compared with oil obtained from fast pyrolysis condition

  9. Biodiesel from rapeseed variety "Banaćanka" using KOH catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić Radoslav D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete characterization of rapeseed oil, of Banaćanka variety, as well as the potential use of oil generated after filtering, in order to obtain biodiesel. Researches are based on the fact that Banaćanka is the oldest domestic rapeseed variety, the so-called double zero "00" (low in erucic acid, below 5%, and glucosinolates below than 30 mmol g-1, suitable for use in the region, since it is low temperatures tolerant, posseses high genetic potential for seed yield of about 5.2 t/ha, and high oil content of around 45%. Transesterification was carried out in batch reactor Parr 4520, with KOH as a catalyst. Cold pressed oil without prior treatment was used as feedstock for transesterificataion. The paper analyses the effects of temperature, reaction duration, catalyst amount and rate of agitation on the synthesis of biodiesel at constant pressure and molar methanol/oil ratio.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31046: Improvement of the quality of tractors and mobile systems with the aim of increasing competitiveness and preserving soil and environment

  10. A vegetable oil feeding history affects digestibility and intestinal fatty acid uptake in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Inge; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Sundell, Kristina S

    2009-04-01

    Future expansion of aquaculture relies on the use of alternatives to fish oil in fish feed. This study examined to what extent the nature of the feed oil affects intestinal lipid uptake properties in rainbow trout. The fish were fed a diet containing fish (FO), rapeseed (RO) or linseed (LO) oil for 8 weeks after which absorptive properties were assessed. Differences in digestibility due to feed oil history were measured using diet FO with an indigestible marker. Intestinal integrity, paracellular permeability, in vitro transepithelial fatty acid transport (3H-18:3n-3 and 14C-16:0) and their incorporation into intestinal epithelia were compared using Ussing chambers. Feed oil history did not affect the triacylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine ratio (TAG/PC) of the newly synthesized lipids in the segments. The lower TAG/PC ratio with 16:0 (2:1) than with 18:3 (10:1) showed the preferential incorporation of 16:0 into polar lipids. The FO-feeding history decreased permeability and increased transepithelial resistance of the intestinal segments. Transepithelial passage rates of 18:3n-3 were higher when pre-fed LO compared to RO or FO. Similarly, pre-feeding LO increased apparent lipid and fatty acid digestibilities compared to RO or FO. These results demonstrate that the absorptive intestinal functions in fish can be altered by the feed oil history and that the effect remains after a return to a standard fish oil diet.

  11. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  12. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  13. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  14. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  15. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  16. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  18. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  19. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  20. An analysis of the energy efficiency of winter rapeseed biomass under different farming technologies. A case study of a large-scale farm in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzyński, Wojciech Stefan; Jankowski, Krzysztof Józef; Jarocki, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a three-year study investigating the impact of production technology on the energy efficiency of winter rapeseed produced in large-scale farms. Rapeseed biomass produced in a high-input system was characterized by the highest energy demand (30.00 GJ ha"−"1). The energy demand associated with medium-input and low-input systems was 20% and 34% lower, respectively. The highest energy value of oil, oil cake and straw was noted in winter rapeseed produced in the high-input system. In the total energy output (268.5 GJ ha"−"1), approximately 17% of energy was accumulated in oil, 20% in oil cake, and 63% in straw. In lower input systems, the energy output of oil decreased by 13–23%, the energy output of oil cake – by 6–16%, and the energy output of straw – by 29–37% without visible changes in the structure of energy accumulated in different components of rapeseed biomass. The highest energy gain was observed in the high-input system. The low-input system was characterized by the highest energy efficiency ratio, at 4.22 for seeds and 9.43 for seeds and straw. The increase in production intensity reduced the energy efficiency of rapeseed biomass production by 8–18% (seeds) and 5–9% (seeds and straw). - Highlights: • Energy inputs in the high-input production system reached 30 GJ ha"−"1. • Energy inputs in the medium- and low-input systems were reduced by 20% and 34%. • Energy gain in the high-input system was 15% and 42% higher than in other systems. • Energy ratio in the high-input system was 5–18% lower than in the low-input system.

  1. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    /or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Spring Rapeseed in Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Trace Elements and Their Effect on Yield Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Piotr Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material was made up by the plant organs of Brassica napus L. from a pot experiment during one vegetation period. There was investigated the effect of relatively high concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on the rapeseed yield, the content of protein and oil in seeds. The impact of metals was defined based on the content of selected fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds. The highest contents of zinc and copper were found in leaves, lead - in roots and cadmium - in stems. The biological concentration factor values were respectively calculated for all the rapeseed organs. For Cu and Pb the values of biological concentration factor were low and very low for all the plant organs. The doses of Zn (300 mg × kg-1, 600 mg × kg-1 and Cu (80 mg × kg-1, 160 mg × kg-1 applied in the pot experiment resulted in the translocation of metals from the roots to the leaves. The doses of lead (400 mg × kg-1, 1600 mg × kg-1 did not trigger any translocation of that metal from the roots to the above-ground rapeseed plant parts, however, after the application of the cadmium doses (2 mg × kg-1, 6 mg × kg-1, there was recorded a clear translocation of Cd to the rapeseed stems and the leaves. A relatively high content of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil had a significant effect neither on the yield parameters and nor on the qualitative characters of the rapeseed seed. Neither did they affect the content of protein, fat and fatty acids in seed-extracted oil. The results of the pot experiment suggest that spring rapeseed is suitable for the phytoremediation of moderately heavy-metalcontaminated soils.

  3. Find selv fred og ro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    2010-01-01

    I klasseværelset er det lærerens ansvar at skabe ro. Men i de nye skolebygninger er det den enkelte elevs ansvar at finde frem til fredfyldte steder.......I klasseværelset er det lærerens ansvar at skabe ro. Men i de nye skolebygninger er det den enkelte elevs ansvar at finde frem til fredfyldte steder....

  4. High oleic acid content materials of rapeseed (Brassica napus) produced by radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunyun; Liu Chunlin; Chen Sheyuan

    2006-01-01

    High oleic acid content rapeseed breeding has great significance, because high oleic acid oil is a healthy and nutritious oil, which is of a long shelflife and also propitious to producing biodiesel fuel. The high oleic acid content breeding materials of rapeseed (B. napus) were obtained by 80-100 kR ~(60)Co gamma ray ionizing radiation treatment of dry seeds and continuous selection. The results showed that the oleic acid contents of M (2), M (3) and M (4) progenies increased by different grades. Moreover, the oleic acid content of M (5) progeny increased greatly. The oleic acid contents were higher than 70% in the most of the plants and the highest one reached 93.5 %. The base G was transited by base A in fad (2) gene at the 270 site of high oleic acid mutation (M(6) 04-855). The location is at the beta folding area and conservative area of this protein. Base mutation at sites 1 044 and 1 062 also led to produce a stop condon. These changes in structure led to loss the function of fad (2). According to molecular mechanism of gene mutation, no matter what transvertion or transition happens, several replications are needed. That is to say several generations are needed. That was also the reason why high oleic acid content mutation occurred in later generations

  5. Light enables a very high efficiency of carbon storage in developing embryos of rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Alonso, Ana P; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B

    2005-08-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 micromol m(-2) s(-1) light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 5 microM 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 micromol m(-2) s(-1) or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP.

  6. Light Enables a Very High Efficiency of Carbon Storage in Developing Embryos of Rapeseed1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D.; Alonso, Ana P.; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2005-01-01

    The conversion of photosynthate to seed storage reserves is crucial to plant fitness and agricultural production, yet quantitative information about the efficiency of this process is lacking. To measure metabolic efficiency in developing seeds, rapeseed (Brassica napus) embryos were cultured in media in which all carbon sources were [U-14C]-labeled and their conversion into CO2, oil, protein, and other biomass was determined. The conversion efficiency of the supplied carbon into seed storage reserves was very high. When provided with 0, 50, or 150 μmol m−2 s−1 light, the proportion of carbon taken up by embryos that was recovered in biomass was 60% to 64%, 77% to 86%, and 85% to 95%, respectively. Light not only improved the efficiency of carbon storage, but also increased the growth rate, the proportion of 14C recovered in oil relative to protein, and the fixation of external 14CO2 into biomass. Embryos grown at 50 μmol m−2 s−1 in the presence of 5 μm 1,1-dimethyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea (an inhibitor of photosystem II) were reduced in total biomass and oil synthesis by 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, to the levels observed in the dark. To explore if the reduced growth and carbon conversion efficiency in dark were related to oxygen supplied by photosystem II, embryos and siliques were cultured with increased oxygen. The carbon conversion efficiency of embryos remained unchanged when oxygen levels were increased 3-fold. Increasing the O2 levels surrounding siliques from 21% to 60% did not increase oil synthesis rates either at 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1 or in the dark. We conclude that light increases the growth, efficiency of carbon storage, and oil synthesis in developing rapeseed embryos primarily by providing reductant and/or ATP. PMID:16024686

  7. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  8. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  9. Biodegradation performance of environmentally-friendly insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; He, Yan; Cai, Shengwei; Chen, Cheng; Wen, Gang; Wang, Feipeng; Fan, Fan; Wan, Chunxiang; Wu, Liya; Liu, Ruitong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, biodegradation performance of rapeseed insulating oil (RDB) and FR3 insulating oil (FR3) was studied by means of ready biodegradation method which was performed with Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301B. For comparison, the biodegradation behaviour of 25# mineral insulating oil was also characterized with the same method. The testing results shown that the biodegradation degree of rapeseed insulating oil, FR3 insulating oil and 25# mineral insulating oil was 95.8%, 98.9% and 38.4% respectively. Following the “new chemical risk assessment guidelines” (HJ/T 154 - 2004), which illustrates the methods used to identify and assess the process safety hazards inherent. The guidelines can draw that the two vegetable insulating oils, i.e. rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil are easily biodegradable. Therefore, the both can be classified as environmentally-friendly insulating oil. As expected, 25# mineral insulating oil is hardly biodegradable. The main reason is that 25# mineral insulating oil consists of isoalkanes, cyclanes and a few arenes, which has few unsaturated bonds. Biodegradation of rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil also remain some difference. Biodegradation mechanism of vegetable insulating oil was revealed from the perspective of hydrolysis kinetics.

  10. Xerophilic mycopopulations isolated from rapeseeds (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to mycological populations of rapeseed samples produced in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (location: Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, with a special emphasis on the potentially toxigenic mycopopulations. Mycological investigations were performed on the samples that were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, and on the ones that were not submitted to this treatment. Isolation and determination of total mould count was carried out using Dichloran Glycerol Agar (DG18. The identification of isolated moulds was done according to modern keys for fungal determination. From 20 untreated tested samples, 17 were contaminated with moulds (10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu/g. When the samples were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, moulds were isolated only form 4 samples, and the total mould count ranged from 10.0 to 60.0 cfu/g. In the isolated mycopopulations, xerophilic moulds dominated, especially those from the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium. In the isolated mycopopulations, high degree of isolated species belonged to toxigenic species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Eurotium and Penicillium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009 i br.TR31025

  11. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    -based alternatives. The exact repercussions of the new sulphur limits are difficult to identify in the wake of significant recent reductions of the fuel prices for both low-sulphur and heavy fuel oil. This paper presents a modal split model that estimates modal shifts vis-a-vis competing maritime and land......In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission ControlAreas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0.......1%, which can only be achieved if vessels are using pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel, or invest in abatement technologies. The increased operating costs borne by Ro-Ro operators in SECAs due to the stricter limits can result in the shutting down of some routes and a redistribution of cargo flows with land...

  12. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  13. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  14. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  15. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  16. Genotoxicity of diesel engine emissions during combustion of vegetable oils, mineral oil, and their blends; Gentoxizitaet von Dieselmotoremissionen bei Verbrennung von Pflanzenoelen, Mineraloeldiesel und deren Mischkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Joern

    2013-07-09

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils and that blends of diesel fuel and vegetable oil are mutagenic. Three different vegetable oils (linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; rapeseed oil, RO), blends of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel (B20) and 50% vegetable oil and 50% diesel fuel (B50) as well as common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust was investigated for particle emissions and its mutagenic effect in comparison to emissions of DF. The engine was operated using European Stationary Cycle. Particle mass was determined gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison to DF it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by PO which was scarcely above DF. B50 revealed the lowest amount of TPM while B20 reached as high as DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. B50 showed higher mutagenic potential than B20. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends seem to be less mutagenic than the pure oils with a shifted maximum compared to blends with biodiesel and DF. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. And

  17. The babassu oil as an alternative source for renewable generation of electric power in isolated systems: a case study of the extractive reserve RESEX do Rio Ouro Preto - RO, Brazil; A babacu como fonte alternativa renovavel para a geracao de energia eletrica em sistemas isolados: um estudo de caso da RESEX do Rio Ouro Preto - RO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Sandra da Cruz Garcia do Espirito Santo [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Dept. de Administracao; Militao, Julio Sancho Linhares Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This text presents babacu as energy font (heat, fuel, power) for isolated regions and not taken care of by the linked system, and promote the economics social advantages for the region where if it installs. It presents the result of the quantitative survey of the area of forest of babassu palms is necessary for each family of form to keep functioning annually the mini central of supply of electric energy that will take care of the inhabitants of some communities of the Extractive Reserve Rio Ouro Preto, in the Rondonia State. It presents, still, the initial demand of the load to be supplied by the mini central, as well as the vegetal oil necessity for the attendance of this demand. (author)

  18. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... (interesterification) of butter oil with rapeseed oil (65:35 w/w) for use as edible fat did not have any impact on the fatty acid composition beyond the chylomicron step when compared to the native mixture....

  19. Douglas R.O. Morrison

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Douglas R.O. Morrison 1929 - 2001 Douglas' friends and colleagues are warmly invited to join in a memorial gathering on Friday, 23 March 2001 at 16.00 hours in the CERN Main Auditorium Some colleagues will pay tribute to Douglas' scientific achievements and to his role in leading the collaborations:   Welcome, short CV The 'hadron times' The 'neutrino times' Recent activities Collaborations The 'social environment' A book of condolence will be available. The gathering will conclude with refreshments in the Salle des Pas Perdus.

  20. Fellow's Apéro

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Let's get together, meet each other, exchange experiences and ideas, and share useful information on CERN and the Staff Association. Join us for Fellow's Apéro, organised by the Staff Association on Tuesday 21 February at 16.30 in Restaurant 1. There will be drinks and snacks for everybody! We look forward to seeing you there! Please confirm your participation on Doodle http://doodle.com/poll/skvm7ucm2z78i6bt or alternatively on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1862757017340069/. Your delegates in the Staff Association, Barbora & Jiri

  1. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    peroxide and stream pretreatment. The byproducts (rapeseed cake, glycerol, hydrolysate and stillage) were evaluated for hydrogen and methane production. In batch experiments, the energy yields from each feedstock for, either methane production alone or for both hydrogen and methane, were similar. However...

  2. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated...

  3. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krička, T.; Matin, A.; Voća, N.; Jurišić, V.; Bilandžija, N.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo), while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan). The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1) solid biofuel (pellets) with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter), ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na). The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences. (Author)

  4. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  5. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions.

  7. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  8. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  9. Effect of structured lipids based on fish oil on the growth and fatty acid composition in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Gøttsche, Jesper; Holm, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    containing DAG. A feeding experiment where groups of rainbow trout were fed six diets containing different types of oils for 61 days was performed. The lipid fraction of the six diets was as follows: 1) Fish oil and rapeseed oil (FO diet), 2) Specific structured lipid and rapeseed oil (SL diet), 3......) Randomised structured lipids and rapeseed oil (RL diet), 4) Medium chain triglyceride and fish oil (MCT diet), 5) Diacylglycerol and fish oil (DAG diet), 6) Fish oil (FOmax diet). Five of the diets (1-5) contained mixed oils blended to contain the same amount of EPA and DHA. Three of these diets (2,3 and 4......The aim of the study was to investigate whether it was possible a) to increase the relative incorporation of n - 3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA) in a low VLCPUFA diet by feeding trout structured triacylglycerols and b) to reduce fat accumulation by feeding trout a diet...

  10. Genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield stability across environments in winter rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Anne-Sophie; Laperche, Anne; Bissuel-Belaygue, Christine; Baron, Cécile; Morice, Jérôme; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dheu, Jean-Eric; George, Pierre; Pinochet, Xavier; Foubert, Thomas; Maes, Olivier; Dugué, Damien; Guinot, Florent; Nesi, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency is an important breeding trait that can be modified to improve the sustainability of many crop species used in agriculture. Rapeseed is a major oil crop with low nitrogen use efficiency, making its production highly dependent on nitrogen input. This complex trait is suspected to be sensitive to genotype × environment interactions, especially genotype × nitrogen interactions. Therefore, phenotyping diverse rapeseed populations under a dense network of trials is a powerful approach to study nitrogen use efficiency in this crop. The present study aimed to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield in winter oilseed rape and to assess the stability of these regions under contrasting nitrogen conditions for the purpose of increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses were performed on two diversity sets and two doubled-haploid populations. These populations were densely genotyped, and yield-related traits were scored in a multi-environment design including seven French locations, six growing seasons (2009 to 2014) and two nitrogen nutrition levels (optimal versus limited). Very few genotype × nitrogen interactions were detected, and a large proportion of the QTL were stable across nitrogen nutrition conditions. In contrast, strong genotype × trial interactions in which most of the QTL were specific to a single trial were found. To obtain further insight into the QTL × environment interactions, genetic analyses of ecovalence were performed to identify the genomic regions contributing to the genotype × nitrogen and genotype × trial interactions. Fifty-one critical genomic regions contributing to the additive genetic control of yield-associated traits were identified, and the structural organization of these regions in the genome was investigated. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the trial was greater than the effect of nitrogen nutrition

  11. Argument ÜRO vastu / Joshua Muravchik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muravchik, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    ÜRO rollist Somaalias, Rwandas ja Bosnias, Iisraeli eristaatusest. ÜRO silmakirjalikkusest inimõiguste alal, terrorismi legaliseerimisest, Kofi Annani juhtimisstiilist. Maailmas on pärast 1945. aastat valitsenud suhteline rahu mitte tänu ÜRO-le, vaid peamiselt USA tegevusele, leiab autor

  12. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  13. Hydration of vegetable oils for high-grade Diesel fuel components; Hydrierung von Pflanzenoelen zu hochwertigen Dieselkraftstoffkomponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endisch, M.; Olschar, M.; Kuchling, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Balfanz, U. [BP AG, Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The legally regulated admixture of biogenic fuel components for diesel fuels are actually realized in Germany by an admixture of vegetable oil methylester (e.g. from rapeseed oil). The paper describes the hydration of vegetable oils as alternative to this procedure. Infrared and {sup 13}NMR spectroscopy were used to analyse the reaction kinetics for rapeseed, soy been and palm oil hydration. Experimental results of investigations under operational conditions using a continuous test facility and different vegetable oils identified the possibilities of this technology. The technology allows the high-yield production of diesel fuel components with certain numbers higher than average.

  14. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, G.; Schoenefeldt, J.; Mehring, I.

    1995-01-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  15. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  16. Selection of pathogen-resistant mutants in rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, A.; Roebbelen, G.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Significant yield reductions are due to Phoma lingam and Alternaria brassicae. Toxin containing culture filtrates of the pathogens as well as concentrated toxins of Phoma (Sirodesmins) are used for resistance selections in in-vitro cultures of haploid rapeseed materials. A few days after transfer of the in-vitro materials to the selective media the inhibitory effect of both the culture filtrates as well as the Sirodesmins was apparent. Clones were obtained, surviving several transfers onto toxin containing media. Further experiments shall clarify whether the toxin tolerance, selected in vitro at the cell level, is expressed in the differentiated plant in the greenhouse and finally in the field. (author)

  17. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  18. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  19. Application Side Casing on Open Deck RoRo to Improve Ship Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin; K. A. P Utama, I.; Chen, Jeng-Horng

    2018-03-01

    RoRo is a vessel that can transport passengers, cargo, container and cars. Open Car Deck is favourite RoRo Vessel in developing countries due to its small GT, small tax and spacious car deck, but it has poor survival of stability. Many accident involve Open Car Deck RoRo which cause fatalities and victim. In order to ensure the safety of the ship, IMO had applied intact stability criteria IS Code 2008 which adapted from Rahola’s Research, but since 2008 IMO improved criteria become probabilistic damage stability SOLAS 2009. The RoRo type Open Car Deck has wide Breadth (B), small Draft (D) and small freeboard. It has difficulties to satisfy the ship’s stability criteria. Side Casings which has been applied in some RoRo have be known reduce freeboard or improve ship’s safety. In this paper investigated the effect side casings to survival of intact dan damage ship’s stability. Calculation has been conducted for four ships without, existing and full side casings. The investigation results shows that defect stability of Open Deck RoRo can be reduce with fitting side casing.

  20. Capacity Analysis of Ro-Ro Terminals by Using Simulation Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Deniz Özkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Ro-Ro terminals, terminal capacity is more needed than other types of marine terminals since Ro-Ro cargoes cannot be stacked. In this sense, the variables affecting capacity of a Ro-Ro terminal can be listed as follows; number of vehicles arrived to a terminal, distance between terminals, ship capacity, terminal gates, customs control units, terminal traffic and local traffic, security check, bunkering services etc. In this study, a model generated intended for making capacity analysis in Ro-Ro terminals by using simulation modeling method. Effect of three variables to terminal capacity was investigated while generating the scenarios; ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’, ‘distance between terminals’ and ‘Ro-Ro ship capacity’. The results show that the variable which affect terminal capacity mostly is ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’. As a consequence of this situation, it is thought that a Ro-Ro terminal operator must prioritize the demand factor and make an effective demand forecasting in determination of the terminal area.

  1. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  2. An analysis of growth factors of rapeseed at modern resource-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, M.; Zheleva, I.; Sulejmenova, N.; Abildaev, E.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the production of rapeseed has grown due to the variety of existing possibilities for its using. This calls the search for new, resource-saving technologies for its growing in Republic of Kazakhstan. For these new technologies it is needed to know which are the factors that influence the production of rapeseed and how each factor influence the production and the quality of this culture. The careful study of these factors is necessary for better understudying the process of the growing aimed increasing the yields and quantity of the rapeseed.

  3. Potential for optimized production and use of rapeseed biodiesel. Based on a comprehensive real-time LCA case study in Denmark with multiple pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Jørgensen, Andreas; Bruun, Sander

    2013-01-01

    methods. The modeling of the LCA is based on a specific Danish biodiesel production facility. Methods: The functional unit is “1,000 km transportation for a standard passenger car.” All relevant process stages are included, such as rapeseed production including carbon sequestration and N2O balances......, and transportation of products used in the life cycle of biodiesel. System expansion has been used to handle allocation issues. Results and discussion: The climate change potential from the production and use of biodiesel today is 57 kg CO2-eq/ 1,000 km, while PC diesel is 214 kg CO2-eq/1,000 km. Options......Purpose: Several factors contribute to the current increased focus on alternative fuels such as biodiesel, including an increasing awareness of the environmental impact of petrochemical (PC) oil products such as PC diesel, the continuously increasing price of PC oil, and the depletion of PC oil...

  4. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  5. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    in plants of the order Brassicales (former known as Capparales), which include rapeseed, rype (Brassica campestris L.) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica) and many other plants. Glucosinolates have been studied widely for their biologic effects ranging from...... by xenobiotica enzymes in the liver. The last study (manuscript IV) deals with the novel processing techniques, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high pressure treatment (HPT) and the processing effects on glucosinolates in broccoli. The largest effects were observed to be a result of the different handling...... of the plant materials prior to the process treatment. It was thus found that a great amount of the glucosinolate loss has occurred in the broccoli juice and purée prior to PEF processing. Only a minor loss was observed in broccoli flowers prior to processing, and HP treatment at 700 MPa for 10 min. was found...

