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Sample records for rapeseed oil electronic

  1. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 °F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less... sodium hydroxide catalyst, to 330 °F under partial vacuum and steam sparging agitation. (2) The..., bleached, and deodorized edible oil obtained from certain varieties of Brassica Napus or B. Campestris of...

  2. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  3. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  4. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding.Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition.Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  5. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-p- phenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using ...

  6. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapeseed oil which is a triglyceride had undergone chemical modification on its structure to obtain hydroxyl groups. The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated ...

  7. Effect of Rapeseed Oil on Effective Protein Degradability and Intestinal Protein Digestibility of Oat, Rapeseed Meal and Dried Sugarbeet Pulp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potkanski, A; Nowak, W

    2000-01-01

    Potkanski, A. and Nowak, W. 2000. Effect of rapeseed oil on effective protein degradability and intestinal protein digestibility of oat, rapeseed meal and dried sugarbeet pulp. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 81-89...

  8. characterisation of rapeseed oil based resins using infrared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    CHARACTERISATION OF RAPESEED OIL BASED RESINS. USING INFRARED AND THERMOGRAVIMETRY TECHNIQUES. LY Mwaikambo. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,. University of Dar Es salaam, P.O. Box 35131, Dar Es salaam, Tanzania, lyrmwaikambo@udsm.ac.tz. ABSTRACT. Rapeseed ...

  9. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  10. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  11. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshui, Chen; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO3, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO3 as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO3 were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO3 nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO3 in rapeseed oil were attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species of B2O3, CeO2 and Fe2O3, and the adsorbates of SA/CeBO3 and rapeseed oil, on the tribo-surfaces.

  12. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  13. Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Hattum, van T.G.; Zhao, Y.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per

  14. Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Suat; Ozkan, Ahmet R

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the composition of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake in a fixed bed reactor at 400, 450, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C. The gas products mainly consisted of CO(2), CO, CH(4) and H(2)S at 500 degrees C. Empirical formula of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake was CH(1.59)O(0.16)N(0.116)S(0.003) for 500 degrees C. Bio-oils mainly contained oleic acid, 1H-indole, 2,3,5-trimethoxy toluene, toluene, (Z)-9-octadecanamide, psoralene, phenol and phenol derivatives at all pyrolysis temperatures. Both non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were determined in water phase of liquid product by Headspace-GC analysis. The heating values of bio-chars were found to be similar (24MJkg(-1)) at all pyrolysis temperatures.

  15. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  16. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  17. [Skin manifestations of toxic syndrome due to denatured rapeseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E

    2009-12-01

    This article offered an extensive description of the clinical and pathological features and time-course of the skin manifestations of toxic syndrome caused by denatured rapeseed oil, also known as toxic oil syndrome. This new condition occurred in Spain in 1981 and was due to the ingestion of rapeseed oil intended for industrial use that had been denatured with anilines and subsequently refined and sold fraudulently as olive oil. In total, 20,000 cases and 400 deaths were reported. The disease affected mainly women, particularly in the late stages. In the acute phase, the predominant skin manifestations were toxic-allergic rashes reminiscent of allergic urticaria in the dermatopathologic study. In approximately 25% of cases, the patients' skin subsequently took on an edematous appearance, with pigmentary abnormalities shown to be related to cutaneous mucinosis. Finally, a characteristic sclerodermatous condition would develop that tended to improve spontaneously. The constant presence of mast cells in all biopsies and the development of mastocytosis in several patients pointed to an important role for these cells in the pathogenesis of the condition. This was subsequently confirmed in other sclerodermatous processes. In 1989, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome caused by toxins present in tryptophan food supplements was reported in the United States. This syndrome resembled toxic oil syndrome in many ways and demonstrated that mucinosis and toxic sclerodermatous processes do exist.

  18. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg-1 and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg-1. It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  19. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  20. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  1. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; ptest cycle than on the fuel. Our findings suggest that the genotoxicity of particulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  3. Characteristics of denatured rapeseed oil during storage and refining processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philen, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, toxic oil syndrome, a progressive multi-system disease caused by consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with aniline occurred in Spain. To date, the causal toxic agent or agents remain unknown. Measures of acidity, moisture, impurities, phosphorous, soaps, and spectrophotometric determinations of color at 409 nm were performed. Since fatty acid anilide concentrations in these oils are associated with risk of disease, w e studied the formation of aniline-derived compounds over time after oil denaturation and by oil deodorization temperatures (200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC and times (3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 hours. Formation of fatty acid anilide compounds increased with storage time. Deodorization led to a reduction of total anilides in all the samples, particularly at temperatures above 245ºC. Esters of 3-(N-phenylamino-1,2-propanediol were not detected.En 1981 tuvo lugar en España el llamado «Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico», una enfermedad progresiva multi-sistemática causada por el consumo de aceite de colza desnaturalizado con anilina. Hasta la fecha, el agente o agentes tóxicos causantes permanecen desconocidos. Se han realizado medidas de acidez, humedad, impurezas, fósforo, jabones y determinaciones espectrofotométricas de color a 409 nm. Puesto que las concentraciones de anilidas de los ácidos grasos en estos aceites se asocian al riesgo de padecer la enfermedad, se estudiaron la formación de compuestos derivados de anilina durante el tiempo de desnaturalización y con las temperaturas y tiempos de desodorización (temperaturas: 200ºC, 215ºC, 230ºC, 245ºC, 260ºC, y 270ºC y tiempos: 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 y 6 horas. La formación de anilidas de ácidos grasos aumenta con el tiempo de almacenamiento. La desodorización conlleva una reducción de la cantidad total de anilidas en todas las muestras, particularmente cuando la temperatura es superior a 245ºC. No fueron

  4. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jiqu Xu; Xiaoli Liu; Hui Gao; Chang Chen; Qianchun Deng; Qingde Huang; Zhonghua Ma; Fenghong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed ...

  5. Evaluation of seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed trials performed in the period 2007-2010 were analyzed to evaluate seed and oil yield stability in NS rapeseed cultivars in changeable environmental conditions of northern Serbia. Seed yield, oil content and yield for 40 winter and 9 spring rapeseed cultivars were analyzed. It was found that the influence of year on seed and oil yield was most significant. Genotype (cultivars by environment (year interaction was further analyzed using AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction model. In the environmental conditions present during the trial in Rimski Šančevi according to the analysis of regression coefficient (bi and ecovalence (Wi and AMMI model, winter cultivars Nena and NS-L-102 were the most stable and high seed yielding, and hybrid cultivar NS-H-R-3 was singled out for oil yield. These cultivars are recommended for implementation in future breeding programs and for growing in the conditions described in this paper.

  6. The structural organization of seed oil bodies could explain the contrasted oil extractability observed in two rapeseed genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Céline; Bardet, Michel; Chardot, Thierry; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Gromova, Marina; Guillermo, Armel; Miquel, Martine; Nesi, Nathalie; Yen-Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Jolivet, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the oil body surface from the seeds of two rapeseed genotypes was compared in order to explain their contrasted oil extractability. In the mature seeds of oleaginous plants, storage lipids accumulate in specialized structures called oil bodies (OBs). These organelles consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer in which structural proteins are embedded. The physical stability of OBs is a consequence of the interactions between proteins and phospholipids. A detailed study of OB characteristics in mature seeds as well as throughout seed development was carried out on two contrasting rapeseed genotypes Amber and Warzanwski. These two accessions were chosen because they differ dramatically in (1) crushing ability, (2) oil extraction yield and, (3) the stability of purified OBs. Warzanwski has higher crushing ability, better oil extraction yield and less stable purified OBs than Amber. OB morphology was investigated in situ using fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and pulsed field gradient NMR. During seed development, OB diameter first increased and then decreased 30 days after pollination in both Amber and Warzanwski embryos. In mature seeds, Amber OBs were significantly smaller. The protein, phospholipid and sterol composition of the hemi-membrane was compared between the two accessions. Amber OBs were enriched with H-oleosins and steroleosins, suggesting increased coverage of the OB surface consistent with their higher stability. The nature and composition of phospholipids and sterols in Amber OBs suggest that the hemi-membrane would have a more rigid structure than that of Warzanwski OBs.

  7. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  8. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Riel, van J.W.; Emous, van R.A.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the

  9. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  10. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  11. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  12. Effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of coldpressed rapeseed and sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Florowska, Anna; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stability means resistance to oxidation during purchase, processing and storage and is a key quality indicator of edible fats. Oils ought to be stored in dark-glass bottles, at low temperatures  and with no access of light in order to effectively preserve their oxidative stability. Since all vegetable oils contain unsaturated fatty acids that can react with oxygen and deteriorate over time, displacement of oxygen with inert gases may result in a reduction of the rate of oxidation. In the study the effect of oil flushing with nitrogen on the quality and oxidative stability of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils was determinate. Commercial samples of cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oils were stabilized by generating anaerobic atmosphere in the bottles by blowing through with nitrogen and generation of a "nitrogen cushion". Oils were tested in accelerated at 63°C and long-term at 20°C storage tests. After 20 days of Schaal oven test, the peroxide value in the flushing with nitrogen rapeseed and sunflower oils was, respectively, 4 and 7 times lower than in the control samples (without nitrogen). In turn, of the long-term storage test (with access of light 20°C), the peroxide value of oil flushing with nitrogen after 6 months of storage was 2.3 to 2.8-fold lower, respectively, than in the control sample. In the oil samples flushed with nitrogen peroxide formation was inhibited, however, as a result of the breakdown of the peroxides already existed in the oil, gradual decrease of the oxidative stability (determined via Rancimat test) was observed along with prolonged storage of oils. Oil flushing with nitrogen was a very effective way to reduce the changes caused by oxidation in cold-pressed rapeseed and sunflower oil.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Ryo-ichi; Imai, Masanao; Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes an enzyme inactivation. This paper presents enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L™ using...

  14. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the canola cultivars are fit for human consumption; rather the oil is beneficial for health due to the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid. Analysis of variance (Table 1) for oil content revealed that genotypes were non significant for oil content. However the highest amount for oil percentage was ...

  15. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  16. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  17. Modified carbon paste electrode as a tool for the evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrode was used for evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil samples using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol.L-1 HCl as a supporting electrolyte. Rapeseed oil samples were exposed to daylight and oxygen in open glass baker at the laboratory condition in order to obtain oils with accelerated primary and secondary products of oxidation. The oxidation status was determinated by peroxide value and p-anisidine value. Total oxidative stability was expressed as TOTOX index. The edible oils were used for preparation (modification of the carbon paste composite material followed by the cyclic voltammetric measurement. Peroxide values significantly increased whereas p-anisinde value rather fluctuated during 40 days of storage in all the samples. Cyclic voltammograms showed anodic current peaks at 575 - 600 mV and cathodic current peaks at 400 - 425 mV. The oxidation and reduction waves diminished at pH ≥3.0 suggesting not only phenolic compounds contributed to the electrochemical characteristic of oil samples. The peroxide value or p-anisidine value did not correlate with oxidation or reduction peak currents at the potential 575 - 600 mV and 400 - 425 mV, respectively. Both cathodic and anodic currents increased with increasing TOTOX index exhibiting positive correlation with high Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.894 and r = 0.914 for anodic and cathodic current, respectively. Linear relationship was found for each sample individually. A caution has to be done when interpreting results since the correlation seems to be of oil sample specific. Nevertheless, the modified carbon paste electrode with rapeseed oil represents a suitable and alternative tool for determination of the oxidative state of edible oils without use of organic solvents.

  18. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters hepatic mitochondrial membrane lipid composition and disrupts bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Pereira, Cláudia V; Silva, Ana M; Maciel, Elisabete; Baldeiras, Inês; Peixoto, Francisco; Domingues, Maria R; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-12-01

    Diet is directly related with physiological alterations occurring at a cell and subcellular level. However, the role of diet manipulation on mitochondrial physiology is still largely unexplored. Aiming at correlating diet with alterations of mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics, Wistar-Han male rats were fed for 11, 22 and 33 days with a rapeseed oil-based diet and mitochondrial bioenergetics, and membrane composition were compared at each time point with a standard diet group. Considerable differences were noticed in mitochondrial membrane lipid composition, namely in terms of fatty acyl chains and relative proportions of phospholipid classes, the modified diet inducing a decrease in the saturated to unsaturated molar ratio and an increase in the phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine molar ratio. Mass spectrometry lipid analysis showed significant differences in the major species of cardiolipin, with an apparent increased incorporation of oleic acid as a result of exposure to the modified diet. Rats fed the modified diet during 22 days showed decreased hepatic mitochondrial state 3 respiration and were more susceptible to Ca(2+)-induced transition pore opening. Rapeseed oil-enriched diet also appeared to promote a decrease in hydroperoxide production by the respiratory chain, although a simultaneous decrease in vitamin E content was detected. In conclusion, our data indicate that the rapeseed oil diet causes negative alterations on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics, which may result from membrane remodeling. Such alterations may have an impact not only on energy supply to the cell, but also on drug-induced hepatic mitochondrial liabilities.

  19. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  20. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  1. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin?e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lip...

  2. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The per capita oil consumption increasing day by day is impaired by the growth rate of more than 3%. Hence there is no way, but to improve the oilseed production for getting self sufficiency in edible oils demand (Anonymous, 2007). The genus Brassica has over 150 species and repre- sented by 8 species ...

  3. Effects of endogenous and exogenous micronutrients in rapeseed oils on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qianchun; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Jiqu; Wang, Lan; Huang, Fenghong; Huang, Qingde; Liu, Changsheng; Ma, Fangli

    2014-12-19

    Micronutrients in oil reduce one or more risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, while the contents of micronutrients in oil are relatively poor, which is insufficient to reverse the metabolic disorders at different stages of progress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endogenous micronutrients in optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil and restoratively added or fortified micronutrients in traditional refined rapeseed oil (restoring micronutrients to be nearly equal to or significantly higher than levels in crude rapeseed oil) on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat diets containing different rapeseed oils for 4 weeks, including the standard refined rapeseed oil(SRO), optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil(CRO) and the traditional refined rapeseed oil with restorative addition or fortification of micronutrients (LF, HF-SRO). CRO exhibited significant increases in contents of tocopherols (+13%), phytosterols (+34%), polyphenols (+92%) and phospholipids (+725%) compared with SRO, as well as the total antioxidant capacities (+82-125%) (pmicronutrients was comparable to the optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil in improving the antioxidant status and lipid profile of high-fat fed rats.

  4. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  5. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  6. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  7. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jin'e

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO. Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation.

  8. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO). Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:21663699

  9. valuation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , erucic acid (23.67 ìmol/g) and higher amounts of oleic acid (59.01%). Due to its high yield and oil quality, the genotype Siren is recommended for general cultivation in the area and further use in breeding programmes for Brassica napus.

  10. Technical and economic analysis of rapeseed oil for power generation; Technische und wirtschaftliche Wertung der energetischen Verwendung des Rapsoels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenczoel, S.; Bereczy, A.; Penninger, A.

    2001-07-01

    The authors investigated the combustion of raw (filtered) rapeseed oil, the combustion products, and the utilization of waste fat from slaughterhouses. The quality of atomization was investigated using pressure nozzle atomizers. A comparative analysis was made of gas oil, raw (filtered) rapeseed oil, and rapeseed methyl ester. [German] In der Landwirtschaft gibt es ein bedeutendes alternatives Brennstoffpotential, dessen energetische Verwendung am zweckdienlichsten innerhalb der landwirtschaftlichen energetischen Technologien zu verwirklichen ist. Daher untersuchten wir die Moeglichkeit der Verbrennung des rohen (filtrierten) Rapsoels im Waermekessel, den Verlauf der Verbrennung und die Zusammensetzung des Verbrennungsproduktes. Andererseits wird beansprucht, dass durch die Verbrennung des - durch die Fleischverarbeitung der Schlachthoefe entstandenen, nicht lebensmittelechten - Abfallfettes ein Teil des Energiebedarfes des verarbeitenden Betriebes gedeckt sein soll. Die Qualitaet der Zerstaeubung untersuchten wir mit Druckduesenzerstaeuber. Wir fuehrten eine vergleichende Analyse mit den Brennstoffen Gasoel, rohem (filtriertem) Rapsoel und Rapsmethylester (RME) durch. (orig.)

  11. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  12. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples were...... faster in the presence of RO allowing more room for the conformational changes to occur. Final SFC decreased with increasing RO content. Shear applied in 20 and 30 % blends caused the destruction of b0-related 3L structure leaving only 2L packing. In AMF and statically crystallized samples, both 3L and 2...

  13. Anti-polymerization activity of tea and fruits extracts during rapeseed oil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Korczak, Józef

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of natural antioxidants on polymerization of partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil heated in 170°C for 40h. In the research ethanolic extracts of green tea leaves (China Lung Ching), yellow tea leaves (China Kakecha), cranberry, blackberry, and lime were used. The yellow and green tea extracts were characterized by the highest content of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Polymers of triacylglycerols were found only in the polar fraction of heated oil. During heating, the increase of dimers, trimers, and oligomers was observed. However, it was dependent on the used additives and not directly related to the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The final content of polymers in oil samples increased in the fallowing order: green teaoil without additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (pmicronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Long; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Rui-Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthesis in "green" seeds, such as rapeseed, soybean, and Arabidopsis, plays a substantial role in the improved efficiency of oil accumulation. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the coordinated expression of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related genes in such developing seeds remains to be elucidated. Here, we found that seed-specific overexpression of BnWRI1, a WRI1 homolog from rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. ZGY2), results in enhanced chlorophyll content in developing seeds and increased oil content and seed mass in matured seeds. BnWRI1 was co-expressed with BnBCCP and BnCAB, two marker genes of FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis during seed development, respectively. Overexpression of BnWRI1 increased expression of both marker genes. Further, the nuclear-localized BnWRI1 protein was found to act as a transcription activator. It could bind to the GT1-element and/or GCC-box, which are widespread in the upstream regions of genes involved in FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways. Accordingly, BnWRI1 could interact with promoters of BCCP2 and LHB1B2 in vivo. These results suggested that BnWRI1 may coordinate FA biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways in developing seeds via directly stimulating expression of GT1-element and/or GCC-box containing genes. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun-Duo; Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Fan

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60°C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic interesterification of butterfat with rapeseed oil in a continuous packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Yang, Tiankui; Mu, Huiling

    2005-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of butterfat blended with rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) was investigated both in batch and in continuous reactions. Six commercially available immobilized lipases were screened in batch experiments, and the lipases, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM, were chosen...... when the temperature was raised from 60 degrees C to 90 degrees C, whereas RM IM had a positive effect when the temperature was increased from 40 degrees C to 80 degrees C. Even though TL IM is an sn-1,3 specific lipase, small changes in the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol could be seen......, whereafter it dramatically decreased over the next 10 days to an activity level of 40%. In general, the study shows no significant difference for butterfat interesterification in terms of enzyme behavior from normal vegetable oils and fats even though it contains short-chain fatty acids and cholesterol...

  19. Exploration for unknown substances in rapeseed oil that shorten survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Effects of super critical gas extraction fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Nagata, Tomoko; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Fuma, Shin-Ya; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Okuyama, Harumi

    2006-07-01

    To identify the causative substances for the shortening of survival time by rapeseed (Canola) oil in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), SHRSP were fed on a standard chow supplemented with 10 w/w% soybean oil (control), rapeseed oil, one of the fractions of rapeseed oil obtained by super critical gas extraction (SCE) under a pressure of 180-bar or 350-bar, at 40 degrees C, or the residue from the extraction (with 0.5% NaCl in drinking water). In another series of experiment, SHRSP were fed for 8 weeks on the above-mentioned diets without salt loading and autopsied. Fatty acid compositions in these diets were similar, except in the soybean oil diet, and phytosterol contents were: (diet containing) 180-bar fraction>residue>rapeseed oil>350-bar fraction>soybean oil. Survival times in the rapeseed oil, 350-bar fraction and residue groups were shorter than, whereas that in the 180-bar fraction was similar to in the soybean oil group. In the 8-week feeding experiment, chronic nephropathy was found frequently in the groups other than the soybean oil group. The heart weights were higher in the rapeseed oil and residue groups. Cerebral necrosis was found in the residue group. Taken together, the followings are concluded, (1) Neither the fatty acid composition, nor the amount of phytosterols in the diets appeared to be decisive in the shortening of life. (2) SCE appeared to produce a safe (180-bar) fraction, though it failed to separate clearly the causative substances into specific fractions. (3) The factors that facilitate the genetic disease of SHRSP appear to exist in rapeseed oil. However, they might not be identical to those responsible for the life-shortening, since there were no findings common across the rapeseed oil, 350-bar and residue groups, which showed similar life-shortening.

  20. Fields of application for the by-products of extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil; Anvaendningsomraaden foer biprodukterna vid pressning och omfoerestring av rapsolja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven

    2007-07-01

    Rapeseed contains 40-50% oil that can be extracted by pressing and possibly subsequent extraction. The residue, rapeseed cake, normally contains 10-25% oil, but rapeseed meal subjected to extraction only contains a few percent oil. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal can be used as animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or fertiliser. If the extracted oil is used as a vehicle fuel it is normally transesterified to rapeseed oil methyl ester and then glycerol is produced as a by-product. Glycerol can be used for animal feed, fuel, biogas substrate or in the chemical industry as a raw material or additive in several products. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate how rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal, together with glycerol from transesterification of rapeseed oil, could be used in different applications, and to calculate their economic values in these uses. Used as a ruminant feed, current rapeseed cultivars can provide the entire dietary protein requirement. Up to 10% of the feed or concentrate mix for pigs, poultry and horses can comprise rapeseed feed. For piglets and horses, the palatability may limit the amount fed. The amount of rapeseed cake fed is restricted by its oil content. Normally, ruminants can manage 5% fat and horses about 2% fat in concentrate, and pigs 5% and poultry 1-1.5% fat in the overall diet. Glycerol can be an energy component of the feed mix. Cattle, sheep and pigs have been successfully fed a mixture containing 5-10% glycerol, and poultry a mixture containing 5%. Glycerol works well as a binding agent in feed pellet manufacture, with an admixture of 2-3% giving a more solid pellet. Rapeseed cake and rapeseed meal may be incinerated, but produce an ash with a relatively low melting-point, causes sintering and deposits to form in the furnace. The amount of ash is rather high, about 6%. The high nitrogen content (4-6% of dry matter) gives high nitric oxide emissions, often 2-3.6 times the emissions of fuels deficient in nitrogen. The high oil

  1. An improved extraction method of rapeseed oil sample preparation for the subsequent determination in it of azole class fungicides by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail F. Zayats

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 19 azole class pesticides in hexane/aqueous–organic mixtures systems and rapeseed oil (or oil solution in hexane/organic solvents has been studied at 20 ± 1 °C. The distribution constants (P and coefficients (D between hydrocarbon and polar phase are calculated. It is found that all the studied pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e., in hexane–water system logP ≫ 0. Replacement of water by organic solvents results in sharp logP falling, and their values become negative. It is revealed that solutions of strong inorganic acids in anhydrous acetonitrile extract azole class pesticides from hexane and vegetable oils most fully and selectively. In particular, the acidification of acetonitrile causes a drop of D values in 50–2000 times for the majority of the studied pesticides. This phenomenon was used for the development of the improved technique for the quantitative analysis of a widely used azole class pesticides, which can be presented at trace levels in rapeseed oil. The proposed methodology is based on dissociation extraction (DE of azoles using perchloric acid in anhydrous acetonitrile, with following clean-up of acetonitrile extract from organic impurities by hexane and aqueous solution of dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate, and final GC–ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detection determination of azole fungicides. The values of obtained recoveries were between 85% and 115% with RSD values below 10%. The obtained limits of quantitation, ranged from 3.0 to 300 μg kg−1, are below the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by the European Union for the majority of pesticides. The developed method was successfully applied to different rapeseed oil samples.