  6. The Assessment of the Ultimate Hull Girder Strength of RO-RO Ship after Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair Muis Alie, Muhammad; Sitepu, Ganding; Izaak Latumahin, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    Many accidents of Ro-Ro ships happen in Indonesia such as collision and grounding. When the collision or grounding takes place on the Ro-Ro ship, the ultimate strength of hull structure after damage becomes decrease. Car and passenger decks are critical location since collision and/or grounding occur. In the present study, the assessment of the ultimate hull girder strength is conducted. The cross section of Ro-Ro ship is taken to be analyzed. The collision and grounding damages are assumed to be palced on the side and bottom area, respectively. The damages are created by removing the element from the side shell and bottom part. Finally, the result obtained is compared with one another.

  7. Probabilistic Analysis of Collision Damages with Application to ro-Ro Passenger Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1997-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in Ro-ro passenger vessel traffic, rational criteria for prediction and evaluation of collision accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as the inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present report outlines a method...... for evaluation of the probability of a Ro-Ro passenger vessel on a given route being struck by another ship. Given a collision has taken place the spatial distribution of the collision damages is calculated. Results are presented in terms of probability distributions, for indentation depth, length and height...... of the holes and for the vertical location. The main benefit of the formulated procedure is that it allows comparisons of various navigation routes by assessing the relative frequencies of collisions. The derived procedure is applied to two typical Ro-Ro passenger vessel routes....

  8. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  9. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  10. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose...

  11. Genetic Segregation Analysis of a Rapeseed Dwarf Mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, G.; Yu, S.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Lei, S.; Du, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf resources in Brassica napus are very important for developing high-yield cultivars through dwarf-type and lodging-resistant breeding. However, few dwarf varieties have been available for this species. Here, we reported a new rapeseed dwarf mutant GRC1157, which exhibits obvious phenotypic variations on dwarf. Six generations (P /sub 1/, P/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, B/sub 1/, and B/sub 1/) were produced from a cross between dwarf mutant GRC1157 and an elite tall-type line XR16 to analyze genetic inheritances of plant height (PH), numbers of the 1st valid branch (VBN), main inflorescence length (MIL), pod numbers per main inflorescence (MPN), pod length (PL) and seed numbers per pod (PSN) using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The genetic analysis shows different traits were controlled by different inheritance models: PH and PL by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes, MPN and PSN by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes, MIL by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and VBN by one-pair additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes. Furthermore, positive correlations between PH and some other traits were observed, suggesting that some traits may be co-regulated by several linkage or same loci/genes. In addition, high heritability (40.35-93.7 percent) were found for five traits (except VBN) in different segregating generations, indicating these traits were mainly affected by hereditary factors and suitable for early artificial selection. In sum, the dwarf mutant GRC1157 can serve as a valuable resource for rapeseed dwarf breeding and the genetic analysis in this study provided a foundation for further mapping and cloning dwarf genes in mutant GRC1157. (author)

  12. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  13. Characterization of the Factors that Influence Sinapine Concentration in Rapeseed Meal during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Mian; Wan, Chuyun; Hu, Shuangxi; Jin, Hu; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05). After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90°C and 105°C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal. PMID:25606856

  14. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed.

  15. Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with two rapeseed varieties and petroleum degraders reveals different responses of the plant defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Zukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Ciszewska, Liliana; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lisiecki, Piotr; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Voss, Ingo; Scheibe, Renate; Tomaszewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil. The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST) activity was found in these plants at a much higher level than in HEAR, which correlated with a more efficient diesel removal performed by LEAR in the polluted soil and upon bioaugmentation. A distinct profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was detected in leaves of these plants. Neither LEAR nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed.

  16. Cuentos ashaninka del r??o Peren??

    OpenAIRE

    Plasencia Soto, Rommel; S??nchez V??squez, Melisa

    2009-01-01

    La memoria ind??gena de los pueblos amaz??nicos del Per?? de hoy, es mostrada en cuatro relatos registrados en la comunidad de Mariscal C??ceres en el valle del r??o Peren?? de la selva central peruana.

  17. Effect of Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application under Water Deficit Stress Conditions on Agronomical and Physiological Traits of Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghiasvand Ghiasi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of zeolite and nitrogen fertilizer application effect on agronomic and physilogical traits of rapeseed (cv RGS003 under water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 in Qazvin region, Iran. In the where, the two levels of irrigation factor as the normal irrigation (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan as control and irrigation cease from stem elongation stage till end of growth, nitrogen factor was at three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 and zeolite factor (0 and 10tons per hectare were studied. Results showed that drought stress decreased evaluated traits such as silique per plant (41%, grain per silique (26%, 1000 seed weight (33%, grain yield (52.5%, oil percent (14%, RWC (31.5% and chlorophyll content (35%. Non-application of nitrogen had adverse effects on total traits and reduced them. However, zeolite application at water deficit stress conditions had positive and significant effect on total traits except of oil percent and chlorophyll content, specially improved grain yield and oil yield. Based on the results of this experiment, application of zeolite (10ton/ha-1 through storage and maintenance of water and nutrients, reduced the intensity and harmful effects of stress in plants and enhances crop yield.

  18. Hydrogen management in the MiRO refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G. [Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The importance of hydrogen in refineries has increased over the last 20 years as new regulations affecting gasoline and diesel composition have been implemented throughout Europe and in an environment of increasingly stringent clean fuel regulations, decreasing heavy fuel oil demand and increasing heavy more sour crude supply. In Germany, the introduction of sulphur free gasoline and diesel with less than 10ppm sulphur(Auto Oil Program) and light home fuel oil with less than 50ppm this year were the last link in a long chain of environmental regulations, which had a considerable effect on the hydrogen demand in refineries. In the complex MiRO-refinery with a large FCC- and Coker-Unit for atmospheric residue conversion and a total throughput of more than 15 Mio.T/ a and more than 14 Mio.T/a crude oils of different origin from high sulphur, bituminous crudes to medium, low sulphur crudes for calcinate-production from green coke the only source of hydrogen for a long time was catalytic reforming. The only chance of balancing the hydrogen production and consumption was to improve the existing catalytic reforming and the optimisation of hydrogen recovery from waste or purge streams and the hydrogen network of the refinery. In 2007 a new hydrogen plant via steam reforming of natural gas went on stream. The main reason for this step was the shrinking market for gasoline in the last ten years and the blending of bio-ethanol into the gasoline pool, which released reforming capacities and the demand for octane. Another important issue is the production planning taking into account the potentials of hydrogen production via catalytic and steam reforming and the hydrogen consumption via desulphurisation and the saturation of olefins and (poly-)aromatics of the main product streams, gasoline, diesel and light home fuel oil. (orig.)

  19. Elements of Risk Analysis for Collision and Grounding of a RoRo Passenger Ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Samuelidis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Newly developed software was applied to study the effects of damages due to collision and grounding. The annual risk of collision and grounding was computed for an example RoRo passenger ferry. Collision frequency was evaluated for a specified route taking into account traffic data. Grounding...

  20. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  1. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  2. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fortified Feeds on the Content of Fatty Acids in Breast and Thigh Muscles in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Krejčí-Treu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare the effect of six vegetable oils added to feeding mixtures that were administered to broiler chickens on the content of major fatty acids in chicken meat. The experiment started with 90 one-day-old Ross 308 meat hybrid male chickens that were divided into six groups. Chickens were fed complete feeding mixtures for the prefattening (BR1, fattening (BR2, and post-fattening (BR3 of broiler chickens. The BR1 feeding mixture was administered to chickens aged 1-10 days, the BR2 feeding mixture was given from Day 11 to Day 30, and the BR3 feeding mixture was then administered until Day 42. The BR1 feeding mixture that was administered to all six groups during the first ten days of the experiment was supplemented with soybean oil. BR2 and BR3 feeding mixtures used to feed chickens aged 11-42 days were fortified with soybean oil (SO Group, rapeseed oil (RO Group, sunflower oil (SFO Group, flaxseed oil (FO Group, olive oil (OO Group, and evening primrose oil (EPO Group. The vegetable oils used differed by the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid. The use of the above-described experimental diets in young broilers from Day 11 to 42 had a significant effect on the content of fatty acids in the fat from breast and thigh muscles. The content of α-linolenic acid in breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received the feed containing flaxseed oil (21.16 g/100 g of oil and 17.13 g/100 g of oil, respectively significantly increased (p ⪬ 0.01. The highest content of linoleic acid (p ⪬ 0.01 in breast and thigh muscles was found in chickens that were fed the feed containing primrose oil (59.13 g/100 g and 51.71 g/100 g. A significant increase (p ⪬ 0.01 in the level of oleic acid was detected in both breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received olive oil fortified feed (52.44 g/100 g and 43.70 g/100 g of oil. No significant variation was

  3. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  4. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the most common and important problems in biogas plants, leading to severe operational, economical, and environmental drawbacks. Because addition of easily degradable co-substrates for boosting the biogas production can suddenly raise the foaming problem, the full-scale biogas...... results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....

  5. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  6. Rhizoremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil with Two Rapeseed Varieties and Petroleum degraders Reveals Different Responses of the Plant Defense Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Żukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika

    2014-01-01

    . The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST......Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean......-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil...

  7. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  8. ps-ro Fuzzy Open(Closed Functions and ps-ro Fuzzy Semi-Homeomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chettri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize some new class of functions in a fuzzy topological space termed as ps-ro fuzzy open(closed functions, ps-ro fuzzy pre semiopen functions and ps-ro fuzzy semi-homeomorphism. The interrelation among these concepts and also their relations with the parallel existing concepts are established. It is also shown with the help of examples that these newly introduced concepts are independent of the well known existing allied concepts.

  9. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  11. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  12. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Naz, F. [National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, S. [Agriculture Department, University of Haripur, Haripur (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrations in shoot biomass but the plants showed significant signs of toxicity and yield were severely depressed. The addition of sulfur favorably influenced plant biomass production. The fertilized ammonium sulfate treatment resulted in the highest phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn and the amounts of these metals accumulated in plant shoot exceeded by a factor of 4 and 3 respectively. Finally, Brassica napus could be used for soil remediation keeping its other uses which will make the contaminated site income generating source for the farmers. (authors)

  13. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  14. Decision Making Model for Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping Operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Md Arof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a decision-making model for determining the potential of interstate Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping (SSS operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia (ASEA. It is expected to assist SSS authorities, private investors and financial institutions focus their limited resources on several key factors that could ensure the success of their undertakings. This study will begin with identifying the relevant factors that have contributed towards successful SSS operations through a process of literature review. Subsequently, a Delphi survey was conducted with sub-regional experts to identify any new determinants and assess their opinions on the relative importance of all the determinants involved. Finally the weightages of the determinants were ascertained through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Twenty expert respondents from Brunei Darussalam. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were involved in the Delphi survey while 18 expert respondents continue to participate in the AHP survey. This study concludes with the development of a decision-making model that was tested on three interstate Ro-Ro SSS routes within the ASEA sub-region. Keywords: Archipelagic Southeast Asia, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, ASEAN, Delphi, Ro-Ro, Short Sea Shipping (SSS

  15. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  16. Rapeseed meal in the diet of common carp reared in heated waters. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, K.; Evans, R.; Czarnocki, J.; Kozlowska, H.; Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Freshwater Inst.)

    1982-01-01

    Diets based on fish meal or barley meal as controls, and rapeseed meal were fed to common carp for approximately 3 months. Rapeseed meals differed due to processing and contained variable amounts of goitrogenic glucosinolate. Radioiodine Na 125 I was injected intraperitoneally and radioactivity measured in different tissues. It was found that thyroid centres in kidney accumulated the major part of the administred 125 I. Kidneys from fish fed high glucosinolate rapeseed meal (HRM) retained 37.3% of the isotope, a significant higher percentage than from the fish meal (27.45%) or barley meal (10.5%) fed fish. Thyroid centres in the pharyngeal region invariably retained 1.16-2.41% of the 125 I. In kidney extracts from fish fed HRM diet, 98.3% of the 125 I radioactivity was found in the sulfosalicyclic acid precipitate in comparison to 89.7% in those from low glucosinolate rapeseed based diet. Kidney thyroid cell heights were slightly larger in all rapeseed fed groups when compared to control fish; otherwise kidney thyroid tissue appeared normal. (orig.) [de

  17. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  18. Vabariigi President esines ÜRO Peaassambleel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    ÜRO Peaassamblee 62. istungjärgul kõneles president Toomas Hendrik Ilves kliimamuutuse, küberjulgeoleku, kriiside reguleerimise ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonide koostöö teemadel. Ilmunud ka: Koit 29. sept. 2007, lk. 6; Eesti Elu 28. sept. 2007, lk. 2; ingl. k. Vaba Eesti Sõna 4. okt. 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: The President of the Republic Spoke to the UN General Assembly. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 20.-26.09.2007

  19. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  20. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinjing; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Liangxiao; Xie, Huali; Chen, Lin; Yu, Li; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2018-01-25

    Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils.

  1. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  2. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  3. EFFECT OF FILLER LOADING ON PHYSICAL AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED STEM/PP COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new filler for the production of natural filler thermoplastic composites using the waste rapeseed stalks. The long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behaviors and flexural properties of rapeseed filled polypropylene (PP composites were investigated. Three different contents of filler were tested: 30, 45, and 60 wt%. Results of long-term hygroscopic tests indicated that by the increase in filler content from 30% to 60%, water diffusion absorption and thickness swelling rate parameter increased. A swelling model developed by Shi and Gardner can be used to quantify the swelling rate. The increasing of filler content reduced the flexural strength of the rapeseed/PP composites significantly. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing the filler content. The flexural properties of these composites were decreased after the water uptake, due to the effect of the water molecules.

  4. Effect of topdressing with nitrogen and boron on the yield and quality of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Varga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials with winter rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus variety Rasmus were established in August in the years 2002–2004 at the experimental station in Kolíňany which belongs to the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. In the experiments we explore the effect of supplementary spring topdressing of rape with nitrogen and boron in the BBCH 29–30 stage with regard to the yields of seeds and their qualitative parameters (TSW, content of oil and crude protein. In the experiment we applied DAM–390 (solution of ammonium nitrate and urea, 30% N at a rate of 30 kg N/ha and Humix Bór (humic acids + N, K, B at a rate of 0.240 kg B / ha. The different climate conditions in the respective years had a significant effect on yields of rapeseed and ranged as follows: 2003: 1.80–2.29 t / ha; 2004: 2.60–3.35 t / ha; 2005: 2.45–3.29 t / ha. The significant decrease in seed yields in the first year of the experiment was caused namely by the deficit in precipitation in January, February and June 2003 and high temperatures in May and June in the same year. In terms of the individual years and the three-year average the application of Humix Bór itself did not significantly improve the yield and qualitative parameters of seeds compared to the unfertilised control. In a three-year average the application of the N fertiliser alone or in combination with Humix Bór increased seed yields and the crude protein content by 22.4–30.7 % and 4.0–4.9 rel. %, respectively, compared to the unfertilised control. The significantly highest seed yields (2.98 t / ha were achieved when the plants were treated with a combination of nitrogen and Humix Bór as compared to all the other treatments (2.28–2.79 t / ha. The oil content in seeds increased significantly to 44.1% only when treated with a combined application of DAM–390 and Humix Bór as against the unfertilised control (42.8%. Fertilisation did not change

  5. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farga, D. M. H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.; Soliman, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Supplementation of 230 gk 1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  6. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  7. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  8. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  9. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively...

  10. Rhagoletis cerasi: Oviposition Reduction Effects of Oil Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. Methods to control it are limited and alternatives are needed. Observations of cherry fruit flies suggest that females exert much effort to penetrate cherries at color change stage (from green to yellow for oviposition. Therefore, the question arose as to whether a physical barrier on the fruit surface could reduce oviposition. The effects of different commercial horticultural oil products on R. cerasi oviposition were evaluated in a series of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments. In the laboratory experiments, the rate of successful oviposition on fruits treated with 0.25% v/v of the rapeseed oil product Telmion was significantly reduced by 90% compared to the untreated control. In semi-field experiments, deposits of 1% of rapeseed, mineral and paraffinic oil significantly reduced oviposition for up to 3 days. Semi-field experiments indicated that the oil products lose efficacy within 3 to 6 days after application due to degradation. Although treatments with the rapeseed oil product Telmion reduced infestation rates in an on-farm field experiment, the infested fruit clearly exceeded the level of market tolerance of 2%. Further research is needed to assess whether combinations of oil products, higher application rates and different formulations might improve field efficacy.

  11. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elaboration and characterization of nanoliposome made of soya; rapeseed and salmon lecithins: application to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Tehrany, Elmira; Kahn, Cyril J F; Baravian, Christophe; Maherani, Behnoush; Belhaj, Nabila; Wang, Xiong; Linder, Michel

    2012-06-15

    Health benefits of unsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated over the last decades. Nanotechnology provided new process to produce particles such as liposomes and nanoliposomes made of pure phospholipids. These techniques are already used in pharmaceutics to augment the bioavailability and the bioefficiency of drugs. The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the potential of nanoliposomes made of three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) on cell culture in order to use them in the future as drug delivery systems for tissue engineering. We began to measure, with zetasizer, the radius size of liposomes particles which are 125.5, 136.7 and 130.3 nm respectively for rapeseed, soya and salmon lecithin. Simultaneously, solutions observed by TEM demonstrated the particles were made much of liposomes than droplet (emulsion). Finally, we found that the solutions of lecithins were enough stable over 5 days at 37 °C to be used in culture medium. We investigated the effect of soya, rapeseed and salmon lecithin liposome from 2mg/mL to 5.2 μg/mL on metabolic activity and cell proliferation on rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSC) during 14 days. The results showed that the three lecithins (soya, rapeseed and salmon) improve cell proliferation at different concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Refined global methyl halide budgets with respect to rapeseed (Brassica napus) by life-cycle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Acdan, J.; Xu, R.; Deventer, M. J.; Rhew, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A precise quantification of global methyl halide budgets is needed to evaluate the ozone depletion potential of these compounds and to predict future changes of stratospheric ozone. However, the global budgets of methyl halides are not balanced between currently identified and quantified sources and sinks. Our study re-evaluated the methyl bromide budget from global cultivated rapeseed (Brassica napus) through life-cycle flux measurements both in the greenhouse and in the field, yielding a methyl bromide emission rate that scales globally to 1.0 - 1.2 Gg yr-1. While this indicates a globally significant source, it is much smaller than the previously widely cited value of 5 - 6 Gg yr-1(Mead et al., 2008), even taking into account the near tripling of annual global yield of rapeseed since the previous evaluation was conducted. Our study also evaluated the methyl chloride and methyl iodide emission levels from rapeseed, yielding emission rates that scale to 5.4 Gg yr-1 for methyl chloride and 1.8 Gg yr-1 of methyl iodide. The concentrations of the methyl donor SAM (S-adenosyl methionine) and the resultant product SAH (S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine) were also analyzed to explore their role in biogenic methyl halide formation. Halide gradient incubations showed that the magnitude of methyl halide emissions from rapeseed is highly correlated to soil halide levels, thus raising the concern that the heterogeneity of soil halide contents geographically should be considered when extrapolating to global budget.

  14. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Dąbkowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10...

  15. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... application of disease control measures; (e) Wildlife; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure... injurious to human or animal health. (3) Quality will be a factor in determining your loss in canola...

  16. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  17. Performance of winter-rapeseed lines with an improved fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: High levels of linoleic (C18:2) and low content of linolenic acid (C18:3) are desired traits for rapeseed. Induced mutants with an improved fatty acid composition derived from the spring-rapeseed variety Oro were crossed with a winter-rapeseed line exhibiting an increased C18:2 content and backcrossed two times with several high yielding cultivars of winter-rapeseed. After each cross the F 2 was screened by gaschromatography for the mutant-type. After the second backcross from each of 118 lines (BC 2 -F 3 ) an observation plot (9.4 m 2 ) was sown. Results show that through backcrossing it was possible to develop lines with a high proportion of C18:2 and a reduced level of C18:3, whereas C18:1 remained unchanged, demonstrating new combinations different from the usual positive correlation between C18:2 and C18:3. Yield increased continuously with decreasing portion of the mutant genome. Relatively low genotype x location interaction for fatty acids was found. (author)

  18. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were...

  19. USA uus ÜRO saadik alustas pealetungi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide uus ÜRO suursaadik John Bolton nõuab 190 liikmesriigile saadetud kirjas ÜRO reformikavades suurte ja oluliste muudatuste tegemist: reformikavast peaks USA arvates kustutama vähemalt 400 paragrahvi

  20. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  1. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  2. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  3. The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N2O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on biochemical components in rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khawas, K.H.A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study possibility of using safe doses of gamma rays (up to 10 KGy), dry heat treatments (roasting), humid heat treatments (autoclaving) as well as various soaking treatments to inactivate or minimize the antiqualities factors of rape seed (glucosinolate compounds and myrosinase enzyme) and detect the effects of these treatments on chemical composition of oil and residual meal Attention was focused on the effect of these treatments on the chemical composition, fatty acids constituents and unsaponifiable matter components of rape seed oil. Besides, the changes occurred in the chemical composition, total glucosinolate compounds and myrosinase activity of residual meal of rape seed were also studied

  5. Secondary eclipses in the CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We identify and characterize secondary eclipses in the original light curves of published CoRoT planets using uniform detection and evaluation criteria. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian statistics: the eclipse search is carried out using Bayesian model selection, and the characterization of the plausible eclipse candidates using Bayesian parameter estimation. We discover statistically significant eclipse events for two planets, CoRoT-6b and CoRoT-11b, and for one brown dwarf, CoRoT-15b. We also find marginally significant eclipse events passing our plausibility criteria for CoRoT-3b, 13b, 18b, and 21b, and confirm the previously published CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b eclipses.

  6. Phenotypic and molecular evaluation of genetic diversity of rapeseed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, oil content and protein content) were analyzed in a three-year ... regard to many characters of value for breeding process. (Cowling ..... tances determined by molecular markers and heterosis ..... Comparative analysis of cultivated melon groups (Cucumis melo L.).

  7. Techno-economic investigation of alternative propulsion plants for Ferries and RoRo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanos, George A.; Theotokatos, Gerasimos; Pagonis, Dimitrios-Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative Diesel and Gas engine propulsion plants of Ferries and RoRos were studied. • Special focus on marine Natural Gas burning engines and ship waste heat recovery systems. • Significant savings in annual operating costs were predicted in the case of Natural Gas engines. • Environmental and economic optimum propulsion plant alternative was proposed in a specific case study. - Abstract: In this paper, the main alternative propulsion plants based on reciprocating internal combustion engines of a ferry or RoRo ship operating in routes that include Emission Control Areas (ECAs) are comparatively assessed. Specifically, a dual fuel engine propulsion plant is compared with a conventional Diesel engine plant. For both cases, the installation of a waste heat recovery system, which covers a part of the ship electric energy demand, is also considered. The ship main DF engines are assumed to operate using LNG and a small amount of MDO for initiating combustion, whereas low sulphur MDO was regarded as the fuel for the case of the Diesel engine plant. The installation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment unit for reducing the NOx emissions for the case of Diesel engines plant is also taken into account. The propulsion plants were modelled under steady state conditions, and the simulation results were analysed in order to compare the alternative configurations. Furthermore, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) values were calculated and the two examined propulsion system cases were compared on EEDI basis. Finally, the Life Cycle Cost for each alternative propulsion plant was calculated and used for completing an economic evaluation of the Dual fuel propulsion plant versus the conventional designs applied in ferries

  8. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  9. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed...

  10. Research of qualitative indicators of safflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Z. Mateyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is the fundamental quality characteristics. To determine the fatty acid composition, the SP-2560 column and Chromotec 5000.1 gas chromatograph were used. As a result of the studies it was established that fatty acids of 18 and 16 groups prevail in safflower oil, the content of the remaining fatty acids in the total is 1.2%. In the test sample, the prevalence of omega-6 fatty acids (concentration of 80% of linoleic and ?-linolenic fatty acids is observed. Omega-6 fatty acids help the body burn excess fat, instead of postponing it for future use. Natural fatty acids are the bricks of human prostaglandins, mountain-monopodic substances that help normalize blood pressure, control muscle contractions and participate in the immune response of the body. The qualitative characteristics of vegetable oil are also physicochemical indicators. The acid number of safflower oil was 1.07 mgKOH/g, the peroxide number was 8.09 mmol/kgO2, the anisidine number of safflower oil was 3.25. Moisture of rapeseed oil is 0.03%. Safflower oil can be used as a biofuel, the lowest heat of its combustion is 36.978 MJ/kg; density – 913 kg/m3; kinematic viscosity 85.6 mm2/s. In comparison with rapeseed oil, the specific effective fuel consumption is reduced by 2.08%. The obtained fatty acid content of the analyzed sample of safflower oil is well correlated with the literature data, which indicates the high accuracy of the studies, the sample does not belong to the high oleic vegetable oils. The obtained values for qualitative characteristics indicate the prospects of using this type of oil directly in food, as well as for the production of oilseeds, such as mayonnaise, sauces, spreads.

  11. Identification of Dietetically Absorbed Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen MicroRNAs in Serum of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNA that, through mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation, play a critical role in nearly all biological processes. Over the last decade it has become apparent that plant miRNAs may serve as a novel functional component of food with therapeutic effects including anti-influenza and antitumor. Rapeseed bee pollen has good properties in enhancing immune function as well as preventing and treating disease. In this study, we identified the exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen in mice blood using RNA-seq technology. We found that miR-166a was the most highly enriched exogenous plant miRNAs in the blood of mice fed with rapeseed bee pollen, followed by miR-159. Subsequently, RT-qPCR results confirmed that these two miRNAs also can be detected in rapeseed bee pollen. Our results suggested that food-derived exogenous miRNAs from rapeseed bee pollen could be absorbed in mice and the abundance of exogenous miRNAs in mouse blood is dependent on their original levels in the rapeseed bee pollen.

  12. Direct bio-utilization of untreated rapeseed meal for effective iturin A production by Bacillus subtilis in submerged fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jin

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untreated rapeseed meal as a nitrogen source for iturin A production by Bacillus subtilis 3-10 in submerged fermentation was first evaluated by comparison with two different commercial nitrogen sources of peptone and ammonium nitrate. A significant promoting effect of rapeseed meal on iturin A production was observed and the maximum iturin A concentration of 0.60 g/L was reached at 70 h, which was 20% and 8.0 fold higher than that produced from peptone and ammonium nitrate media, respectively. It was shown that rapeseed meal had a positive induction effect on protease secretion, contributing to the release of soluble protein from low water solubility solid rapeseed meal for an effective supply of available nitrogen during fermentation. Moreover, compared to raw rapeseed meal, the remaining residue following fermentation could be used as a more suitable supplementary protein source for animal feed because of the great decrease of major anti-nutritional components including sinapine, glucosinolate and its degradation products of isothiocyanate and oxazolidine thione. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of direct utilization of low cost rapeseed meal as a nitrogen source for commercial production of iturin A and other secondary metabolites by Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mohamed, Amal; El-Din Saad El-Beltagi, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C1...

  14. News Agency Website Agenda on Religion. Comparative Analysis on Mediafax.ro and Agerpres.ro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ana Vasile

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the “Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism” (WIN-Gallup International, 27 July 2012, retrieved 24 August 2012, which was a global 2012 poll, the reports label 59% of the world's population as “religious” and 36% as not religious, including 13% who are atheists, with a 9% decrease in religious belief from 2005. Thereto, religion is an important issue of inherent influence in the media nowadays. Despite the ongoing secularization process that we are facing these days, humans still feel the need to refer to religion within their attempt to construct one’s own outlook on life, and to make some sense out of existence in general (Max Weber, 19202. A comparative content analysis on Mediafax.ro and Agerpres.ro, performed for an almost nine-and-a-half-month time span (1st January to 13th October 2015, showed interesting facts on how press agency journalists relate to religion as a media topic, both in terms of quality (key words and key topics and in terms of quantity. A comparison between the Orthodox religion of the majority of the Romanians, and other denominations, also accounted for intriguing research findings.

  15. Present state of breeding of oil crops. Stand der Zuechtung von Oelpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung)

    1992-04-01

    Different oil crops are characterized by specific fatty acid patterns. For example, rapeseed (Brassica napus) is naturally rich in erucic acid (C22:1), traditional genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contain high levels of linoleic acid (C18:2) in their seed oil, and linseed (oilflax, Linum usitatissimum L.) oil is normally rich in linolenic acid (C18:3). Extreme modifications of these ''natural'' fatty acid patterns are possible by breeding. Impressive examples are, (1) the elimination of erucic acid from rapeseed oil, which made it possible to use this vegetable oil for human consumption, (2) the development of sunflower cultivars with high oleic acid, and (3) the selection of linseed mutants with extremely low linolenic acid contents. However, the yield potential of these ''alternative'' genotypes is usually lower than that of those which are predominantly used for oil production: i.e., ''normal'' (high-linolenic) linseed, ''normal'' (high-linoleic) sunflower, and ''0/00'' (low-erucic and low-glucosinolate) rapeseed cultivars. Even in these cases, the yield potential of modern varieties is not completely exhaused. Further improvements of plant production systems can help to improve both, the economical yield and the ecological acceptability of agricultural production of vegetable oils. (orig.)

  16. The CoRoT Exoplanet program: status & results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT satellite is the first instrument hunting for planets from space. We will review the status of the CoRoT/Exoplanet program. We will then present the CoRoT exoplanetary systems and how they widen the range of properties of the close-in population and contribute to our understanding of the properties of planets.

  17. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  18. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  19. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  20. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED LECITHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...

  1. Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; El-Azeem, Samy A M Abd; Choi, Bongsu; Oh, Sang-Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0.1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6.33 and 6.51 to 8.15 and 8.04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67.9 and 93.2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0.1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0.1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34.01 and 46.1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  2. SWOT Analysis of Industrial Development of Double-low Rapeseed in Hubei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Qiu-fang; Sun, Xiu-li

    2011-01-01

    Based on SWOT analysis method, this paper conducts analysis on the industrial development environment of double-low rapeseed in Hubei Province from the following four aspects, in order to crystallize its resources advantage and disadvantage and make it how the opportunities and challenges that it is faced by. First, advantage analysis: excellent geographic conditions, vigorous government support, powerful scientific research force, sound industrial system support; second, disadvantage analysi...

  3. Deodorization of lipase-interesterified butterfat and rapeseed oil blends in a pilot deodorizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    by free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV), volatiles, and the sensory evaluation of the samples with respect to flavor and odor (most importantly the butter flavor and odor and the off-flavor and odor from butyric acid). ANOVA partial least squares regression analysis showed that deodorization...

  4. The effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester on direct injection Diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36-9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME. The maximum NO x emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min -1 , the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5-21 ppm levels

  5. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Rodríguez, Diana Marcela; Rommi, Katariina; Macedo Fernandes, Margarida Maria; Lantto, Raija; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activi...

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity among rapeseed cultivars and breeding lines by srap and ssr molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, S.A.; Tian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity is very important for developing new rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. The genetic diversity among 77 rapeseed accessions, including 22 varieties and 55 advanced breeding lines were analyzed by 47 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and 56 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 270 SRAP and 194 SSR polymorphic fragments were detected with an average of 5.74 and 3.46 for SRAP and SSR primer, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the 77 accessions into five major clusters. Cluster I contained spring and winter type varieties from Czech Republic and semi-winter varieties and their respective breeding lines from China. The 16 elite breeding lines discovered in Cluster II, III, IV and V indicated higher genetic distance than accessions in Cluster I. The principal component analysis and structure analysis exhibited similar results to the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic diversity of the selected breeding lines was comparable to the rapeseed varieties, and variation among varieties and lines was significant. The diverse and unique group of 16 elite breeding lines detected in this study can be utilized in the future breeding program as a source for development of commercial varieties with more desirable characters. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboutalebian, M.A.; Nazari, S.; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L.

    2017-07-01

    Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT). In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr), root mean square of error (RMSE) and Akaike index (AICd), compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  8. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Application of Pseudomonas fluorescent Strains on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to enhance plant growth and yield directly and indirectly. Use of rhizosphere free living bacteria is one of the methods for crop production and leads to improvement of resources absorption. In order to study of yield, yield components and radiation use efficiency, under application of PGPR condition, an experiment was carried out in 2008 growing season at Agriculture and natural resources research station of Mashhad. The cultivars selected from three rapeseed species belong to Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea (landrace, BP.18، Goldrush، Parkland، Hyola330، Hyola401. Experimental factorial design was randomized in complete block with three replications. Treatments included six varieties of Rapeseed and inoculations were four levels as non–inoculation, inoculation with P. fluorescens169, P. putida108 and use then together. Results showed that strains of fluorescent pseudomonas bacteria had greatest effects on yield and yield components cultivars. A significant difference in the number of pods per plant and 1000 seed weight observed. The cultivars were different in all treats except 1000 seed weight. Overall results indicated that application of growth stimulating bacteria in combination with different cultivars, had a positive effect growth, yield characteristics of plant varieties of rapeseed plants.

  10. Effect of Rapeseed Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Gut Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Peric

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of rapeseed meal (RSM on nutrient digestibility and intestinal parameters of jejunum of 21 days old broiler chickens. Three groups of Ross 308 chickens were formed and fed with corn-soy based feed (control group or feed with inclusion of 10% or 15% of rapeseed meal (low glucosinolate and low eruca acid content. All mixtures were balanced to the same energy and crude protein level.  To determine digestibility, 20 male chickens per treatment were put into metabolic cages. Digestibility was determined by using the method of total collection. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, fat and energy was determined. At 21 days of age, chickens were sacrificed to obtain samples for morphometric parameters of jejunum. On jejunal samples, villus height and area, crypt depth and villus to crypt ratio were measured as indicators of gut integrity. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in any measured digestibility or gut health parameter. Addition of up to 15% of rapeseed meal in well balanced diets of young broiler chicken does not have an adverse effect on both digestibility of nutrients and broiler gut health.

  11. Optimization of uncatalyzed steam explosion pretreatment of rapeseed straw for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Linares, Juan C; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Tourán, Josefina; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Romero, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    Rapeseed straw constitutes an agricultural residue with great potential as feedstock for ethanol production. In this work, uncatalyzed steam explosion was carried out as a pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility of rapeseed straw. Experimental statistical design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the influence of the temperature (185-215°C) and the process time (2.5-7.5min). According to the rotatable central composite design applied, 215°C and 7.5min were confirmed to be the optimal conditions, considering the maximization of enzymatic hydrolysis yield as optimization criterion. These conditions led to a maximum yield of 72.3%, equivalent to 81% of potential glucose in pretreated solid. Different configurations for bioethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw were investigated using the pretreated solid obtained under optimal conditions as a substrate. As a relevant result, concentrations of ethanol as high as 43.6g/L (5.5% by volume) were obtained as a consequence of using 20% (w/v) solid loading, equivalent to 12.4g ethanol/100g biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Responses of broiler chicks to radiation processed full-fat rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din Diaa.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds

  13. Sustainability assessment of straight vegetable oil used as self-supply biofuel in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero Armans, Grau; Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Puig Vidal, Rita; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes and analyses a model for an agricultural fuel self-supply exploitation. The model is based on the current extended crop rotation of wheat and barley in Anoia region (Catalonia, Spain). The introduction of rapeseed to the current crop rotation and its conversion into oil to be used as agricultural fuel is presented. Life cycle assessment methodology is used to carry out an environmental and an economic assessment. Environmental results show a preference for the vegetable oil...

  14. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  15. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Robot operated Material Processing in Space (RoMPS) experiment is being performed to explore the marriage of two emerging space commercialization technologies: materials processing in microgravity and robotics. This concept review presents engineering drawings and limited technical descriptions of the RoMPS programs' electrical and software systems.

  16. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  17. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  18. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  19. Effect of fluorescent light on quality and stability of edible fats and oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Atta, S.; Sohail, M.; Khan, A.R.; Akhter, S.

    2011-01-01

    Photo oxidative stress were applied to commonly consumed edible oil and fat i.e., animal fat (AF), vanaspati ghee (VG), sunflower oil (SFO), desi ghee (DG), rapeseed oil (RSO), soybean oil (SBO) as well as sea buckthorn seed oil (SB Seed oil) and sea buckthorn pulp oil (SB Pulp oil). The changes in their quality parameters i.e. free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV), beta-carotene and color (OD) were determined. Photo oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.05) increased the FFA, POV and OD, however, concentration of beta carotene decreased in all the samples with the increase in storage time. The Sea buckthorn oil was found to be more stable than other oils owing to the presence of tocopherol contents and beta-carotene. (author)

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, G; Schoenefeldt, J; Mehring, I [OeHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author) 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  3. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  4. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P based on content of NDIN, GSL, rLys or on Lys:CP ratio, in different batches of RSM used for feed manufacturing.

  5. CoRoT’s first seven planets: An overview*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barge P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The up to 150 day uninterrupted high-precision photometry of about 100000 stars – provided so far by the exoplanet channel of the CoRoT space telescope – gave a new perspective on the planet population of our galactic neighbourhood. The seven planets with very accurate parameters widen the range of known planet properties in almost any respect. Giant planets have been detected at low metallicity, rapidly rotating and active, spotted stars. CoRoT-3 populated the brown dwarf desert and closed the gap of measured physical properties between standard giant planets and very low mass stars. CoRoT extended the known range of planet masses down-to 5 Earth masses and up to 21 Jupiter masses, the radii to less than 2 Earth radii and up to the most inflated hot Jupiter found so far, and the periods of planets discovered by transits to 9 days. Two CoRoT planets have host stars with the lowest content of heavy elements known to show a transit hinting towards a different planet-host-star-metallicity relation then the one found by radial-velocity search programs. Finally the properties of the CoRoT-7b prove that terrestrial planets with a density close to Earth exist outside the Solar System. The detection of the secondary transit of CoRoT-1 at the 10−5-level and the very clear detection of the 1.7 Earth radii of CoRoT-7b at 3.5 10−4 relative flux are promising evidence of CoRoT being able to detect even smaller, Earth sized planets.

  6. RoHS Compliance - Is the Global Electronics Industry Ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Marieke; Hróarsson, Hallur

    2006-01-01

    RoHS is an EU directive that was proposed along with the WEEE Directive in 2002 as a part of a plan to promote extended producer responsibility within the electronics industry. Together, these two directives seek to make electrical and electronic equipment easier to manage both in terms of environmental impacts and recycling. The RoHS Directive seeks to remove lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and two brominated flame retardants from all consumer electrical equipment. This paper dea...

  7. The Dushak–Erekdag Survey of roAp Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The search of roAp stars at Mt. Dushak–Erekdag Observatory was started in 1992 using the 0.8m Odessa telescope equipped with a two-star high-speed photometer. We have observed more than a dozen stars so far and discovered HD 99563 as roAp star while BD+8087 is suspected to have rapid ...

  8. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  9. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  10. Extracting sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Fang; Shen, Luming; Liao, Guiping; Wang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Spectrum technology has been widely used in crop non-destructive testing diagnosis for crop information acquisition. Since spectrum covers a wide range of bands, it is of critical importance to extract the sensitive bands. In this paper, we propose a methodology to extract the sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our obtained sensitive bands are relatively robust in the range of 534 nm-574 nm. Further, by using the multifractal parameter (Hurst exponent) of the extracted sensitive bands, we propose a prediction model to forecast the Soil and plant analyzer development values ((SPAD), often used as a parameter to indicate the chlorophyll content) and an identification model to distinguish the different planting patterns. Three vegetation indices (VIs) based on previous work are used for comparison. Three evaluation indicators, namely, the root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the relative error employed in the SPAD values prediction model all demonstrate that our Hurst exponent has the best performance. Four rapeseed compound planting factors, namely, seeding method, planting density, fertilizer type, and weed control method are considered in the identification model. The Youden indices calculated by the random decision forest method and the K-nearest neighbor method show that our Hurst exponent is superior to other three Vis, and their combination for the factor of seeding method. In addition, there is no significant difference among the five features for other three planting factors. This interesting finding suggests that the transplanting and the direct seeding would make a big difference in the growth of rapeseed.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis for agro-morphological and seed quality traits in rapeseed (brassica campestris l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Munir, M.; Ghafoor, A.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006. (author)

  12. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  13. Improving fatty acid methyl ester production yield in a lipase-catalyzed process using waste frying oils as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Muñoz, Robinson; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-06-01

    The application of waste frying oil (WFO) mixed with rapeseed oil as a feedstock for the effective production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a lipase-catalyzed process was investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the interaction of four variables: the percentage of WFO in the mixed feedstock, the methanol-to-oil ratio, the dosage of Novozym 435 as a catalyst and the temperature. Furthermore, the addition of methanol to the reaction mixture in a second step after 8 h was shown to effectively diminish enzyme inhibition. Using this technique, the model predicted the optimal conditions that would reach 100% FAME, including a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 3.8:1, 100% (wt) WFO, 15% (wt) Novozym 435 and incubation at 44.5 degrees C for 12 h with agitation at 200 rpm, and verification experiments confirmed the validity of the model. According to the model, the addition of WFO increased FAME production yield, which is largely due to its higher contents of monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and free fatty acids (in comparison to rapeseed oil), which are more available substrates for the enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, the replacement of rapeseed oil with WFO in Novozym 435-catalyzed processes could diminish biodiesel production costs since it is a less expensive feedstock that increases the production yield and could be a potential alternative for FAME production on an industrial scale. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inventory of Onshore Hydrocarbon Seeps in Romania (HYSED-RO Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Ionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeps are the expression of the migration of hydrocarbons from subsurface accumulations to the surface in sedimentary basins. They may represent an important indication of the presence of petroleum (gas and oil reservoirs and faults, and are a natural source of greenhouse gas (methane and atmospheric pollutants (ethane, propane to the atmosphere. Romania is one of the countries with the largest number of seeps in the world, due to the high petroleum potential and active tectonics. Based on a review of the available literature, and on the field surveys performed by the authors during the last 17 years, we report the first comprehensive GIS-based inventory of 470 seeps in Romania (HYSED-RO, including gas seeps (10.4% of the total, oil seeps (11.7%, mud volcanoes (50.4%, gas-rich springs (12.6%, asphalt (solid seeps (4.3%, unclassified manifestations (4.0%, and uncertain seeps (6.6%. Seeps are typically located in correspondence with major faults and vertical and fractured stratigraphic contacts associated to petroleum reservoirs (anticlines in low heat flow areas, and their gas-geochemistry reflects that of the subsurface reservoirs. The largest and most active seeps occur in the Carpathian Foredeep, where they release thermogenic gas, and subordinately in the Transylvanian Basin, where gas is mainly microbial. HYSED-RO may represent a key reference for baseline characterization prior to subsurface petroleum extraction, for environmental studies, and atmospheric greenhouse gas emission estimates in Romania.

  15. Ecological aspects of using biological diesel oil in railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Lingaitis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of various transport facilities used in Europe is rapidly growing. They release a big amount of pollutants into the atmosphere. Therefore, environment protection from these pollutants ejected by internal combustion engines is a key problem facing us today and which will be acute in the future. Biofuel is the only effective and widely used alternative fuel which can reduce pollution of the environment. The main aim of the present paper is to perform a comparative analysis of burnt gases of engines using rapeseed oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel oil and to determine ecological effectiveness of biofuel used in diesel locomotive engines in railway transport.

  16. SU-E-T-218: The IHE-RO Helper Tool: Demonstrating the Connectivity Issues Solved by IHE-RO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rishabh; Yeung, Daniel; Kumar, Sabari Ajay; Alex, Daley; Kapur, Priyanka; Palta, Jatinder

    2012-06-01

    To develop a Web-based application (IHE-RO Helper) to allow comprehensive review of the interconnectivity and interoperability of various radiotherapy devices established through testing sanctioned by the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO). IHE-RO is an initiative sponsored by ASTRO to improve the way computer based systems in radiation oncology share information using well-defined data exchange standards (DICOM / HL7). At the IHE-RO Connectathon events over the last 4 years, 11 vendors with 14 different products have successfully tested and identified solutions to connectivity problems in treatment planning, simulation and delivery. Because the test results are highly technical, the interconnectivity issues amongst the RT devices may get overlooked by the end users. The IHE-RO helper tool is designed to operate in simple clinical terms with queries and presentations organized based on treatment techniques and clinical features that are familiar to the practitioners. For example, if you are planning to purchase a treatment planning system capable of generating plans (e.g. Stereotactic treatments) and are concerned whether the TPS can successfully transfer such data to your treatment management system (TMS) and subsequently to your treatment delivery system (TDS), the IHE-RO Helper can identify the connectivity requirements and list vendors that have successfully passed an IHE-RO Connectathon and validated their solution to the specific requirements. The IHE-RO helper tool provides a graphical and textual user interface to effectively demonstrate the solved interconnectivity problems between TPS, TMS and TDS. A report is also provided that explains the interconnectivity problems and its solutions. The IHE-RO helper is an effective tool to clearly identify vendor products that are IHE-RO compliant, thereby encourages vendor participation in testing and validation. Such a tool will be invaluable in procurement of new equipment to ensure a

  17. Ku-pa-ro en las tablillas de Cnoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Melena

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to be a comprehensive analysis of the evidence of ku-pa-ro in the Knossos Linear B tablets. Its main purpose is to set up the importance of such aromatic plant in the Mycenaean economy at Knossos and to identify what kind of sedge was concealed under the name ku-pa-ro and what part of the plant was used and for what purposes. What it is stressed is the usage of the Cyperus rotundus L. (i. e. the ku-pa-ro in the industry of perfumes and as a food additive as well. What is inferred from the discussion on the evidence of ku-pa-ro issues a series of valuable data concerning the localization of certain place-names in the map of Crete, and concerning the explanation of ideogram *171. The high qualities of ku-pa-ro preserved in the tablets lead the author to assume that such a plant was cultivated in Crete and was one of the main aromatic plants used by the Mycenaeans in the making of perfumes.

  18. Short Review on Predicting Fouling in RO Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems. This paper offers a short review evaluating the state of industry knowledge in the development of fouling indices and models in membrane systems for desalination in terms of use and applicability. Despite major efforts in this field, there are gaps in terms of effective methods and models for the estimation of fouling in full-scale RO desalination plants. In existing models applied to full-scale RO desalination plants, neither the spacer geometry of membranes, nor the efficiency and frequency of chemical cleanings are considered.