  2. The effect of the acidity of rapeseed oil on its transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the transesterification of vegetable oil with a high acid number at unchanged reaction conditions. Rapeseed oil was used as the raw material and its acid number was changed by the addition of oleic acid (from 0.89 to 12.25 mg KOH/g). Methanol was used for transesterification (molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:6) and potassium hydroxide was used as a catalyst. After the reaction time, the residue of the catalyst was neutralised by gaseous carbon dioxide and the methanol excess was removed. After the separation of two phases, each of them was analyzed (in the ester phase: yield, content of methyl ester and acid number; in the glycerol phase: yield, density, viscosity, content of glycerol, soaps, methyl ester, potassium carbonate and hydrogen carbonate). The obtained data was compared with theoretical material balances and the effect on the saponification of oil was discussed. The results show that the yield of methyl ester (biodiesel) is significantly affected by a higher acid number, as well as enhanced soap formation. On the other hand, the conversion of the oil and acid number of the ester phase remain at constant values in studied borders.

  3. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Polyols from Rapeseed Oil and Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Dworakowska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of raw materials derived from renewable feedstock has given rise to growing interest recently, as it can be exploited for the production of bio-based materials from vegetable oils. Their availability, biodegradability and low prices have been taken into account. In this work, vegetable oil-based polyols as a prospective replacement for petroleum polyols were investigated. A two-stage method for polyol preparation by incomplete epoxidation of natural oils and subsequent complete oxirane ring opening under microwave irradiation is presented. The course of epoxidation and oxirane ring-opening process was determined analytically by an evaluation of iodine, epoxy and hydroxyl values. The samples of oils and their derivatives were also analyzed by FT-IR and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC in order to calculate their functionalities. Finally, polyols with two different hydroxyl values were obtained and used for the synthesis of flexible polyurethane (PUR foams. The scope of this research includes the determination of the relationship between the rapeseed oil-based polyol content and the properties of the resulting materials. It was found that applying bio-based polyols in conjunction with petroleum-based polyols for PUR foams formulations resulted in materials with good mechanical properties and a higher number of cells with smaller dimensions.

  4. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  5. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-11-01

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  7. Effect of ultrasound and green solvents addition on the oil extraction efficiency from rapeseed flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, A; Delsart, C; Boussetta, N; Grimi, N; Citeau, M; Vorobiev, E

    2017-11-01

    The current procedure of rapeseed oil extraction is based on a first extraction step by pressing followed by a second extraction step with hexane. This solvent being toxic for the users, the consumers and the environment, its use could be forbidden within the coming years. Stimulated by a stringent regulation, the research activity for the replacement of toxic solvents shows a significant development. The aim of this study was to select alternative solvent to hexane such as ethanol or isopropanol, and, to adjust the oil extraction process by developing an ultrasound assisted method. The objective was to reach a comparable efficiency but also to enhance the oil quality. When applied to isopropanol, the ultrasound assisted extraction method has shown promising results, and comparable to those obtained with hexane (oil yield of 80% for hexane and 79% for isopropanol at optimum extraction conditions (20min of ultrasound pretreatment followed by 2h of additional solid/liquid extraction)). Conversely, in studied conditions, ethanol did not seem to be an appropriate alternative solvent to hexane as the extraction yields obtained by using this solvent were quite low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewinska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils—linseed (LO and rapeseed (RO oils—were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect.

  9. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol......Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...

  10. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  12. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-10-14

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  13. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1 but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  14. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent elevation of CO2, O3 and temperature severely affects oil quality and quantity in rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Stockmarr, Anders; Frenck, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant oil is an essential dietary and bio-energy resource. Despite this, the effects of climate change on plant oil quality remain to be elucidated. The present study is the first to show changes in oil quality and quantity of four rapeseed cultivars in climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3...... FAs remained unchanged or even increased. Most reduced was the FA essential for human nutrition, C18:3-ω3, which decreased by 39% and 45% in the combined scenarios with elevated [CO2]+T+[O3] and [CO2]+T, respectively. Average oil content decreased 3–17%. When [CO2] and T were elevated concurrently......, the seed biomass was reduced by half, doubling the losses in FAs and oil content. This corresponded to a 58% reduction in the oil yield per hectare, and C18:3-ω3 decreased by 77%. Furthermore, the polyunsaturated FAs were significantly decreased. The results indicate undesirable consequences for production...

  16. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  17. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  18. Improved tribological properties of the synthesized copper/carbon nanotube nanocomposites for rapeseed oil-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ren, Ruirui; Song, Haojie; Jia, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with uniform copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were successfully prepared via a facile approach towards surface modification of CNTs with spontaneous polydopamine (PDA). The structures and morphologies of the nanocomposites were investigated by different kinds of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were fabricated by growing the Cu NPs with an average diameter of 5 nm on the surfaces of PDA-modified CNTs. The CNTs functionalized with PDA layer not only provide an anchoring platform for the Cu NPs immobilization, but also endow Cu/PDA/CNTs with good dispersion stability when Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites were used as lubricant additive. The tribological performance of the nanocomposites as the rapeseed oil lubricant additive, as well as Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs, was also investigated using a MS-T3000 ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the 0.2 wt% Cu/PDA/CNTs nanoadditive simultaneously reduce the friction and wear by 33.5% and 23.7%, respectively, outperformed the tribological performance of Cu NPs, CNTs, and Cu/CNTs nanoadditives. In addition, the presence of active sites in Cu/PDA/CNTs was beneficial to reduce the time of running-in period, give rise to the fastest speed to be stable of the friction coefficient curve as compared to the other nanoadditives. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy of the worn surfaces lubricated by the soybean oil with Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites showed that formation of low shear strength tribofilms containing Cu/PDA/CNTs nanocomposites and its self-lubricating property was key factor in reduction of the friction and protection against wear and deformation.

  19. Synergetic Use of Principal Component Analysis Applied to Normed Physicochemical Measurements and GC × GC-MS to Reveal the Stabilization Effect of Selected Essential Oils on Heated Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Lefèvre, Fanny; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to the formation of volatile compounds and very often to off-flavors. In the case of the heating of rapeseed oil, unpleasant odors, characterized as a fishy odor, are emitted. In this study, 2 different essential oils (coriander and nutmeg essential oils) were added to refined rapeseed oil as odor masking agents. The aim of this work was to determine a potential antioxidant effect of these essential oils on the thermal stability of rapeseed oil subject to heating cycles between room temperature and 180 °C. For this purpose, normed determinations of different parameters (peroxide value, anisidine value, and the content of total polar compounds, free fatty acids and tocopherols) were carried out to examine the differences between pure and degraded oil. No significant difference was observed between pure rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil with essential oils for each parameter separately. However, a stabilizing effect of the essential oils, with a higher effect for the nutmeg essential oil was highlighted by principal component analysis applied on physicochemical dataset. Moreover, the analysis of the volatile compounds performed by GC × GC showed a substantial loss of the volatile compounds of the essential oils from the first heating cycle. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  1. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  2. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of methanol and formate in Wistar rats after oral administration of methylated rapeseed oil: a fuel for lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Soenke; Tiefenbach, Birgit; Kobow, Manfred; Hennighausen, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Low viscosity, low surface tension and low volatility are features of lamp oils contributing to chemical pneumonia that can occur after ingestion. Because lamp oils with such physico-chemical properties have been forbidden in the European Community from July 2000 onward, industry has developed different products, mostly based upon rapeseed oil. The fatty acids of these oils are methylated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate whether methanol is released in Wistar rats after oral administration of these new lamp oils. Applying a dose of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil, peak levels of methanol were reached at 1 h (54.6 +/- 18.6 microg/ml), methanol was not detectable at 8 h. After the instillation of 4 ml/kg of lamp oil peak levels occurred at 2 h (189.2 +/- 24.9 microg/ml). The metabolite formate increased with time, and was highest at 8 h after the administration of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil (32.9 +/- 2.9 microg/ml). Starvation before the administration of 1 ml/kg body weight lamp oil decreased the methanol serum concentrations, but the differences were not significant. Based upon these experimental data in rats, it can be concluded that in humans small amounts of methanol will be released after ingestion of these lamp oils. As these products are mainly ingested accidentally by toddlers in low quantities, the risk of a methanol intoxication seems to be very low.

  4. Biofuel by isomerizing metathesis of rapeseed oil esters with (bio)ethylene for use in contemporary diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Kai F; Baader, Sabrina; Baader, Mathias; Berndt, Silvia; Goossen, Lukas J

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste. It demonstrates that the pressing challenge of increasing the fraction of renewables in engine fuel may be addressed purely chemically rather than by motor engineering.

  5. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  6. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  7. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  8. Rapeseed research and production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qiong; Hua, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xuekun; Liu, Lijiang; Shi, Jiaqin; Zhao, Yongguo; Qin, Lu; Chen, Chang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and...

  9. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  10. Influence of α-lipoic acid on morphology of organs of rabbits fed a high fat diet with the addition of oxidised rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawiarska-Pięta Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA on the morphology of the aorta and liver of rabbits fed high fat diet with addition of oxidised (ORO and non-oxidised rapeseed oil (N-ORO.

  11. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt - Dongen, S.H.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Riemersma, R.A.; Sebedio, J.L.; Chardigny, J.M.; Mensink, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    : Br J Nutr 2001 Mar;85(3):387-92 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comment in: Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):249-50. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Vermunt SH, Beaufrere B, Riemersma RA, Sebedio JL,

  12. Effect of environment on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed seed is highly valuable raw material in oil and food industry. The main goals of rapeseed breeding are oil as the product with the highest commercial value, oil quality, and yield. Different winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids were tested at different locations in order to test their value. The environment had significant effect on seed yield. .

  13. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  14. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  17. Enrichment of anhydrous milk fat in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues from linseed and rapeseed oils through enzymatic interesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguedo, Mario; Hanon, Emilien; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Lognay, Georges; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe

    2008-03-12

    Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and, especially, linolenic acids) from natural vegetable oils. Binary blends of AMF/LO 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 (w/w) were interesterified. The change in triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles showed that quasi-equilibrium conditions were reached after 4-6 h of reaction. Free fatty acid contents plastic properties for the products originating from the blends 70/30 and 60/40. This was confirmed by textural measurements. Melting profiles determined by differential scanning calorimetry showed complete disappearance of low-melting TAGs from LO and the formation of intermediary species with a lower melting temperature. Oxidative stability of the interesterified products was diminished with increasing LO content, resulting in low oxidation induction times. A ternary blend composed of AMF/RO/LO 70/20/10 gave satisfactory rheological and oxidative properties, fulfilling the requirements for a marketable spread and, moreover, offering increased potential health benefits due to the enriched content in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues.

  18. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  20. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  1. Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized onto Chitin Conjugated with POSS® Compounds: Useful Tool for Rapeseed Oil Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Zdarta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for the production of a novel chitin-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS enzyme support. Analysis by such techniques as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the effective functionalization of the chitin surface. The resulting hybrid carriers were used in the process of immobilization of the lipase type b from Candida antarctica (CALB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme. The tests of the catalytic activity showed that the resulting support-biocatalyst systems remain hydrolytically active (retention of the hydrolytic activity up to 87% for the chitin + Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS + CALB after 24 h of the immobilization, as well as represents good thermal and operational stability, and retain over 80% of its activity in a wide range of temperatures (30–60 °C and pH (6–9. Chitin-POSS-lipase systems were used in the transesterification processes of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. Produced systems allowed the total conversion of the oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol after 24 h of the process at pH 10 and a temperature 40 °C, while the Methacryl POSS® cage mixture (MPOSS was used as a chitin-modifying agent.

  2. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastian, Zahra; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Guo, Zheng; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Mortazavi, Yadollah

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.

  3. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg RE.kg- 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg RE.kg- 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg RE.kg- 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg RE.kg- 1.

  4. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  5. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yong-Lu; Tian, Song-Jiang; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M

    2011-03-01

    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals from a Rapeseed Oil through Catalytic Cracking Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siauw H; Shi, Yu; Heshka, Nicole E; Zhang, Yi; Little, Edward

    2016-09-02

    The work is based on a reported study which investigates the processability of canola oil (bio-feed) in the presence of bitumen-derived heavy gas oil (HGO) for production of transportation fuels through a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) route. Cracking experiments are performed with a fully automated reaction unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 hr(-1), 490-530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4-12 g/g. When a feed is in contact with catalyst in the fluid-bed reactor, cracking takes place generating gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The vapor produced is condensed and collected in a liquid receiver at -15 °C. The non-condensable effluent is first directed to a vessel and is sent, after homogenization, to an on-line gas chromatograph (GC) for refinery gas analysis. The coke deposited on the catalyst is determined in situ by burning the spent catalyst in air at high temperatures. Levels of CO2 are measured quantitatively via an infrared (IR) cell, and are converted to coke yield. Liquid samples in the receivers are analyzed by GC for simulated distillation to determine the amounts in different boiling ranges, i.e., IBP-221 °C (gasoline), 221-343 °C (light cycle oil), and 343 °C+ (heavy cycle oil). Cracking of a feed containing canola oil generates water, which appears at the bottom of a liquid receiver and on its inner wall. Recovery of water on the wall is achieved through washing with methanol followed by Karl Fischer titration for water content. Basic results reported include conversion (the portion of the feed converted to gas and liquid product with a boiling point below 221 °C, coke, and water, if present) and yields of dry gas (H2-C2's, CO, and CO2), liquefied petroleum gas (C3-C4), gasoline, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, coke, and water, if present.

  8. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  9. Rapeseed oil methyl ester pyrolysis: on-line product analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyl, Steven P; Schietekat, Carl M; Van Geem, Kevin M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Vercammen, Joeri; Beens, Jan; Marin, Guy B

    2011-05-27

    Thermochemical conversion processes play a crucial role in all routes from fossil and renewable resources to base chemicals, fuels and energy. Hence, a fundamental understanding of these chemical processes can help to resolve the upcoming challenges of our society. A bench scale pyrolysis set-up has been used to study the thermochemical conversion of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), i.e. a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. A GC×GC, equipped with both a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), allows quantitative and qualitative characterization of the reactor feed and product. Analysis of the latter is accomplished using a dedicated high temperature on-line sampling system. Temperature programmed analysis, starting at -40°C, permits effluent characterization from methane up to lignoceric acid methyl ester (C(25)H(50)O(2)), in a single run of the GC×GC. The latter combines a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane primary column with a 50% phenyl polysilphenylene-siloxane secondary column. Modulation is started when the oven temperature reaches 40°C, thus dividing the chromatogram in a conventional 1D and a comprehensive 2D part. The proposed quantification approach allows to combine the quantitative GC×GC analysis with 2 other on-line 1D GC analyses, resulting in a complete and detailed product composition including the measurement of CO, CO(2), formaldehyde and water. The GC×GC reveals that the product stream contains a huge variety of valuable products, such as linear alpha olefins, unsaturated esters and aromatics, that could not have been identified and quantified accurately with conventional 1D GC because of peak overlap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety......, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  11. Jasna: A new winter rapeseed cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The program of winter rapeseed breeding at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops covers the development of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids. Winter rapeseed cultivars are selected for high and stabile grain and oil yield, good oil quality, low erucic acid and glucosinolate content (type 00 and tolerance to stresses caused by abiotic and biotic factors. This paper reviews agronomic characteristics and grain and oil quality of a new cultivar of winter rapeseed Jasna. In the trials of the Serbian Commission for new cultivars registration, cultivar Jasna had higher grain yield then standard, in the three locations and two years. In average the yield was 4566 kg/ha. Oil content is at the level of the standard. The erucic acid content and glucosinolate content are lower then that in the standard and that are positive characteristics. .

  12. Investigations of used hydraulic oils derived from rapeseed oil from a long-term practice test; Untersuchungen an gebrauchten Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis aus einer Langzeit-Praxisstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosmann, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Physik der Fette; Sandner, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Physik der Fette; Spilker, M. [Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Ihrig, H. [Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Because of their excellent biodegradation and their low water pollution potential hydraulic oils derived from plant oils are suitable to replace the dominantly used hydraulic oils derived from mineral oil. In a long-term practice test a rapeseed based hydraulic oil (Plantohyd 40 N, Fuchs Mineraloelwerke GmbH) was tested for a period of 30 months in a sheet steel press. During the operating time (>7000 h) samples were taken in non-regular intervals. As a measure for oil aging, the acid value and the viscosity at 40 C were determined. Polymerisation has led to an increase of viscosity; the portion of the resulting dimeric and oligomeric triglycerides was determined by GPC. A determination of the oxidative stability by means of Rancimat apparatus only makes sense when applied for samples with short operating times (<1000 h) because of the short induction period. GPC also showed an increase of free fatty acids and other low molecular weight compounds. The polar compounds (including the non-polar dimeric triglycerides) were isolated. The structure determination of the resulting dimeric fatty acids and low molecular weight products remains to be done. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wegen ihrer ausgezeichneten biologischen Abbaubarkeit und des niedrigen Wasserverschmutzungspotentials sind Hydraulikoele aus Pflanzenoelen geeignet, die vorwiegend verwendeten Hydraulikoele auf Mineraloelbasis zu ersetzen. In einer Langzeit-Praxisstudie wurde ein Hydraulikoel auf Rapsoelbasis ueber einen Zeitraum von 30 Monaten in einer Stahlblechpresse verwendet. Waehrend der ca. 7000 Betriebsstunden wurden in unregelmaessigen Abstaenden dem Oel Proben entnommen. Als Mass fuer den Grad der Oelalterung wurden die Neutralisationszahl und Viskositaet bei 40 C bestimmt. Der Viskositaetsanstieg ist im wesentlichen auf Polymerisationsvorgaenge zurueckzufuehren; daher wurde der Anteil an dimeren und oligomeren Triglyceriden im Oel mittels Gel-Permeationschromatogrpahie (GPC) ermittelt. Eine Untersuchung der

  13. Feeding of palm oil fatty acids or rapeseed oil throughout lactation: Effects on energy status, body composition, and milk production in Norwegian dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknæs, M; Chilliard, Y; Hove, K; Inglingstad, R A; Bernard, L; Volden, H

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats. Treatments (60-230 DIM) were (1) basal concentrate (control; no added fat); (2) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) hydrogenated palm oil enriched with palmitic acid (POFA); and (3) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) rapeseed oil (RSO). Individual energy balances based on energy intake and milk production were estimated on 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 200, and 230 DIM. At the same times, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), body mass index, and body tissue stores using computed tomography were monitored. Silage intake was depressed by POFA throughout the experimental period. Reduced BW and body mass index were observed in the POFA and RSO groups, whereas no effect on BCS or body composition was observed throughout lactation. Generally, a minor decrease in BW was observed from 10 to 120 DIM (only 0.6 kg on average) and the total amount of body lipid was reduced by 4.4 kg. During the mountain grazing period, a further reduction in body lipid stores (2.7 kg) was observed, and BW was reduced by 3.9 kg in the same period. The goats mobilized, on average, 72% of their fat reserves during the first 200 DIM. In this period, dietary fat supplementation did not reduce the mobilization of adipose tissue but resulted in greater milk fat yield (2 kg more, on average, compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected

  14. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  15. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  16. Phenolic extracts from Sorbus aucuparia (L.) and Malus baccata (L.) berries: antioxidant activity and performance in rapeseed oil during frying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Matthäus, Bertrand

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65°C, under Rancimat at 120°C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased EPA levels in serum phospholipids of humans after four weeks daily ingestion of one portion chicken fed linseed and rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the amounts of arachidonic acid (AA and EPA in food may have implications for human health, we investigated whether a small change in chicken feed influenced the blood lipid concentration in humans ingesting the chicken. Forty-six young healthy volunteers (age 20–29 were randomly allocated into two groups in a double-blind dietary intervention trial, involving ingestion of about 160 g chicken meat per day for 4 weeks. The ingested meat was either from chickens given a feed concentrate resembling the commercial chicken feed, containing 4% soybean oil (SO, or the meat was from chickens given a feed where the soybean oil had been replaced by 2% rapeseed oil plus 2% linseed oil (RLO. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, serum phospholipid fatty acid concentration, blood pressure, body weight and C-reactive protein were determined at baseline and post-intervention. In subjects consuming chicken meat from the RLO group there was a significantly (p

  18. A general computation model based on inverse analysis principle used for rheological analysis of W/O rapeseed and soybean oil emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintila, Iuliana; Gavrus, Adinel

    2017-10-01

    The present research paper proposes the validation of a rigorous computation model used as a numerical tool to identify rheological behavior of complex emulsions W/O. Considering a three-dimensional description of a general viscoplastic flow it is detailed the thermo-mechanical equations used to identify fluid or soft material's rheological laws starting from global experimental measurements. Analyses are conducted for complex emulsions W/O having generally a Bingham behavior using the shear stress - strain rate dependency based on a power law and using an improved analytical model. Experimental results are investigated in case of rheological behavior for crude and refined rapeseed/soybean oils and four types of corresponding W/O emulsions using different physical-chemical composition. The rheological behavior model was correlated with the thermo-mechanical analysis of a plane-plane rheometer, oil content, chemical composition, particle size and emulsifier's concentration. The parameters of rheological laws describing the industrial oils and the W/O concentrated emulsions behavior were computed from estimated shear stresses using a non-linear regression technique and from experimental torques using the inverse analysis tool designed by A. Gavrus (1992-2000).

  19. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  20. The transesterification of rapeseed and waste sunflower oils: Mass-transfer and kinetics in a laboratory batch reactor and in an industrial-scale reactor/separator setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofutar, B; Golob, J; Likozar, B; Klofutar, C; Zagar, E; Poljansek, I

    2010-05-01

    We have investigated the transesterification of rapeseed (RO) and waste sunflower (SO) oils with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The transesterification of tri-acylglycerols was first conducted in a batch reactor. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rates was studied at a constant molar ratio of the alcohol to tri-acylglycerols (6:1) and for a constant concentration of the catalyst (1.0wt%). Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to quantitatively monitor the transesterification reaction. The mass-transfer coefficients of the tri-acylglycerols during the initial transesterification stage were found to be 0.2-1.2x10(-5)mmin(-1), depending on the type of oil and the temperature. Calculated activation energies implied that at higher temperatures the formation of mono-acylglycerols and glycerole was favored for the SO (93kJ/mol for the forward and 48kJ/mol for the backward reaction) and the RO (47kJ/mol for the forward and 36kJ/mol for the backward reaction), respectively. For the continuous industrial reactor/separator setup, the optimum methanol recycle ratio was established as 0.0550. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Gurboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-10-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source. (author)

  2. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Forestry

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  3. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  4. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Economics of rapeseed production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Rade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed production in Serbia is characterized by an increasing trend, as a result of positive price signals from international market. Since previous researches on economics of rapeseed production were aimed at non-family farms, focus in this paper is on the same aspects on family farms from lowland production region. Results are analyzed in view of micro and macro-economic trends. Increase of world demand for oil crops, as a result of increasing production of renewable fuels and food needs, causes a trend of higher prices, which will probably remain in the following period. Due to this, opportunities are made for Serbian farmers in lowland production region to increase agriculture area under rapeseed. .

  6. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  7. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  8. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  9. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  10. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masami Shinke; Kenji Miyazato; Toshiharu Tada; Yasuo Takeuchi; Yoshitake Nakagami; Rumiko Shimizu; Masaaki Kosaka; Motoo Wada

    2003-01-01

      In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were...

  11. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  12. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  13. Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negele, L; Schneider, B; Ristl, R; Stulnig, T M; Willfort-Ehringer, A; Helk, O; Widhalm, K

    2015-03-01

    There is convincing evidence that unsaturated fatty acids exert favourable effects on plasma cholesterol levels. However, it is not clear which type of oil has the most pronounced effect, especially not in paediatric patients. The aim was to compare two low-fat diet regimes enriched with either monounsaturated fatty acids by rapeseed oil (RO) or polyunsaturated fatty acids by sunflower oil (SO) in children affected with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Twenty-one children aged 6-18 years affected with FH were enrolled in this randomized and double-blind pilot trial. The subjects and their families were trained to adhere to a low-fat/low-cholesterol diet. All visible fats were to be replaced by either RO or SO (14-27 g/day) for 13 weeks. Dietary adherence was controlled by repeated 4-day dietary records; plasma lipids, lipoproteins and risk markers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Out of 21 subjects, 16 could be followed-up after 6 months. Both fat-modified diets resulted in significant reduction in total cholesterol concentrations of 9.4% (RO P<0.005 vs SO P<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 12.7% (P<0.005) for RO and 11.3% (P<0.05) for SO. The reduction of the LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (RO 9% vs SO 3.5%) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (RO 16.8% vs SO 1.7%) were not statistically significant, respectively. In most participating families, a change in eating habits could be observed. A fat-modified diet enriched with RO seems to have very similar effects on cholesterol levels as with SO. However, our study suggests that RO has possibly more favourable effects concerning cardiovascular risk profile. Both diets appear to be feasible and were well accepted among our subjects. Although these results are promising, larger trials will be required to validate our findings.

  14. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  15. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  16. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruczynska, Eliza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  17. Glucosinolates in rapeseed as antinutritive factors in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed has multiple purposes: animal nutrition, production of oil and biodiesel. Content of oil and protein in dry seeds of rapeseed is 40-47% and 19-29%, respectively. However, the seed also contains harmful substances: glucosinolates, erucic acid, phytate and tannin. This paper describes the importance of rapeseed in animal nutrition and shows the possibility of its inclusion in animal meal depending on the content of glucosinolates. The main antinutritive factors present in this oil crop are glucosinolates, therefore this paper shows their biological effect in animal nutrition and their detoxification. Canola varieties have reduced glucosinolate content and they have almost entirely superseded the old varieties of rapeseed. Glucosinolates alone are biologically inactive molecules, but their degradation products are biologically active and well known for their diverse biological effects. The degree of negative impact of glucosinolates in the diet of animals depends on their level and composition of formed degradation products, but also the species and age of animals. In order to reduce glucosinolate content different methods are used which include their hydrolysis or decomposition before feeding the animals.

  18. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the new edible-oil in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to distinguish the different proportion of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; on the other hand we use partial least squares (PLS to predict the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil. Two conclusions were proposed: data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue can be used to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; in contrast to single used electronic nose or single used electronic tongue, the detection effect has increased by using data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue.

  19. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  20. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E.; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369326; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Thybaut, Joris W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas

  1. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... that contains at least 30 percent of an industrial type of oil as shown on the Special Provisions and... Official United States Standards for Grain including, but not limited to protein and oil, will not be...

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  3. Use of rapeseed and pea grain protein supplements for organic milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass-red clover silage was fed ad libitum. In experiment 1 a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats and barley was given at 8 kg (C. Three isonitrogenous protein supplements were a commercial rapeseed meal (218 g kg-1 dry matter (DM; RSM, crushed organic field pea (Pisum sativum L. (452 g kg-1 DM; P and a mixture of pea (321 g kg-1 DM and organic rapeseed (Spring turnip rape, Brassica rapa L. oleifera subv. annua (155 g kg-1 DM; PRS. Cows on P and PRS diets produced as much milk as cows on the RSM diet. Milk yield was higher but protein content lower with PRS diet than with diet P. In experiment 2 a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design was used. A mixture of oats (395 g kg-1 , barley (395 g kg-1 and a commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (210 g kg-1 was given at 8 kg (RSC. The second diet (ORSC consisted (g kg-1 of oats (375, barley (375 and cold-pressed organic rapeseed cake (250. The third diet (RSCO consisted (g kg-1 of oat (395, barley (395 and commercial heat-moisture treated rapeseed cake (250 and additional rapeseed oil (0.38 kg to balance fat content between ORSC and RSCO diets. There was no dietary effect on the yield of energy corrected milk. Milk yield was higher with RSCO diet compared with other diets.;

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study Dissects the Genetic Architecture of Seed Weight and Seed Quality in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L.; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using ‘pseudomolecules’ representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their...

  5. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  7. Sinapinic and protocatechuic acids found in rapeseed: isolation, characterisation and potential benefits for human health as functional food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Leah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is one of the world’s major oilseeds, and rapeseed oil is produced by pressing of the seeds. This process results in the production of a low-economic-value by-product, rapeseed meal, which is commonly used as animal feed. Rapeseed meal is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, including sinapinic acid (SA and protocatechuic acid (PCA. Isolation of these bioactive compounds from a by-product of rapeseed oil production is largely in agreement with the current concept of the circular economy and total utilisation of crop harvest using a biorefinery approach. In this review, current information concerning traditional and novel methods to isolate phenolic compounds – including SA and PCA – from rapeseed meal, along with in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the bioactivity of SA and PCA and their associated health effects, is collated. These health effects include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes activities, along with histone deacetylase inhibition and protective cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic effects. The traditional extraction methods include use of solvents and/or enzymes. However, a need for simpler, more efficient methodologies has led to the development of novel extraction processes, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrical discharge extraction processes.

  8. Erucic acid rapeseed: 1. Prospects of improvements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Anushree; Pinochet, Xavier; Merrien, André; Laustriat, Marie; Decocq, Guillaume; Fine, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In the current context of boosting production of high erucic acid rapeseed, because of the wide range of its industrial applications, this literature review is designed to provide a general overview...

  9. Tobacco Rotated with Rapeseed for Soil-Borne Phytophthora Pathogen Biocontrol: Mediated by Rapeseed Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots.

  10. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pershukov, V. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  11. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  12. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  13. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  14. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  15. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  16. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... dependent on the ultra structure of the emulsion; including the size of oil droplets, their distribution and the thickness of the interface between oil and water. This interface is stabilized by macromolecules such as proteins, phospholipids and hydrocolloids. The main objective of this study...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  17. The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils – A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Canola oil is a type of rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid content (Applewhite, 1978). It is a stable oil used in salad dressings, margarine and shortenings. Soybean oil is an important oil with numerous increasing applications in the modern day world. It is classed as a linolenic acid oil since it contains.

  18. Impact of rapeseed press-cake on Maillard reaction in a cookie model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wilkin, Jonathan Desmond; Fiore, Alberto

    2018-03-15

    Rapeseed press-cake (RPC) is a byproduct of rapeseed oil production, rich in proteins and fiber. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cold pressed RPC, RPC fiber isolate and RPC alkaline extract on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) in cookies. Both compounds were influenced by the ingredients: the addition of RPC led to a significant dose-dependent increase of HMF in the cookies and to an increase of acrylamide up to 66.9%. On the contrary, acrylamide concentration was reduced down to 39.6% in presence of the alkaline extract and down to 4.4% in the presence of the fiber extract. The Michael addition of free amino acids to acrylamide was further investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that cysteine was the preferred nucleophile for acrylamide elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  20. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  1. The rapeseed and sunflower biodegradable oils to the Erika's pollution assistance; Les huiles biodegradables de colza et de tournesol au secours de la pollution de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This technical paper presents the practical use of vegetable oils methyl esters (EMHV) in the coasts cleaning, after a black tide. In the case of the Erika's shipwreck the EMHV allowed to fluidify the heavy fuel oil at 120 meters deep in order to realize the pumping. The characteristics of the product, the cleaning by thinner action and the example of the EMHV utilization at Belle-ile are presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  3. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  4. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  5. A re-examination of the technical feasibility and economic viability of rapeseed dehulling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of dehulled sunflower meals on the French market encourages reconsideration of the possibility of applying dehulling techniques to rapeseed. Hulls account for 18−20% of rapeseed mass; they contain mostly fibres (72%, 78% and 99%, respectively of the seeds’ NDF, ADF and ADL. Complete removal of these hulls would result in a high (43% protein meal with enhanced added value. However, the technical feasibility of producing such a meal is impeded by the relatively high oil content of the hull fraction. This article presents a model of mass balance that takes account both of the purity of the “hull” and “kernel” fractions and comparisons of gross margins between conventional processing and dehulling-based processing. The value of dehulled rapeseed meal is assessed against both a range of market scenarios and the composition and price of a selection of alternative feeds. The gross margin differential favours dehulling only in periods where proteins are expensive and oil relatively cheap, as at present. Reducing the oil content of the hulls affects considerably the profitability of dehulling whereas modification of the protein content has only a modest impact. An important unknown is the effect of antinutritional factors on the final price of dehulled meals. Management of the glucosinolates residues through processing might decrease their noxiousness though the information on this is scant. Since this lack of knowledge is an impediment to the implementation of dehulling technology, research and development investments should start by addressing this question. Technical solutions could be developed to recover the oil contained in the hulls. Such solutions include expelling, aqueous extraction or tail-end dehulling after direct extraction of the seeds.

  6. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  8. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  9. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  10. Dependence of rapeseed quality and yield on density, variety and year of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is an important industrial plant in the world. In Vojvodina region of Serbia it is grown on well aerated and deep soils. Most often it is sown with the distance between the rows of 25 cm, and 5-6 cm within the row. The trial with three winter rapeseed genotypes (Banaćanka, Slavica and NS-H-2 was set up at Rimski Šančevi (Vojvodina during growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Seed was sown with inter row spacing of 25 cm, and spacing within the rows of 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm and 16 cm. The following parameters were tested upon harvesting: seed germination, 1000 seed weight, test weight, seed yield, oil content and total protein in seed. No effect of planting density was observed on rapeseed seed quality produced in 2009/10 and 2010/11, which should be kept in mind when determining the quantity of seed required for sowing.

  11. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen

  12. Evaluation of the Use of Spring Rapeseed in Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Trace Elements and Their Effect on Yield Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Piotr Mirosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material was made up by the plant organs of Brassica napus L. from a pot experiment during one vegetation period. There was investigated the effect of relatively high concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil on the rapeseed yield, the content of protein and oil in seeds. The impact of metals was defined based on the content of selected fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds. The highest contents of zinc and copper were found in leaves, lead - in roots and cadmium - in stems. The biological concentration factor values were respectively calculated for all the rapeseed organs. For Cu and Pb the values of biological concentration factor were low and very low for all the plant organs. The doses of Zn (300 mg × kg-1, 600 mg × kg-1 and Cu (80 mg × kg-1, 160 mg × kg-1 applied in the pot experiment resulted in the translocation of metals from the roots to the leaves. The doses of lead (400 mg × kg-1, 1600 mg × kg-1 did not trigger any translocation of that metal from the roots to the above-ground rapeseed plant parts, however, after the application of the cadmium doses (2 mg × kg-1, 6 mg × kg-1, there was recorded a clear translocation of Cd to the rapeseed stems and the leaves. A relatively high content of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in soil had a significant effect neither on the yield parameters and nor on the qualitative characters of the rapeseed seed. Neither did they affect the content of protein, fat and fatty acids in seed-extracted oil. The results of the pot experiment suggest that spring rapeseed is suitable for the phytoremediation of moderately heavy-metalcontaminated soils.

  13. Using herbicides in spring rapeseed and effect on quantity and quality parameters of yeald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, P; Marinković, R; Marisavljević, D; Pavlović, D; Dolovac, E Pfaf

    2011-01-01

    Possibility to chemically control weeds in spring rapeseed has been tested in two locations ( Novi Sad and Kragujevac) and following herbicides (a.i.) : trifluralin, clomazone, quizalofop-p-ethyl and clopyralid. We tested the effect of the herbicides on yield and hectoliter weight of seed and oil and protein contents in seed. In the trial in Kragujevac, a large number of weed species were present, with somewhat increased density and uneven distribution of weed plants. This was particularly evident with grassy weeds and with the species Rubus caesius in several plots. Rapeseed yield and quality were determined by measuring and analyzing the following parameters: grain yield (kg/plot (30 m2), hectoliter weight, oil content (%) and protein content (%) in seed.Basic statistical calculations of rapessed yield and quality were done by the t-test. The tested herbicides showed no adverse effect on the yield and hectoliter weight of seed in either location, with the exception of quizalofop-p-ethyl in Kragujevac, which affected the control variants. Oil content was negatively affected by the combination, trifluralin + clopyralid in the location of Novi Sad and by quizalofop-p-ethyl in the other location. Trifluralin and quizalofop-p-ethyl exhibited a negative effect on protein content in the location of Novi Sad, while there were no statistically significant negative effects in the other location.

  14. Present state and prospects of breeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) with a maximum erucic acid content for industrial applications. Stand und Perspektiven der Zuechtung von Raps (Brassica napus L. ) mit hohem Erucasaeure-Gehalt im Oel fuer industrielle Nutzungszwecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhs, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany)); Friedt, W. (Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung 1, Giessen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed oil with proportions of erucic acid (C22:1) substantially higher than the level found in traditional cultivars (ca. 50% C22:1) are sought by breeders and chemists for use in wellknown industrial processes and products. In a first step available rapeseed and Brassica germplasm was screened for high erucic acid content. Following conventional breeding procedures (e.g. pedigree selection) promising rapeseed genotypes were crossed and the progeny were selected due to genetic variation of oil content and quality. Since rapeseed (B. napus L.) is amenable to improvement through biotechnology as well, further breeding progress was achieved by application of cell and tissue culture techniques, e.g., microspore culture for the production of doubled-haploid lines. Furthermore, an impressive strategy to increase genetic variation is the resynthesis of rapeseed, i.e., by crossing the original ancestors, B. rapa and B. oleracea, accomplished by embryo rescue technique circumventing existing incompatibility barriers. Following this way we have carried out crosses between b. rapa ssp. trilocularis ('Yellow sarson') and several selected cauliflowers in order to create new oilseed rape germplasm with high erucic acid content. The offspring display desirable variation in the content of major fatty acids. Through introgression of resynthesized germplasm into conventional high-erucic acid rapeseed material it should be possible to produce recombinant breeding lines with an erucic acid content of 60% or even more. (orig.)

  15. Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid

    2012-08-08

    During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils.

  16. Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Huei-Chu [Department of Economics, Tamkang University (China); Lee, Yi-Huey [Department of Industrial Economics, Tamkang University (China); Suen, Yu-Bo [Department of Finance and Banking, Aletheia University (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper uses daily Brent crude prices to investigate the employment of electronic trading on the returns conditional volatility in the oil futures market. After a suitable GARCH model is established, the conditional volatility series are found. The Bai and Perron model is then used to find two significant structural breaks for these conditional volatility series around two implementation dates of electronic trading. This result indicates that the change in the trading system has significant impacts on the returns volatility since our estimated second break date is very close to the all-electronic trade implementation date. Moreover, the conditional volatility in the all-electronic trading period is found to be more dominated by the temporal persistence rather than the volatility clustering effect. All these evidence can shed some light for explaining the high relationship between more volatile world oil price and the more popular electronic trade. (author)

  17. Neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping of rapeseed residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; LATIBARI, Ahmad Jahan; FAEZIPOUR, Mehdi; HEDJAZI, Sahab

    2014-01-01

    Neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping of rapeseed residues from Karadj rapeseed growing fields was investigated. Rapeseed residue was collected from the research field at the Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, University of Tehran located in Karadj. Cellulose, lignin, holocellulose, extractives soluble in alcohol acetone, 1% NaOH solubility, and ash were determined as 42 ± 2%, 17 ± 1%, 77.5 ± 2%, 2.2 ± 0.1%, 50.3 ± 1.6%, and 6%, respectively. Fiber length, width, and cell wall t...

  18. [Effect of rapeseed from different distributors on the rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizouri, M

    1993-01-01

    In previous papers it was reported that rapeseed could prevent the development of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and at the same time can induce liver regeneration in the rat. In such experiments rapeseed was always obtained from the same distributor "Semillas Berentsen". When reseed of different distributors was used, neither cirrhosis prevention or liver regeneration was observed. The difference among the rapeseed used was that "Semillas Berentsen" utilizes a fungicide to preserve the seed and the other distributors do not use any preservative. This circumstance made think that the active principle responsible for the effects observed is probably the fungicide.

  19. Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bougrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA, discriminant factor analysis (DFA, and support vector machines (SVMs. Excellent results were obtained in the differentiation between unadulterated and adulterated argan oil with sunflower one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to demonstrate whether the combined e-nose and e-tongue technologies could be successfully applied to the detection of adulteration of argan oil.

  20. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  1. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  2. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40, 1510...

  3. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    300 kg. Dry matter intake (DMI; P=0.01) and daily CH4 emission (P=0.002) were lowest on the FAT. However, CH4 emission per kg DMI (P=0.21) or per kg weight gain (P=0.44) was not different. The loss of CH4 as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower on FAT (6.4%) than on CON (6.8%; P=0......Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately.......08). It is concluded that the FAT may have potential to reduce CH4 emission from heifers, but further studies are warranted to document this effect....

  4. Impact of electron beam irradiation on quality of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemţanu, Monica R; Braşoveanu, Mirela

    2016-03-30

    Sea buckthorn oil is a valuable product that can be incorporated into daily foodstuffs, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. The effect of accelerated electron irradiation up to 8 kGy on quality characteristics of sea buckthorn oil was investigated in this study. Irradiation had no significant influence on phenolic content. Conversely, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, and oxidative status suffered alterations as the irradiation dose increased. Although no colour changes were visible for oil irradiated up to 3 kGy, the total colour difference indicated clearly changes that involved a two-step pattern associated with slow degradation of oil colour up to 3 kGy, followed by a fast degradation up to 8 kGy. Some changes of the oil spectral features related to the frequency and intensity of some bands have been found after irradiation, indicating an alteration of the structural integrity induced by irradiation. The present investigation may be a useful starting point for irradiation processing of food or non-food matrices containing sea buckthorn oil. Thus, sea buckthorn oil safety can be ensured with minimal undesirable changes in its quality by applying irradiation doses up to 3 kGy, which allow control of the microbial contamination depending on microorganism type and initial microbial load. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of seed weight and seed quality in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jinfeng; Song, Weilin; Bancroft, Ian; Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; Liu, Shengyi; Gao, Guizhen; Wang, Nian; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping can quickly and efficiently dissect complex agronomic traits. Rapeseed is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops, although its genome sequence is not yet published. In this study, a recently developed 60K Brassica Infinium(®) SNP array was used to analyse an association panel with 472 accessions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the array were in silico mapped using 'pseudomolecules' representative of the genome of rapeseed to establish their hypothetical order and to perform association mapping of seed weight and seed quality. As a result, two significant associations on A8 and C3 of Brassica napus were detected for erucic acid content, and the peak SNPs were found to be only 233 and 128 kb away from the key genes BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1. BnaA.FAE1 was also identified to be significantly associated with the oil content. Orthologues of Arabidopsis thaliana HAG1 were identified close to four clusters of SNPs associated with glucosinolate content on A9, C2, C7 and C9. For seed weight, we detected two association signals on A7 and A9, which were consistent with previous studies of quantitative trait loci mapping. The results indicate that our association mapping approach is suitable for fine mapping of the complex traits in rapeseed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. Comparison of protein chemical and physicochemical properties of rapeseed cruciferin with those of soybean glycinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Bin; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Motoyasu; Hontani, Naho; Saka, Shiori; Kato, Noboru; Ohkawa, Yasunobu; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2002-12-04

    Rapeseeds contain cruciferin (11S globulin), napin (2S albumin), and oleosin (oil body protein) as major seed proteins. The effects of oil expression and drying conditions on the extraction of these proteins from rapeseed meal were examined. The conditions strongly affected the extraction of oleosin and only weakly affected the extraction of cruciferin and napin. The protein chemical and physicochemical properties of cruciferin, the major protein present, were compared with those of glycinin (soybean 11S globulin) under various conditions. In general, cruciferin exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, lower thermal stability, and lower and higher solubility at mu= 0.5 and mu = 0.08, respectively, than did glycinin. At the pHs (6.0, 7.6, and 9.0) and ionic strengths (mu= 0.08 and 0.5) examined, the emulsifying ability of cruciferin was worse than that of glycinin, except at mu= 0.08 and pH 7.6. The emulsifying abilities of cruciferin and glycinin did not correlate with thermal stability and surface hydrophobicity. Higher protein concentration, higher heating temperature, higher pH, and lower ionic strength were observed to produce harder gels from cruciferin. Gel hardness partly correlated with the structural stability of cruciferin.