  19. Macroporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rapeseed Shell for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium–sulfur batteries have drawn considerable attention because of their extremely high energy density. Activated carbon (AC is an ideal matrix for sulfur because of its high specific surface area, large pore volume, small-size nanopores, and simple preparation. In this work, through KOH activation, AC materials with different porous structure parameters were prepared using waste rapeseed shells as precursors. Effects of KOH amount, activated temperature, and activated time on pore structure parameters of ACs were studied. AC sample with optimal pore structure parameters was investigated as sulfur host materials. Applied in lithium–sulfur batteries, the AC/S composite (60 wt % sulfur exhibited a high specific capacity of 1065 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 and a good capacity retention of 49% after 1000 cycles at 1600 mA g−1. The key factor for good cycling stability involves the restraining effect of small-sized nanopores of the AC framework on the diffusion of polysulfides to bulk electrolyte and the loss of the active material sulfur. Results demonstrated that AC materials derived from rapeseed shells are promising materials for sulfur loading.

  20. Comparison of biogas production from rapeseed and wheat residues in compound with cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Seventy million tons of agricultural crops are produced from 18 million hectares of agricultural lands in Iran every year. Since 80% of the crops (wt. basis ends up as residues, therefore, about 50 million tons of crop residues are generated annually the majority of which is burnt on field leading to vast emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG due to the incomplete combustion process. These residues could potentially be transformed into heat energy directly by adopting a burning process or indirectly by first transforming them into secondary fuel as hydrogen, bio-methane, methanol or ethanol. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using, wheat and rapeseed straws dried at ambient temperature co-digested with fresh cow dung while the total solid content and detention time were kept constant. To conduct the Anaerobic Digestion (AD experiments, cylinder reactors (13 L were constructed and placed in a water bath equipped with a heater and sensor to maintain the temperature at 35±2 oC. The biogas produced in the digester was investigated by measuring the displacement of the water in a measuring tube connected to the reactor. Gas samples were obtained from the sampling port and were analyzed gas chromatograph. The temperature for detector, injector and oven were 170, 110 and 50 oC respectively. Before the test, the first CH4 and CO2 net gases, peaks corresponding percentage was determined with respect to the retention time of the area. Then sample was compared with standard gas and samples gas percentage was determined. The residues were mechanically pretreated using a mill in order to increase the availability of the biomass to enzymes. After the pre-treatment, the material (<2 mm was mixed with a different proportion of fresh cow dung, Initial Total Solids (TS content in the reactor was adjusted at 9%. Factors such as PH, Volatile Solids (VS were determined by the standard method. Results and Discussion A decrease in the

  1. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Kuai

    Full Text Available Pod shattering resistance index (SRI is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012-2014. The results showed the following: (1 From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2 Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3 Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI.

  2. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xin; Li Jufang; Huang Pingying; Dong Xuyan; Guo Lulu; Yang Liang; Cao Yuancheng; Wei Fang; Zhao Yuandi

    2010-01-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  3. Contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data for monitoring winter wheat and rapeseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Julie; Fieuzal, Remy; Philippets, Yannick; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Baup, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for winter wheat and rapeseed crops parameters [height, leaf area index, and dry biomass (DB)] estimation, during their whole vegetation cycles in comparison to backscattering coefficients and optical data. Angular sensitivities and dynamics of polarimetric indicators were also analyzed following the growth stages of these two common crop types using, in total, 14 radar images (Radarsat-2), 16 optical images (Formosat-2, Spot-4/5), and numerous ground data. The results of this study show the importance of correcting the angular effect on SAR signals especially for copolarized signals and polarimetric indicators associated to single-bounce scattering mechanisms. The analysis of the temporal dynamic of polarimetric indicators has shown their high potential to detect crop growth changes. Moreover, this study shows the high interest of using SAR parameters (backscattering coefficients and polarimetric indicators) for crop parameters estimation during the whole vegetation cycle instead of optical vegetation index. They particularly revealed their high potential for rapeseed height and DB monitoring [i.e., Shannon entropy polarimetry (r2=0.70) and radar vegetation index (r2=0.80), respectively].

  4. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Xin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Li Jufang [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Huang Pingying [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Dong Xuyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Guo Lulu [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Yang Liang; Cao Yuancheng [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China); Wei Fang [Key Lab of Oil Crops Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Oil Crops Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Zhao Yuandi, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, HuBei 430074 (China)

    2010-07-15

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63+-2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  5. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influences on adverse effects of waterlogging stress. Winter rapeseed was sprayed with K after waterlogging at initial flowering stage. Results indicated that waterlog-ging significantly decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). It also declined maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (ΦPS II) and pho-tochemical quenching (qP), but increased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and minimal fluorescence (Fo). Interestingly, exogenous application of K significantly alleviated waterlogging-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Foliar K application increased RuBisCO activation, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, while significantly decreased MDA con-tent under waterlogging stress. Moreover, K supplementation improved accumulation of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ in leaves. In general, foliar K application is effective in alleviating deleterious effects of waterlogging stress and delays leaf senescence of winter rapeseed.

  6. RO-75, Reverse Osmosis Plant Design Optimization and Cost Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueckstern, P.; Reed, S.A.; Wilson, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RO75 is a program for the optimization of the design and economics of one- or two-stage seawater reverse osmosis plants. 2 - Method of solution: RO75 evaluates the performance of the applied membrane module (productivity and salt rejection) at assumed operating conditions. These conditions include the site parameters - seawater salinity and temperature, the membrane module operating parameters - pressure and product recovery, and the membrane module predicted long-term performance parameters - lifetime and long flux decline. RO75 calculates the number of first and second stage (if applied) membrane modules needed to obtain the required product capacity and quality and evaluates the required pumping units and the power recovery turbine (if applied). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program does not optimize or design the membrane properties and the internal structure and flow characteristics of the membrane modules; it assumes operating characteristics defined by the membrane manufacturers

  7. Clinical and Pathological Roles of Ro/SSA Autoantibody System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are among the most frequently detected autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens and have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS. Although the presence of these autoantibodies is one of the criteria for the diagnosis and classification of SS, they are also sometimes seen in other systemic autoimmune diseases. In the last few decades, the knowledge of the prevalence of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in various autoimmune diseases and symptoms has been expanded, and the clinical importance of these antibodies is increasing. Nonetheless, the pathological role of the antibodies is still poorly understood. In this paper, we summarize the milestones of the anti-Ro/SSA autoantibody system and provide new insights into the association between the autoantibodies and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  8. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  9. Origin of the CMS gene locus in rapeseed cybrid mitochondria: active and inactive recombination produces the complex CMS gene region in the mitochondrial genomes of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masao; Kikuchi, Rie; Imamura, Jun; Handa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterile) rapeseed is produced by asymmetrical somatic cell fusion between the Brassica napus cv. Westar and the Raphanus sativus Kosena CMS line (Kosena radish). The CMS rapeseed contains a CMS gene, orf125, which is derived from Kosena radish. Our sequence analyses revealed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed originated from recombination between the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region by way of a 63 bp repeat. A precise sequence comparison among the related sequences in CMS rapeseed, Kosena radish and normal rapeseed showed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed consisted of the Kosena orf125/orfB region and the rapeseed nad1C/ccmFN1 region, even though Kosena radish had both the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region in its mitochondrial genome. We also identified three tandem repeat sequences in the regions surrounding orf125, including a 63 bp repeat, which were involved in several recombination events. Interestingly, differences in the recombination activity for each repeat sequence were observed, even though these sequences were located adjacent to each other in the mitochondrial genome. We report results indicating that recombination events within the mitochondrial genomes are regulated at the level of specific repeat sequences depending on the cellular environment.

  10. The effect of refining step on the changes in viscosity values of vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergonul, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the viscosity values of chemically refined vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, soybean and rapeseed) and physically refined vegetable oils (olive and palm) were determined during refining processes. At this point of view, fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of oil samples were determined. The edible vegetable oils presented Newtonian behavior in shear rates at ranges 6.28-20.93 s/sup -1/. It was observed that palm oil is more viscous than the others. During physical refining, the effect of both oil type and refining steps were significantly important, whereas in chemical refining only the effect of oil type was found statistically important (p<0.01). It was observed that correlation among fatty acid compositions and viscosity values of the samples showed differences according to oil type. (author)

  11. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  12. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 μM could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: → A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. → The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. → Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 μM can be distinguished from the controls. → Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  13. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  14. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...... by adding pre-emulsified fish oil or microencapsulated fish oil and store at preferentially 2-10C. Practical Applications: The results from this study can directly be transferred to practical applications in the food industry. Thus, the study showed that fish oil-enriched fish pâté with an acceptable...

  15. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  16. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ÜRO peakorterile otsitakse naabrit / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    New Yorki, ÜRO peakorterist lõunasse hakatakse ehitama uut hoonet. Arhitektuurikonkursist on kutsutud osalema: David Childs, Richard Meier ja Peter Eisenmann; Schuman Lichtenstein Claman Efron ja HOK arhitektid; Kohn Pederson Fox, Davis Brody Bond, Toyo Ito ja Rem Koolhaas; Henry Cobb, James Ingo Freed ja Machado & Silvetti Associates; Christian de Portzamparc ja Gary Edward Handel & Associates

  18. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  19. Rožňava ore field - geophysical works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géczy Július

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article prowides a review of geophysical works in the ore field Rožňava conducted up to date. Magnetometric and geoelectric methods and gravimetric measurements have been used. Geophysical works were focused to the solving regional problems whose contribution to the prospecting of vein deposits is not essential.

  20. Geografická výročí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2017), s. 69-72 ISSN 1213-1075 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Czech geography * personalities * anniversaries Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  1. Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The 5 vol% RME added to JP-8 fuel improved lubricity 1.7 times according corrected wear scar diameter, μm. • The reverse trends revealed in the autoignition delay when operating with identical fuel blends J10 and B10. • The brake thermal efficiency increased by 1.0–3.6% when running on bio-fuels J5–J30 at speed of 2200 rpm. • The NO_x emissions increased by 5.2% when operating on bio-jet fuel J30 at full load and speed of 2200 rpm. • CO, HC emissions and smoke decreased with biofuel J20 and higher blends at both speeds of 1400 and 2200 rpm. - Abstract: The article presents the test results of an engine operating with diesel fuel (B5), turbine type JP-8 fuel and its 5 vol%, 10 vol%, 20 vol%, and 30 vol% blends with rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME). Additional fuel blend B10 was prepared by pouring 10 vol% of RME to diesel fuel to extend interpretation of the test results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using jet-biodiesel fuel blends J5, J10, J20, J30, and B10 on the start of injection, ignition delay, combustion history, heat release, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. The engine performance parameters were examined at light 15% (1400 rpm) and 10% (2200 rpm), medium 50%, and high 100% loads and the two speeds: 1400 rpm at which maximum torque occurs and a rated speed of 2200 rpm. The autoignition delay and maximum heat release rate decreased, maximum cylinder pressure, and pressure gradients increased, whereas brake specific fuel consumption changed little and brake thermal efficiency was 1.0–3.6% higher when running with fuel blends J5 to J30 at rated speed compared with the data measured with neat jet fuel. The NO_x emissions increased slightly, but the CO, THC emissions, and smoke opacity boosted up significantly when using jet fuel blend J10 with a smooth reduction of unburned hydrocarbons for jet-biodiesel fuel blends with higher CN ratings. Operation at a full (100%) load with fuel blend J10

  2. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  3. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...... of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...

  4. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  5. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    spilled into the soil during use and in accident situations, and they can migrate to groundwater layers. Biodegradation of oils can remove them from the soil or water completely or at least diminish the amount of harmful substances. An automatic, respirometric BOD OxiTop method was used to evaluate the biodegradability of various oils in water and soil media. The biodegradation of certain bio and mineral hydraulic oils was evaluated in groundwater, where bio oils usually biodegraded more effectively than mineral oils. The use of oils in machines weakened especially the biodegradability of bio oils. Biodegradability of bio oils was also studied in standard conditions of OECD 301 F and bio oils usually biodegraded moderately good in these conditions. The biodegradation of forestry chain oils and wood preservative oils was evaluated in forest soils. Linseed oil biodegraded moderately, but certain experimental wood preservatives biodegraded more effectively. Widely used creosote oil biodegraded in a lesser degree. Rapeseed oil-based chain oils biodegraded more effectively than corresponding tall oil. (orig.)

  6. Efficacy of Different Insecticides in Controlling Pollen Beetle (Meligethes aeneus F. in Rapeseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Milovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since pollen beetle, M. aeneus, is usually controlled by insecticides, the efficacy of several compounds with different modes of action against adult beetles was studied in a threeyear field study. The selected insecticides were: three pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, an oganophosphate (pirimiphos-methyl, a combination of an organophosphate and a pyrethroid (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin and a neonicotinoid (thiacloprid. The insecticides were applied at label rates to winter rapeseed crops at the moment of visible but still closed flower buds (BBCH 55-57. In all experiments, the efficacy of pyrethroids and the organophosphate ranged from 90-100%, while the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was 85-95%. Therefore, they can be recommended for control of pollen beetle in Serbia.

  7. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  8. Flame structure, spectroscopy and emissions quantification of rapeseed biodiesel under model gas turbine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapeseed biodiesel shows extended flame reaction zone with no soot formation. • RME spray flame shows higher droplet number density and volume flux than diesel. • RME droplet size and velocity distribution are similar to diesel. • Blending 50% RME with diesel reduces soot formation non-linearly. • RME shows lower NO_x and higher CO emissions level compared to diesel. - Abstract: The spray combustion characteristics of rapeseed biodiesel/methyl esters (RME) and 50% RME/diesel blend were investigated and compared with conventional diesel fuel, using a model swirl flame burner. The detailed database with well-characterised boundary conditions can be used as validation targets for flame modelling. An airblast, swirl-atomized liquid fuel spray was surrounded by air preheated to 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. The reacting droplet distribution within the flame was determined using phase Doppler particle anemometry. For both diesel and RME, peak droplet concentrations are found on the outside of the flame region, with large droplets migrating to the outside via swirl, and smaller droplets located around the centreline region. However, droplet concentrations and sizes are larger for RME, indicating a longer droplet evaporation timescale. This delayed droplet vaporisation leads to a different reaction zone relative to diesel, with an extended core reaction. In spite of the longer reaction zone, RME flames displayed no sign of visible soot radiation, unlike the case of diesel spray flame. Blending 50% RME with diesel results in significant reduction in soot radiation. Finally, RME emits 22% on average lower NO_x emissions compared to diesel under lean burning conditions.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube uptake in wheat and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: Camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Pinault, Mathieu, E-mail: Mathieu.pinault@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Czarny, Bertrand, E-mail: Bertrand.czarny@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Georgin, Dominique, E-mail: Dominique.georgin@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jaillard, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.jaillard@u-psud.fr [UMR8195 CNRS-Universite Paris-Sud, Centre Commun de Microscopie Electronique, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bendiab, Nedjma, E-mail: Nedjma.bendiab@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38049 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mayne-L' Hermite, Martine, E-mail: martine.mayne@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Taran, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.taran@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Dive, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.dive@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat and rapeseed accumulate MWCNT through root exposure, and translocate them to their leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer factor of MWCNT from hydroponic solution to leaves never exceeds 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNT majorly accumulate in the most peripheral areas and in newly developed leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of less than 200 ng MWCNT per g of leaf does not impact plant development and physiology. - Abstract: Environmental contamination with carbon nanotubes would lead to plant exposure and particularly exposure of agricultural crops. The only quantitative exposure data available to date which can be used for risk assessment comes from computer modeling. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data relative to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) uptake and distribution in agricultural crops, and to correlate accumulation data with impact on plant development and physiology. Roots of wheat and rapeseed were exposed in hydroponics to uniformly {sup 14}C-radiolabeled MWCNTs. Radioimaging, transmission electron microscopy and raman spectroscopy were used to identify CNT distribution. Radioactivity counting made it possible absolute quantification of CNT accumulation in plant leaves. Impact of CNTs on seed germination, root elongation, plant biomass, evapotranspiration, chlorophyll, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} contents was evaluated. We demonstrate that less than 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign of the applied MWCNT dose is taken up by plant roots and translocated to the leaves. This accumulation does not impact plant development and physiology. In addition, it does not induce any modifications in photosynthetic activity nor cause oxidative stress in plant leaves. Our results suggest that if environmental contamination occurs and MWCNTs are in the same physico-chemical state than the ones used in the present article, MWCNT transfer to

  10. Quantitative evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube uptake in wheat and rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Camille; Pinault, Mathieu; Czarny, Bertrand; Georgin, Dominique; Jaillard, Danielle; Bendiab, Nedjma; Mayne-L’Hermite, Martine; Taran, Frédéric; Dive, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wheat and rapeseed accumulate MWCNT through root exposure, and translocate them to their leaves. ► Transfer factor of MWCNT from hydroponic solution to leaves never exceeds 0.005‰. ► MWCNT majorly accumulate in the most peripheral areas and in newly developed leaves. ► Accumulation of less than 200 ng MWCNT per g of leaf does not impact plant development and physiology. - Abstract: Environmental contamination with carbon nanotubes would lead to plant exposure and particularly exposure of agricultural crops. The only quantitative exposure data available to date which can be used for risk assessment comes from computer modeling. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data relative to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) uptake and distribution in agricultural crops, and to correlate accumulation data with impact on plant development and physiology. Roots of wheat and rapeseed were exposed in hydroponics to uniformly 14 C-radiolabeled MWCNTs. Radioimaging, transmission electron microscopy and raman spectroscopy were used to identify CNT distribution. Radioactivity counting made it possible absolute quantification of CNT accumulation in plant leaves. Impact of CNTs on seed germination, root elongation, plant biomass, evapotranspiration, chlorophyll, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and H 2 O 2 contents was evaluated. We demonstrate that less than 0.005‰ of the applied MWCNT dose is taken up by plant roots and translocated to the leaves. This accumulation does not impact plant development and physiology. In addition, it does not induce any modifications in photosynthetic activity nor cause oxidative stress in plant leaves. Our results suggest that if environmental contamination occurs and MWCNTs are in the same physico-chemical state than the ones used in the present article, MWCNT transfer to the food chain via food crops would be very low.

  11. IgV peptide mapping of native Ro60 autoantibody proteomes in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals molecular markers of Ro/La diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Al Kindi, Mahmood A; Colella, Alex D; Dykes, Lukah; Jackson, Michael W; Chataway, Tim K; Reed, Joanne H; Gordon, Tom P

    2016-12-01

    We have used high-resolution mass spectrometry to sequence precipitating anti-Ro60 proteomes from sera of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and compare immunoglobulin variable-region (IgV) peptide signatures in Ro/La autoantibody subsets. Anti-Ro60 were purified by elution from native Ro60-coated ELISA plates and subjected to combined de novo amino acid sequencing and database matching. Monospecific anti-Ro60 Igs comprised dominant public and minor private sets of IgG1 kappa and lambda restricted heavy and light chains. Specific IgV amino acid substitutions stratified anti-Ro60 from anti-Ro60/La responses, providing a molecular fingerprint of Ro60/La determinant spreading and suggesting that different forms of Ro60 antigen drive these responses. Sequencing of linked anti-Ro52 proteomes from individual patients and comparison with their anti-Ro60 partners revealed sharing of a dominant IGHV3-23/IGKV3-20 paired clonotype but with divergent IgV mutational signatures. In summary, anti-Ro60 IgV peptide mapping provides insights into Ro/La autoantibody diversification and reveals serum-based molecular markers of humoral Ro60 autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We report the discovery of CoRoT-16b, a low density hot jupiter that orbits a faint G5V star (mV = 15.63) in 5.3523 ± 0.0002 days with slight eccentricity. A fit of the data with no a priori assumptions on the orbit leads to an eccentricity of 0.33 ± 0.1. We discuss this value and also derive......RoT-16b is a 0.535 −0.083/+0.085 MJ, 1.17 −0.14/+0.16 RJ hot Jupiter with a density of 0.44 −0.14/+0.21 g cm-3. Despite its short orbital distance (0.0618 ± 0.0015 AU) and the age of the parent star (6.73 ± 2.8 Gyr), the planet orbit exhibits significantly non-zero eccentricity. This is very uncommon...

  13. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot.

  14. MO-AB-204-01: IHE RO Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.

    2016-01-01

    You’ve experienced the frustration: vendor A’s device claims to work with vendor B’s device, but the practice doesn’t match the promise. Getting devices working together is the hidden art that Radiology and Radiation Oncology staff have to master. To assist with that difficult process, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) effort was established in 1998, with the coordination of the Radiological Society of North America. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) is a consortium of healthcare professionals and industry partners focused on improving the way computer systems interconnect and exchange information. This is done by coordinating the use of published standards like DICOM and HL7. Several clinical and operational IHE domains exist in the healthcare arena, including Radiology and Radiation Oncology. The ASTRO-sponsored IHE Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) domain focuses on radiation oncology specific information exchange. This session will explore the IHE Radiology and IHE RO process for; IHE solicitation process for new profiles. Improving the way computer systems interconnect and exchange information in the healthcare enterprise Supporting interconnectivity descriptions and proof of adherence by vendors Testing and assuring the vendor solutions to connectivity problems. Including IHE profiles in RFPs for future software and hardware purchases. Learning Objectives: Understand IHE role in improving interoperability in health care. Understand process of profile development and implantation. Understand how vendors prove adherence to IHE RO profiles. S. Hadley, ASTRO Supported Activity

  15. Sensitization by SR-2508 plus Ro 03-8799

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, H.B.; Luu, Y.H.; Lam, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The primary toxicity of Ro 03-8799 is a central nervous system toxicity, whereas that of SR-2508 is a peripheral neuropathy. The feasibility of reducing overall toxicity while maintaining maximal radiosensitization by using the two sensitizers together was tested. The LD50/2 of Ro 03-8799 was 0.68 mg/g body wt (mg/gbw) after intravenous (i.v.) administration, and that of SR-2508 was 4.4 mg/gbw after i.v. administration. When both drugs were given together in equitoxic proportions, the LD50/2 was 0.45 mg of Ro 03-8799 plus 2.9 mg of SR-2508/gbw. These doses are 66% of the respective LD50/2 values of the drugs when given separately. Radiosensitization was evaluated using in vivo-in vitro assays with EMT6/SF tumors in BALB/c mice. At drug doses between 10 and 60% of the LD50/2, sensitization was generally maximal and similar to that from misonidazole, but there was less sensitization below this dose, both with the drugs given separately and together. If chronic toxicities of these drugs overlap as do the acute toxicities there will be little or no additional benefit from using these drugs in combination, compared to using them separately

  16. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  18. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Štefko, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

  19. A Comprehensive Study on the Application of Reverse Osmosis (RO Technology for the Petroleum Industry Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Jafarinejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of oily wastewaters can be generated from the activities and processes in the petroleum industry which draining of these effluents not only pollutes the environment but also reduces the yield of oil and water. Therefore, development of treatment processes for petroleum industry wastewaters is vital in order to prevent serious environmental damage and provide a source of water for beneficial use. Reverse osmosis (RO can be the most common membrane process used for desalination from oily wastewater and can produce water suitable for reuse at the petroleum industry. In this study, the application of RO technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment in different laboratory, pilot, field, and industrial scales have been reviewed. In addition, membrane fouling control, performance efficiency, treatment system configurations, pretreatment methods, quality of treated water, and economic issues have been investigated. With mixtures as complex as petroleum industry wastewaters, membrane fouling becomes a significant hurdle to implement the RO-based purification system. Operating the system within the critical flux range or adding chemicals, and/or pretreatment can usually control membrane fouling. Salt rejection of RO membranes can be 99% or higher.