  7. Effect of strong electrolytes on Edible oil Part II, Viscosity of maize oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paras

    fatty acids are pivotal in preventing heart disease, cancer and many other diseases. For people who cannot contemplate eating fish, the Omega-3 must come from alpha-linolenic acid. This can be achieved by increasing intake of Omega-3 rich food such as flaxseed (linseed oil), rapeseed (canola) oil, China seed, Walnut oil ...

  8. Potential for optimized production and use of rapeseed biodiesel. Based on a comprehensive real-time LCA case study in Denmark with multiple pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Jørgensen, Andreas; Bruun, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Several factors contribute to the current increased focus on alternative fuels such as biodiesel, including an increasing awareness of the environmental impact of petrochemical (PC) oil products such as PC diesel, the continuously increasing price of PC oil, and the depletion of PC oil...... methods. The modeling of the LCA is based on a specific Danish biodiesel production facility. Methods: The functional unit is “1,000 km transportation for a standard passenger car.” All relevant process stages are included, such as rapeseed production including carbon sequestration and N2O balances...... for improvement include the increased use of residual straw from rapeseed fields for combustion in a power plant where carbon sequestration is considered, and a change in transesterification from a conventional process to an enzymatic process when using bioethanol instead of PC methanol. This research also...

  9. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  11. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P ...: Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen...

  12. Synthesis, structural, and field electron emission properties of quasi-aligned carbon nanotubes from gutter oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamed, A. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesised from the simple pyrolysis of gutter oil as starting material and ferrocene as a catalyst. The synthesis process was performed at synthesis and vaporisation temperatures of 800 and 250 °C, respectively, in a thermal chemical vapour deposition furnace. The CNTs synthesised using gutter oil have an overall diameter of about 30–50 nm, length of 30 μm, I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio of 0.66, and purity of 81%, comparable to those obtained using conventional carbon sources. A field electron emission study of the CNTs exhibited a low turn-on and threshold field of 1.94 and 2.94 V μm{sup −1}, which corresponded to current densities of 100 μA cm{sup −2} and 1.0 mA cm{sup −2}, respectively which indicate that the CNTs synthesised are suitable candidates for use as field electron emitters. The synthesised CNTs from gutter oil also open up potential mass production applications in energy storage devices. This study demonstrates that gutter oil, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the mass production of CNTs. - Highlights: • Gutter oil was used as starting material to synthesise CNTs by TCVD method. • CNTs of good quality (I{sub D}/I{sub G} ∼ 0.66 and purity ∼ 81%) were successfully produced. • The synthesised CNTs show a potential for field electron emission application.

  13. Xerophilic mycopopulations isolated from rapeseeds (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to mycological populations of rapeseed samples produced in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (location: Rimski Šančevi, Novi Sad, with a special emphasis on the potentially toxigenic mycopopulations. Mycological investigations were performed on the samples that were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, and on the ones that were not submitted to this treatment. Isolation and determination of total mould count was carried out using Dichloran Glycerol Agar (DG18. The identification of isolated moulds was done according to modern keys for fungal determination. From 20 untreated tested samples, 17 were contaminated with moulds (10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu/g. When the samples were treated with 4% solution of Na-hypochlorite, moulds were isolated only form 4 samples, and the total mould count ranged from 10.0 to 60.0 cfu/g. In the isolated mycopopulations, xerophilic moulds dominated, especially those from the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium. In the isolated mycopopulations, high degree of isolated species belonged to toxigenic species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Eurotium and Penicillium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009 i br.TR31025

  14. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapeseed oil as feedstock for high functionality polyol synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirpluks, M.; Kalnbunde, D.; Walterová, Zuzana; Cabulis, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, 3-4 (2017), s. 258-270 ISSN 2164-6325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyols * polyurethane foam s * renewable raw materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2016

  16. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  18. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  19. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......, results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20...

  20. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2017-04-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose), having 18 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil is reported. The ranking and screening of MOS sensors, specific for volatile organic compounds, was performed using fuzzy logic. A correlation was examined between rancidity indices of fried oil (total polar compounds (TPC), and triglyceride dimers-polymers (TGDP), among others) and e-nose based odor index. Fuzzy logic screened 6 MOS sensors (LY2/G, LY2/AA, LY2/GH, LY2/gCT1, T30/1, and P30/1) to deconvolute the rancid fried oils using hierarchical clustering on principal component space. A good relationship was noted between rancidity indices and odor index (R 2 >0.85). Based on maximum discard limits of rancidity indices (25% TPC and 10% TGDP), the frying disposal time of 15.2h (TPC) vs. 15.8h (e-nose) and 15.5h (TGDP) vs. 16.3h (e-nose) was determined. The demonstrated methodology holds a potential extension to different fried oils and products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions.

  2. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo, while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan. The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1 solid biofuel (pellets with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2 as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD. In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter, ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na. The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.

  3. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M; Sujan, S.M.A; Jamal, M.S

    2013-01-01

    Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation s...

  4. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development. PMID:25978066

  5. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  6. Effect of temperature, water content and free fatty acid on reverse micelle formation of phospholipids in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Olli-Pekka; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Lehtimaa, Tuula; Vierros, Sampsa; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Österberg, Monika

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly of phospholipids in oil, specifically lecithin in rapeseed oil, was investigated by combining experimental and computational methods The influence of temperature, water, and free fatty acids on the onset of lecithin aggregation in the rapeseed oil was determined using the 7,7,8,8 -tetracyanoquinodimethane dye (TCNQ) solubilization method and the size and shape of the self-assembled lecithin structures were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of excess water in the system (0.03wt-% water in oil), stable cylindrical lecithin reverse micelles were observed above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Comparing the aggregation response in room temperature and at 70°C revealed that CMC decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, already a modest amount of added water (0.3wt-% water in oil) was sufficient to induce the formation of lamellar lecithin structures, that phase separated from the oil. In low water content, oleic acid suppressed the formation of lecithin reverse micelles whereas in the presence of more water, the oleic acid stabilized the reverse micelles. Consequently, more water was needed to induce phase separation in the presence of oleic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the stabilizing effect of oleic acid resulted from oleic acid enhancing phospholipid solubilization in the oil by forming a solvating shell around the phosphate head group. The findings showed that the response of the mixed surfactant system is a delicate interplay of the different components and variables. The significance of the observations is that multiple parameters need to be controlled for desired system response, for example towards vegetable oil purification or phospholipid based microemulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy balances of bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, maize, rapeseed) and their CO2-mitigation potential on a regional farm scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, D.; Emmerling, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing cultivation of energy crops in agriculture reveals the progressive substitution of fossil fuels, such as crude oil or brown coal. For the future development of renewable resources, the efficiency of different cropping systems will be crucial, as energy crops differ in terms of the energy needed for crop cultivation and refinement and the respective energy yield, e.g. per area. Here, balancing is certainly the most suitable method for the assessment of cropping system efficiency, contrasting energy inputs with energy outputs and the related CO2 emissions with potential CO2 credits due to substitution of fossil fuels, respectively. The aim of the present study was to calculate both energy and CO2 balances for rapeseed and maize, representing the recently most often cultivated energy crops in Germany, on a regional farm scale. Furthermore, special emphasis was made on perennial Miscanthus x giganteus, which is commonly used as a solid fuel for combustion. This C4-grass is of increasing interest due to its high yield potential accompanied by low requirements for soil tillage, weed control, and fertilization as well as long cultivation periods up to 25 years. In contrast to more general approaches, balances were calculated with local data from commercial farms. The site-specific consumption of diesel fuel was calculated using an online-based calculator, developed by the German Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL). By balancing each of the aforementioned cropping systems, our research focused on (i) the quantification of energy gains and CO2 savings due to fossil fuel substitution and (ii) the assessment of energy efficiency, expressed as the ratio of energy output to input. The energy input was highest for maize sites (33.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1), followed by rapeseed (18.2 GJ ha-1 yr-1), and Miscanthus (1.1 GJ ha-1 yr-1); corresponding energy yields were 129.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (maize), 83.6 GJ ha-1 yr-1 (rapeseed), and 259.7 GJ ha-1 yr-1

  8. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield stability across environments in winter rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Anne-Sophie; Laperche, Anne; Bissuel-Belaygue, Christine; Baron, Cécile; Morice, Jérôme; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dheu, Jean-Eric; George, Pierre; Pinochet, Xavier; Foubert, Thomas; Maes, Olivier; Dugué, Damien; Guinot, Florent; Nesi, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency is an important breeding trait that can be modified to improve the sustainability of many crop species used in agriculture. Rapeseed is a major oil crop with low nitrogen use efficiency, making its production highly dependent on nitrogen input. This complex trait is suspected to be sensitive to genotype × environment interactions, especially genotype × nitrogen interactions. Therefore, phenotyping diverse rapeseed populations under a dense network of trials is a powerful approach to study nitrogen use efficiency in this crop. The present study aimed to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield in winter oilseed rape and to assess the stability of these regions under contrasting nitrogen conditions for the purpose of increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses were performed on two diversity sets and two doubled-haploid populations. These populations were densely genotyped, and yield-related traits were scored in a multi-environment design including seven French locations, six growing seasons (2009 to 2014) and two nitrogen nutrition levels (optimal versus limited). Very few genotype × nitrogen interactions were detected, and a large proportion of the QTL were stable across nitrogen nutrition conditions. In contrast, strong genotype × trial interactions in which most of the QTL were specific to a single trial were found. To obtain further insight into the QTL × environment interactions, genetic analyses of ecovalence were performed to identify the genomic regions contributing to the genotype × nitrogen and genotype × trial interactions. Fifty-one critical genomic regions contributing to the additive genetic control of yield-associated traits were identified, and the structural organization of these regions in the genome was investigated. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the trial was greater than the effect of nitrogen nutrition

  10. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  11. Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Freire, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.

    El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en

  12. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  13. Gas assisted mechanical expression of oilseeds: Influence of process parameters on oil yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) utilizes the solubility of supercritical CO2 in vegetable oils to enhance the oil yields of mechanical expression of oil seeds. The general applicability of GAME was demonstrated with experiments with sesame, linseed, rapeseed, palm kernel and jatropha

  14. Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous effluents by rapeseed biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosanu, Irina; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Tofan, Lavinia

    2017-10-25

    Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6h) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II) were 18.35, 21.29 and 22.7mg/L at 4, 20 and 50°C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneity and endothermic nature of lead biosorption on rapeseed biomass. The biosorption mechanism involves both physical and chemical interactions. The breakthrough curves at 50 and 100mg/L were determined and evaluated under dynamic conditions. The breakthrough time lowered with increasing the influent Pb(II) concentration. The experimental data obtained from fixed-bed column tests were well fitted by Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The calculated sorption capacities were in good agreement with the uptake capacity of Langmuir model. The applicability of rapeseed to be used as a sorbent for Pb(II) ions from real wastewater was tested, and Pb(II) removal efficiency of 94.47% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer treatments on some agro-physiologic traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Mashallah; Sarvestani, Zeinalaabdine Tahmasebi; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres

    2008-06-15

    In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on agronomical and physiological traits of two winter rapeseed varieties, an experiment was established in a randomized complete block design as split-plot factorial arrangement with four replications in 2005-2006 at Agricultural Research Station of Khorramabad, Iran. Irrigation as main-plot factor consisted of four levels (I60, I90, I120 and I150). Sub-plot factors included nitrogen in four levels (N0, N70, N140, and N210 kg N ha(-1)) and two varieties (Zarfam and SLM046). Thousand-seed weight (TSW) in all irrigation and nitrogen levels was lower in the 2006 than that of the 2005. Seed oil percentage (SOP) was decreased with increasing water use only in second year. As nitrogen rate increased, SOP decreased and seed oil yield (SOY) increased in the 2006 significantly (p < 0.05). With increasing water supply, SOY increased in first year. Zarfam variety had a higher TSW and SOP in both years. According to combined analysis results, seed and oil yield were not significantly affected by irrigation treatments and rapeseed varieties. Seed yield had not significant difference between 70 to 210 kg N ha(-1) treatments. Both Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and dry matter remobilization efficiency (DMRE) were increased by decreasing water supply in I90 to I150 treatments. But N0 and N210 resulted in the lowest WUE and DMRE, respectively. Considering all traits, the first year of experiment was better than second year. The irrigation x variety interaction had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on seed yield and WUE. Generally, I150N70V1 combination is recommended in the region of the study due to high performance in production of seed and oil yield.

  16. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The early development of inflorescences and flowers of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seen through the scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.; Breure, C.J.; Menendez, T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of inflorescences and flowers of the African Oil Palm up to anthesis is illustrated by scanning electron microscopy images. The time of origin relative to the development of the foliage leaves of the basipetalous succession of flowering rachillae is determined, as well as the time of

  18. The Effect of Pretreatment by using Electron Beam Irradiation on Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kristiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB is a potential type of lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation bioethanol production. The pretreatment process is an important process in the series of processes to produce bioethanol. This research aims to study the effects of pretreatment process by using electron beam irradiation to OPEFB’s characterization as raw materials for the hydrolysis reaction to produce monomer sugars which will be fermented into ethanol. The untreated and treated OPEFB are characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Analysis results of the compositional analysis by using NREL/TP-510-42618 method show that after pretreatment by using electron beam irradiation, OPEFB's total lignin content is changed little while its cellulose and hemicellulose contents tend to decrease with increasing irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis shows that there is a decrease of crystallinity compared to untreated OPEFB, except for 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. The highest decrease of crystallinity was shown by 300-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Further, crystallite sizes of treated OPEFBs are not significantly different from the untreated, except for the 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Irradiation pretreatment also increases specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size. The IR spectra analysis show the absorption of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  19. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  20. Quantitative evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube uptake in wheat and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: Camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Pinault, Mathieu, E-mail: Mathieu.pinault@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Czarny, Bertrand, E-mail: Bertrand.czarny@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Georgin, Dominique, E-mail: Dominique.georgin@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jaillard, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.jaillard@u-psud.fr [UMR8195 CNRS-Universite Paris-Sud, Centre Commun de Microscopie Electronique, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bendiab, Nedjma, E-mail: Nedjma.bendiab@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38049 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mayne-L' Hermite, Martine, E-mail: martine.mayne@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CNRS URA 2453), 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Taran, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.taran@cea.fr [CEA, IBiTecS, SCBM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Dive, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.dive@cea.fr [CEA, iBiTecS SIMOPRO, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat and rapeseed accumulate MWCNT through root exposure, and translocate them to their leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer factor of MWCNT from hydroponic solution to leaves never exceeds 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWCNT majorly accumulate in the most peripheral areas and in newly developed leaves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of less than 200 ng MWCNT per g of leaf does not impact plant development and physiology. - Abstract: Environmental contamination with carbon nanotubes would lead to plant exposure and particularly exposure of agricultural crops. The only quantitative exposure data available to date which can be used for risk assessment comes from computer modeling. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data relative to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) uptake and distribution in agricultural crops, and to correlate accumulation data with impact on plant development and physiology. Roots of wheat and rapeseed were exposed in hydroponics to uniformly {sup 14}C-radiolabeled MWCNTs. Radioimaging, transmission electron microscopy and raman spectroscopy were used to identify CNT distribution. Radioactivity counting made it possible absolute quantification of CNT accumulation in plant leaves. Impact of CNTs on seed germination, root elongation, plant biomass, evapotranspiration, chlorophyll, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} contents was evaluated. We demonstrate that less than 0.005 Per-Mille-Sign of the applied MWCNT dose is taken up by plant roots and translocated to the leaves. This accumulation does not impact plant development and physiology. In addition, it does not induce any modifications in photosynthetic activity nor cause oxidative stress in plant leaves. Our results suggest that if environmental contamination occurs and MWCNTs are in the same physico-chemical state than the ones used in the present article, MWCNT transfer to

  1. Enhancement of growth and nutrient uptake of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by applying mineral nutrients and biofertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasari, Esmaeil; Azadgoleh, M A Esmaeili; Mozafari, Saedeh; Alashti, Mahsa Rafati

    2009-01-15

    For investigating the effect of chemical fertilizer as well as biofertilizers on seed yield and quality i.e. oil, protein and nutrients concentration of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), a split-plot fertilizers application experimental design in 4 replications was carried out during the 2005-2006 growing season, at the Gharakheil Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province of Iran. Rapeseed was grown as a second crop in rotation after rice. Biofertilizers treatments were two different levels: control (no seed inoculation) and seeds inoculation with a combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azosprillum brasilense and Azosprillum lipoferum, as main plot and chemical fertilizers comprised N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn as sub plots. The maximum value of seed yield obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) 3421.2 kg h(-1) corresponding to 244.5 pods per plant and maximum concentration of Zn in leaves as well as seeds. The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g) happened to obtain at (BF+NPK S) which coinciding with the maximum K levels in leaves. The highest number of branches was obtained at (BF+NPK Zn) with 4.43 branches per plant i.e., 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum value of rapeseed oil content 47.73% obtained at T16 (BF+NK) but maximum protein concentration of seed obtained at T12 (BF+N). Overall the results indicated that inoculation resulted in increase in seeds yield (21.17%), number of pods per plant (16.05%), number of branches (11.78%), weight of 1000 grain (2.92%), oil content of seeds (1.73%) and protein (3.91%) but decrease (-0.24%) in number of seeds per pods comparing to non-Biofertilizers treatments. Irrespective to the treatments, results showed that application of Biofertilizers coincided with 3.86, 0.82, 2.25, 0.75 and 0.91% increase in concentrations of N, P, K, S and Zn in the seeds over the non-Biofertilizers treatments.

  2. Competition between Methane and Alkylbenzenes for Electron Acceptors during Natural Attenuation of Crude Oil in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Amos, R. T.; Cozzarelli, I.; Voytek, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    At a crude-oil spill site near the town of Bemidji, MN, entrapped oil is present at residual saturations exceeding 10% in the vadose zone and floating at the water table at saturations of 30-60%. The degradable fraction of the light crude oil includes n-alkanes, aromatics, and alkyl-cyclohexanes. Together these compounds constitute a reduced carbon concentration at least 500 times greater than is present in the dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume comprised mainly of aromatics. Methanogenic degradation of the stationary oil body has been occurring for at least 20 years providing a continuous supply of methane emanating from the oil. Transport of methane away from the oil body occurs in both the vapor phase through the vadose zone and in the dissolved phase with the groundwater flow. Within the vadose zone the supply of oxygen and other electron acceptors from the surface is completely consumed by the process of methane oxidation in a zone 2-3 meters above the water table. In the groundwater, the 1 ppm contour of the methane plume extends beyond the 0.5 ppb contour for benzene, which is located at the aerobic/anaerobic boundary in the plume approximately 120 m downgradient of the oil body. Between 75 m and 120 m downgradient, methane concentrations decrease steadily from >0.6 mmol/L to extracted from the sediments averaged 8 mmol/kg (n=16), or >8 times the amount required to degrade 0.5 mmol methane, while all other electron acceptors together can account for complete oxidation of only 0.07 mmol (sulfate 0.15 mmol/L and by qPCR detection of Geobacter > 2,600/g, with sulfate reducing bacteria <100/g. Thus, methane loss occurs within an active, iron-reducing zone, with Fe(III) as the only electron acceptor available in sufficient concentrations to account for methane disappearance. The oxidation of methane under anaerobic conditions in the hydrocarbon plume competes with benzene and other contaminants for Fe(III) on the sediments. Mass balance considerations

  3. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  4. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  5. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated......, and then decreased reflecting volatilization of fuel and volatile oxidation products. Peroxide concentration showed a peak that coincided with the most rapid rate of oxygen incorporation, acid formation, and polyunsaturated FAME degradation. Net oxygen incorporation exhibited a plateau at approximately 5-6 wt % O...

  6. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Oil Sources With or Without Vitamin E on Body Composition and Meat Oxidation Level in Broilers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EÖ Taşdelen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed oil substitution and vitamin E supplemantation on performance and meat quality. 4 replacement levels of rapeseed oil with sunflower oil ( 0, 33.3 , 66.7 and 100% and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 (50 I.U. from vitamin premix 300 mg/kg in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 4 replicates each, containing 10 day-old male Ross 308 broilers, were examined in the experiment. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on carcass parameters, feed conversion (FCR and mortality (p>0.05. However, a significant interaction was observed between oil replacement and vitamin E: the negative effect of 100% sunflower oil on BWG (p<0.01 was alleviated by the addition of vitamin E. On the other hand, inclusion of rapeseed oil improved BWG (p<0.01. Rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased amount of total n-3 PUFA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in thigh and breast meat (p<0.01. Vitamin E supplemantation contributed to deposition of n-3 PUFA (p<0.01. Replacement of rapeseed oil without vitamin E tended to increase (p<0.01 malonaldehyde production. However, the dietary supplementation of vitamin E markedly (p<0.01 decreased the susceptibility of meat to peroxidation. Inclusion of rapeseed oil did not cause any negative perception on olfactory, texture, and taste of broiler meat. So, it can be concluded that rapeseed oil substitution significantly increased n-3 PUFA deposition without altering performance and sensory properties of broiler meat and, vitamin E had strong potential to prevent the meat lipids from oxidation.

  7. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...... of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation....

  8. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gorji-Chakespari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP and linear discriminant analysis (LDA algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world using an electronic nose (EN system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response. The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr, also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil.

  9. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-05-04

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil.

  10. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  11. EXPRESS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF SELECTED QUALITY INDEXES OF WALNUT OIL USING ANALYZER SIGNALS «ELECTRONIC NOSE»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kalinichenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This paper presents the autoxidation process of extra virgin oils. It was established that walnut oil rapidly oxidized due to the prevalence composed of unsaturated fatty acids (90,4%. Theoretically substantiated that the destruction of triglycerides with the accumulation of odorizing substances, oxidation products. This indicates that goes deep oxidation process, which is not accompanied by changes in the organoleptic characteristics. It is not perceptible by biological sensory systems. The paper deals the possibility of using gas analyzer «MAG-8» with methodology «electronic nose» to assess the oxidation rate of walnut oil in terms of composition and content the equilibrium gas phase. Changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of volatile substances above oil during storage have been analyzed. Express method for determination of peroxide value and acid value using signals of sensors coated with polyethyleneglycol sebacate and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 has been developed. The authors offer the integral index of oil oxidation level – the area of «visual fingerprint» that be indicative for content of peroxides, acids, alcohols, ketones, esters, and their polymerization products.

  12. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yanjie; Shao, Ping; Jiang, Shaotong; Sun, Peilong

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45°. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.