  20. 不同油脂熬制的火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化%Quality changes of oils in different kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 卢靖; 车振明

    2014-01-01

    Four kinds of hot pot soup stocks were made by mixed oils of palm olein and rapeseed oil(vol-ume ratio of palm olein of 5 degrees to palm olein of 8 degrees to rapeseed oil 3: 2: 3), mixed oils of palm stearin and butter(volume ratio of palm stearin to butter 1: 2), rapeseed oil and butter respectively, and the quality changes of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling were studied. The results showed that peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks increased during boiling, and the quality of base oil of hot pot soup stock affected the quality of oil in hot pot soup stock directly during boiling;with the boiling time prolonging, the contents of unsat-urated fatty acids of the oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks all decreased;the relative contents of trans fatty acids of oil in hot pot soup stocks made by rapeseed oil and mixed oils of palm olein and rape-seed oil increased significantly after boiling for 16 h.%对棕榈液油菜籽油复合油脂(5度棕榈液油、8度棕榈液油、菜籽油体积比3:2:3)、棕榈硬脂牛油复合油脂(棕榈硬脂与牛油体积比1:2)、菜籽油以及牛油熬制的火锅底料在熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化进行研究。结果表明:4种火锅底料在熬煮过程中油脂过氧化值、酸值和丙二醛含量均出现增长的趋势,火锅底料基础油脂质量直接影响火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量;随着熬煮时间的延长,4种火锅底料中油脂不饱和脂肪酸含量均降低,棕榈液油菜籽油复合火锅底料、菜籽油火锅底料经熬煮16 h 后,其油脂中反式脂肪酸含量明显升高。

  1. Dispersion and nonlinear effects in OFDM-RoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasson, Bader H.; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    The radio-over-fiber (RoF) network has been a proven technology to be the best candidate for the wireless-access technology, and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been established as the core technology in the physical layer of next generation wireless communication system, as a result OFDM-RoF has drawn attentions worldwide and raised many new research topics recently. At the present time, the trend of information industry is towards mobile, wireless, digital and broadband. The next generation network (NGN) has motivated researchers to study higher-speed wider-band multimedia communication to transmit (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) at a higher speed. The NGN would offer services that would necessitate broadband networks with bandwidth higher than 2Mbit/s per radio channel. Many new services emerged, such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), High Definition TV (HDTV), mobile multimedia and video stream media. Both speed and capacity have been the key objectives in transmission. In the meantime, the demand for transmission bandwidth increased at a very quick pace. The coming of 4G and 5G era will provide faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth. Taking advantages of both optical communication and wireless communication, OFDM Radio over Fiber (OFDM-RoF) system is characterized by its high speed, large capacity and high spectral efficiency. However, up to the present there are some problems to be solved, such as dispersion and nonlinearity effects. In this paper we will study the dispersion and nonlinearity effects and their elimination in OFDM-radio-over-fiber system.

  2. The driving mechanism of roAp stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupret, M-A [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, CNRS UMR 8109, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Theado, S; Noels, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et Geophysique, Universite de Liege (Belgium)], E-mail: MA.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    We analyse in detail the driving mechanism of roAp stars and present the theoretical instability strip predicted by our models with solar metallicity. A particular attention is given to the interpretation of the role played by the different eigenfunctions in the stabilization of the modes at the red edge of the instability strip. The gradient of temperature in the H{sub I} opacity bump appears to play a major role in this context. We also consider the particular and complex role played by the shape of the eigenfunctions (location of the nodes, ...)

  3. Optimization of AMI-MDM-RoFSO under atmospheric turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Sushank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio over Free Space (Ro-FSO is promising candidate for providing ubiquitous digital services especially in rural areas. This work investigates the performance of MDM of two 5Gbps-10GHz data channels over FSO link using LP 01 and LP 02 modes under the effect of atmospheric turbulences. The signal to noise ratio (SNR, total received power, modal decomposition at receiver at the receiver is also reported. The reported result shows the successful transmission of two channels with acceptable SNR over FSO link under atmospheric turbulences.

  4. The driving mechanism of roAp stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupret, M-A; Theado, S; Noels, A

    2008-01-01

    We analyse in detail the driving mechanism of roAp stars and present the theoretical instability strip predicted by our models with solar metallicity. A particular attention is given to the interpretation of the role played by the different eigenfunctions in the stabilization of the modes at the red edge of the instability strip. The gradient of temperature in the H I opacity bump appears to play a major role in this context. We also consider the particular and complex role played by the shape of the eigenfunctions (location of the nodes, ...).

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on rapeseed meal with special reference to the quantitative changes in oxazolidinethione and other constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Tetsuro

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to confirm whether the irradiation treatment of rapeseed meal with gamma rays was effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of meal, and to obtain the information on the reasonable dose level to reduce the above effect. The rapeseed meals from two ordinary and one non-commercial low glucosinolate (Brassica napus L. cv. Bronowski) seeds were exposed to gamma rays of 5, 10, 50 and 100 Mrad respectively. And the changes in oxazolidinethone (OZT) content of these meals by the irradiation were investigated compared with those by the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition. The influences of irradiation treatment on the content of the several constituents of meal were also examined. Furthermore, with chicks, the influences of irradiation treatment on the palatability of meal and on the apparent digestibility of its crude protein or crude fiber were investigated. When two ordinary meals were irradiated at the level of 50 Mrad or above, their OZT content reduced to the level of that in a low glucosinolate meal (Bronowski meal) and such irradiation dosages also resulted in a loss of the available lysine (AL) of meals. The extent of the above changes in the contents of OZT and AL was similar to that in rapeseed meal which was autoclaved under the reasonable condition. Treatment at irradiation dosage of either 50 or 100 Mrad resulted in lower crude fiber and higher reducing sugar content than those of non-irradiated meal respectively. Tests with chicks revealed that an irradiation treatment tended to improve the palatability and the crude fiber digestibility of meal but had no appreciable effect on the digestibility of its crude protein. In summary, these findings indicate that the gamma irradiation at dosage of 50 Mrad or above as well as the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition is effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of rapeseed meal. (auth.)

  6. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  7. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Raman, Harsh; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jing; Dai, Shutao; Xiao, Qinqin; Li, Cong; Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Bin; Meng, Jinling

    2012-12-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type) and Ningyou7 (semi-winter) and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50). This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral 'A' genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Our findings strongly suggest that (i) BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10-4, the QTL for phenotypic diversity of flowering time in

  8. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  9. Preclinical Evaluation of 18F-RO6958948, 11C-RO6931643, and 11C-RO6924963 as Novel PET Radiotracers for Imaging Tau Aggregates in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honer, Michael; Gobbi, Luca; Knust, Henner; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Muri, Dieter; Koerner, Matthias; Valentine, Heather; Dannals, Robert F; Wong, Dean F; Borroni, Edilio

    2018-04-01

    Tau aggregates and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are key histopathologic features in Alzheimer disease (AD) and are considered targets for therapeutic intervention as well as biomarkers for diagnostic in vivo imaging agents. This article describes the preclinical in vitro and in vivo characterization of 3 novel compounds-RO6958948, RO6931643, and RO6924963-that bind specifically to tau aggregates and have the potential to become PET tracers for future human use. Methods: RO6958948, RO6931643, and RO6924963 were identified as high-affinity competitors at the 3 H-T808 binding site on native tau aggregates in human late-stage AD brain tissue. Binding of tritiated compounds to brain tissue sections of AD patients and healthy controls was analyzed by macro- and microautoradiography and by costaining of tau aggregates and Aβ plaques on the same tissue section using specific antibodies. All 3 tracer candidates were radiolabeled with a PET nuclide and tested in vivo in tau-naïve baboons to assess brain uptake, distribution, clearance, and metabolism. Results: 3 H-RO6958948, 3 H-RO6931643, and 3 H-RO6924963 bound with high affinity and specificity to tau aggregates, clearly lacking affinity for concomitant Aβ plaques in human AD Braak V tissue sections. The specificity of all 3 radioligands for tau aggregates was supported, first, by binding patterns in AD sections comparable to the tau-specific radioligand 3 H-T808; second, by very low nonspecific binding in brain tissue devoid of tau pathology, excluding significant radioligand binding to any other central nervous system target; and third, by macroscopic and microscopic colocalization and quantitative correlation of radioligand binding and tau antibody staining on the same tissue section. RO6958948, RO6931643, and RO6924963 were successfully radiolabeled with a PET nuclide at high specific activity, radiochemical purity, and yield. After intravenous administration of 18 F-RO6958948, 11 C-RO6931643, and 11 C-RO6924963 to

  10. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  11. Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production - A review of current work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. Currently, biodiesel is mainly prepared from conventionally grown edible oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm thus leading to alleviate food versus fuel issue. About 7% of global vegetable oil supplies were used for biodiesel production in 2007. Extensive use of edible oils may cause other significant problems such as starvation in developing countries. The use of non-edible plant oils when compared with edible oils is very significant in developing countries because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food, and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present. The production of biodiesel from different non-edible oilseed crops has been extensively investigated over the last few years. (author)

  12. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmino, I.; Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 70 0 C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease. [it

  13. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of aniline in foods oils associated with the Spanish toxic oil syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.H. Jr.; Todd, G.D.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Cline, R.E.; McCraw, J.; Orti, D.L.; Bailey, S.L.; Needham, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981, a new disease, known today as the toxic oil syndrome (TOS), descended upon the people of Spin. A strong association between TOS and contaminated food oil was established early. Subsequent investigations implicated food oils containing rapeseed oil denatured with aniline. However, little aniline was found in the oils; some other etiologic agent in the oil had apparently produced the illness. Many researchers have investigated these oils, but the specific etiologic agent has not been identified. Significant progress in this research has been hampered by the difficulty in identifying the specific oil samples that produced illness in specific TOS cases. In 1984, the Spanish Government invited the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to participate in its research efforts to study the TOS problem. One of the authors was detailed to Spain to assist in the study of the illness. Part of their work in this area has been an attempt in their laboratories to classify a group of blind-coded case and control oils according to selected chemical measurements. They report here a newly developed method for determining aniline in these oils and the results of these analyses

  14. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    : Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P

  15. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Shi

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM contained more crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA (except His than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05 by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many

  16. Life cycle inventory analysis of hydrogen production by the steam-reforming process: comparison between vegetable oils and fossil fuels as feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquevich, M.; Sonnemann, G.W.; Castells, F.; Montane, D.

    2002-01-01

    A life cycle inventory analysis has been conducted to assess the environmental load, specifically CO 2 (fossil) emissions and global warming potential (GWP), associated to the production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks (methane and naphtha) and vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil). Results show that the GWPs associated with the production of hydrogen by steam reforming in a 100 years time frame are 9.71 and 9.46 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. For vegetable oils, the GWP decreases to 6.42 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for rapeseed oil, 4.32 for palm oil and 3.30 for soybean oil. A dominance analysis determined that the part of the process that has the largest effect on the GWP is the steam reforming reaction itself for the fossil fuel-based systems, which accounts for 56.7% and 74% of the total GWP for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. This contribution is zero for vegetable oil-based systems, for which harvesting and oil production are the main sources of CO 2 -eq emissions.(author)

  17. Authentication of vegetable oils on the basis of their physico-chemical properties with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ni, Yongnian; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2006-09-15

    In food production, reliable analytical methods for confirmation of purity or degree of spoilage are required by growers, food quality assessors, processors, and consumers. Seven parameters of physico-chemical properties, such as acid number, colority, density, refractive index, moisture and volatility, saponification value and peroxide value, were measured for quality and adulterated soybean, as well as quality and rancid rapeseed oils. Chemometrics methods were then applied for qualitative and quantitative discrimination and prediction of the oils by methods such exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), radial basis function-artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN), and multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA. In general, the soybean and rapeseed oils were discriminated by PCA, and the two spoilt oils behaved differently with the rancid rapeseed samples exhibiting more object scatter on the PC-scores plot, than the adulterated soybean oil. For the PLS and RBF-ANN prediction methods, suitable training models were devised, which were able to predict satisfactorily the category of the four different oil samples in the verification set. Rank ordering with the use of MCDM models indicated that the oil types can be discriminated on the PROMETHEE II scale. For the first time, it was demonstrated how ranking of oil objects with the use of PROMETHEE and GAIA could be utilized as a versatile indicator of quality performance of products on the basis of a standard selected by the stakeholder. In principle, this approach provides a very flexible method for assessment of product quality directly from the measured data.

  18. The reversible N-oxidation of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizer Ro 03-8799

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.I.; Bleehen, N.M.; Workman, P.; Cambridge Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The nitroimidazole radiosensitizer Ro 03-8799 and the N-oxide Ro 31-0313 were dissolved in buffered solution and given i.v. to inbred male mice. Drug concentrations in whole blood, blood plasma and urine were determined by MPLC. Ro 03 8799 is rapidly cleared and extensively metabolised. Ro 31-0313 is reduced back to Ro 03-8799 by whole blood. The pharmacological and toxicological consequences of this are unknown. (UK)

  19. TU-CD-BRD-00: Incident Learning / RO-ILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  20. TU-CD-BRD-00: Incident Learning / RO-ILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  1. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199 ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  2. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in

  3. Experimental Investigations of Extracted Rapeseed Combustion Emissions in a Small Scale Stationary Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Steinbrecht

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW (Kilowatt SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880° C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, Corg were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc., which have similar chemical compositions to ER.

  4. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  5. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  6. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  7. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Deposition and Elimination of Glucosinolate Metabolites Derived from Rapeseed Meal in Eggs of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L P; Wang, J P; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2018-02-14

    This study was to investigate the deposition and elimination of glucosinolate metabolites including 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) and thiocyanate ion (SCN - ) derived from rapeseed meal (RSM) in hen eggs. During 12 weeks accumulation phase, the serum triiodothyronine, thyronine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney index, and thyroid index linearly increased with the RSM at week 12 (P eggs (Y, ng/g) was correlated with 5-VOT intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and 5-VOT feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 54.94X 1 + 0.51X 2 - 430.34 (P eggs (Y, mg/kg) was correlated with RSM intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and RSM feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 0.095X 1 + 0.302X 2 - 0.4211 (P eggs. Taken together, 5.88% RSM with dietary supplements of 23.55 mg/kg 5-VOT and 10.76 mg/kg SCN - had no effects on hens with regard to serum parameters, organ index, and thyroid histopathology, and more than 4 weeks withdrawal should be considered for human and hen health.

  9. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  10. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (edible oil). PMID:26483890

  11. Socio-economic well-to-wheel analysis of biofuels. Scenarios for rapeseed diesel (RME) and 1. and 2. generation bioethanol; Samfundsoekonomisk well-to-wheel-analyse af biobraendstoffer. Scenarieberegninger for rapsdiesel (RME) og 1.- og 2.-generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slentoe, E.; Moeller, F.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2010-10-15

    The report examines in an integrated form, the energy, emissions and welfare economic implications of introducing Danish produced biodiesel, i.e. rapeseed diesel (RME) and the first and second generation wheat ethanol in two scenarios with low and high rate of blending with fossil fuel based automotive fuels. Within this project's, analytical framework and assumptions the welfare economic analysis shows, that it would be beneficial for society to realize the biofuel scenarios to some extent by oil prices above $ 100 a barrel, while it will cause losses by oil prices at $ 65. In all cases, the fossil fuel consumption and the emissions CO2eq emissions are reduced, the effect of which is priced and included in the welfare economic analysis. The implementation of biofuels in Denmark will be dependent on market price. As it stands now, it is not favorable in terms of biofuels. The RME is currently produced in Denmark is exported to other European countries where there are state subsidies. Subsidies would also be a significant factor in Denmark to achieve objectives for biofuel blending. (ln)

  12. Pyrolitics Oils in Coal Flotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáblík, V.; Išek, J.; Herková, M.; Halas, J.; Čáblíková, L.; Vaculíková, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 1640-4920 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pyrolytic oils * flotation, black coal * new flotation reagents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://homen.vsb.cz/hgf/546/IM_2014_02.pdf

  13. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  14. Properties of soap prepared from waste edible oil. Haishokuyu kara sakuseishita sekken no seijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajinoto, G.; Yamaguchi, H. (Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Nutrition)

    1992-08-30

    Discussions were given on properties of soap prepared from waste edible oil. A fresh oil, and soybean and rapeseed oils with different thermal oxidation degrees were used to prepare soap. On the other hand soap was made using wast edible oil after used at home. Soap made from fresh oil and thermally oxidized oil under a 3-hour heating at 90[degree]C has less non-saponified fat. Soap made from a large amount of waste edible oil. taking 34 days had much residual fat, proving these were insufficiently saponified. Slightly higher values were recognized in the soap from fresh oil for anisidine value (An.V), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (POV) and the content of oxidized fatty acids than in fresh oil itself. On the other hand, the An.V and CV in the soap made from thermally oxidized oil were lower than those for thermally oxidized oil itself. The An. V and CV in the soap made from waste edible oil were higher than those in waste edible oil itself. As the soap has been stored, all of the soap showed increase in the An.V, the CV, the POV and the oxidized fatty acid amount, but the fatty acid composition showed no change. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Determination of SFC, FFA, and equivalent reaction time for enzymatically interestified oils using NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Lars P.; Kristensen, Dorthe; Rosager, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of the degree of interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and rapeseed oil obtained using an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase at 70 ◦C was investigated. Interesterification was carried out by applying...... that NIRS could be used to replace the traditional methods for determining FFA and SFC in vegetable oils.It was possible to monitor the activity of the immobilized enzyme for interesterification of margarine oils by predicting the equivalent reaction time in a batch reactor from NIR spectra. Root mean...... square errors of prediction for two different oil blends interesterified for 300 and 170 min were 21 and 12 min, respectively....

  16. High-throughput authentication of edible oils with benchtop Ultrafast 2D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilleux, B; Marchand, J; Charrier, B; Remaud, G S; Giraudeau, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the use of an Ultrafast 2D NMR approach applied on a benchtop NMR system (43 MHz) for the authentication of edible oils. Our results demonstrate that a profiling strategy based on fast 2D NMR spectra recorded in 2.4 min is more efficient than the standard 1D experiments to classify oils from different botanical origins, since 1D spectra on the same samples suffer from strong peak overlaps. Six edible oils with different botanical origins (olive, hazelnut, sesame, rapeseed, corn and sunflower) have been clearly discriminated by PCA analysis. Furthermore, we show how this approach combined with a PLS model can detect adulteration processes such as the addition of hazelnut oil into olive oil, a common fraud in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  18. Extreme thermophilic ethanol production from rapeseed straw: using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and combining it with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a two-step process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karagöz, Pınar; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2013-01-01

    from the liquid fraction of pretreated rapeseed straw, without any dilution or need for additives. However, when the hydrolysate was used undiluted the ethanol yield was only 37% compared to yield of the control, in which pure sugars in synthetic medium were used. The decrease of ethanol yield...... showed that the two strains together could achieve up to 85% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw, which was 14% and 50% higher compared to the yield with the yeast or the bacteria alone, respectively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......The newly isolated extreme thermophile Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus was used for ethanol production from alkaline-peroxide pretreated rapeseed straw (PRS). Both the liquid and solid fractions of PRS were used. T. pentosaceus was able to metabolize the typical process inhibitors present...

  19. Region-specific greenhouse gas balances for rapeseed cultivation in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Regionalspezifische Treibhausgasbilanzen fuer den Rapsanbau in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirauch, Mareike [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    2014-08-01

    The renewable energy directive (RED, 2009128/EG) announced guidelines to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the use of biofuels in comparison to the fossil fuels since 2009. The EU-RED contains maximum permissible values for the several production pathways of biofuels. On the basis of operating agriculture data (crop years 2011, 2012 and 2013) the current practical values of GHG emissions during the cultivation of rapeseed in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania have been analyzed in a present research project of the State Research Institute of Agriculture and Fishery Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The results of the status quo analysis of the GHG emissions during rapeseed cultivation are compared with the EU-RED standard value for biodiesel (made of rapeseed) and optimization options for GHG reduction are discussed, which will make it possible to require the EU-RED 50% GHG reduction value in 2017.

  20. Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fricke, Christiane B.; Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    . Cholesterol synthesis in brain, indicated by lathosterol, a local surrogate cholesterol synthesis marker, does not seem to be affected by plant sterol or stanol ester feeding. We conclude that high dose intake of plant sterol and stanol esters in Watanabe rabbits results in elevated concentrations...... of these components not only in the periphery but also in the central nervous system....... of these components in brain tissue of homozygous and heterozygous Watanabe rabbits, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. Homozygous animals received either a standard diet, RSO stanol or RSO sterol ester while heterozygous animals were additionally fed with 2 g cholesterol/kg to the respective diet...

  1. Supercritical fluid techniques as methods of analyses for individual triacylglycerols and other lipids important for the quality of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Buskov, S.; Møller, P.

    Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components......Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components...

  2. Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Sulphate Fertilizers and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Biofertilizer on Yield and Growth Traits of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of nitrogen (N and ZnSO4 fertilizers and biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum on grain yield and growth traits of rapeseed, Hyola308 cultivar, a field experiment, with split plot factorial layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, during 2007-2008 growing season. Nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were the main plot and ZnSO4 fertilizer at two levels (0 and 50 kg/ha and biofertilizer at two levels (with and without biofertilizer were arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that maximum and minimum leaf area indices at flowering stage (average of 1.29 and 0.95, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and in 50 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum crop growth rates at flowering stage (average of 5.89 and 3.19 g/m2.GDD, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control treatments. Maximum and minimum grain yields (2568, 2468 and 543 kg/ha, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ with/without ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control (no fertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum oil yields (42.8 and 37.3%, respectively were measured in 0 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and 150 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Since there was no significant difference between 150 and 100 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer treatments in terms of impact on canola grain yield and growth traits, it seems that application of biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, without any reduction in yield, increased grain production and oil content and saved 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer. Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, along with zinc and sulfur, produced phytohormones, and N fertilizer increased dry matter accumulation and leaf area index (by increasing carbohydrate conversion

  3. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum...... with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots...... degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation...

  4. Use of MSAP markers to analyse the effects of salt stress on DNA methylation in rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Marconi

    Full Text Available Excessive soil salinity is a major ecological and agronomical problem, the adverse effects of which are becoming a serious issue in regions where saline water is used for irrigation. Plants can employ regulatory strategies, such as DNA methylation, to enable relatively rapid adaptation to new conditions. In this regard, cytosine methylation might play an integral role in the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Rapeseed, which is the most important oilseed crop in Europe, is classified as being tolerant of salinity, although cultivars can vary substantially in their levels of tolerance. In this study, the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP approach was used to assess the extent of cytosine methylation under salinity stress in salinity-tolerant (Exagone and salinity-sensitive (Toccata rapeseed cultivars. Our data show that salinity affected the level of DNA methylation. In particular methylation decreased in Exagone and increased in Toccata. Nineteen DNA fragments showing polymorphisms related to differences in methylation were sequenced. In particular, two of these were highly similar to genes involved in stress responses (Lacerata and trehalose-6-phosphatase synthase S4 and were chosen to further characterization. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of selected MSAP loci showed that cytosine methylation changes under salinity as well as gene expression varied. In particular, our data show that salinity stress influences the expression of the two stress-related genes. Moreover, we quantified the level of trehalose in Exagone shoots and found that it was correlated to TPS4 expression and, therefore, to DNA methylation. In conclusion, we found that salinity could induce genome-wide changes in DNA methylation status, and that these changes, when averaged across different genotypes and developmental stages, accounted for 16.8% of the total site

  5. Genetic and Cytological Analyses of the Natural Variation of Seed Number per Pod in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed number is one of the key traits related to plant evolution/domestication and crop improvement/breeding. In rapeseed germplasm, the seed number per pod (SNPP shows a very wide variation from several to nearly 30; however, the underlying causations/mechanisms for this variation are poorly known. In the current study, the genetic and cytological bases for the natural variation of SNPP in rapeseed was firstly and systematically investigated using the representative four high-SNPP and five low-SNPP lines. The results of self- or cross-pollination experiment between the high- and low-SNPP lines showed that the natural variation of SNPP was mainly controlled by maternal effect (mean = 0.79, followed by paternal effect (mean = 0.21. Analysis of the data using diploid seed embryo–cytoplasmic–maternal model further showed that the maternal genotype, embryo, and cytoplasm effects, respectively, explained 47.6, 35.2, and 7.5% of the genetic variance. In addition, the analysis of combining ability showed that for the SNPP of hybrid F1 was mainly determined by the general combining ability of parents (63.0%, followed by special combining ability of parental combination (37.0%. More importantly, the cytological observation showed that the SNPP difference between the high- and low-SNPP lines was attributable to the accumulative differences in its components. Of which, the number of ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules, the proportion of fertile ovules to be fertilized, and the proportion of fertilized ovules to develop into seeds accounted for 30.7, 18.2, 7.1, and 43.9%, respectively. The accordant results of both genetic and cytological analyses provide solid evidences and systematic insights to further understand the mechanisms underlying the natural variation of SNPP, which will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars in rapeseed.

  6. Problems in Ceuthorrhynchus spp. Control on Rapeseed in the Region of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A global trend of intensive rapeseed production as a sustainable source of energy has also been accepted in our region, but intensified production results have increased pest populations in that crop. Central European countries with a long tradition of rapeseed production have ample data on pest biology, control and effects of insecticide applications, but such data are almost nonexistant under our regional conditions. In the light of this fact,the objective of our study was to determine the optimal time for insecticide applications for controlling pest species of the genus Ceuthorrynchus.Trials were set up using standard OEPP methods with certain adaptations concerning the pest species. The insecticides based on chlorpyrifos + bifenthrin, applied at the rates of 0.5 l/ha and 0.75 l/ha, and deltamethrin at 0.3 l/ha, were applied a once – at maximumabundance of adults, and b twice – first at maximum abundance, and then eight days later. The trials were set up at two localities – Kać and Kovilj. Insecticide effects were evaluated based on the number of adults per 20 plants, the number of damaged plants and thenumber of larvae per plant. After single application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos + bifenthrin (0.5 and 0.75 l/ha and deltamethrin (0.3 l/ha in the locality of Kać, the percentage of infested plants was 1.25%, 36% and 75% (respectively, and 95% in untreated plots; while 75% and 22.5% of the plants were infested in the locality of Kovilj after chlorpyrifos + bifenthrin application, 95% after deltamethrin application, and 97.5% in untreated plots. Insecticide effect estimated by the number of larvae/plant was 0 and 0.4 for chlorpyrifos + bifenthrin, 1.4 for deltamethrin and 3.3 for untreated surface in the locality of Kać; while in the locality of Kovilj the effect of chlorpyrifos + bifenthrin was 1.4 and 0.1, deltamethrin 3.9, and 5.2 larvae/plant in untreated plots. After two insecticide applications in Kać, the percentage of

  7. ÜRO rahuvalvemissiooni juhtinud brasiillane leiti Haiti hotellist surnult / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Haiti rahuvalvemissiooni juht Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar sooritas enesetapu. ÜRO rahuvalvemissioon MINUSTAH on Haitil 2005. aastast pärast nelja-aastast eemalolekut, samas jätkub seal vägivald

  8. Overexpression of CHMP7 from rapeseed and Arabidopsis causes dwarfism and premature senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Liu, Jing; Lin, Jiulu; Deng, Linbin; Fan, Shihang; Guo, Yan; Sun, Fengming; Hua, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are well known in mammalians and yeast and plays an essential role in the formation of multi-vesicular bodies. Accumulating evidence has shown that ESCRT proteins contribute to proper plant development. CHMP7 (charged multi-vesicular body protein 7) is an ESCRT-III-related protein and functions in the endosomal sorting pathway in humans. However, its function in plants has not been explored in detail. In this study, we isolate the putative homolog of CHMP7 from rapeseed, BnCHMP7, which contains eight exons and encodes a protein consisting of 423 amino acid residues. Compared with the wild-type, overexpression of BnCHMP7 in Arabidopsis disturbs plant growth and decreases seed yield. Moreover, the transgenic plants also display early leaf senescence and hypersensitivity to dark treatment due to defects in autophagic degradation. Further study showed that BnCHMP7 is highly expressed in leaves and that YFP-BnCHMP7 is predominantly localized in endosome. Compared with human CHMP7, we found that BnCHMP7 not only interacts with ESCRT-III subunits SNF7.2 (CHMP4B), but also with VPS2.2 and CHMP1B. As expected, microarray analysis revealed that the expression of ESCRT transport genes is significantly affected. Additionally, the expression of some genes that are involved in senescence, protein synthesis and protein degradation is also altered in BnCHMP7-overexpressing plants. Taken together, BnCHMP7 encodes an endosome-localized protein, which causes dwarfism and leaf senescence as an ESCRT-III-related component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles from Chitosan and Acylated Rapeseed Cruciferin Protein for Curcumin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhang; Yang, Yijie; Ju, Xingrong; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; He, Rong

    2018-03-21

    Curcumin is a polyphenol that exhibits several biological activities, but its low aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. To improve curcumin bioavailability, this study has focused on developing a polyelectrolyte complexation method to form layer-by-layer assembled nanoparticles, for curcumin delivery, with positively charged chitosan (CS) and negatively charged acylated cruciferin (ACRU), a rapeseed globulin. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from ACRU and CS (2:1) at pH 5.7. Three samples with weight of 5%, 10%, and 15% of curcumin, respectively, in ACRU/CS carrier were prepared. To verify the stability of the NPs, encapsulation efficiency and size of the 5% Cur-ACRU/CS NPs were determined at intervals of 5 days in a one month period. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond formation between the carrier and core. The result showed that hollow ACRU/CS nanocapsules (ACRU/CS NPs) and curcumin-loaded ACRU/CS nanoparticles (Cur-ACRU/CS NPs) were homogenized spherical with average sizes of 200-450 nm and zeta potential of +15 mV. Encapsulation and loading efficiencies were 72% and 5.4%, respectively. In vitro release study using simulated gastro (SGF) and intestinal fluids (SIF) showed controlled release of curcumin in 6 h of exposure. Additionally, the Cur-ACRU/CS NPs are nontoxic to cultured Caco-2 cells, and the permeability assay indicated that Cur-ACRU/CS NPs had improved permeability efficiency of free curcumin through the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The findings suggest that ACRU/CS NPs can be used for encapsulation and delivery of curcumin in functional foods.

  10. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  11. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  12. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  13. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  14. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  15. ÜRO asesekretäri kriitika USA suunal ajas viimase marru / Liise Lehtsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtsalu, Liise

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO asesekretär Malloch Brown kritiseeris oma kõnes USA tahtmatust teavitada ameeriklasi ÜRO osast USA välispoliitikas. USA ÜRO-suursaadiku John Boltoni reageering Browni märkustele. Lisa: Rikaste ja vaeste riikide vastuolud

  16. Sõjaraport õõnestab ÜRO usaldusväärsust / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    ÜRO Gaza sõda puudutavas raportis kritiseeritakse nii Iisraeli kui ka Palestiina islamistlikku äärmusrühmitust Hamas. ÜRO inimõiguste uurija Richard Goldstone leiab, et raport on siiski puudulik, kuna praegu omab ÜRO juba rohkem infot Gaza sõja kohta

  17. Haitilased süüdistavad kooleras ÜRO rahuvalvajaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Paljud kohalikud elanikud on veendunud, et Haiti kooleraepideemia vallandamises on süüdi ÜRO stabilisatsioonimission MINUSTAH. Riigis on puhkenud ÜRO-vastased rahutused. ÜRO arvates on protestilaine algatatud presidendivalimisi nurjata soovivate poliitiliste liikumiste poolt

  18. Vernalization and photoperiod-related changes in the DNA methylation state in winter and spring rapeseed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzy-Wrobelska, J.; Filek, M.; Kaliciak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan; Barciszewska, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 817-827 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassica napus * DNA methylation * MSAP Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2013

  19. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting of Crude Palm Oil Price Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchymalay, Kasturi; Salim, N.; Sukprasert, Anupong; Krishnan, Ramesh; Raba'ah Hashim, Ummi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between crude palm oil (CPO) price, selected vegetable oil prices (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. Comparative analysis was then performed on CPO price forecasting results using the machine learning techniques. Monthly CPO prices, selected vegetable oil prices, crude oil prices and monthly exchange rate data from January 1987 to February 2017 were utilized. Preliminary analysis showed a positive and high correlation between the CPO price and soy bean oil price and also between CPO price and crude oil price. Experiments were conducted using multi-layer perception, support vector regression and Holt Winter exponential smoothing techniques. The results were assessed by using criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), means absolute error (MAE), means absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Direction of accuracy (DA). Among these three techniques, support vector regression(SVR) with Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm showed relatively better results compared to multi-layer perceptron and Holt Winters exponential smoothing method.

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  2. Detection of small-size planetary candidates with CoRoT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutou C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting super-Earth, the CoRoT space mission has shown the capability to detect short-period rocky planets around solar-like stars. By performing a blind test with real CoRoT light curves, we want to establish the detection threshold of small-size planets in CoRoT data. We investigate the main obstacles to the detection of transiting super-Earths in CoRoT data, notably the presence of short-time scale variability and hot pixels.

  3. RoBlock: a prototype autonomous manufacturing cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekdal, Lars K.; Balslev, Ivar; Eriksen, Rene D.; Jensen, Soren P.; Jorgensen, Bo N.; Kirstein, Brian; Kristensen, Bent B.; Olsen, Martin M.; Perram, John W.; Petersen, Henrik G.; Petersen, Morten L.; Ruhoff, Peter T.; Skjolstrup, Carl E.; Sorensen, Anders S.; Wagenaar, Jeroen M.

    2000-10-01

    RoBlock is the first phase of an internally financed project at the Institute aimed at building a system in which two industrial robots suspended from a gantry, as shown below, cooperate to perform a task specified by an external user, in this case, assembling an unstructured collection of colored wooden blocks into a specified 3D pattern. The blocks are identified and localized using computer vision and grasped with a suction cup mechanism. Future phases of the project will involve other processes such as grasping and lifting, as well as other types of robot such as autonomous vehicles or variable geometry trusses. Innovative features of the control software system include: The use of an advanced trajectory planning system which ensures collision avoidance based on a generalization of the method of artificial potential fields, the use of a generic model-based controller which learns the values of parameters, including static and kinetic friction, of a detailed mechanical model of itself by comparing actual with planned movements, the use of fast, flexible, and robust pattern recognition and 3D-interpretation strategies, integration of trajectory planning and control with the sensor systems in a distributed Java application running on a network of PC's attached to the individual physical components. In designing this first stage, the aim was to build in the minimum complexity necessary to make the system non-trivially autonomous and to minimize the technological risks. The aims of this project, which is planned to be operational during 2000, are as follows: To provide a platform for carrying out experimental research in multi-agent systems and autonomous manufacturing systems, to test the interdisciplinary cooperation architecture of the Maersk Institute, in which researchers in the fields of applied mathematics (modeling the physical world), software engineering (modeling the system) and sensor/actuator technology (relating the virtual and real worlds) could

  4. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of function-enriched edible oils: Preventive effect of lipid peroxidation; (a Heat exposure: Commercial rape-seed oil and extra virgin oil were used as controls. For preparation of the test samples (function fortified oils of tomato-juice waste-residue and grape wine- ferment waste-residues, it is described in above section (1. All oil preparations were exposed to high temperature at 150oC and peroxide value (POV, acid value and TBARS were measured at various times as described. The methods of measurements of POV, acid value and TBARS were adapted conventional standard method described elsewhere. (b Light exposure: Similar to (a they were exposed to excessive light using Nippon Ikaga Kikai (Tokyo, LH-200-RDS equipped with fluorescent light tube (x3, NEC FL40S-2XN, 3.2K lux at 390-730nm. Result and Discussions: (1 Extraction of carotenoids etc. Modern edible oil refining processes are highly elaborated and efficient. The most of the commercial edible oils in the market are so purified that many important antioxidant components are mostly removed during refining process. Oils became mostly colorless and odorless; and they lack are devoid of anti-oxidative or radical scavenging components. We measured anti-alkyl peroxy radical (ROO.-scavenging activity, and found that many commercial oils have very little such activity (Figure 1. Many disposal- of tomato juice or extraction waste-residues in wine making, yet contained significant amount of functionally useful components that may be recovered by immersing the dried waste residues in the functionally poor oil, ie., low grade oils. Figure 2A, B shows it was indeed possible to recover such component like lycopene and carotenoids, and the spectrum of this oil exhibits multiple peaks correspond tomato lycopene. (2 Antioxidation activity: (a Acid value after light and heat exposure. Commercial highly purified edible oils are vulnerable for oxidation and resulting in lipid or alkyl hydroperoxides formation (ROOH, which

  5. Steam gasification of rapeseed, wood, sewage sludge and miscanthus biochars for the production of a hydrogen-rich syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Anwar; Leeke, Gary A.; Hornung, Andreas; Wood, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Steam gasification of biochars has emerged as a promising method for generating syngas that is rich in hydrogen. In this study four biochars formed via intermediate pyrolysis (wood pellet, sewage sludge, rapeseed and miscanthus) were gasified in a quartz tubular reactor using steam. The dynamic behaviour of the process and effects of temperature, steam flow and particle size were studied. The results show that increases in both steam flow and temperature significantly increase the dry gas yield and carbon conversion, but hydrogen volume fraction decreases at higher temperatures whilst particle size has little effect on gaseous composition. The highest volume fraction of hydrogen, 58.7%, was obtained at 750 °C from the rapeseed biochar. - Highlights: • Four biochars from intermediate pyrolysis were gasified. • High hydrogen concentration was achieved in all cases. • Peak hydrogen was 165 mg min −1  g −1 biochar at 700–750 °C. • High mineral content biochars had the highest reactivities. • Varying particle size had very little effect on gaseous composition

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  7. Utilisation of rapeseed protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ACE activity is related to increased arterial pressure and coronary diseases. A rapeseed protein isolate was hydrolyzed with the protease Alcalase in order to investigate the possible presence of ACE inhibitory peptides in the resulting hydrolysates. Hydrolysis for 30 min yielded a hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Two fractions of this hydrolysate obtained by Biogel P2 gel filtration chromatography were used for further purification of ACE inhibitory peptides. Three fractions with ACE inhibitory activity were purified by reverse-phase HPLC of Biogel P2 f ractions. This demonstrates that rapeseed protein hydrolysates represent a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides .La actividad de ECA está relacionada con una presión arterial alta y enfermedades cardíacas. Un aislado proteico de colza se hidrolizó con alcalasa para estudiar la posible presencia de péptidos inhibidores de ECA en el hidrolizado. La hidrólisis durante 30 min produjo el hidrolizado con la mayor actividad inhibidora de ECA. Dos fracciones de este hidrolizado, obtenidas por cromatografía de filtración en gel Biogel P2, se usaron para la purificación de péptidos inhibidores de ECA. Tres fracciones con actividad inhibidora de ECA se purificaron mediante HPLC en fase reversa de las fracciones obtenidas mediante Biogel P2. Esto demuestra que los hidrolizados proteicos de colza representan una buena fuente de péptidos inhibidores de ECA.

  8. Consumer perception of eatable oils quality in SR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the perception of the quality of edible oils and preferences of the Slovak consumers for the oil purchase as well as the factors that can affect the purchase of oil, respectively the consumer decision-making. In order to obtain primary data was used the method of questionnaire investigation. In the questionnaire research there were 664 respondents from all over Slovakia involved. The results of marketing research showed the different approaches to assessing the quality by Slovak consumers. Nearly 54% of respondents connect the food quality with health certificate, high-quality ingredients and freshness. Brand quality SK is known by 58% of respondents. The raw material from which is oil produced, oil clarity, thermal stability and color are features that respondents prefer when purchasing the edible oils. To know the content of essential fatty acids was interesting only for 7.44% of the respondents. Slovak consumers prefer sunflower, olive and rapeseed oil.

  9. Human Ro60 (SSA2) genomic organization and sequence alterations, examined in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, T P; Ashton, G H S; Kondeatis, E; Vaughan, R W; Hughes, G R V; Khamashta, M A; Hawk, J L M; McGregor, J M; McGrath, J A

    2002-02-01

    The Ro 60 kDa protein (Ro60 or SSA2) is the major component of the Ro ribonucleoprotein (Ro RNP) complex, to which an immune response is a specific feature of several autoimmune diseases. The genomic organization and any sequence variation within the DNA encoding Ro60 are unknown. To characterize the Ro60 gene structure and to assess whether any sequence alterations might be associated with serum anti-Ro antibody in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE), thus potentially providing new insight into disease pathogenesis. The cDNA sequence for Ro60 was obtained from the NCBI database and used for a BLAST search for a clone containing the entire genomic sequence. The intron-exon borders were confirmed by designing intronic primer pairs to flank each exon, which were then used to amplify genomic DNA for automated sequencing from 36 caucasian patients with SCLE (anti-Ro positive) and 49 with discoid LE (DLE, anti-Ro negative), in addition to 36 healthy caucasian controls. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from patients and controls spanning all Ro60 exons (1-8) revealed a common bandshift in the PCR products spanning exon 7. Sequencing of the corresponding PCR products demonstrated an A > G substitution at nucleotide position 1318-7, within the consensus acceptor splice site of exon 7 (GenBank XM001901). The allele frequencies were major allele A (0.71) and minor allele G (0.29) in 72 control chromosomes, with no significant differences found between SCLE patients, DLE patients and controls. The genomic organization of the DNA encoding the Ro60 protein is described, including a common polymorphism within the consensus acceptor splice site of exon 7. Our delineation of a strategy for the genomic amplification of Ro60 forms a basis for further examination of the pathological functions of the Ro RNP in autoimmune disease.

  10. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  11. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  12. Effect of introducing hemp oil into feed on the nutritional quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourot Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research is being carried out to diversify the sources of n-3 fatty acid-rich lipids for animal feed. In this study, 3 batches of 12 pigs with between 50 and 105 kg of live weight, received isolipidic diets containing either palm oil (PO, or rapeseed oil (CO, or hemp oil (HO (providing respectively 0.6; 1.9 and 3.4 g of C18:3 n-3 (ALA /kg of feed. The quantity of ALA deposited in the meat is higher (p< 0.001 in the HO pigs. Hemp oil may be an interesting source of ALA to improve the nutritional quality of pork.

  13. Inheritance of rapeseed (Brassica napus)-specific RAPD markers and a transgene in the cross B.juncea x (B.juncea x B.napus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, S.; Hansen, K.R.; Jensen, J.

    1995-01-01

    , with B. juncea as the female parent, was successful both in controlled crosses and spontaneously in the field. The controlled backcrossing of selected hybrids to B. juncea, again with B. juncea as the female parent, also resulted in many seeds. The BC1 plants contained from 0 to 20 of the rapeseed RAPD...

  14. Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the

  15. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Ardianto, Bambang; Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo; Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji; Kumagai, Shunichi; Kawano, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ro52 low HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. ► Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-α, etoposide, or IFN-γ and anti-Fas Ab. ► Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. ► Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52’s role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52 low HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H 2 O 2 - or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-α, IFN-γ and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or γ-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  16. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ardianto, Bambang [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55282 (Indonesia); Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kumagai, Shunichi [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Kawano, Seiji, E-mail: sjkawano@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  17. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  18. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  19. The feasibility of nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR)+reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation: Comparison with ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UF-MBR)+RO process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ming Feng; Liu, Chang; Cornelissen, Emile R; Wu, Bing; Chong, Tzyy Haur

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m 2 h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3.3 times) as compared to the UF-MBR. Further analysis indicated that the cake layer fouling that caused the cake-enhanced osmotic pressure (CEOP) effect contributed predominantly to the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase in the NF-MBR, while irreversible pore fouling was the major reason for UF membrane fouling. Furthermore, it was found that the biopolymers (i.e., organics with MW > 10 kDa) were the main components present in the foulants of the NF/UF membranes and RO membranes. The analysis indicated that the NF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 90% has comparable energy consumption as the UF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 75%. Our findings proved the feasibility of the NF-MBR + RO for water reclamation at a high recovery rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

  1. RO-PRO desalination: An integrated low-energy approach to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prante, Jeri L.; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Childress, Amy E.; Achilli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In the novel RO-PRO system, the energy produced by PRO is utilized to offset the energy consumed by the RO. • The specific energy consumption of a RO-PRO system was modeled for the first time. • A novel module-based PRO model for full-scale applications was developed. • The minimum net specific energy consumption of the modeled RO-PRO system was 1.2 kW h/m 3 at 50% RO recovery. • A sensitivity analysis showed a min RO-PRO specific energy consumption of 1.0 kW h/m 3 and a max power density of 10 W/m 2 . - Abstract: Although reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the most energy efficient desalination technology, it still requires a great deal of energy to create the high pressures necessary to desalinate seawater. An opposite process of RO, called pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), utilizes the salinity gradient between a relatively fresh impaired water source and seawater to produce pressure and hence, energy. In this paper, PRO is evaluated in conjunction with RO, in a system called RO-PRO desalination, to reduce the energy requirement of seawater RO desalination. RO-PRO specific energy consumption was modeled using RO conditions at the thermodynamic restriction and a newly developed module-based PRO model. Using a well-characterized cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, the minimum net specific energy consumption of the system was found to be approximately 40% lower than state-of-the-art seawater RO. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of membrane characteristics on the specific energy production of the PRO process in the RO-PRO system. The sensitivity analysis showed that the minimum specific energy consumption using virtual membranes is approximately 1.0 kW h per m 3 of RO permeate at 50% RO recovery and that a maximum power density of approximately 10 W/m 2 could be achieved

  2. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  3. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetable oils in the agriculture. Experience reports; Pflanzenoel als Kraftstoff in der Landwirtschaft. Erfahrungsberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemnitz, Dietmar [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); Paul, Nicole [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); WPR COMMUNICATION GmbH und Co. KG, Koenigswinter/Bonn (Germany); Wichmann, Volker; Schuemann, Ulrike [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Maurer, Karl [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum Straubing (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    In the agriculture, bio fuels increasingly meet with great interest. The use of bio diesel and vegetable oil as alternative fuels in diesel engines requires clear technical adjustments. The brochure under consideration reports on realizations of farmers who switched their tractors to an operation with vegetable oils. The brochure consists of the following contributions: (a) Employment of vegetable oil as fuel in the agriculture (empiric reports of farmers); (b) Re-equipment on operation with vegetable oil (empiric reports of reequipping persons); (c) Scientifically accompanying research of re-equipment (results of a 100-tractor-demonstration project); (d) Mixtures of plant oil and diesel fuel (results from engine test stand investigations); (e) Production of vegetable oil (experiences from an oil mill operator); (f) scientifically accompanying research for the production of vegetable oils (references to the production of rapeseed oil fuel according to the standard DIN 51605); (g) Hints and notes for the practice; (h) Fuel filling stations for self-consumers and storage of vegetable oil; (i) FNR funding programs bio fuels in the agriculture; (j) Adresses and contact persons.