  13. A study on ionization potential and electron trap of vegetable insulating oil related to streamer inception and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yachao; Wang, Feipeng; Liang, Suning; Lin, Xiang; Chen, Xiuping; Zhou, Jinghan

    2017-11-01

    Vegetable oils, mainly composed of triacylglycerol molecules, have been widely studied as new insulation materials in the recent years. In this work, we study the electronic properties of various triacylglycerol molecules with different degree of unsaturation by density functional theory (DFT). The ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), and electron trap are estimated by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results show that the C atoms of cis Cdbnd C double bond make the primary contribution to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of unsaturated triacylglycerol molecule; the IPs of fully unsaturated triacylglycerol molecules are almost confined to the narrow ranges from 7.30 to 7.45 eV in gas-phase and from 6.77 to 6.84 eV in liquid-phase correspond to LnLnLn and OOO molecules, respectively; the atoms of ester group and neighboring atoms make the primary contribution to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of both saturated and unsaturated triacylglycerol molecules; the EAs of triacylglycerol molecules are confined to the narrow ranges from -0.34 to -0.18 eV and the chemical trap is estimated to be 0-0.16 eV; the total trap is 0.32-0.36 eV. The IP distribution character and shallow trap feature maybe the main causes that vegetable oils demonstrate a low resistance against the fast streamers. The work can provide theoretical basis to molecular modification for performance improvement of vegetable insulating oils.

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Rob Aj; Hill, David J; Kenward, Melvin A; Williams, Craig D; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Radecka, Iza K

    2011-06-10

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration.Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils.It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production.

  16. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  17. An analysis of growth factors of rapeseed at modern resource-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, M.; Zheleva, I.; Sulejmenova, N.; Abildaev, E.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the production of rapeseed has grown due to the variety of existing possibilities for its using. This calls the search for new, resource-saving technologies for its growing in Republic of Kazakhstan. For these new technologies it is needed to know which are the factors that influence the production of rapeseed and how each factor influence the production and the quality of this culture. The careful study of these factors is necessary for better understudying the process of the growing aimed increasing the yields and quantity of the rapeseed.

  18. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  19. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  20. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  1. Large scale purification of rapeseed proteins (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérot, S; Compoint, J P; Larré, C; Malabat, C; Guéguen, J

    2005-04-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cruciferin (12S globulin), napin (2S albumin) and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) were purified at a multi-g scale. The procedure developed was simple, rather fast and resolutive; it permitted the recovery of these proteins with a good yield, such as 40% for cruciferin and 18% for napin. Nanofiltration eliminated the major phenolic compounds. The remaining protein fraction was fractionated by cation exchange chromatography (CEC) on a streamline SP-XL column in alkaline conditions. The unbound neutral cruciferin was polished by size exclusion chromatography. The alkaline napin isoforms and LTP, adsorbed on the beads, were eluted as a whole fraction and further separated by an other CEC step at acidic pH. Napins were polished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The fractions were characterized by reverse phase HPLC, electrophoresis, N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. All the fractions contained less than 5% of impurities.

  2. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose int...

  3. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array...

  4. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  5. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  6. Composition of commercial truffle flavored oils with GC-MS analysis and discrimination with an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo

    2014-03-01

    Truffles are among the most expensive foods and their quality depends on their unique aroma, composed of complex mixtures of lipophilic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are many foods flavored with truffle, and oils are particularly common. Using DHS-GC-MS and an electronic nose (MOS), 18 samples of olive oil flavored with white and black truffles from the Italian market were subjected to a blind analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis with DHS-GC-MS detected the presence of 63 VOCs, 32 of which can be attributed to olive oil, also defective, and 19 to truffles, while 12 foreign compounds are of dubious origin (synthesis and/or demolition). The data obtained with the electronic nose (MOS), processed statistically, was able to discriminate the aromas coincident with the three species of truffle declared on the label (the white truffle Tuber magnatum and the black truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum), demonstrating the potential and reliability of this technique, confirming the established malpractice of the use of bismethyl(dithio)methane in black truffles flavorings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the most common and important problems in biogas plants, leading to severe operational, economical, and environmental drawbacks. Because addition of easily degradable co-substrates for boosting the biogas production can suddenly raise the foaming problem, the full-scale biogas...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....... results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...

  8. Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with two rapeseed varieties and petroleum degraders reveals different responses of the plant defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Zukowska, Weronika; Graj, Weronika; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Ciszewska, Liliana; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Lisiecki, Piotr; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Voss, Ingo; Scheibe, Renate; Tomaszewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Plant-assisted bioremediation (rhizoremediation) stands out as a potential tool to inactivate or completely remove xenobiotics from the polluted environment. Therefore, it is of key importance to find an adequate combination of plant species and microorganisms that together enhance the clean-up process. To understand the response of plants upon bioaugmentation, the antioxidative and detoxification system was analyzed in high and low erucic acid rapeseed varieties (HEAR and LEAR, respectively), after 8 weeks of their treatment with petroleum degraders and 6000 mg diesel oil/kg dry soil. The oxidative stress was enhanced in LEAR being exposed to sole diesel oil, in comparison with HEAR. However, when LEAR plants were additionally inoculated with bacteria, suppression of total catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. Interestingly, glutathione transferase (GST) activity was found in these plants at a much higher level than in HEAR, which correlated with a more efficient diesel removal performed by LEAR in the polluted soil and upon bioaugmentation. A distinct profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was detected in leaves of these plants. Neither LEAR nor HEAR experienced any changes in the photosynthetic capacity upon diesel pollution and presence of petroleum degraders, which supports the usefulness of rhizoremediation with rapeseed.

  9. Comparative study of rapeseed, monofloral types and multifloral honey by some physicochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zhelyazkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of the present study is to make a comparative analysis of some basic qualitative parameters of rapeseed (Brassica napus honey, monofloral (acacia Robinia pseudoacacia, sunflower Helianthus annuus, coriander Coriandrum sativum, lime Tilia sp., and multifloral honey. The study uses 26 samples of bee honey from different regions in the country. The physicochemical study was carried out at the Scientific Research Laboratory of Trakia University according to the harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission and the methods described in Bulgarian State Standard (BSS 3050- 80 and Regulation No. 48/2003. The following indicators have been investigated: water, glucose, fructose and sucrose content (%; hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, mg/kg; electrical conductivity (mS/cm. Based on the results obtained for glucose (G and fructose (F content in the honey samples, the sum total of G + F has been calculated. It has been found that the average values of the studied physico-chemical parameters in all analyzed honey samples (incl. rapeseed honey are within the tolerable limits according to national regulations. The established deviations from the requirements concerning HMF content in rapeseed honey samples can be explained by technological errors rather than by plant origin. By glucose content the analyzed rapeseed honey samples have values close to those of sunflower honey (over 30%. These results can explain the rapid crystallization of rapeseed and sunflower honey. The lowest average electrical conductivity values have been established for rapeseed and acacia honey, which is a characteristic feature of light coloured honey types. Rapeseed and multifloral honey have higher average active acidity value (pH compared to the average for the monofloral honey types. Based on the results, it can be concluded that rapeseed bee honey (Brassica napus is of quality, does not differ from the monofloral and multifloral types produced

  10. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  11. Increase of protein extraction yield from rapeseed meal through a pretreatment with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ivo M; Carvalho, M Graça Vs; Rocha, Jorge Ms

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds that limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein-rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L). The highest protein extraction yield attained was 72.1%, for 2 h at 55 °C, with a phytase dosage of 0.8 U g(-1) when the alkaline extraction was performed at 75 °C, pH 12.5 and 60 min for an S/L ratio of 10 g 100 mL(-1) water. The extraction yields were higher than those previously obtained without enzymatic pretreatment. Phytase pretreatment enhanced alkaline extraction yield of proteins from rapeseed meal. This procedure allowed also the production of rapeseed protein concentrates with very low levels of phytic acid, ∼1 g kg(-1) , improving their nutritional properties and commercial value. Moreover, after the pretreatment, the amount of phytic acid in the remaining rapeseed meal decreases about 25%. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterization of the Factors that Influence Sinapine Concentration in Rapeseed Meal during Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Jiang, Mulan; Guo, Mian; Wan, Chuyun; Hu, Shuangxi; Jin, Hu; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05). After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90°C and 105°C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal. PMID:25606856

  13. Characterization of the factors that influence sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal during fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Niu

    Full Text Available We analyzed and compared the difference in sinapine concentration in rapeseed meal between the filamentous fungus, Trametes sp 48424, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in both liquid and solid-state fermentation. During liquid and solid-state fermentation by Trametes sp 48424, the sinapine concentration decreased significantly. In contrast, the liquid and solid-state fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae just slightly decreased the sinapine concentration (P ≤ 0.05. After the solid-state fermented samples were dried, the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal decreased significantly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the measurement of laccase activity, we observed that laccase induced the decrease in the concentration of sinapine during fermentation with Trametes sp 48424. In order to eliminate the influence of microorganisms and the metabolites produced during fermentation, high moisture rapeseed meal and the original rapeseed meal were dried at 90 °C and 105 °C, respectively. During drying, the concentration of sinapine in high moisture rapeseed meal decreased rapidly and we obtained a high correlation coefficient between the concentration of sinapine and loss of moisture. Our results suggest that drying and enzymes, especially laccase that is produced during the solid-state fermentation process, may be the main factors that affect the concentration of sinapine in rapeseed meal.

  14. Identification and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Silvia; Sampedro, M Carmen; Gallejones, Patricia; Castellón, Ander; Ibargoitia, Maria L; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2009-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the speciation and quantification of glucosinolates in rapeseed is described. The method combines liquid chromatography (LC) with ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) detection. Electrospray ionization (ESI) has been chosen as the ionization technique for the on-line coupling of LC with ITMS. Glucosinolates are extracted from different rapeseeds with MeOH and the extracts are cleaned-up by solid phase extraction with Florisil cartridges. Aqueous extracts are injected into LC system coupled to an ITMS, leading to accurately quantify eight of the most important glucosinolates in rapeseed, by MS2 mode and confirming their structure by MS3 acquisition. All the glucosinolates found in rapeseeds provide good signals corresponding to the deprotonated precursor ion [M-H]-. The method is reliable and reproducible, and detection limits range from 0.5 nmol g(-1) to 3.7 nmol g(-1) when 200 mg of dried seeds of certified reference material are analyzed. Within-day and between-day RSD percentages range between 2.4-14.1% and 3.9-16.9%, respectively. The LC-ESI-ITMS-MS method described here allows for a rapid assessment of these metabolites in rapeseed without a desulfatation step. The overall process has been successfully applied to identify and quantify glucosinolates in rapeseed samples.

  15. Modelling study of NOx removal in oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolińska, Ewa; Sun, Yongxia; Chmielewski, A. G.; Nichipor, H.; Bulka, S.

    2015-08-01

    Computer simulations for high concentration of NOx removal from oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation were carried out by using the Computer code "Kinetic" and GEAR method. 293 reactions involving 64 species were used for the modelling calculations. The composition of simulated oil-fired off-gas was the same as the experimental conditions. The calculations were made for following system: (75.78% N2+11.5% CO2+8.62% H2O+4.1% O2), NOx concentration varies from 200 ppm to 1500 ppm. Calculation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results. Furthermore the influence of temperature, SO2 concentration and ammonia addition is discussed.

  16. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chengming Sun; Benqi Wang; Lei Yan; Kaining Hu; Sheng Liu; Yongming Zhou; Chunyun Guan; Zhenqian Zhang; Jiana Li; Jiefu Zhang; Song Chen; Jing Wen; Chaozhi Ma; Jinxing Tu; Jinxiong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test....

  18. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...

  19. Electron microscopy study of the deactivation of nickel based catalysts for bio oil hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential as ...... in order to investigate the oxidation of Ni-MoS2/ZrO2 catalyst active phase as a function of different HDO reaction conditions and using methanol as a model molecule for bio-oil.......Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential...... as high-pressure (100 bar) catalysts for purification of bio-oil by HDO. However, the catalysts deactivate in presence of sulfur, chlorine and potassium species, which are all naturally occurring in real bio-oil. The deactivation mechanisms of the Ni/ZrO2 have been investigated through scanning...

  20. Vegetable, Fish and Mineral Oils Control Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Martín

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were performed on vegetable, fish and mineral oils to evaluate their phytotoxic effects on grapevine and their effectiveness in the control of grapevine powdery mildew. None of the oils tested showed detectable phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 2% or less applied up to 4 times per week. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of paraffin oil, refined rapeseed oil and partially refined fish oil against powdery mildew was similar to that obtained with the standard fungicides (tebuconazole or colloidal sulphur. In field trials, the three oils tested (paraffin oil, crude soya oil, and fish oil: 1% in aqueous emulsion were at least as effective as the standard fungicide Quinoxifen, with crude soya oil being the most effective. The oils used in the field trials were also effective for controlling eriophyd mites such as Calepitrimerus vitis.

  1. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  3. Cell enumeration and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus treated with cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum B.) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniman, C M; Rall, V L M; Doyama, J T; Júnior, A Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) in functional foods containing probiotic microorganisms must consider the antimicrobial activity of these oils against beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of L. rhamnosus cultures treated with cinnamon EO through viable cell counts and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. Cinnamon EO at a concentration of 0.04% had a bacteriostatic activity after 2 h of incubation. Although slight alterations were detected in the cell structure, this concentration was considered to be bactericidal, since it led to a significant reduction in cell numbers after 24 h. On the other hand, cinnamon EO at a 1.00% concentration decreased cell counts by 3 log units after 2 h incubation and no viable cell count was detected after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells treated with 1.00% cinnamon EO were severely damaged and presented cell membrane disruption and cytoplasmic leakage.

  4. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  5. Green Sonoextraction of Protein from Oleaginous Press Rapeseed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Boukroufa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 W·cm−2 and temperature of 45 °C. Quantitatively UAE followed by two stages of conventional extraction gave the best total protein yield of 9.81 g/100 g DM. Qualitatively, the protein efficiency ratio (PER used as measure of the nutritive value (12S/2S ratio which indicates protein quality in terms of S-containing essential amino acids, was similar to that of the conventional extraction method. Small amounts of protein aggregate were observed in the HPLC profile of the extract.

  6. Enhanced phyto-extraction of cadmium and zinc using rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.; Slycken, S.V.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Naz, F. [National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, S. [Agriculture Department, University of Haripur, Haripur (Pakistan)

    2013-07-01

    In a green house pot experiment, the effects of three amendments, sulphur (S), ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn by rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Elemental sulphur was applied as 20.00, 60.00, and 120.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. EDTA was tested at a dose of 585.00 mg.kg{sup -1} soil, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at a rate of 0.23 mg.kg{sup -1} soil. All treatments received a base fertilization (Hogland) before sowing. Plants were harvested after 51 days of growth and shoot dry matter and soil samples were analysed for metal contents. All amendments caused a significant increase in Cd and Zn contents in plant shoots of all treatments than control treatment. Further, EDTA was most effective for extraction metals concentrations in shoot biomass but the plants showed significant signs of toxicity and yield were severely depressed. The addition of sulfur favorably influenced plant biomass production. The fertilized ammonium sulfate treatment resulted in the highest phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn and the amounts of these metals accumulated in plant shoot exceeded by a factor of 4 and 3 respectively. Finally, Brassica napus could be used for soil remediation keeping its other uses which will make the contaminated site income generating source for the farmers. (authors)

  7. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  8. Detection of Water Content in Rapeseed Leaves Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Nie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz spectra of rapeseed leaves with different water content (WC were investigated. The transmission and absorption spectra in the range of 0.3–2 THz were measured by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The mean transmittance and absorption coefficients were applied to analyze the change regulation of WC. In addition, the Savitzky-Golay method was performed to preprocess the spectra. Then, the partial least squares (PLS, kernel PLS (KPLS, and Boosting-PLS were conducted to establish models for predicting WC based on the processed transmission and absorption spectra. Reliable results were obtained by these three methods. KPLS generated the best prediction accuracy of WC. The prediction coefficient correlation (Rval and root mean square error (RMSEP of KPLS based on transmission were Rval = 0.8508, RMSEP = 0.1015, and that based on absorption were Rval = 0.8574, RMSEP = 0.1009. Results demonstrated that THz spectroscopy combined with modeling methods provided an efficient and feasible technique for detecting plant physiological information.

  9. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  10. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  11. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  12. Effect of topdressing with nitrogen and boron on the yield and quality of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Varga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials with winter rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus variety Rasmus were established in August in the years 2002–2004 at the experimental station in Kolíňany which belongs to the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. In the experiments we explore the effect of supplementary spring topdressing of rape with nitrogen and boron in the BBCH 29–30 stage with regard to the yields of seeds and their qualitative parameters (TSW, content of oil and crude protein. In the experiment we applied DAM–390 (solution of ammonium nitrate and urea, 30% N at a rate of 30 kg N/ha and Humix Bór (humic acids + N, K, B at a rate of 0.240 kg B / ha. The different climate conditions in the respective years had a significant effect on yields of rapeseed and ranged as follows: 2003: 1.80–2.29 t / ha; 2004: 2.60–3.35 t / ha; 2005: 2.45–3.29 t / ha. The significant decrease in seed yields in the first year of the experiment was caused namely by the deficit in precipitation in January, February and June 2003 and high temperatures in May and June in the same year. In terms of the individual years and the three-year average the application of Humix Bór itself did not significantly improve the yield and qualitative parameters of seeds compared to the unfertilised control. In a three-year average the application of the N fertiliser alone or in combination with Humix Bór increased seed yields and the crude protein content by 22.4–30.7 % and 4.0–4.9 rel. %, respectively, compared to the unfertilised control. The significantly highest seed yields (2.98 t / ha were achieved when the plants were treated with a combination of nitrogen and Humix Bór as compared to all the other treatments (2.28–2.79 t / ha. The oil content in seeds increased significantly to 44.1% only when treated with a combined application of DAM–390 and Humix Bór as against the unfertilised control (42.8%. Fertilisation did not change

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1, we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding.

  15. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  16. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  17. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  18. Electronic Medical Record in Central Polyclinic of Isfahan Oil Industry: A Case Study Based on Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Shahin, Arash; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Rafiei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Today, health information technologies are base of health services and Electronic Medical Record is one of them. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on EMR at Central Polyclinic Oil Industry that is a pioneer in implementation of EMR in Isfahan. Methods This study was an applied and analytical survey that it was done at the Central Polyclinic Oil Industry. Because statistical population were limited, sampling bas been done by conducting the census and the sample was according to the population. The data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire that it was validated by experts and its reliability was confirmed by test retest. The questionnaire was developed in 5 scopes including external factors (data quality and user interface), perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use. The Results analyzed by SPSS. Results There was a significant relationship between data quality with PU(r=/295, p/005). Discussion The survey of the scopes in the polyclinic showed that there is relationship among user interface, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use, but data quality has no relationship with attitude. It seems the system designers didn’t consider to data quality characteristics. It is proposed that they consult with health information management professionals for improvement the existing system. PMID:23572857

  19. Polyurethane foams based entirely on recycled polyols derived from natural oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Beneš, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 9 (2015), s. 579-585 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/133 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane foam * recycled polyol * rapeseed oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  20. The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N2O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed

  1. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  2. ESTIMATION OF WHEAT STRAW AND RAPESEED USEFULNESS FOR WHEAT FERTILISATION IN ARABLE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Stankowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the estimation of wheat and rapeseed straw usefulness for fertilising plants in arable farming. The subject matter of the study was the analysis of the influence of soil fertilisation with wheat and rapeseed straw on the yield and changes in the content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in winter wheat grain cultivars: Finezja and Ludwig. The static field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Experiment Station, Grabów, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute (51°21′ N, 21°40′ E in the years 2008–2010 on Haplic Luvisol. The effect of fertilisation with wheat and rapeseed straw did not have a significant effect on grain yield of winter wheat cultivars ‘Finezja’ and ‘Ludwig’. The introduction of complementary nitrogen fertilisation caused an increase in grain yield of wheat cultivar Ludwig. Organic fertilisation with wheat and rapeseed straw as well as complementary nitrogen fertilisation did not significantly differentiate the content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in winter wheat grain cultivars ‘Finezja’ and ‘Ludwig’.

  3. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...

  4. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) we...

  5. Unfermented recalcitrant polysaccharide structures from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pustjens, A.M.; Vries, de S.; Bakuwel, M.; Gruppen, H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kabel, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Unprocessed and acid-extruded rapeseed meal (RSM) was fed to pigs as the only source of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and protein. Unfermented carbohydrate structures were analyzed. Acid-extrusion seemed to increase rigidness of the NSP-matrix in vivo, without affecting NSP-fermentability.

  6. Evaluation of rapeseed cultivation suitability in Apulia with GIS-multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Grassano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of land for energy crops is determined by an evaluation of biophysical and economical variables. From this respect, climate, soil and geomorphologic environmental components are the most important agro-ecological variables to conduct this kind of evaluation. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to identify the most suitable areas for rapeseed crop production in the Apulia region. Environmental components such as climate (precipitation, temperature, soil (chemical and physical characteristics including texture, gravel percentage, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, soil depth, etc., topography (slope and economical components (farm-useful surface, mechanization, percentage of land covered by cereals and horticulture, irrigated surface, set-aside surface were considered. Biophysical parameters (climate, geomorphology and soil were used to draw a map of agronomic suitability of rapeseed according to the Agronomic Classification of the Territory II (CAT II classification system; a map of general suitability of rapeseed in the Apulia region has been drawn with the support of multicriteria analysis, which also takes into account the economical parameters. The results from overlay maps for agronomic evaluation in the Apulia region showed that 38% (189,983 ha of the arable land area is highly suitable (S1, 43.4% (21,6642 ha is moderately suitable (S2, 11.9% (59,487 ha is marginally suitable (S3 and 6.7% (33,210 ha is and not suitable (N for rapeseed cultivation.

  7. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  8. Life cycle water footprint analysis for rapeseed derived jet fuel in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapeseed is a promising feedstock source for hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) jet fuel production to address energy security and climate change mitigation. However, concerns have been raised about its impact on water as large scale biofuels production may place pressure on fresh water su...

  9. In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-06-18

    A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge.

  10. Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij: optimalisatie aanbrengen oliefilm op strooisel bij leghennen in volièrehuisvesting = Measures to reduce fine dust emission from poultry: optimization of oil application on litter of aviary housing for layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Emous, van R.A.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Nijeboer, G.M.; Hattum, van T.G.; Riel, van J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes research into the application of a film of rapeseed oil on the litter floor of aviary housing for laying hens as a mitigation measure for particulate matter. Distribution of the oil film over the floor and dose-effect relationships were investigated. Emission reductions for

  11. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  12. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  13. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-- Microcosm tests and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoqing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microcosm tests were conducted to study U(VI) bioreduction in contaminated sediments with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor. In the microcosms, EVO was degraded by indigenous microorganisms and stimulated Fe, U, and sulfate bioreduction, and methanogenesis. Removal of aqueous U occurred concurrently with sulfate reduction, with more reduction of total U in the case of higher initial sulfate concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed U(VI) reduction to U(IV). As the acetate concentration peaked in 10~20 days in oleate microcosms, the maximum was reached in 100~120 days in the EVO microcosms, indicating that EVO hydrolysis was rate-limiting. The acetate accumulation was sustained over 50 days longer in the oleate and EVO than in the ethanol microcosms, suggesting that acetate-utilizing methanogenesis was slower in the cases of oleate and EVO. Both slow hydrolysis and methanogenesis could contribute to potential sustained bioreduction in field application. Biogeochemical models were developed to couple degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, glycerol, acetate, and hydrogen, reduction of Fe(III), U(VI) and sulfate, and methanogenesis with growth and decay of microbial functional groups. The models were used to simulate the coupled processes in a field test in a companion article.

  14. Abatement of Particulate Matter Emission from Experimental Broiler Housings Using an Optimized Oil Spraying Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this follow-up study, we investigated effects of two rapeseed oil application rates (8 or 16 mL m-2 d-1) in combination with two spraying frequencies (daily or every other day) in four oil treatments: 8 mL m-2 (24 h)-1, 16 mL m-2 (48 h)-1, 16 mL m-2 (24 h)-1, and 32 mL m-2 (48 h)-1 during two

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Heping; Chen, Lunlin; Guo, Jianbin; Li, Qun; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cult...

  16. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  17. Solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal with the white-rot fungi trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, Łukasz; Jaszek, Magdalena; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Rapeseed meal is valuable high-protein forage, but its nutritional value is significantly reduced by the presence of a number of antinutrients, including phenolic compounds. Solid-state fermentation with white-rot fungi was used to decrease the sinapic acid concentration of rapeseed meal. After 7 days of growth of Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, the sinapic acid content of rapeseed meal was reduced by 59.9 and 74.5 %, respectively. At the end of the experiment, sinapic acid concentration of T. versicolor cultures decreased by 93%of the initial value; in the case of cultures of P. ostreatus, 93.2 % reduction was observed. Moreover, cultivation of white-rot fungi on rapeseed meal resulted in the intensive production of extracellular laccase, particularly strong during the late phases of growth of T. versicolor. The obtained results confirm that both fungal species may effectively be used to decompose antinutritional phenolics of rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal may also find use as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for a biotechnological production of laccase by white-rot fungi.

  18. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... oil decreased the oxidative stability. Fish pâté with microencapsulated fish oil or MCT oil did not oxidize, whereas oxidation was slower in fish pâté with pre-emulsified oil compared with fish pâté with neat oil. Packaging in vacuum did not decrease oxidation. Fish pâtés with emulsified oil...

  19. Influence of deep-frying using various commercial oils on acrylamide formation in French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Lilin; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different types of commercial oils (rice bran oil, shortening oil, high-oleic rapeseed oil, low-erucic acid rapeseed oil, blend oil A and blend oil B) and frying cycles on acrylamide formation during the preparation of French fries by deep-frying. Frying was carried out in intermittent mode (two batches each for 12 min without any time lag) and repeated for 600 frying cycles. Results indicated that the French fries that were fried in oils having lower heat transfer coefficients contained lower acrylamide concentrations (913 µg kg(-1)), whereas those fried with oils having higher heat transfer coefficients contained higher acrylamide concentrations (1219 µg kg(-1)). Unlike the peroxide value, acrylamide levels in French fries did not change significantly with an increase in the number of frying cycles when tested for 600 frying cycles for every type of oil. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of frying oils to the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected due to their different heat transfer coefficients. On the other hand, continuous use of frying oil does not lead to a higher acrylamide concentration in French fries.

  20. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner.

  1. PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL ORANGE OIL MICROCAPSULES: COMPARISON OF THE USE OF SURFACTANTS CETILTRIMETILAMONOUS BROMIDE AND POLYSORBATE 20 BY ELECTRONIC SCAN MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSI SOARES Wagner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial applications of microcapsules began to appear in the textile industry in the late 1990s increasing investments in research to develop functional tissues, with a special focus on value aggregation, coating them with various active substances for the development of innovative products and according to fashion. Microcapsules have been presented as an alternative with regard to the encapsulation of essential oils since it is one of the most effective methods to achieve the goal of controlled release. The orange essential oil has biocidal properties and has been used microencapsulated as an ecological botanical insecticide. The characteristics of microcapsules containing aromatic oils, such as morphology and particle size distribution, depend on the preparation conditions such as the type of emulsifier used and the viscosity of the core material. Thus, for the microcapsules to be effectively used for the development of innovative products in the textile industry, studies on their formulation and characterization are necessary. This article proposes to compare the use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polysorbate surfactants by means of their morphology, by scanning electron microscopy analysis on the formulation of microcapsules whit melamine formaldehyde shell with core of orange essential oil (citrus sinensis combined with a non-volatile oil Medium Chain Triglycerides produced by interfacial polymerization method. At the end, the microcapsules were analyzed by microcoscopies and the differences in microcapsule morphologies were observed according to the kind of surfactant used.

  2. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.

    2011-01-01

    to illustrate the interaction of glycerol with immobilized lipases and thus provided an aid for screening supports for lipase immobilization according to their interaction with glycerol. Glycerol was found to have great affinity for silica, less for polystyrene and no affinity for supports made from...

  3. Deodorization of lipase-interesterified butterfat and rapeseed oil blends in a pilot deodorizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    by free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV), volatiles, and the sensory evaluation of the samples with respect to flavor and odor (most importantly the butter flavor and odor and the off-flavor and odor from butyric acid). ANOVA partial least squares regression analysis showed that deodorization...... time, and especially deodorization temperature, significantly affected the sensory properties and levels of volatiles, FFA and peroxides in the samples. The best compromise between removing undesirable off-flavors while maintaining the desirable butter flavor seemed to be obtained by using...

  4. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  5. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  6. COMPARATIVE MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS BETWEEN UKRAINIAN AND EU REGISTERED GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT RAPESEED TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Taranenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to analyze 10 developed at the Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering lines of rapeseed to confirm the presence and functionality of the transferred transgene CP4 epsps, as well as the differences among those lines from registered transformation events GT73 and GT200 (Monsanto. During the study extraction of total rapeseed DNA, PCR analysis, electrophoretic separation and visualization of amplicons in agarose gel were conducted, as well as testing of green plants for resistance to glyphosate in greenhouse. The structural difference among 7 transgenic lines from registered transformation events GT73 and GT200 was revealed. Plants showing the presence of synthetic CP4 epsps sequence were resistant to the herbicide in a closed soil. The uniqueness of the obtained transformation events was confirmed, as well as the prospect of using them in breeding.

  7. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, de, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was performed with pancreatic proteases to represent in vitro protein digestibility. Increasing the toasting time of RSM linearly decreased the rate of protein hydrolysis of RSM and the insoluble protein frac...

  8. Fatty acids, vitamins and cholesterol content, and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from sheep fed rapeseed oilcake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, A I; Bustamante, M A; Albisu, M; Valdivielso, I; Amores, G; Mandaluniz, N; Arranz, J; Barron, L J R; de Renobales, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of rapeseed oilcake used for feeding sheep on the content of fatty acids (FA), tocopherols, retinoids, and cholesterol of milk and cheese, and on the sensory properties of cheese. Indoor animal feeding (in winter) is the highest cost of production for cheesemakers, and the inclusion of locally produced rapeseed oilcake in the concentrate feed formulation can reduce the cost of cheese production, as long as the quality of the cheese is not altered. The experiment was carried out in March (mid lactation) with 72 Latxa sheep from an experimental farm located in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Two homogeneous groups of animals (n = 36) were set to receive each a different diet based on commercial or rapeseed concentrate, respectively, and forage (Festuca hay). Animal production parameters were individually recorded for each feeding group, whereas bulk milk from each group was used for cheesemaking trials. The rapeseed concentrate had higher amounts of unsaturated FA (mainly C18:1 cis isomers, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15) and tocopherols than the commercial concentrate. The inclusion of rapeseed oilcake in the diet of dairy sheep did not compromise animal production parameters or milk gross composition. Bulk milk and cheese from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate showed higher content of unsaturated FA and tocopherols than those from sheep fed commercial concentrate. No differences were observed in the content of retinoid in milk and cheese between feeding groups, whereas the cholesterol content was slightly lower in cheese made with milk from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate. Thus, milk and cheese from sheep fed rapeseed concentrate had a healthier lipid profile. In addition, the inclusion of rapeseed oilcake in the diet of sheep did not change the typical sensory attributes of Protected Denomination of Origin Idiazabal cheese. Therefore, rapeseed concentrate could be a good local resource

  9. Detection of Fungus Infection on Petals of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Infected petals are often regarded as the source for the spread of fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all growing process of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plants. This research aimed to detect fungal infection of rapeseed petals by applying hyperspectral imaging in the spectral region of 874-1734 nm coupled with chemometrics. Reflectance was extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral image of each sample. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to conduct a cluster analysis with the first several principal components (PCs). Then, two methods including X-loadings of PCA and random frog (RF) algorithm were used and compared for optimizing wavebands selection. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) methodology was employed to establish discriminative models based on the optimal and full wavebands. Finally, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was utilized to evaluate classification performance of these LS-SVM models. It was found that LS-SVM based on the combination of all optimal wavebands had the best performance with AUC of 0.929. These results were promising and demonstrated the potential of applying hyperspectral imaging in fungus infection detection on rapeseed petals.

  10. Characterising variation of branch angle and genome-wide association mapping in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70 degrees. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5 and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14 and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes.These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed.

  11. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70°. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5, and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA) orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14) and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes. These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meals obtained by various processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, K D; Mangold, H K; El Nockrashy, A S

    1979-01-01

    Defatted meals were prepared from two new varieties of rapeseed, the 'high-glucosinolate' variety, Brassica napus, Lesira, and the 'low-glucosinolate' variety, Brassica napus, Erglu, by each of the following processes: (1) defatting of the ground seed with hexane; (2) extraction of the myrosinase-deactivated ground seed with 70% aqueous acetone for the removal of glucosinolates followed by defatting with pure acetone, and (3) autolysis of the ground seed for the decomposition of glucosinolates followed by defatting and simultaneous removal of the decomposition products with hexane. The defatted meals obtained after extraction with aqueous acetone of autolysis contain very little glucosinolates and their degradation products as compared to those obtained by defatting with hexane only. The contents of available lysine and of phytates in the meals are, to some extent, affected by the treatment for the removal of glucosinolates. The rapeseed meals were fed at different levels to protein-depleted chicks and weanling rats. The animals fed low-glucosinolate meals prepared both from high-glucosinolate and low-glucosinolate varieties of rapeseed gave superior performance with regard to the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio as compared to the animals fed the corresponding meals which were obtained simply by defatting the seeds with hexane. The levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the serum of rats fed low-glucosinolate meals indicated normal function of the thyroid, whereas those in rats fed high-glucosinolate meals revealed hypothyroidism of the animals.

  13. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil.

  14. Strigolactones Improve Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Alleviate Oxidative Stress under Salinity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a very important edible oil crop in the world, and the production is inhibited by abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Plant hormones can alleviate the stress by regulating the physiological processes and gene expression. To study the plant responses to salinity in combination with GR24, a synthesized strigolactone, the oilseed rape variety (Zhongshuang 11 replications were grown in the pots in a controlled growth chamber under three levels of salinity (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl and 0.18 μM GR24 treatments at the seedling stage for 7 days. The results showed that salinity depressed the shoots and roots growth, whereas GR24 improved the growth under salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate were also reduced significantly with increasing salinity, and these effects could be partially reversed by GR24 application. Additionally, GR24 treatment significantly increased and decreased the photosystem II quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching, respectively, under salinity stress conditions. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased, and lipid peroxidation measured by the level of malondialdehyde reduced due to GR24 application. The transcriptome analysis of root and shoot was conducted. Three hundred and forty-two common differentially expressed genes (DEGs after GR24 treatment and 166 special DEGs after GR24 treatment under salinity stress were identified in root and shoot. The DEGs in root were significantly more than that in shoot. Quantitative PCR validated that the stress alleviation was mainly related to the gene expression of tryptophan metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis.

  15. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  16. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  17. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  18. Distinguishment, identification and aroma compound quantification of Portuguese olive oils based on physicochemical attributes, HS-GC/MS analysis and voltammetric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Khalid; Duarte, Andreia A; Carvalho, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Paulo A; da Silva, Marco Gomes; Mendes, Davide; El Bari, Nezha; Raposo, Maria; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, various extra-virgin and virgin olive oils samples from different Portuguese markets were studied. For this purpose, a voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue), consisting of two kinds of working electrode within the array, together with physicochemical analysis and headspace gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), were applied. In addition, preliminary considerations of relationships between physicochemical parameters and multisensory system were reported. The physicochemical parameters exhibit significant differences among the analyzed olive oil samples that define its qualities. Regarding the aroma profile, 14 volatile compounds were characterized using HS-GC-MS; among these, hex-2-enal, hexanal, acetic acid, hex-3-ene-1-ol acetate and hex-3-en-1-ol were semi-quantitatively detected as the main aroma compounds in the analyzed samples. Moreover, pattern recognition methods demonstrate the discrimination power of the proposed VE-tongue system. The results reveal the VE-tongue's ability to classify olive oil samples and to identify unknown samples based of built models. In addition, the correlation between VE-tongue and physicochemical analysis exhibits a remarkable prediction model aimed at anticipating carotenoid content. The preliminary results of this investigation indicate that physicochemical and HS-GC-MS analysis, together with multisensory system coupled with chemometric techniques, presented a satisfactory performance regarding olive oil sample discrimination and identification. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Thermo-oxidation in Arauco and Arbequina Extra-virgin Olive Oil. Changes in Odour using and Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in odour of Arauco and Arbequina extra-virgin olive oil were monitored during frying by electronic nose and solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography methodologies. Electronic nose data and volatile compounds were analyzed at intervals of 60 min (t60 during 180 min of frying (t180. Principal components analysis applied to electronic nose data showed one component, PC1 which accounted 96.3 % of the total odour variation. SnO2 sensors had a positive correlation with PC1. Arauco variety corresponding to frying t120 and t180 had the highest positive correlation with PC1. Analysis of variance results for volatile compounds showed an increase on production for: 3-methyl butanal, n-pentanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal at 60 min of frying for both varieties.

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2017-10-25

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSBRoasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBMAustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBMStd ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBMGMO-free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBMStd to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSBRoasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBMAustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBMAustria can be used as alternative to imported SBMGMO-free and SBMStd in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Protective effects of dietary avocado oil on impaired electron transport chain function and exacerbated oxidative stress in liver mitochondria from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Gallegos-Corona, Marco Alonso; Sánchez-Briones, Luis Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Campos-García, Jesús; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction, excessive ROS generation and lipid peroxidation are hallmarks of mitochondrial injury in the diabetic liver, with these alterations also playing a role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Enhanced mitochondrial sensitivity to lipid peroxidation during diabetes has been also associated to augmented content of C22:6 in membrane phospholipids. Thus, we aimed to test whether avocado oil, a rich source of C18:1 and antioxidants, attenuates the deleterious effects of diabetes on oxidative status of liver mitochondria by decreasing unsaturation of acyl chains of membrane lipids and/or by improving ETC functionality and decreasing ROS generation. Streptozocin-induced diabetes elicited a noticeable increase in the content of C22:6, leading to augmented mitochondrial peroxidizability index and higher levels of lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial respiration and complex I activity were impaired in diabetic rats with a concomitant increase in ROS generation using a complex I substrate. This was associated to a more oxidized state of glutathione, All these alterations were prevented by avocado oil except by the changes in mitochondrial fatty acid composition. Avocado oil did not prevented hyperglycemia and polyphagia although did normalized hyperlipidemia. Neither diabetes nor avocado oil induced steatosis. These results suggest that avocado oil improves mitochondrial ETC function by attenuating the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in the liver of diabetic rats independently of a hypoglycemic effect or by modifying the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes. These findings might have also significant implications in the progression of NAFLD in experimental models of steatosis.

  2. Role of glucosinolates in the causation of liver haemorrhages in laying hens fed water-extracted or heat-treated rapeseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, P A; Scougall, R K; Shannon, D W; Wells, J W; Mawson, R

    1987-11-01

    Glucosinolates were removed from whole rapeseed by a hot-water extraction procedure or depleted by heat treatment. When laying hens were maintained for three months on diets containing about 300 g kg-1 of these rapeseed cakes, the incidence of liver haemorrhages detected at post mortem examination was similar to that in birds maintained on 300 g kg-1 commercial rapeseed meal and significantly greater than in control birds fed soya-based diets. The effectiveness of glucosinolate extraction or depletion was determined by chemical analysis and by histological examination of the thyroid glands. Histologically the haemorrhages were similar after feeding extracted and commercial rapeseed meals. Diets containing mixtures of nitriles and glucosinolates severely depressed food intake and egg production but did not cause a greater incidence of haemorrhages than the other rapeseed products tested. Mortality from causes other than liver haemorrhage was higher with the diets containing rapeseed and this suggests that rapeseed has a more generalised effect on the body's defence mechanisms. These observations suggest that other factors in rapeseed meal, alone or acting with glucosinolates, may be responsible for inducing liver haemorrhages in laying hens.

  3. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... 65:35 w/w (BR) or a randomized mixture of BR (tBR). Half of the animals were used for organ analysis, the rest for a postprandial study with the same fats and isolation of chylomicrons. The regiospecific distribution of the fatty acids present in the dietary fats was followed during metabolism...

  4. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  5. Characterization of refined edible oils enriched with phenolic extracts from olive leaves and pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Medina, V; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2012-06-13

    Refined edible oils (viz., oils from maize, soya, high-oleic sunflower, sunflower, olive, and rapeseed) enriched at two concentration levels (200 and 400 μg/mL total phenolic content) with phenolic extracts isolated from olive pomace and leaves have been characterized and compared with nonenriched oils and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Enriched oils were analyzed by LC-TOF/MS to generate representative fingerprints and compared with nonenriched oils and EVOO by unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA). The two raw materials reported enriched oils with profiles which were compared with those provided by EVOOs. Correlation analysis enabled us to establish the enriched oils with a composition more similar to EVOO. Discrimination according to the enrichment level depended on the raw material for extracts, and a global discussion about the enrichment on relevant phenolic compounds present in EVOO has reported quantitative results concerning the enrichment level for those significant compounds with known nutraceutical properties.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  7. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  8. Biological traits and Life table parameters A and B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. on cotton and rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Samih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to construct life table of Bemisia tabaci (Gen. A and B (silverleaf whitefly B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring biotype (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on two host plants; cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. and rapeseed, (Brassica napus L.. Experiments were conducted in a growth chamber under 24 ± 2ºC, 55±3% RH and 16:8 (L:D h photoperiod on caged plants of cotton G. hirsutum L. (Varamin 76 variety and rapeseed B. napus L. (global variety. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T for B. tabaci A biotype was 0.1010 females per female per day, 18.4075 females per female and 30.079 day (d on cotton; 0.1286, 30.6760 and 26.77 d on rapeseed; and for B biotype (B. argentifolii those above respective parameters averaged 0.1033, 27.8426 and 32.74 d on cotton and 0.1750, 40.75 and 21.27 d on rapeseed. The total survival of A and B biotype from the egg to adult on cotton was 22.08 and 22.25, respectively. The results showed significant differences between the two biotype reared on either host plant for gross reproductive rate (GRR, net reproductive rate (R0 or NRR, intrinsic rates of increase (r m, finite rate of increase (λ, doubling time (DT and mean generation times (Tc. To obtain a better understanding of the biology of these biotypes, Stable age distribution (Cx and some other aspects of life history related to their hosts were also studied. Based upon the results, both biotypes showed a greater reproduction capacity on rapeseed than on cotton. Thus, rapeseed was more suitable host than cotton for two biotypes and this was an important factor in host plant selection for optimizing the control strategies of these major pests.

  9. The poor digestibility of rapeseed protein is balanced by its very high metabolic utilization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Cécile; Airinei, Gheorghe; Mariotti, François; Benamouzig, Robert; Bérot, Serge; Evrard, Jacques; Fénart, Evelyne; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2007-03-01

    Rapeseed protein (RP, Brassica napus) is used in only animal feed despite its high nutritional potential for human nutrition. We sought to assess the nutritional quality of rapeseed by measuring its real ileal digestibility (RID) and net postprandial protein utilization (NPPU) in humans fed (15)N-RP. Volunteers equipped with an intestinal tube at the jejunal (n = 5) or ileal level (n = 7) ingested a mixed meal containing 27.3 g (15)N-RP and a total energy content of 700 kcal (2.93 MJ). Dietary N kinetics was quantified in intestinal fluid, urine, and blood sampled at regular intervals during the postprandial period. The RID of RP was 84.0 +/- 8.8%. Dietary N at the ileal level was mostly in the form of undigested protein from both 12S and 2S rapeseed fractions. Aminoacidemia was not significantly increased by meal ingestion. The postprandial distribution of dietary N was 5.4 +/- 1.8% in urinary urea and ammonia, 8.2 +/- 3.4% in body urea, and 7.7 +/- 2.0% in plasma protein 8 h after the meal. The NPPU of RP amounted to 70.5 +/- 9.6% and the postprandial biological value (PBV) was high at 83.8 +/- 4.6%. RP has a low RID in humans compared with other plant proteins but also exhibits a very low deamination rate. Thus, the PBV of RP is excellent in humans, being as high as that of milk protein. We conclude that RP has a high nutritional potential for human nutrition.

  10. Ethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw and the process simulation using artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talebnia, Farid; Mighani, Moein; Rahimnejad, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed straw was utilized as a cheap raw material for ethanol production. Effects of steam explosion on chemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were studied. Changes in the pretreatment conditions showed strong effects...... on digestibility of the resulting straw. The optimum results were obtained at 180A degrees C, 10% solid fraction, 1% H2SO4, and 10 min retention time. Under optimal condition, glucose hydrolysis yields of 93 and 89% were obtained for 5 and 10% solid fractions, respectively. The corresponding ethanol yields were 63...