  5. Konstruiranje ročaja hidravličnih klešč

    OpenAIRE

    Žižek, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je opisan potek konstruiranja ročaja hidravličnih klešč za odstranjevanje ločnega podporja v Premogovniku Velenje. Predstavljeni so vsi pomembnejši koraki, in sicer modeliranje klešč, modeliranje ročaja, numerični rezultati, izbira najustreznejše oblike ročaja ter predstavitev rezultatov ustreznega modela. Diplomsko delo zajema tudi izbiro ustreznega materiala, postopek izdelave ter podatke za pravilno varjenje ročaja na ohišje klešč. Numerični preračuni so opravljeni v pro...

  6. Experimental Study of Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using MBR-RO Combined Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hwang, Jiannyang; Leng, Ting; Xue, Gaifeng; Chang, Hongbing

    A membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) combined process was used for advanced treatment of coking wastewater from secondary biological treatment. MBR and RO units' treatment efficiency for the pollution removal were conducted, and effects of raw water conductivity and trans-membrane pressure on water yield and desalination rate in RO unit were investigated in detail. The experimental results proved that MBR-RO combined process ran steadily with good treatment effect, which could obtain stable effluent water quality and met the requirement of "Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment" (GB 50050-2007).

  7. Radiosensitization of mouse spermatogenic stem cells by Ro-07-0582

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, N.; Withers, R.; Hunter, N.

    1977-01-01

    The hypoxic character of the spermatogenic stem cells of the mouse testis was investigated by measuring the effect on radiosensitivity of treatment with the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, Ro-07-0582 or hyperbaric oxygen (30 psi). The D 0 values obtained were 181 (161-207) rad for irradiation alone, 140 (133-148) rad for irradiation after treatment with Ro-07-0582, and about 100 rad for irradiation in the presence of hyperbaric oxygen. Ro-07-0582 alone was slightly cytotoxic. The results demonstrate that mouse spermatogenic stem cells are radiosensitized by Ro-07-0582 or hyperbaric oxygen and are not as well oxygenated as other normal tissues

  8. Cadmium and lead availability for rapeseed grown on an artificial ISO soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryla, A.; Sahut, C.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in soils have become a major concern for food crop production. Of these metals, cadmium and lead are recognized as the most widespread elements, that are non-essential for plant growth. While the toxicity of these metals is often investigated on plants grown in nutrient solution, soil is a complex medium. Metals may be dissolved in the soil solution or chelated to carbonates, to oxides of iron or manganese, or to organic matter. This chemical state of the metal is important because it determines the availability of the metal for the crop. Yet its study is complicated by numerous factors (soil pH, temperature, humidity..) which modify this chemical equilibrium. To standardize the experiments, an artificially reconstituted soil was prepared from clay, sand and peat according to standards ISO 11268-1 (May 1994). Metals (lead and cadmium) were added as nitrate salts. Plants used were rapeseeds. Seeds were sown on 20 cm diameter pots and placed in a controlled growth chamber. At harvest, roots, leaves and stems were separated, dried, and mineralized with concentrated nitric acid. Sequential analysis of the soil was carried out to assess the chemical behavior of the cadmium. The chemical speciation of cadmium is shown. The metal is essentially soluble in the soil and poorly complexed to the organic matter. This indicates that contamination is recent and derives from metal salts; cadmium complexation to organic matter appears only after years of soil evolution. The metal is then essentially available for plants but equilibrium is established between the different forms. Plant growth is shown. Cadmium has a strong effect on biomass production at 50 μg / g in the soil. No toxic effect of lead was observed from 0 to 2000 μg / g in the soil, probably because lead is strongly complexed to the soil and less toxic for plants. Metal concentrations in plants after two months of growth are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Plant cadmium content reached 150

  9. Seed loss and volunteer seedling establishment of rapeseed in the northernmost European conditions: potential for weed infestation and GM risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed soil seed bank development and volunteer plant establishment represent substantial risk for crop infestation and GM contamination. This study was designed to complement such investigations with novel understanding from high latitude conditions. Four experiments were designed to characterise seed loss at harvest, persistence, viability and capacity for volunteer seedling establishment, as well as impact of management measures on soil seed bank dynamics. Oilseed rape was the primary crop investigated due to the availability of GM cultivars and because of the increasing importance. Harvest losses and soil seed bank development were significant. Volunteer seedlings emerged at reasonably high rates, especially in the first autumn after harvest, but about 10% of buried seeds maintained their viability for at least three years. Soil incorporation methods had no major effect on numbers of volunteer seedlings, but herbicide treatments controlled volunteer seedlings efficiently, though not completely, due to irregular timing of seedling emergence.

  10. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  11. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Yao, Licheng; Xia, Tingting; Liao, Xuebin; Zhu, Deyu; Xiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    The human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (hKMO) is a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and neurologic disorders. Inhibition of KMO by Ro 61-8048, a potent, selective, and the most widely used inhibitor of KMO, was shown effective in various models of neurodegenerative or neurologic disorders. However, the molecular basis of hKMO inhibition by Ro 61-8048 is not clearly understood. Here, we report biochemistry studies on hKMO and crystal structures of an hKMO homolog, pfKMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens, in complex with the substrate l-kynurenine and Ro 61-8048. We found that the C-terminal ∼110 aa are essential for the enzymatic activity of hKMO and the homologous C-terminal region of pfKMO folds into a distinct, all-α-helical domain, which associates with the N-terminal catalytic domain to form a unique tunnel in proximity to the substrate-binding pocket. The tunnel binds the Ro 61-8048 molecule, which fills most of the tunnel, and Ro 61-8048 is hydrogen bonded with several completely conserved residues, including an essential catalytic residue. Modification of Ro 61-8048 and biochemical studies of the modified Ro 61-8048 derivatives suggested that Ro 61-8048 inhibits the enzyme in an allosteric manner by affecting the conformation of the essential catalytic residue and by blocking entry of the substrate or product release. The unique binding sites distinguish Ro 61-8048 as a noncompetitive and highly selective inhibitor from other competitive inhibitors, which should facilitate further optimization of Ro 61-8048 and the development of new inhibitory drugs to hKMO.-Gao, J., Yao, L., Xia, T., Liao, X., Zhu, D., Xiang, Y. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

  12. Comparative evaluation of different soybean meal and the replacement using peanut, rapeseed and fish meal for broilers .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding experiments have been conducted to test the different sources of soybean meal (local, India, USA and the partial substitution with peanut meal (10%, rapeseed meal (5% and fish meal (5% in the diet for broiler. The first feeding experiment was carried out on broiler starter for 4 weeks in wire cages . Twelve rations in factorial design (3 x 4 were conducted using 6 birds/cage and replicated 6 times . Birds fed India soybean meal had significantly less body weight (1,000 g than those fed local or USA soybean meals (1,037 and 1,023 g, respectively . Partial substitution with peanut, rapeseed or fish meal did not affect body weight, feed consumption or feed/gain ratio . The average consumption and feed/gain were 1,535 g and 1,569, respectively . In second experiment, one thousand five hundred broiler chicks were allocated in 6 dietary treatments in factorial design (3 x 2 . Factor one was different sources of soybean meal (local, India and USA and factor two was the inclusion of peanut meal at 0 and 10%. Birds were kept on litter system for 6 weeks . Each treatment used 5 replicates and 50 birds/replicate . The results show no effect of the treatment to any parameter measured . Body weight of bird fed local, India and USA soybean meal were 1,662, 1,641 and 1,669 g and feed/gain were 2 .043, 2 .051 and 2.035, respectively . Cost analysis indicates that ration uses local soybean meal gives a higher cost than those of India and USA soybean meals.

  13. Med-Ro Hybrid desalination as option to supply fresh water in BABEL Islands Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Sudi Ariyanto; June Mellawati; Budiarto

    2011-01-01

    Med-Ro hybrid desalination systems are combining both thermal (Med) and membrane (Ro) desalination processes with power generation systems. This configuration has more economical and operational benefits in comparison with single desalination plant. Hybrid configurations are characterized by flexibility in operation, specific energy consumption (33.50 kWh/m 3 ) is lower than Med (36.54 kWh/m 3 ) and high plant availability. The objective of study is to analyze the Med-Ro hybrid desalination as an option to add supply fresh water in Babel Islands Province, in terms of technology and economy aspects. The result of study showed that adopting nuclear power plants as dual-purpose for power generation and producing fresh water is has economic competitiveness than fossil-fired generation plants. Med-Ro hybrid configuration, with feed Ro from heat rejection of Med system is suitable as fresh water supply add option because increase of Ro feed temperature will increase flux. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using the Deep-3.2. Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro desalination with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of Med water cost (0.752 $/m ) . Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of water cost of energy with fossil-fired generation plants (0.720 $/m 3 ). (author)

  14. ÜRO teatel peavad toidukriisi eest vastutama rikkad riigid / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    ÜRO peasekretär Ban Ki-Moon kutsus ÜRO põllumajandus- ja toiduorganisatsiooni erakorralisel toidukriisi-teemalisel tippkohtumisel Roomas riike üles vähendama ekspordipiiranguid ja imporditariife, et toiduvarude nappust vähendada. Vt. samas: Kohtumise poliitilised häbiplekid

  15. The Dushak–Erekdag Survey of roAp Stars Tatyana Dorokhova ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    South-African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). Details of the discovery and further studies are given in Kurtz (1990) and Kurtz & Martinez (2000). Some roAp stars have multiple modes of pulsations and they are valuable for asteroseismological studies. Out of the 32 known roAp stars so far, about 84% were discovered in ...

  16. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-01-01

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  17. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  18. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . XIX. CoRoT-23b: a dense hot Jupiter on an eccentric orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouan, D.; Parviainen, H.; Moutou, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of CoRoT-23b, a hot Jupiter transiting in front of its host star with a period of 3.6314 ± 0.0001 days. This planet was discovered thanks to photometric data secured with the CoRoT satellite, combined with spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements. A photometric search...... to be 7 Gyr, not far from the transition to subgiant, in agreement with the rather large stellar radius. The two features of a significant eccentricity of the orbit and of a fairly high density are fairly uncommon for a hot Jupiter. The high density is, however, consistent with a model of contraction...... is more than a few 105, a value that is the lower bound of the usually expected range. Even if CoRoT-23b  features a density and an eccentricity that are atypical of a hot Jupiter, it is thus not an enigmatic object....

  19. High-efficient full-duplex WDM-RoF system with sub-central station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anliang; Yin, Hongxi; Wu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    With an additional sub-central station (S-CS), a high-efficient full-duplex radio-over-fiber (RoF) system compatible with the wavelength-division-multiplexing technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. To improve the dispersion tolerance of the RoF system, the baseband data format for the downlink and an all-optical down-conversion approach for the uplink are employed. In addition, this RoF system can not only make full use of the fiber link resources but also realize the upstream transmission without any local light sources at remote base stations (BSs). A 10-GHz RoF experimental system with a 1.25-Gb/s rate bidirectional transmission is established based on the S-CS structure. The feasibility and reliability of this RoF system are verified through eye diagrams and bit error rate (BER) curves experimentally obtained.

  20. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  1. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  2. Comparison of the generation of oil by the extraction and the hydropyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Onay; A.F. Gaines; O.M. Kockar; M. Adams; T.R. Tyagi; C.E. Snape [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This paper discusses the maximisation of the yields of useful bio-oils generated from seeds and nut-shells both by extraction and by hydropyrolysis. The formation and the composition of the bio-oils are also discussed. Powdered (<0.25 mm diameter) Rapeseed, Linseed and Safflower seed and Hazel nut and Walnut shells, that is, fresh precursors of liptinite, have been characterised by their elemental analyses, infra-red and NMR spectra. Bio-oils obtained both by extraction and by slow hydropyrolysis to 520{sup o}C at moderate pressure in the presence of ammonium dioxydithiomolybdate have been compared by the same analyses and by gas chromatography. Consistent with previous work (Hardy JA. A greener future with biodiesel. Green Chem 2001 G56-G57), extraction of the seeds with organic solvents, including Diesel oil, gave yields of up to 40% together with an uninteresting residue. However, subsequent saponification of the residues gave further yields of oil. Hydropyrolysis removed oxygen from the seeds as water and as oxides of carbon to generate bio-oil in yields of up to 75%. Whereas little oil could be extracted from the nut-shells, hydropyrolysis gave oil yields of {approximately} 40%. Some char was also formed, suggesting that optimisation of the hydropyrolysis might give even larger yields of oil. 25 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Natural Organochlorines as Precursors of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters in Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Saparin, Norliza; Teh, Huey Fang; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Md Zain, Mohd Zairey Bin; Neoh, Bee Keat; Md Noor, Ahmadilfitri; Tan, Chin Ping; Lai, Oi Ming; Appleton, David Ross

    2018-01-31

    During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

  4. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission . VI. CoRoT-Exo-3b: the first secure inhabitant of the brown-dwarf desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Rouan, D.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Barbieri, M.; Barge, P.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Csizmadia, Sz.; de La Reza, R.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Schneider, J.; Shporer, A.; Wuchterl, G.; Zucker, S.

    2008-12-01

    Context: The CoRoT space mission routinely provides high-precision photometric measurements of thousands of stars that have been continuously observed for months. Aims: The discovery and characterization of the first very massive transiting planetary companion with a short orbital period is reported. Methods: A series of 34 transits was detected in the CoRoT light curve of an F3V star, observed from May to October 2007 for 152 days. The radius was accurately determined and the mass derived for this new transiting, thanks to the combined analysis of the light curve and complementary ground-based observations: high-precision radial-velocity measurements, on-off photometry, and high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations. Results: CoRoT-Exo-3b has a radius of 1.01 ± 0.07 R_Jup and transits around its F3-type primary every 4.26 days in a synchronous orbit. Its mass of 21.66 ± 1.0 M_Jup, density of 26.4 ± 5.6 g cm-3, and surface gravity of logg = 4.72 clearly distinguish it from the regular close-in planet population, making it the most intriguing transiting substellar object discovered so far. Conclusions: With the current data, the nature of CoRoT-Exo-3b is ambiguous, as it could either be a low-mass brown-dwarf or a member of a new class of “superplanets”. Its discovery may help constrain the evolution of close-in planets and brown-dwarfs better. Finally, CoRoT-Exo-3b confirms the trend that massive transiting giant planets (M ≥ 4 M_Jup) are found preferentially around more massive stars than the Sun. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operating by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany and Spain. The first CoRoT data will be available to the public in February 2009 from the CoRoT archive: http://idoc-corot.ias.u-psud.fr/ Table of the COROT photometry is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb

  5. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  6. The Implementation of Principles of Sustainable Development in Ukrainian Oil and Fat Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beskupska Olena V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three main components of the concept of sustainable development are analyzed: economic development, social inclusion and environmental conditions. The expediency of introducing the principles of sustainable development in enterprises of the fat and oil industry is grounded. The state of Ukraine’s agriculture is studied, and its influence on the depletion of natural resources is determined. The evolution of the development of the oil and fat industry, its current state and role for the economy of Ukraine are considered. It is found that for successful functioning of the principles of sustainable development, enterprises of the oil and fat industry need to introduce an export duty for the export of rapeseeds and soybeans, a more stringent control of incoming raw materials and international certification of the enterprises. Recommendations are given on the development of innovation activity, attraction of investments and new approaches in logistics.`

  7. EXTRACTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERISATION OF PHYTOSTEROL FROM ETHANOLYSIS REACTION MIXTURE OF OIL DEODERISER DISTILLATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    Various plants and plant products (e.g. vegetable oil) are the major sources of phytosterols. Phytosterols are naturally occurring in either free form, or esters of fatty acids or glycoside forms, depending on their natural sources. As a potential industrial product, the main source is from...... deodoriser distillate (DOD) which is a by-product of oil refinery. Major applications of phystosterols are used as a functional food additive and a building block. Phytosterols are found to have cholesterol lowering effect by the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the intestine lumen. As a building...... block, phytosteryl derivatives can be developed and introduced to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, we have successfully converted phytosteryl ester from industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD ethanolysed mixture to free phytosterols by using enzymatic transesterification. This study...

  8. Flavour release of aldehydes and diacetyl in oil/water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bredie, W. L. P.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    from the pure oil. The release over time for diacetyl and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal showed a linear relationship in all systems. The other compounds followed an exponential relationship between the time and the fraction released in the aqueous systems. It was demonstrated that the release of the volatile...... compounds was dependent on the chain length, the degree of unsaturation as well as the characteristics of the model system. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The concentration- and time-dependent release of three C-6-aldehydes, six C-9-aldehydes and diacetyl was studied in model systems. The systems were water, rapeseed oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect the volatile compounds. In the concentration...

  9. A 90-day repeated-dose toxicity study of dietary alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushita, Hiroto; Ito, Yuichi; Saito, Tetsuji; Nukada, Yuko; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nakagiri, Hideaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Morita, Osamu

    2018-05-31

    Diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-which mainly consists of oleic and linolenic, linoleic acids-have potential health benefits in terms of preventing or managing obesity. Although safety of DAG oil has been extensively investigated, toxicity of ALA-DAG oil has not been well understood. Hence, the present study was conducted to clarify the potential adverse effects, if any, of ALA-DAG oil in rats (10/sex/group) fed diets containing 1.375%, 2.75%, or 5.5% ALA-DAG oil for 90 days. Compared to control rats fed rapeseed oil or ALA-triacylglycerol oil (flaxseed oil), rats receiving ALA-DAG oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes as evaluated by clinical signs, functional observational battery, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, necropsy and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect levels for dietary exposure to ALA-DAG oil for male and female rats were 2916 and 3326 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, the highest dose tested. The findings from this study suggest that consumption of ALA-DAG oil is unlikely to cause adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  11. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  12. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  13. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  14. Fluidization Behavior of Oil-Contaminated Sand.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Pohořelý, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 61, 2 (2007) , s. 93-97 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * hydrodynamics * oil pollution Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.367, year: 2007

  15. [Expression and clinical significance of CD45RO in laryngeal carcinoma tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manyi; Liu, Jishengi; Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wenying; Xiao, Gensheng; Yu, Yafeng; Guo, Lingchuan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role and significance of CD45RO in occurance and development in laryngeal squamous carcinoma, and to provide some valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis and theoretical basis for tumor biotherapy. The expression of CD45RO protein in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous carcinoma and 10 cases normal mucos was detected by immunohistochemical S-P method. The positive rate of CD45RO was 30% and 86% respectively in normal tissue and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The expresion of CD45RO was significantly and negatively associated with local metastatic of lymph nodes 0.713, P < 0.05) and tumor sites (r = -0.750, P < 0.05), but it have no notable difference with pathology differentiation, age, infiltrating depth and clinical stages in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous cell cancer. (1) The expresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer is more than that in normal tissue. (2) It is possible that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cut local metastatic lymph nodes. (3) It is probable that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer made for prognosis of patients. (4) Other than UICC-TNM stage, pathology differentiation, it provide valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Biotechnology in breeding of industrial oil crops - the present status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W.

    1988-02-01

    With increasing 'overproduction' of food supplies it is frequently emphasized now that agricultural production of industrial 'non-food' raw materials should be intensified. Many adapted crop plants are already available for producing various kinds of natural materials. Particularly the large group of oil-crops could be used even more widely for providing vegetable oils. The example of rape-seed (Brassica Napus) clearly demonstrates that the composition of vegetable oil can be completely reconstructed according to the wishes of manufacturers or consumers, even by conventional breeding methods. Rapid and efficient breeding is expected by application of modern 'biotechnology'. Where variation for a character like oil-quality is limited within a crop plnt, a wide range of alien wild species is available for broadening genetic variation of plants like rapeseed, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or linseed (flax, Linum usitatissimum). Exploration of such 'new' genetic variation is nowadays facilitated by in vitro embryo culture or cell (protoplast)-fusion techniques. Such biotechniques can help to overcome crossing barriers between species (genus Brassica). In other important oilcrops like linseed or sunflower, biotechniques can now be applied profitably. Protoplasts can be regenerated in Linum, so that asexual interspecific hybrids can principally be produced in that way. Alien species of sunflower and lineseed show a wide range of variation regarding agronomically important characters, particularly of oil composition and disease resistance. This alien genetic variation can be used for breeding new disease resistant oil-crop cultivars. Other techniques, like the 'haploidy-method' can help to accelerate a breeding programme, ultimately leading to a homozygous line or cultivar.

  17. Expression of BAFF receptors in muscle tissue of myositis patients with anti-Jo-1 or anti-Ro52/anti-Ro60 autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryštůfková, Olga; Barbasso Helmers, Sevim; Venalis, Paulius; Malmström, Vivianne; Lindroos, Eva; Vencovský, Jiří; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2014-10-10

    Anti-Jo-1 and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies are common in patients with myositis, but the mechanisms behind their production are not known. Survival of autoantibody-producing cells is dependent on B-cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF). BAFF levels are elevated in serum of anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients and are influenced by type-I interferon (IFN). IFN-producing cells and BAFF mRNA expression are present in myositis muscle. We investigated expression of the receptors for BAFF in muscle tissue in relation to anti-Jo-1 and anti-Ro52/anti-Ro60 autoantibodies and type-I IFN markers. Muscle biopsies from 23 patients with myositis selected based on autoantibody profile and 7 healthy controls were investigated for expression of BAFF receptor (BAFF-R), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI). Nineteen samples were assessed for plasma (CD138) and B-cell (CD19) markers. The numbers of positive cells per area were compared with the expression of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) marker blood dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2) and IFNα/β-inducible myxovirus resistance-1 protein (MX-1). BAFF-R, BCMA and TACI were expressed in five, seven and seven patients, respectively, and more frequently in anti-Jo-1-positive and/or anti-Ro52/anti-Ro60-positive patients compared to controls and to patients without these autoantibodies (P = BAFF-R: 0.007, BCMA: 0.03 and TACI: 0.07). A local association of receptors with B and plasma cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy. The numbers of CD138-positive and BCMA-positive cells were correlated (r = 0.79; P = 0.001). Expression of BDCA-2 correlated with numbers of CD138-positive cells and marginally with BCMA-positive cells (r = 0.54 and 0.42, respectively; P = 0.04 and 0.06, respectively). There was a borderline correlation between the numbers of positively stained TACI cells and MX-1 areas (r = 0.38, P = 0.08). The expression

  18. Heterosis and genetic distance in rapeseed (Brasica napus L.). Use of different indicators of genetic divergence in 7x7 diallel

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort-Buson, Marianne; Guillot-Lemoine, Brigitte; Dattée, Yvette

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparison of different indicators of genetic divergence between rapeseed parental lines : the relationship coefficient defined by MALÈCOT the generalized distance D2 of Mahalanobis, and a new G2 parameter close to HANSON & CASAS' R2. The purpose of the authors is to discuss the advantages of their simultaneous use in the prediction of both heterosis values and F1 performances of hybrids from parental lines. Relationships between heterosis values and genetic distanc...