  11. Effects of Hydrolyzed Rapeseed Cake Extract on the Quality Characteristics of Mayonnaise Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Jeung-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Combined fractions (H2 O and 30% and 50% ethanol) of crude rapeseed cake extracts with 80% ethanol were hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. The hydrolyzed extract showed significantly higher contents of total phenolics (41.8 mg SAE/g) and sinapic acid (425.8 mg/g), as well as higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity (91.98 RSC%) than the crude extract (P extract was remarkably higher than that of the crude extract against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast, as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Hydrolyzed extract (100, 250, or 500 ppm) was added to mayonnaise dressing, and several quality characteristics of the dressing were investigated by assessments of microbial, physical, and oxidative stabilities during 8 wk of storage. Microbial stability was higher in the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added (4.3 to 4.6 Log CFU/g) than the control (4.9 Log CFU/g). Physical characteristics of the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added were better than those of the control, based on increased viscosity and reduced emulsion separation. Hydrolyzed extract increased oxidative stability in a concentration-dependent manner, and the dressing with added 500 ppm of hydrolyzed extract resulted in a lower free fatty acid content (4.8% at week 8), peroxide value (13.5 meq/kg at week 6), and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (66.2 μg/100 g at week 8) than the control. Therefore, it is expected that hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract containing high sinapic acid content can be used in emulsion system as a value-added ingredient. Crude extract of rapeseed cake was fractionated and alkaline-hydrolyzed to convert sinapine into sinapic acid, and the produced hydrolyzed extract showed higher antimicrobial and antioxidative activities than the crude extract. When the hydrolyzed extract was added to mayonnaise dressing, microbial stability increased along with physical characteristics and oxidative

  12. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  13. Enhancement of oleic acid and vitamin E concentrations of bovine milk using dietary supplements of whole rapeseed and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Givens, D.; Allison, Richard; Blake, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    International audience; With the aim of reducing the degree of saturation and increasing the C18:1 cis fatty acid content of milk fat, the effects of feeding high levels of whole cracked rapeseed to dairy cows was investigated together with the effect of increasing dietary intake of vitamin E on the vitamin E content of milk. Using a 3 $\\times$ 3 factorial design, 90 Holstein dairy cows were fed one of three levels of whole cracked rapeseed (0 (ZR), 134 (MR) and 270 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ diet dry...

  14. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  15. Comparison of processing treatments on the composition and functional properties of rapeseed preparations (Brassica campestris L. var. toria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, A; Dua, S

    1994-01-01

    Rapeseed preparations viz. rapeseed meal, concentrates and isolates were prepared using different processing treatments involving organic solvents, acids, alkali, steaming and boiling. Their anti-nutritional constituents and functional properties were studied in comparison to undefatted meal. Percent decrease in phytic acid and phenolic content was maximum in seeds boiled for 30 min and isolates, respectively. Isolate II prepared by sodium hexa-metaphosphate had minimum glucosinolates, maximum content of total proteins and much improved nitrogen solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties. Water absorption and fat absorption capacities were enhanced by boiling seeds prior to grinding and ammonia-methanol extraction, respectively. Viscosity decreased in all the treatments as compared to control.

  16. Regeneration of β-Carotene from Radical Cation by Eugenol, Isoeugenol, and Clove Oil in the Marcus Theory Inverted Region for Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Hong; Han, Rui-Min; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-02-01

    The rate of regeneration of β-carotene by eugenol from the β-carotene radical cation, an initial bleaching product of β-carotene, was found by laser flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy to be close to the diffusion limit in chloroform/methanol (9:1, v/v), with a second-order rate constant (k2) of 4.3 × 109 L mol-1 s-1 at 23 °C. Isoeugenol, more reducing with a standard reduction potential of 100 mV lower than eugenol, was slower, with k2 = 7.2 × 108 L mol-1 s-1. Regeneration of β-carotene following photobleaching was found 50% more efficient by eugenol, indicating that, for the more reducing isoeugenol, the driving force exceeds the reorganization energy for electron transfer significantly in the Marcus theory inverted region. For eugenol/isoeugenol mixtures and clove oil, kinetic control by the faster eugenol determines the regeneration, with a thermodynamic backup of reduction equivalent through eugenol regeneration by the more reducing isoeugenol for the mixture. Clove oil, accordingly, is a potential protector of provitamin A for use in red palm oils.

  17. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...... system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...

  18. Genotype by environment interaction for seed yield per plant in rapeseed using AMMI model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marjanović-Jeromela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess genotype by environment interaction for seed yield per plant in rapeseed cultivars grown in Northern Serbia by the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The study comprised 19 rapeseed genotypes, analyzed in seven years through field trials arranged in a randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Seed yield per plant of the tested cultivars varied from 1.82 to 19.47 g throughout the seven seasons, with an average of 7.41 g. In the variance analysis, 72.49% of the total yield variation was explained by environment, 7.71% by differences between genotypes, and 19.09% by genotype by environment interaction. On the biplot, cultivars with high yield genetic potential had positive correlation with the seasons with optimal growing conditions, while the cultivars with lower yield potential were correlated to the years with unfavorable conditions. Seed yield per plant is highly influenced by environmental factors, which indicates the adaptability of specific genotypes to specific seasons.

  19. Macroporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rapeseed Shell for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium–sulfur batteries have drawn considerable attention because of their extremely high energy density. Activated carbon (AC is an ideal matrix for sulfur because of its high specific surface area, large pore volume, small-size nanopores, and simple preparation. In this work, through KOH activation, AC materials with different porous structure parameters were prepared using waste rapeseed shells as precursors. Effects of KOH amount, activated temperature, and activated time on pore structure parameters of ACs were studied. AC sample with optimal pore structure parameters was investigated as sulfur host materials. Applied in lithium–sulfur batteries, the AC/S composite (60 wt % sulfur exhibited a high specific capacity of 1065 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 and a good capacity retention of 49% after 1000 cycles at 1600 mA g−1. The key factor for good cycling stability involves the restraining effect of small-sized nanopores of the AC framework on the diffusion of polysulfides to bulk electrolyte and the loss of the active material sulfur. Results demonstrated that AC materials derived from rapeseed shells are promising materials for sulfur loading.

  20. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N2O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise...

  1. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  2. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-04-13

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  3. Comparison of biogas production from rapeseed and wheat residues in compound with cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Seventy million tons of agricultural crops are produced from 18 million hectares of agricultural lands in Iran every year. Since 80% of the crops (wt. basis ends up as residues, therefore, about 50 million tons of crop residues are generated annually the majority of which is burnt on field leading to vast emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG due to the incomplete combustion process. These residues could potentially be transformed into heat energy directly by adopting a burning process or indirectly by first transforming them into secondary fuel as hydrogen, bio-methane, methanol or ethanol. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted using, wheat and rapeseed straws dried at ambient temperature co-digested with fresh cow dung while the total solid content and detention time were kept constant. To conduct the Anaerobic Digestion (AD experiments, cylinder reactors (13 L were constructed and placed in a water bath equipped with a heater and sensor to maintain the temperature at 35±2 oC. The biogas produced in the digester was investigated by measuring the displacement of the water in a measuring tube connected to the reactor. Gas samples were obtained from the sampling port and were analyzed gas chromatograph. The temperature for detector, injector and oven were 170, 110 and 50 oC respectively. Before the test, the first CH4 and CO2 net gases, peaks corresponding percentage was determined with respect to the retention time of the area. Then sample was compared with standard gas and samples gas percentage was determined. The residues were mechanically pretreated using a mill in order to increase the availability of the biomass to enzymes. After the pre-treatment, the material (<2 mm was mixed with a different proportion of fresh cow dung, Initial Total Solids (TS content in the reactor was adjusted at 9%. Factors such as PH, Volatile Solids (VS were determined by the standard method. Results and Discussion A decrease in the

  4. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The compositional characterisation of Romanian grape seed oils using spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanganu, Anamaria; Todaşcă, Maria-Cristina; Chira, Nicoleta-Aurelia; Maganu, Maria; Roşca, Sorin

    2012-10-15

    In the present study, we developed a method for the grape seed oil compositional characterisation using (1)H NMR spectroscopy directly applied on oils without sample derivatisation (as triglycerides). Using (1)H NMR spectroscopy data and systems of chemometric equations, we established the composition of grape seed oils on four classes of fatty acids. Spectral information from (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to make the differences between grape seed oils and genuine common oils. Applying the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method to the spectral information, it was evaluated the application potential in authenticity control of grape seed oils from common genuine oils (sunflower, soybean, linseed and rapeseed). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embry development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, R.V.L.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Supena, E.D.J.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Lammers, M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Zeilmaker, T.; Miki, B.L.A.; America, A.H.P.; Custers, J.B.M.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart

  7. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating, rumi...

  8. Effects of processing technologies and pectolytic enzymes on degradability of nonstarch polysaccharides from rapeseed meal in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) contains a high level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) that are not well degraded in poultry and interfere with digestion of other nutrients as protein, starch, and fat. By altering physicochemical properties of NSP from RSM, processing and enzyme technologies might improve

  9. Effects of pressure toasting on in situ degradability and intestinal protein and protein-free organic matter digestibility of rapeseed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Ferreira, C.; Goelema, J.O.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapeseed is a protein supplement that contains up to 40% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis, but a large part of its protein can be easily degraded in the rumen. Therefore, before inclusion in ruminant's diet, the extent of its protein degradation in the rumen must be reduced

  10. Rapeseed rotation, compost and biocontrol amendments reduce soilborne diseases and increase tuber yield in conventional and organic potato production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three different potential disease-suppressive management practices, including a Brassica napus (rapeseed) green manure rotation crop, a conifer-based compost amendment, and three biological control organisms (Trichoderma virens, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizoctonia solani hypovirulent isolate Rhs1A1)...

  11. Of proteins and processing: mechanisms of protein damage upon rapeseed processing and their effects on nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar Villanea, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing is a common practice during the manufacture of protein-rich feed ingredients, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), and feeds. This processing step can induce physical and chemical changes to the proteins, thereby reducing the digestibility and utilization of crude protein (CP) and

  12. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects on in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar Villanea, S.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Carré, P.; Quinsac, A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2016-01-01


    Background

    Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and

  13. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL. A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21–9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Heping; Chen, Lunlin; Guo, Jianbin; Li, Qun; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21-9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  16. Morphological, photosynthetic and physiological responses of rapeseed leaf to different combinations of red and blue lights at the rosette stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shengxin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is sensitive to light quality. The factory production of rapeseed seedlings for vegetable use and for transplanting in the field requires an investigation of the responses of rapeseed to light quality. This study evaluated the responses of the leaf of rapeseed (cv. ‘Zhongshuang 11’ to different ratios of red-photonflux (RPF and blue-photonflux (BPF from light emitting diodes (LEDs. The treatments were set as monochromatic lights, including 100R:0B% and 0R:100B%, and compound lights (CLs, including 75R:25B%, 50R:50B% and 25R:75B%. The total photonflux in all of the treatments was set as 550 μmolm-2s-1. With an increase of BPF, the rapeseed leaves changed from wrinkled blades and down-rolled margins to flat blades and slightly up-rolled margins, and the compact degree of palisade tissue increased. One layer of the cells of palisade tissue was present under 100R:0B%, whereas two layers were present under the other treatments. Compared to 100R:0B%, 0R:100B% enhanced the indexes of leaf thickness, leaf mass per area (LMA, stomatal density, chlorophyll (Chl content per weight and photosynthetic capacity (Pmax, and the CLs with high BPF ratios enhanced these indexes. However, the 100R:0B% and CLs with high RPF ratios enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn. The leaves under the CLs showed growth vigor, whereas the leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% were stressed with a low Fv/Fm (photosynthetic maximum quantum yield and a high content of O2.- and H2O2. The top second leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% showed stress resistance responses with a high activity of antioxidase, but the top third leaves showed irreversible damage and inactivity of antioxidase. Our results showed that the rapeseed leaves grown under 0R:100B% or CLs with a high BPF ratio showed higher ability to utilize high photonflux, while the leaves grown under 100R:0B% or CLs with a low BPF ratio showed higher efficiency in utilizing low photonflux. Under

  17. Morphological, Photosynthetic, and Physiological Responses of Rapeseed Leaf to Different Combinations of Red and Blue Lights at the Rosette Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengxin, Chang; Chunxia, Li; Xuyang, Yao; Song, Chen; Xuelei, Jiao; Xiaoying, Liu; Zhigang, Xu; Rongzhan, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is sensitive to light quality. The factory production of rapeseed seedlings for vegetable use and for transplanting in the field requires an investigation of the responses of rapeseed to light quality. This study evaluated the responses of the leaf of rapeseed (cv. "Zhongshuang 11") to different ratios of red-photonflux (RPF) and blue-photonflux (BPF) from light emitting diodes (LEDs). The treatments were set as monochromatic lights, including 100R:0B% and 0R:100B%, and compound lights (CLs), including 75R:25B%, 50R:50B%, and 25R:75B%. The total photonflux in all of the treatments was set as 550 μmolm(-2)s(-1). With an increase of BPF, the rapeseed leaves changed from wrinkled blades and down-rolled margins to flat blades and slightly up-rolled margins, and the compact degree of palisade tissue increased. One layer of the cells of palisade tissue was present under 100R:0B%, whereas two layers were present under the other treatments. Compared to 100R:0B%, 0R:100B% enhanced the indexes of leaf thickness, leaf mass per area (LMA), stomatal density, chlorophyll (Chl) content per weight and photosynthetic capacity (P max), and the CLs with high BPF ratios enhanced these indexes. However, the 100R:0B% and CLs with high RPF ratios enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (P n). The leaves under the CLs showed growth vigor, whereas the leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% were stressed with a low F v/F m (photosynthetic maximum quantum yield) and a high content of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. The top second leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% showed stress resistance responses with a high activity of antioxidase, but the top third leaves showed irreversible damage and inactivity of antioxidase. Our results showed that the rapeseed leaves grown under 0R:100B% or CLs with a high BPF ratio showed higher ability to utilize high photonflux, while the leaves grown under 100R:0B% or CLs with a low BPF ratio showed higher efficiency in utilizing low

  18. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  19. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Štefko, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  1. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  2. Effects of Dietary Rape Seed Oil, Copper(II) Sulphate and Vitamin E on Drip Loss, Colour and Lipid Oxidation of Chilled Pork Chops Packed in Atmospheric Air or in a High Oxygen Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C; Flensted-Jensen, M; Skibsted, L H; Bertelsen, G

    1998-10-01

    The effect of addition of rapeseed oil (canola), CuSO(4) and vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) to pig diets on pork meat quality (lipid oxidation, colour and drip loss) was studied. Pigs were reared on ten different diets, either a control diet (no supplementation of rapeseed oil, CuSO(4) or vitamin E) or 6% rapeseed oil diets supplemented with CuSO(4) (0, 35 or 175mg/kg) and vitamin E (0, 100 or 200mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg). The natural content of vitamin E originating from feed ingredients amounted to 9-23mg vitamin E (α-tocopherol) per kg feed. Muscle vitamin E levels reflected the dietary intake and pigs fed the control diet had significantly lower levels than pigs fed rapeseed oil diets. The quality of fresh pork chops packed in air or in 80% O(2):20% CO(2) was followed during chill storage for 8 and 13 days, respectively. Colour, as measured by tristimulus colorimetry of pork chops packed in 80% oxygen atmosphere, was significantly improved with respect to redness when compared to chops packed in air, regardless of dietary treatment. The low vitamin E content in pigs fed the control feed significantly decreased a values and the oxidative stability of pork chops during chill storage compared to the other feeding groups. Packing of chops in a high-oxygen atmosphere increased lipid oxidation, especially in chops with low levels of vitamin E. Supplementation of rapeseed oil diets with 100 or 200mg vitamin E significantly decreased lipid oxidation of chill stored chops. Supplementation with CuSO(4) did not influence meat quality attributes (drip loss, colour stability and lipid oxidation) for any of the storage conditions.

  3. Poly-nitrogen strong bases as immobilized catalysts for the trans-esterification of vegetable oils; Bases fortes polyazotees: catalyseurs immobilises pour la transesterification des huiles vegetales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbard, G.; Vielfaure-Joly, F. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2000-07-01

    To fulfill the requirements of using renewable resources for fuels and raw materials for the chemical industry, vegetable oils appeared rapidly as excellent candidates. The cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and soybean are now widely developed for the primary transformation of their oils into methyl esters through trans-esterification reactions with light alcohols. The essential production of rapeseed oil is devoted to the making of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), a mixture used as fuels for diesel engines or as feedstock for specialty chemicals such as lubricants and surfactants. It is shown here that the non-ionic poly-nitrogen organic bases, related to guanidines and bi-guanidines, are strong enough to perform such trans-esterification reactions. New syntheses of bi-guanidines were devised for such purposes and applied for the preparation of recyclable polymer-supported catalysts.

  4. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, Pieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk

    2012-08-01

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  5. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  6. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel.

  7. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  8. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight—mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  9. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  10. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Génard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L. to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. using the split-root 15N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low 15N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant 15N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and 15N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant−1, respectively, which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  11. [Testing in swine of meal extracted from winter rapeseed with different glucosinolate content with regard to iodine supply. 1. Characterization of rapeseed extraction particles and fattening results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, F; Lange, R; Lüdke, H; Brautzsch, R; Hennig, A

    1990-09-01

    In a feeding experiment with 48 growing pigs 16% high glucosinolate rapeseed meal (HGRSM) (136 mumol glucosinolates + aglucones/kg dry matter, DM) or low glucosinolate (LG) RSM (48 mumol glucosinolates + aglucones/kg DM) in the feed were compared with 14% soya-bean meal (SBM) in each case. It were established 24 pairs of animals, which received the same quantity of the isonitrogenous but not isocaloric diets with SBM and the both RSM (pair fed). Four of the 2.12 animal pairs were not given supplementary I, four received 0.25 mg supplementary I/kg feed. Further four animals which were fed on LGRSM or HGRSM were provided with 0.0625 or 1 mg supplementary I/kg feed. In case of high glucosinolate intake (HGRSM) the lacking I supplementation decreased feed intake and growth and led to remarkable I deficiency symptoms from the fifth week onwards. The 2/3 lower glucosinolate dosage of the LGRSM diet also decreased performance and provoked I deficiency, however significantly later. The investigated I dosages (greater than 0.0625 mg/kg feed) did not effect the performance. In the experiment the eight animals which received LGRSM with supplementary I consumed 13% more feed than animals fed on HGRSM (P less than 0.05). The additional weight gain was 20% (P less than 0.05). Comparing the live weight gain of the SBM and RSM fed animals (pair fed) there was a significant increase of 9% versus the HGRSM groups and 5% versus the LGRSM groups.

  12. Preliminary investigation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel engine operating on vegetable oil-based alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.; Howard, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exhaust emissions from a diesel engine operating on unmodified (sunflower, rapeseed, soyabean) and modified (ethyl-ester sunflower) vegetable oil were compared with emissions resulting from the combustion of diesel gas oil. Three engine load/speed conditions were assessed for each fuel and emission levels for 20 PAH compounds are presented for each test. PAH emission profiles arising from the combustion of unmodified oils were similar, with the total PAH exhaust concentrations generally being lower than the levels obtained using diesel fuel. Increasing engine load was found to increase greatly the production of carcinogenic PAH species in the exhaust from combusted unmodified vegetable oils. The formation of alkyl-substituted PAH, common in diesel exhaust emissions, was very limited using these fuels. Results obtained from operation of the engine on the ethyl-ester of sunflower oil indicated PAH emissions in between those obtained using diesel oil and the unmodified vegetable oils. 18 references.

  13. A preliminary investigation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel engine operating on vegetable oil-based alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.; Howard, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exhaust emissions from a diesel engine operating on unmodified (sunflower, rapeseed, soyabean) and modified (ethyl-ester sunflower) vegetable oil were compared with emissions resulting from the combustion of diesel gas oil. Three engine load/speed conditions were assessed for each fuel and emission levels for 20 PAH compounds are presented for each test. PAH emission profiles arising from the combustion of unmodified oils were similar, with the total PAH exhaust concentrations generally being lower than the levels obtained using diesel fuel. Increasing engine load was found to increase greatly the production of carcinogenic PAH species in the exhaust from combusted unmodified vegetable oils. The formation of alkyl-substituted PAH, common in diesel exhaust emissions, was very limited using these fuels. Results obtained from operation of the engine on the ethyl-ester of sunflower oil indicated PAH emissions in between those obtained using diesel oil and the unmodified vegetable oils

  14. Thermal degradation assessment of canola and olive oil using ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Tomasz; Lubinska, Martyna; Różańska, Anna; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Oil blending is often used to enhance the properties of vegetable oils. The admixture of a more thermally stable oil makes the resulting blend more suitable for use in frying. A new method of quality assessment of vegetable oils used in frying is presented in this paper. In this method, ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and chemometrics is employed. Principal component analysis was used for data processing. The results obtained with this method were compared with the results of the Rancimat test and sensory evaluation. It is demonstrated that the addition of olive oil improves the stability of rapeseed oil, and also changes its flavour and aroma profile. In addition, it was found that ultra-fast GC coupled with chemometrics is an effective tool for the assessment of the quality of edible oils. The proposed method does not require sample preparation, and the total time of analysis is less than 2 min.

  15. Effects of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 72 growing pigs (body weight = 40.8 ± 2.1 kg) were used in feeding trials, lasting for up to 42 days, and were randomly allotted to one of three diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet as well as two experimental diets containing 10% unfermented rapeseed meal (RSM) or 10% FRSM. The results showed that average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs fed FRSM were superior (P digestibility for dry matter, protein, calcium and phosphorus than pigs fed unfermented RSM diet and did not differ from the FRSM diet. Pigs fed FRSM had lower levels (P digestibility of RSM for pigs and FRSM is a promising alternative protein for pig production. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  17. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).

  18. The BnGRF2 gene (GRF2-like gene from Brassica napus) enhances seed oil production through regulating cell number and plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hong-Li; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Li, Rong-Jun; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2012-06-01

    Seed yield and oil content are two important agricultural characteristics in oil crop breeding, and a lot of functional gene research is being concentrated on increasing these factors. In this study, by differential gene expression analyses between rapeseed lines (zy036 and 51070) which exhibit different levels of seed oil production, BnGRF2 (Brassica napus growth-regulating factor 2-like gene) was identified in the high oil-producing line zy036. To elucidate the possible roles of BnGRF2 in seed oil production, the cDNA sequences of the rapeseed GRF2 gene were isolated. The Blastn result showed that rapeseed contained BnGRF2a/2b which were located in the A genome (A1 and A3) and C genome (C1 and C6), respectively, and the dominantly expressed gene BnGRF2a was chosen for transgenic research. Analysis of 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic Arabidopsis showed that overexpressed BnGRF2a resulted in an increase in seed oil production of >50%. Moreover, BnGRF2a also induced a >20% enlargement in extended leaves and >40% improvement in photosynthetic efficiency because of an increase in the chlorophyll content. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses indicated that some genes associated with cell proliferation, photosynthesis, and oil synthesis were up-regulated, which revealed that cell number and plant photosynthesis contributed to the increased seed weight and oil content. Because of less efficient self-fertilization induced by the longer pistil in the 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic line, Napin-BnGRF2a transgenic lines were further used to identify the function of BnGRF2, and the results showed that seed oil production also could increase >40% compared with the wild-type control. The results suggest that improvement to economically important characteristics in oil crops may be achieved by manipulation of the GRF2 expression level.