  19. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first super-Earth with measured radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, A.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Ollivier, M.; Guenther, E.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Auvergne, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Catala, C.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Foing, B.; Fressin, F.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, Ph.; Grasset, O.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Renner, S.; Samadi, R.; Shporer, A.; Sotin, Ch.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.; Adda, M.; Agogu, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Ballans, H.; Baron, P.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Baudin, F.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Boit, L.; Bonneau, F.; Borzeix, S.; Briet, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Butler, B.; Cailleau, D.; Cautain, R.; Chabaud, P.-Y.; Chaintreuil, S.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuna Parrho, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Epstein, G.; Exil, G.-E.; Fauré, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gallic, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gruneisen, R.; Gueguen, L.; Guis, V.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hallouard, D.; Hasiba, J.; Heuripeau, F.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imad, C.; Imbert, C.; Johlander, B.; Jouret, M.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafaille, V.; Lafond, L.; Lam-Trong, T.; Landiech, P.; Lapeyrere, V.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Lautier, N.; Lecann, H.; Lefevre, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Mazy, E.; Mertens, F.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Meunier, J.-C.; Michel, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Perez, R.; Peter, G.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Sedes, G.; Smit, H.; Steller, M. B.; Sunter, W.; Surace, C.; Tello, M.; Tiphène, D.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Vuillemin, A.; Zanatta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of very shallow (Δ F/F ≈ 3.4× 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as caused by a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods: We used CoRoT colours information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, and preliminary results from radial velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star were derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. Results: We examined all conceivable cases of false positives carefully, and all the tests support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation >0.40´´or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 × 10-4 risk left. We conclude that, inasmuch we have been exhaustive, we have discovered a planetary companion, named CoRoT-7b, for which we derive a period of 0.853 59 ± 3 × 10-5 day and a radius of Rp = 1.68 ± 0.09 R_Earth. Analysis of preliminary radial velocity data yields an upper limit of 21 M_Earth for the companion mass, supporting the finding. Conclusions: CoRoT-7b is very likely the first Super-Earth with a measured radius. This object illustrates what will probably become a common situation with missions such as Kepler, namely the need to establish the planetary origin of transits in the absence of a firm radial velocity detection and mass measurement. The composition of CoRoT-7b remains loosely constrained without a precise mass. A very high surface temperature on its irradiated face, ≈1800-2600 K at the substellar point, and a very low one, ≈50 K, on its dark face assuming no atmosphere, have been derived. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27

  20. OLAYIWOLA, RO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    special applications. Our lives have ... solution is found for the reactive layer in the presence of very ... depend on the space variable x and we impose the adiabatic boundary conditions on the temperatures. Thus, the .... Theorem 1: Let δσα α α.

  1. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    OpenAIRE

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  2. Planetary transit candidates in CoRoT LRa01 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carone, L.; Gandolfi, D.; Cabrera, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the list of planetary transit candidates from the CoRoT LRa01 star field in the Monoceros constellation toward the Galactic anti-center direction. The CoRoT observations of LRa01 lasted from 24 October 2007 to 3 March 2008. We acquired and analyzed 7470 chromatic and 3938 monochromatic...... lightcurves. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were treated with several filtering tools by different teams from the CoRoT community. Different transit search algorithms were applied to the lightcurves. (2 data files)....

  3. Ilves osaleb ÜRO Peaassamblee 62. istungjärgul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves osaleb New Yorgis ÜRO peaassamblee 62. istungjärgu töös. Eesti riigipea osaleb ka ÜRO korraldatud kliimamuutuste konverentsil, kohtub ÜRO peasekretäri ja Makedoonia, Slovakkia ning Bosnia ja Hertsegoviina presidendiga, samuti filantroop George Sorosega ning osaleb Baltimaade riigipeade kohtumisel. T.H. Ilves külastab ka Columbia Ülikooli ning osaleb New Yorgi Eesti haridusseltsi korraldatud vastuvõtul New Yorgi Eesti Majas. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 20.-26.09.2007

  4. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  5. Natural Zeolite Sample and Investigation Its Use in Oil Bleaching Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Oyku

    2017-12-01

    In the sector of oil bleaching, the stored raw oil is subjected to physical and chemical methods such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization and winterization. In the process of oil bleaching, the selection of correct bleaching earth in accordance with oil characteristics matters so much. Bleaching earth is an inorganic product used in removing impurities being available within the structures of vegetable, animal oil (sunflower, soya, corn, palm, tallow, rapeseed, fish oils…etc.) and fatty acids, mineral oils (glycerine, paraffin, mineral motor oils. etc.) with the adsorption process. The factors such as low cost of oil bleaching earth, low ratio of oil retaining, high bleaching capacity in spite of using them in small amounts, filter’s delayed blocking by the earth and non-increase of the free acidity of the oil should be taken into consideration. Bleaching earths are processed with some acids in order to widen their surface areas. During this process, a certain amount of acid is left within oil bleaching earths even if it is very little. These acids also increase oil’s acidity by oxidizing oil in the course of bleaching process. In this study, zeolite sample taken from Manisa -Demirci region was used. Following the processes of crushing and sieving, zeolite sample was subjected to chemical analyses according to their grain thickness, microscopic examination, the analyses of XRD and cation exchange capacity and their ore characteristics were determined. Afterwards, it was searched whether zeolite sample has oil bleaching ability or not or whether it can be used as oil bleaching earth or not.

  6. Planetary transit candidates in the CoRoT-SRc01 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikson, A.; Santerne, A.; Renner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Context. CoRoT is a pioneering space mission whose primary goals are stellar seismology and extrasolar planets search. Its surveys of large stellar fields generate numerous planetary candidates whose lightcurves have transit-like features. An extensive analytical and observational follow-up effort...... is undertaken to classify these candidates. Aims. We present the list of planetary transit candidates from the CoRoT LRa01 star field in the Monoceros constellation toward the Galactic anti-center direction. The CoRoT observations of LRa01 lasted from 24 October 2007 to 3 March 2008. Methods. We acquired...... and analyzed 7470 chromatic and 3938 monochromatic lightcurves. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were treated with several filtering tools by different teams from the CoRoT community. Different transit search algorithms were applied to the lightcurves. Results. Fifty-one stars were classified...

  7. Application of monochloramine for wastewater reuse: Effect on biostability during transport and biofouling in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Loubineaud, E.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; El Chakhtoura, Joline; Salles, C.; Bucs, Szilard; Trampé , J.; Van den Broek, W.B.P.; Van Agtmaal, J.M.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2018-01-01

    The rising demand for clean and safe water has increased the interest in advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Reverse osmosis (RO) can provide reliable and high-quality water from treated wastewater. Biofouling inevitably occurs, certainly

  8. On-line dosing of Ammonium Biflouride for reduction of silica scaling on RO membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Rashed

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of using Ammonium Biflouride (ABF as an anti-scaling agent in improving the performance of the RO membranes. ABF was used as on-line dosing with different doses for mitigation of scaling caused by silica (SiO2 on RO membranes. To study the efficiency of the anti-scaling agent, Scanning Electron Microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM–EDS were performed for all phases before and after using the anti-scaling agent on the used RO membrane surface. The main parameters measured were: silica, TDS. Flux loss was observed for the cross-flow RO membrane after filtration. ABF doses used were: 2, 4, and 6 mg/l at constant pH = 6 and the optimum dose was found to be 4 mg/l.

  9. Piinatud birmalased ootavad ÜRO seni jõuetut abikätt / Karin Dean

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dean, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Buda munkade eestvedmisel toimunud massimeeleavalduste mahasurumisest Birmas. ÜRO erisaadiku Ibrahim Gambari kohtumisest nii Birma kindralite kui ka opositsiooniliidri Aung San Suu Kyiga oodatakse tulemusi ja sanktsioone Lisa: Sõjaväe haardes riik

  10. Magna Carta Libertatum – osmisté výročí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 6 (2015), s. 449-464 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Magna Carta Libertatum * development of constitutionalism * rule of law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  11. Possible role of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Guerreso

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It is known that pulmonary hypertension has association with autoimmune diseases, however no clear markers yet exist. Anti-SSA/Ro antibodies have been rarely described in cases of pulmonary disease, and less so in pulmonary hypertension. This case describes a unique association between isolated pulmonary hypertension and anti-SSA/Ro antibody, thereby illustrating the need to investigate this autoantibody and others in the pathogenesis of autoimmune pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Application of monochloramine for wastewater reuse: Effect on biostability during transport and biofouling in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2018-02-23

    The rising demand for clean and safe water has increased the interest in advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Reverse osmosis (RO) can provide reliable and high-quality water from treated wastewater. Biofouling inevitably occurs, certainly with wastewater effluents, resulting in RO performance decline and operational problems. Chlorination of feed water has been commonly applied to limit biological growth. However, chlorine use may lead to a loss of membrane integrity of RO systems. In this study the potential of monochloramine as an alternative for chlorine was studied by (i) evaluating the biological stability of a full-scale wastewater membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent during transport over 13 km to a full-scale RO plant and (ii) assessing the biofouling control potential in membrane fouling simulator (MFS) and pilot-scale RO installation. Microbial water analysis was performed on samples taken at several locations in the full-scale water reuse system (MBR effluent, during transport, and at the RO inlet and outlet) using a suite of tools including heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), flow cytometry (FCM), and 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Growth potential tests were used to evaluate the effect of monochloramine presence and absence on bacterial growth. Results showed limited changes in the microbial water quality in the presence of monochloramine. MFS studies showed that membrane biofouling could be effectively repressed by monochloramine over prolonged time periods. The normalized salt passage in a pilot RO system with monochloramine dosage was constant over a one year period (data of last 130 days presented), demonstrating that no membrane damage occurred. From this study, it can be concluded that monochloramine dosage in wastewater applications is effective in controlling biofouling in RO systems and maintaining a monochloramine residual during water transport provides biologically stable water.

  13. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  14. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  15. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  16. Recovery of low temperature heat in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in oil mills is a major item of costs and a sensitive point in the production of biofuels. To improve their performance, industrials can recover lowtemperature heat thanks to a new technology of heat exchangers suitable for treating granular solid materials. Information about the energy requirements of the rapeseed crushing being not readily available, the article gives a detailed assessment of consumption items (per ton of seed: 263 MJ for preparation operations and 284 MJ for solvent extraction. These exchangers used as pre-conditioners saves about 55 MJ.t−1 of heat by use of steam condensates. We could go further in use of these devices on the one hand to recover heat from press cake and meal, and secondly to use recovered energy to dry and warm up the seeds before pre-pressing. In this configuration, the energy savings could reach 38% of current needs.

  17. Dietary moderately oxidized oil induces expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varady Juliane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, whose expression is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, has been recently identified as a novel metabolic regulator which plays a crucial role in glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and obesity. Previous studies have shown that administration of oxidized fats leads to an activation of PPARα in the liver. Therefore, the present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding of oxidized fats causes an induction of FGF21 in the liver. Methods Twenty four crossbred pigs were allocated to two groups of 12 pigs each and fed nutritionally adequate diets with either fresh rapeseed oil or oxidized rapeseed oil prepared by heating at a temperature of 175°C for 72 h. Results In pigs fed the oxidized fat mRNA abundance and protein concentrations of FGF21 in liver were significantly increased (P P P Conclusion The present study shows for the first time that administration of an oxidized fat induces the expression of FGF21 in the liver, probably mediated by activation of PPARα. Induction of FGF21 could be involved in several effects observed in animals administered an oxidized fat.

  18. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  19. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  20. Impacts of rapeseed dregs on Cd availability in contaminated acid soil and Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Zou, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed dregs (RSD, a commonly organic fertilizer in rural China) at application rates of 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 % on Cd availability in soil and its accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Xiangwanxian 12 # , and Weiyou 46 # ) by means of a pot experiment. The results showed that application of RSD resulted in a sharp decrease in the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content. However, the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content in amended soil gradually increased during the rice growing period. Application of RSD significantly increased Cd transport from root to shoot and the amount of Cd accumulated in the aerial part. RSD was an effective organic additive for increasing rice grain yield, but total Cd content in rice grain was also increased. At an application rate of 1.5-3.0 % RSD, the total Cd content in Weiyou 46 # brown rice was 0.27-0.31 mg kg -1 , which exceeded the standard safe limit (0.2 mg kg -1 ) and was also higher than that of Xiangwanxian 12 # (0.04-0.14 mg kg -1 ). Therefore, Weiyou 46 # had a higher dietary risk than Xiangwanxian 12 # with RSD application. We do not recommend planting Weiyou 46 # and applying more than 0.75 % RSD in Cd-contaminated paddy fields.

  1. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene Family in Rapeseed and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GolS is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis identified a lost event of an ancient GolS copy in the Solanaceae and an ancient duplication event leading to evolution of GolS4/7 in the Brassicaceae. The three-dimensional structures of two GolS proteins were conserved, with an important DxD motif for binding to UDP-galactose (uridine diphosphate-galactose and inositol. Expression profile analysis indicated that BnGolS and NtGolS genes were expressed in most tissues and highly expressed in one or two specific tissues. Hormone treatments strongly induced the expression of most BnGolS genes and homologous genes in the same subfamilies exhibited divergent-induced expression. Our study provides a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of GolS genes among the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae as well as an insight into the biological function of GolS genes in hormone response in plants.

  3. Antifungal effect of essential oil components against Aspergillus niger when loaded into silica mesoporous supports

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardos, A.; Marina, T.; Žáček, Petr; Pérez-Esteve, É.; Martínez-Manez, R.; Lhotka, M.; Kouřimská, L.; Pulkrábek, J.; Klouček, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 14 (2015), s. 2824-2831 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : essential oils * encapsulation * cyclodextrin * controlled release * antifungal activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2015

  4. Extraction of Thyme Oil: Comparison between Hydrodistillation and Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aleksovski, S. A.; Sovová, Helena; Poposka, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2001), s. 305-310 ISSN 1330-0075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : thymus serpyllum * supercritical fluid extraction * assential oil Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupling of RO-MSF hybrid desalination plants with nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Khalil; Al-Mutaz, Ibrahim S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Reverse osmosis (RO) and multistage flash (MSF) desalination are the most widely commercial available processes. MSF utilizes stream in the brine heater as a primary source of energy. RO is derived mainly by electricity that pumps the feed water against the mambranes. Steam and electricity and be produced easily by nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactors may be coupled with deslination plants (MSF, RO or combined (hybrid) RO/MSF configuration). This integrated plant will be capable of producing power and water at reasonable cost. The capital and operating cost will be reduced and the excess power can be efficiently utilized. Maintenance and operating cost will drop significantly. In this paper, a techno-economic study of hybrid reverses osmosis /multistage flash desalination will be carried. The proposed configuration (hybrid RO/MSF) coupled with nuclear reactor is considered the most appropriate candidate system for the application of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants. the design parameters for such a desalination hybrid system will be the applied pressure and recovery for reverse osmosis plant and the number of stages and the heat transfer areas for multistage flash plant

  7. Simple, Accurate, Low-cost RO Science with the Iridium-NEXT Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, T.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decade, a disparate collection of GNSS-RO instruments have been measuring the refractivity of the Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere. These measurements have proven to be robust and precise data sets for operational weather, climate and geospace sciences. Future GNSS-RO weather and science will most benefit from a large number of profiles (10000+/day), with lower latency and greater accuracy in the lowest 5 km altitude. For weather, latencies below 90 minutes are required, 30 minutes desired. Space weather latency requirements are more stringent, with 15 minutes being a long sought goal. Climate studies benefit from averaging measurements uniformly distributed over the Earth, acquired over decades, with local time sampling errors minimized by dense coverage or well designed orbits. There's much more of course, because space GNSS science is still nascent but with gathering momentum among the international community. Although individual GNSS-RO instruments are relatively cheap as space hardware goes, growing the measurement density can be costly when a dozen or more are required for a single program. In this presentation, we propose a novel technique for greatly reducing the cost of a constellation of GNSS-RO instruments and discuss the science trade-offs of this approach versus the more traditional GNSS-RO designs.

  8. Abnormal clinical pharmacokinetics of the developmental radiosensitizers pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) and etanidazole (SR 2508)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, T.S.; Newman, H.F.; Bleehen, N.M.; Ward, R.; Workman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The hypoxic cell radiosensitizers Ro 03-8799 (pimonidazole) and SR 2508 (etanidazole) are under evaluation as single agents (Phase III) and in combination (Phase I). Ro 03-8799 produces an acute, transient central nervous system syndrome, whereas SR 2508 causes cumulative, peripheral neurotoxicity; both effects are dose-limiting. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the importance of area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC) in predicting the risk of peripheral neuropathy. Most patients have very similar pharmacokinetic parameters. This study reports 2/25 patients receiving 0.75 g/m2 Ro 03-8799 plus 2.0 g/m2 SR 2508 who showed significant discrepancies in drug handling. One patient exhibited a markedly elevated AUC and prolonged t1/2 beta for SR 2508 and this was associated with an unusually rapid onset of peripheral neuropathy. A second patient showed normal handling of SR 2508 but prolonged values for both t1/2 alpha and t1/2 beta for Ro 03-8799 and unusually low levels of its N-oxide metabolite. In addition a low peak Ro 03-8799 concentration combined with a very high volume of distribution was found in this patient, leading to a normal AUC value and toxicity profile. Both patients exhibited a relatively low creatinine clearance. The mechanisms which may underlie these findings are discussed, and the importance of pharmacokinetic monitoring in the use of these agents is emphasized

  9. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, I; Dalsgaard, J; Jacobsen, C; Hansen, J H; Holm, J; Jokumsen, A

    2013-03-01

    Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets.

  10. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  11. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  12. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  13. RO5: proposal of a relevant facility in nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzo, J.

    1987-01-01

    The RO5 project is a proposal of an experiment in nuclear fusion research based in a plasma focus device. The main research scopes of the experiment, with respect to the scaling law foundations and the identification of the main nuclear reaction mechanisms, are discussed. A practical aim of the experiment is to reach 10 14 - 10 15 neutrons/pulse from D-D reactions in the plasma focus using a 3 MJ capacitor bank. It represents an energy efficience of around a 5% when D-T mixture is used as filling gas in the reactor (RO5 = Reactor of 5% in energy efficience). A first RO5 design obtained with a 2D snowplow model and taken into account the operation limits recently found, is presented. (author) [pt

  14. An information preserving method for producing full coverage CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Granado J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invalid flux measurements, caused mainly by the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing of the CoRoT satellite, introduce aliases in the periodogram and wrong amplitudes. It has been demonstrated that replacing such invalid data with a linear interpolation is not harmless. On the other side, using power spectrum estimators for unevenly sampled time series is not only less computationally efficient but it leads to difficulties in the interpretation of the results. Therefore, even when the gaps are rather small and the duty cycle is high enough the use of gap-filling methods is a gain in frequency analysis. However, the method must preserve the information contained in the time series. In this work we give a short description of an information preserving method (MIARMA and show some results when applying it to CoRoT seismo light curves. The method is implemented as the second step of a pipeline for CoRoT data analysis.

  15. WE-B-Exhibit Hall-01: Ask the RO-ILS Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Sanscrainte, E [Clarity PSO, Chicago, IL (United States); Tomlinson, C [ASTRO, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Have a question about RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System™, or interested in learning more? Sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and AAPM, RO-ILS is the only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. It facilitates safer and higher quality care in radiation oncology by providing a mechanism for shared learning in a secure and non-punitive environment. Please join our RO-ILS experts for a question and answer session on Wednesday, July 15th at 8:30 in the Partners in Solutions Room in Exhibit Hall C. Our experts include: Gary Ezzell, PhD, Mayo Clinic Arizona, [Brett Miller, Phillip Beron, and Derek Brown], Emily Sanscrainte from Clarity PSO and Cindy Tomlinson, MPP, ASTRO.

  16. Radial velocity follow-up of CoRoT transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleuil M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results from the radial-velocity follow-up program performed to establish the planetary nature and to characterize the transiting candidates discovered by the space mission CoRoT. We use the SOPHIE at OHP, HARPS at ESO and the HIRES at Keck spectrographs to collect spectra and high-precision radial velocity (RV measurements for several dozens different candidates from CoRoT. We have measured the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of several confirmed planets, especially CoRoT-1b which revealed that it is another highly inclined system. Such high-precision RV data are necessary for the discovery of new transiting planets. Furthermore, several low mass planet candidates have emerged from our Keck and HARPS data.

  17. High oil prices: A non-OPEC capacity game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Asche, Frank; Misund, Baard; Mohn, Klaus

    2005-08-01

    The current high oil price is partly due to low investments in the oil industry the last decade. According to economic theory, exploration and development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing petroleum prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE, for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demand for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. Thus, we have experienced an unusual combination of high oil prices and low investment levels in exploration and development. In many ways, the oil companies' focus on RoACE, at the expense of reserve replacement, resembles an implicit co-ordination on low capacity among non-OPEC petroleum producers. This is a partial explanation of the current high oil prices. By examining actual parameters used by the financial markets in pricing of oil companies, we address the issue of whether the low investment outcome could represent a long-term equilibrium. This is hardly likely, as oil companies are made aware that stronger emphasis is put on reserve replacement. (Author)

  18. EXO-DAT: AN INFORMATION SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE CoRoT/EXOPLANET SCIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuil, M.; Meunier, J. C.; Moutou, C.; Surace, C.; Barbieri, M.; Agneray, F.; Granet, Y.; Guterman, P.; Deeg, H. J.; Almenara, J. M.; Debosscher, J.; Hodgkin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Exo-Dat is a database and an information system created primarily in support of the exoplanet program of the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) mission. In the directions of CoRoT pointings, it provides a united interface to several sets of data: stellar published catalogs, photometric and spectroscopic data obtained during the mission preparation, results from the mission and from follow-up observations, and several mission-specific technical parameters. The new photometric data constitute the subcatalog Exo-Cat, and give consistent 4-color photometry of 14.0 million stars with a completeness to 19th magnitude in the r-filter. It covers several zones in the galactic plane around CoRoT pointings, with a total area of 209 deg 2 . This Exo-Dat information system provides essential technical support to the ongoing CoRoT light-curve analyses and ground-based follow-up by supplying additional complementary information such as the prior knowledge of the star's fundamental parameters or its contamination level inside the large CoRoT photometric mask. The database is fully interfaced with VO tools and thus benefits from existing visualization and analysis tools like TOPCAT or ALADIN. It is accessible to the CoRoT community through the Web, and will be gradually opened to the public. It is the ideal tool to prepare the foreseen statistical studies of the properties of the exoplanetary systems. As a VO-compliant system, such analyses could thus benefit from the most up-to-date classifier tools.

  19. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVII. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-17b: a very old planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadia, Sz.; Moutou, C.; Deleuil, M.; Cabrera, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Cochran, W.; Deeg, H. J.; Díaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Endl, M.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fruth, Th.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E. W.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Lammer, H.; Lovis, C.; MacQueen, P. J.; Mazeh, T.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Titz-Weider, R.; Wuchterl, G.

    2011-07-01

    We report on the discovery of a hot Jupiter-type exoplanet, CoRoT-17b, detected by the CoRoT satellite. It has a mass of 2.43 ± 0.30 MJup and a radius of 1.02 ± 0.07 RJup, while its mean density is 2.82 ± 0.38 g/cm3. CoRoT-17b is in a circular orbit with a period of 3.7681 ± 0.0003 days. The host star is an old (10.7 ± 1.0 Gyr) main-sequence star, which makes it an intriguing object for planetary evolution studies. The planet's internal composition is not well constrained and can range from pure H/He to one that can contain ~380 earth masses of heavier elements. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. Part of the observations were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (ESO program 184.C-0639). Based on observations made with the IAC80 telescope operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Valuation of international oil companies - size matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    According to economic theory, exploration and the development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE (Return on Average Capital Employed), for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demands for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. We investigate the presumed positive relation between RoACE and stock market valuation. Based on panel data for 12 international oil and gas companies for the period 1997-2002, we seek to establish econometric relations between market valuation on one hand, and simple financial and operational indicators on the other. Our findings do not support the perceived positive relation between reported RoACE and market-based multiples. Recent evidence also suggests that the stock market is increasingly concerned about reserve replacement and sustained profitable production growth. The current high-price, low-investment equilibrium is therefore hardly stable. (Author)