  19. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects on in vitro digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M. A. M.; Gruppen, Harry; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Carr?, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F. B.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundToasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the ...

  20. Water Capture, and Use Efficiency and Productivity in Sole and Intercropping of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Najibnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate water capture and use efficiency and also productivity in sole and intercropping of three crops Rapeseed, Bean and Corn, an experiment was conducted in Mashhad in the growing season of 2007-2008. In this investigation six treatments including three sole cropping of the three crops (rapeseed sown in 22 September 2007, bean and corn in 29 April 2008 and three intercropping including double cropping (simultaneous sowing of corn and bean in 29 April 2008, two stage-relay intercropping of rapeseed, corn and bean (rapeseed in 22 September 2007, bean and corn in 29 April 2008 and finally three stage-relay intercropping of rapeseed, corn and bean (rapeseed sown in 22 September 2007, bean in 8 April 2008 and corn in 29 April 2008 were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that in general, cropping combination affected water capture and use efficiency and also water productivity (p≤0.01. Among intercropping treatments, two stage-relay intercropping showed the highest capture efficiency (0.43, three stage-relay intercropping had the highest water use and productivity in terms of biological yields (1.82 and 0.73 g/m2/mm, respectively and double cropping showed the highest water use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield (0.43 and 0.17 g/m2/mm, respectively. Among sole cropping treatments, rapeseed showed the highest capture efficiency (0.26, use efficiency and productivity in terms of biological yields (6.82 and 1.75 g/m2/mm, respectively and corn showed the highest use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield (1.5 and 0.35 g/m2/mm, respectively. In general, two stage-relay intercropping for capture efficiency, sole cropping of rapeseed for use efficiency and productivity in terms of biological yield, and sole cropping of corn for use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield were superior than others. However, it seems that such combinations of crops for

  1. Multigenic control of pod shattering resistance in Chinese rapeseed germplasm revealed by genome-wide association and linkage analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to pod shatter in unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH and inter-mated (IF2 crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering and R2 (prone to pod shattering accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02 and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09 and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06 could be repeatedly detected across environments in diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals the Genetic Control Underlying Branch Angle in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongge Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is vital not only for crop yield, but also for field management, such as mechanical harvesting. The branch angle is one of the key factors determining plant architecture. With the aim of revealing the genetic control underlying branch angle in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., the positional variation of branch angles on individual plants was evaluated, and the branch angle increased with the elevation of branch position. Furthermore, three middle branches of individual plants were selected to measure the branch angle because they exhibited the most representative phenotypic values. An association panel with 472 diverse accessions was estimated for branch angle trait in six environments and genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array. As a result of association mapping, 46 and 38 significantly-associated loci were detected using a mixed linear model (MLM and a multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (MRMLM, which explained up to 62.2 and 66.2% of the cumulative phenotypic variation, respectively. Numerous highly-promising candidate genes were identified by annotating against Arabidopsis thaliana homologous, including some first found in rapeseed, such as TAC1, SGR1, SGR3, and SGR5. These findings reveal the genetic control underlying branch angle and provide insight into genetic improvements that are possible in the plant architecture of rapeseed.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals the Genetic Control Underlying Branch Angle in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongge; Zhang, Liping; Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Fugui; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Gao, Guizhen; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tianyao; Li, Zaiyun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Plant architecture is vital not only for crop yield, but also for field management, such as mechanical harvesting. The branch angle is one of the key factors determining plant architecture. With the aim of revealing the genetic control underlying branch angle in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), the positional variation of branch angles on individual plants was evaluated, and the branch angle increased with the elevation of branch position. Furthermore, three middle branches of individual plants were selected to measure the branch angle because they exhibited the most representative phenotypic values. An association panel with 472 diverse accessions was estimated for branch angle trait in six environments and genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array. As a result of association mapping, 46 and 38 significantly-associated loci were detected using a mixed linear model (MLM) and a multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (MRMLM), which explained up to 62.2 and 66.2% of the cumulative phenotypic variation, respectively. Numerous highly-promising candidate genes were identified by annotating against Arabidopsis thaliana homologous, including some first found in rapeseed, such as TAC1, SGR1, SGR3, and SGR5. These findings reveal the genetic control underlying branch angle and provide insight into genetic improvements that are possible in the plant architecture of rapeseed.

  4. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  5. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......, the effect of the diet on protein oxidation in fish fillets was also determined. In both studies, feeding regimes significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Moreover concentration of primary oxidation products at the end of the storage period was highest in fish fed lipids with the highest unsaturation......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...

  6. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  7. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  8. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Shi

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM contained more crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA (except His than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05 by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many

  9. Effect of the desolventizing/toasting process on chemical composition and protein quality of rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthin, Rainer; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Sauer, Nadja; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Schöne, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    During processing in a desolventizer/toaster (DT), rapeseed meal (RSM) is heated to evaporate the hexane and to reduce the level of heat-labile anti-nutritional factors such as glucosinolates (GSL). However, excessive heat treatment may reduce amino acid (AA) content in addition to lower AA digestibility and availability in RSM. The objective of the present study was to produce from one batch of a 00-rapeseed variety (17 μmol GSL/g dry matter (DM), seed grade quality) five differently processed RSM under standardized and defined conditions in a pilot plant, and to determine the impact of these different treatments on protein solubility and chemical composition, in particular with regard to contents of AA including reactive Lys (rLys) and levels of total and individual GSL. Four RSM were exposed to wet toasting conditions (WetTC) with increasing residence time in the DT of 48, 64, 76, and 93 min. A blend of these four RSM was further processed, starting with saturated steam processing (toasting conditions (DryTC) to further reduce the GSL content in this RSM. The contents of neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber bound crude protein (CP) increased linearly (P < 0.05), as residence time of RSM in the DT increased from 48 to 93 min, whereas contents of total and most individual GSL and those of Lys, rLys, Cys, and the calculated ratio of Lys:CP and rLys:CP decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05). The combination of wet heating and DryTC resulted in the lowest GSL content compared to RSM produced under WetTC, but was associated with lowest protein solubility. It can be concluded that by increasing residence time in the DT or using alternative processing conditions such as wet heating combined with DryTC, contents of total and individual GSL in RSM can be substantially reduced. Further in vivo studies are warranted to elucidate if and to which extent the observed differences in protein quality and GSL content between RSM may affect digestibility and

  10. Determination of SFC, FFA, and equivalent reaction time for enzymatically interestified oils using NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Lars P.; Kristensen, Dorthe; Rosager, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of the degree of interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and rapeseed oil obtained using an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase at 70 ◦C was investigated. Interesterification was carried out by applying...... that NIRS could be used to replace the traditional methods for determining FFA and SFC in vegetable oils.It was possible to monitor the activity of the immobilized enzyme for interesterification of margarine oils by predicting the equivalent reaction time in a batch reactor from NIR spectra. Root mean...... square errors of prediction for two different oil blends interesterified for 300 and 170 min were 21 and 12 min, respectively....

  11. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  12. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  13. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach evaluating oil spill conditions. You are here Home | Oil and Chemical Spills | Oil Spills On Our Radar ... US Department of Commerce | USA.gov Main menu Home Oil and Chemical Spills Environmental Restoration Marine Debris Training ...

  14. Effects of cooking plant oils on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Sawazaki, Shigeki

    2006-05-01

    One-third of the total population seems to develop minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) during their lifetime. However, well-controlled dietary intervention studies to prevent minor RAS are very rare. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the prevalence of RAS decreased with perilla oil (rich in alpha-linolenic acid). Thirty subjects (8 men and 22 women) who had minor RAS at least once a month were randomly allocated to a soybean oil group or a perilla oil group in a double-blind manner (experimental phase) after a run-in phase of 4 mo during which subjects used a reference oil, the most popular cooking oil in Japan, or a 50/50 mixture of soybean oil and rapeseed oil. During the experimental phase, subjects were asked to use soybean oil or perilla oil as the sole cooking oil for 8 mo. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of the experimental phase for fatty acid analysis of total plasma phospholipid fraction. Occurrence and needed days for healing of minor RAS were recorded during the two phases and compared. alpha-Linolenic acid concentrations in the plasma phospholipid fraction increased significantly in both groups during the experimental phase to a similar extent. The prevalence of minor RAS in the experimental phase decreased significantly in both groups compared with the run-in phase to a similar extent, without intergroup differences. Perilla oil, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid, was not superior to soybean oil in preventing minor RAS. There was a possibility that avoiding rapeseed oil might be beneficial for prevention of minor RAS.

  15. Triacylglycerol "hand-shape profile" of Argan oil. Rapid and simple UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS and HPTLC methods to detect counterfeit Argan oil and Argan-oil-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliuca, Giordana; Bozzi, Carlotta; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Multari, Giuseppina; Palazzino, Giovanna; Porrà, Rita; Panusa, Alessia

    2017-12-02

    The marketing of new argan-based products is greatly increased in the last few years and consequently, it has enhanced the number of control analysis aimed at detecting counterfeit products claiming argan oil as a major ingredient. Argan oil is produced in Morocco and it is quite expensive. Two simple methods for the rapid screening of pure oil and argan-oil based products, focused on the analysis of the triacylglycerol profile, have been developed. A three-minute-run by UHPLC-PDA allows the identification of a pure argan oil, while the same run with the MS detector allows also the analysis of products containing the oil down to 0.03%. On the other hand, by HPTLC the simultaneous analysis of twenty samples, containing argan oil down to 0.5%, can be carried out in a forty-five-minute run. The triglyceride profile of the most common vegetable fats such as almond, coconut, linseed, wheat germ, sunflower, peanut, olive, soybean, rapeseed, hemp oils as well as shea butter used either in cosmetics or commonly added for the counterfeiting of argan oil, has been also investigated. Over sixty products with different formulations and use have been successfully analyzed and argan oil in the 2.4-0.06% concentration range has been quantified. The methods are suitable either for a rapid screening or for quantifying argan oil in different formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  17. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  18. Socio-economic well-to-wheel analysis of biofuels. Scenarios for rapeseed diesel (RME) and 1. and 2. generation bioethanol; Samfundsoekonomisk well-to-wheel-analyse af biobraendstoffer. Scenarieberegninger for rapsdiesel (RME) og 1.- og 2.-generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slentoe, E.; Moeller, F.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2010-10-15

    The report examines in an integrated form, the energy, emissions and welfare economic implications of introducing Danish produced biodiesel, i.e. rapeseed diesel (RME) and the first and second generation wheat ethanol in two scenarios with low and high rate of blending with fossil fuel based automotive fuels. Within this project's, analytical framework and assumptions the welfare economic analysis shows, that it would be beneficial for society to realize the biofuel scenarios to some extent by oil prices above $ 100 a barrel, while it will cause losses by oil prices at $ 65. In all cases, the fossil fuel consumption and the emissions CO2eq emissions are reduced, the effect of which is priced and included in the welfare economic analysis. The implementation of biofuels in Denmark will be dependent on market price. As it stands now, it is not favorable in terms of biofuels. The RME is currently produced in Denmark is exported to other European countries where there are state subsidies. Subsidies would also be a significant factor in Denmark to achieve objectives for biofuel blending. (ln)

  19. Comparison of the use of sunflower, cotton and rape seed crude oils as fuels in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balafoutis, A.; Melas, D.; Natsis, A.; Papadakis, G.; Papagiannopoulou, A. (Agricultural University of Athens (Greece))

    2007-07-01

    An investigation of using crude oils of sunflower, cottonseed and rapeseed origin produced in Greece as CI engine fuel has been conducted. These oils chemical and physical properties indicate a good potential as alternative diesel engine fuels. Blending and preheating of vegetable oils with conventional diesel before using them as fuels, have been proved to be effective methods to reduce engine malfunctions associated with high oil viscosity. Engine performance and respective gas emission at different load conditions were measured over the whole engine speed range. Increasing the percentage of the oil in the blends with diesel has generally indicated an increase of engine power and torque with a corresponding increase in brake specific fuel consumption. As for emission measurements, it was shown that NO and CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced by increasing oil percentage in the blend. Comparing these three vegetable oils it was seen that in terms of power and torque output, rape oil based fuels have produced higher values than sunflower and cotton oil. As for brake specific fuel consumption, sunflower oil blends were consumed in a higher rate than blends of the other two vegetable oils. Finally, comparison of emissions has shown that NO, level was higher with sunflower oil blends. These blends produced elevated NO emission especially with the 70% blend in comparison to the 70% cotton and rape oil blends. CO{sub 2} production was higher with cotton oil, but with a minor difference from the rest of the vegetable oil fuels. (orig.)

  20. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    stearic acid, C 18:0. For example we found that in the two factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering...... fatty acids was changed for the worse. Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V......Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...

  1. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    found that in the two- factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering reported reductions in seed biomass....... Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality.......Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...

  2. A unique quantitative method of acid value of edible oils and studying the impact of heating on edible oils by UV-Vis spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenle; Li, Na; Feng, Yuyan; Su, Shujun; Li, Tao; Liang, Bing

    2015-10-15

    UV-Vis spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used effectively to study the impact of heating on edible oils (corn oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil and sesame oil) and determine their acid value. Analysis of their first derivative spectra showed that the peak at 370 nm was a common indicator of the heated oils. Partial least squares regression (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) were applied to building individual quantitative models of acid value for each kind of oil, respectively. The PLS models had a better performance than PCR models, with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9904-0.9977 and root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.0230-0.0794 for the prediction sets of each kind of oil, respectively. An integrate quantitative model built by support vector regression for all the six kinds of oils was also developed and gave a satisfactory prediction with a R(2) of 0.9932 and a RMSE of 0.0656. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M A M; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was performed with pancreatic proteases to represent in vitro protein digestibility. Increasing the toasting time of RSM linearly decreased the rate of protein hydrolysis of RSM and the insoluble protein fractions. The extent of hydrolysis was, on average, 44% higher for the insoluble compared with the soluble protein fraction. In contrast, the rate of protein hydrolysis of the soluble protein fraction was 3-9-fold higher than that of the insoluble protein fraction. The rate of hydrolysis of the insoluble protein fraction linearly decreased by more than 60% when comparing the untoasted to the 120 min toasted RSM. Increasing the toasting time elicited the formation of Maillard reaction products (furosine, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine and N(ε)-carboxyethyl-lysine) and disulfide bonds in the insoluble protein fraction, which is proposed to explain the reduction in the hydrolysis rate of this fraction. Overall, longer toasting times increased the size of the peptides resulting after hydrolysis of the RSM and the insoluble protein fraction. The hydrolysis kinetics of the soluble and insoluble protein fractions and the proportion of soluble:insoluble proteins in the RSM explain the reduction in the rate of protein hydrolysis observed in the RSM with increasing toasting time.

  5. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  6. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  7. Intraspecific variability of floral nectar volume and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBertazzini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous angiosperms rely on pollinators to ensure efficient flower fertilization, offering a reward consisting of nourishing nectars produced by specialized floral cells, known as nectaries. Nectar components are believed to derive from phloem sap that is enzymatically processed and transformed within nectaries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that nectar composition, mainly amino acids, may influence pollinator attraction and fidelity. This notwithstanding, little is known about the range of natural variability in nectar content for crop species. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar harvested from field-grown plants at the 63 to 65 phenological stage was determined for a set of 44 winter genotypes of rapeseed, a bee-pollinated crop. Significant differences were found for solute concentrations, and an even higher variability was evident for nectar volumes, resulting in striking differences when results were expressed on a single flower basis. The comparison of nectar and phloem sap from a subset of 8 varieties pointed out qualitative and quantitative diversities with respect to both sugars and amino acids. Notably, amino acid concentration in phloem sap was up to one hundred times higher than in nectar. Phloem sap showed a much more uniform composition, suggesting that nectar variability depends mainly on nectary metabolism. A better understanding of the basis of nectar production would allow an improvement of seed set efficiency, as well as hive management and honey production.

  8. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  9. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting of Crude Palm Oil Price Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchymalay, Kasturi; Salim, N.; Sukprasert, Anupong; Krishnan, Ramesh; Raba'ah Hashim, Ummi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between crude palm oil (CPO) price, selected vegetable oil prices (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. Comparative analysis was then performed on CPO price forecasting results using the machine learning techniques. Monthly CPO prices, selected vegetable oil prices, crude oil prices and monthly exchange rate data from January 1987 to February 2017 were utilized. Preliminary analysis showed a positive and high correlation between the CPO price and soy bean oil price and also between CPO price and crude oil price. Experiments were conducted using multi-layer perception, support vector regression and Holt Winter exponential smoothing techniques. The results were assessed by using criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), means absolute error (MAE), means absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Direction of accuracy (DA). Among these three techniques, support vector regression(SVR) with Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm showed relatively better results compared to multi-layer perceptron and Holt Winters exponential smoothing method.

  10. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of function-enriched edible oils: Preventive effect of lipid peroxidation; (a Heat exposure: Commercial rape-seed oil and extra virgin oil were used as controls. For preparation of the test samples (function fortified oils of tomato-juice waste-residue and grape wine- ferment waste-residues, it is described in above section (1. All oil preparations were exposed to high temperature at 150oC and peroxide value (POV, acid value and TBARS were measured at various times as described. The methods of measurements of POV, acid value and TBARS were adapted conventional standard method described elsewhere. (b Light exposure: Similar to (a they were exposed to excessive light using Nippon Ikaga Kikai (Tokyo, LH-200-RDS equipped with fluorescent light tube (x3, NEC FL40S-2XN, 3.2K lux at 390-730nm. Result and Discussions: (1 Extraction of carotenoids etc. Modern edible oil refining processes are highly elaborated and efficient. The most of the commercial edible oils in the market are so purified that many important antioxidant components are mostly removed during refining process. Oils became mostly colorless and odorless; and they lack are devoid of anti-oxidative or radical scavenging components. We measured anti-alkyl peroxy radical (ROO.-scavenging activity, and found that many commercial oils have very little such activity (Figure 1. Many disposal- of tomato juice or extraction waste-residues in wine making, yet contained significant amount of functionally useful components that may be recovered by immersing the dried waste residues in the functionally poor oil, ie., low grade oils. Figure 2A, B shows it was indeed possible to recover such component like lycopene and carotenoids, and the spectrum of this oil exhibits multiple peaks correspond tomato lycopene. (2 Antioxidation activity: (a Acid value after light and heat exposure. Commercial highly purified edible oils are vulnerable for oxidation and resulting in lipid or alkyl hydroperoxides formation (ROOH, which

  11. Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fricke, Christiane B.; Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    of these components in brain tissue of homozygous and heterozygous Watanabe rabbits, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. Homozygous animals received either a standard diet, RSO stanol or RSO sterol ester while heterozygous animals were additionally fed with 2 g cholesterol/kg to the respective diet...

  12. Evaluation of tribological characteristics of biodiesel based on rapeseed oil and its blends with mineral diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Бойченко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Research results on ШХ15 steel wearing capacity when sliding motion in biodiesel fuel on the basis of rape, mineral diesel fuel and their mixture, are presented. It was established that biodiesel fuel and its mixtures with mineral diesel fuel have better antiscuff  but worse antiwear properties than pure mineral diesel fuel. This fact tells us about the possibility of optimal correlations of diesel and biodiesel fuel in mixture that can be used as motor fuel for autotransport means equipped with diesel engines.

  13. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel-Jakubowska, Magdalena; Matwijczuk, Arkadiusz; Gagoś, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    The technology of transesterification of biodiesel obtained from many agricultural products, which are often referred to as renewable resources, yields substantial amounts of by-products. They exhibit various properties that prompt scientific research into potential application thereof. Various spectroscopic methods, e.g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are being increasingly used in the research. In this paper, we present the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy analyses of technical glycerine, distilled glycerine, and matter organic non glycerol, i.e. by-products of biodiesel production. To facilitate the spectroscopic analysis, a number of parameters were determined for all the materials, e.g. the calorific value, water content, sulphated ash content, methanol content, acidity, as well as the contents of esters, heavy metals, aldehydes, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The results indicate that the analysed products are characterised by a comparable calorific value in the range from 11.35 to 16.05 MJ kg-1 in the case of matter organic non glycerol and technical glycerine. Observation of changes in the position of selected peaks in the range of 3700-650 cm-1 in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method facilitates determination of the level of degradation of the analysed material. Changes in the wavelength ranges can be used for monitoring the formation of secondary oxidation products containing carbonyl groups.

  14. Supercritical fluid techniques as methods of analyses for individual triacylglycerols and other lipids important for the quality of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Buskov, S.; Møller, P.

    Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components......Toward enhanced value of cruciferous oilseed crops by optimal production and use of the high quality seed components...

  15. Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Sulphate Fertilizers and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Biofertilizer on Yield and Growth Traits of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of nitrogen (N and ZnSO4 fertilizers and biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum on grain yield and growth traits of rapeseed, Hyola308 cultivar, a field experiment, with split plot factorial layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, during 2007-2008 growing season. Nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were the main plot and ZnSO4 fertilizer at two levels (0 and 50 kg/ha and biofertilizer at two levels (with and without biofertilizer were arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that maximum and minimum leaf area indices at flowering stage (average of 1.29 and 0.95, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and in 50 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum crop growth rates at flowering stage (average of 5.89 and 3.19 g/m2.GDD, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control treatments. Maximum and minimum grain yields (2568, 2468 and 543 kg/ha, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ with/without ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control (no fertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum oil yields (42.8 and 37.3%, respectively were measured in 0 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and 150 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Since there was no significant difference between 150 and 100 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer treatments in terms of impact on canola grain yield and growth traits, it seems that application of biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, without any reduction in yield, increased grain production and oil content and saved 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer. Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, along with zinc and sulfur, produced phytohormones, and N fertilizer increased dry matter accumulation and leaf area index (by increasing carbohydrate conversion

  16. Inheritance of rapeseed (Brassica napus)-specific RAPD markers and a transgene in the cross B.juncea x (B.juncea x B.napus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, S.; Hansen, K.R.; Jensen, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the inheritance of 20 rapeseed (Brassica napus)-specific RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers from transgenic, herbicide-tolerant rapeseed in 54 plants of the BC1 generation from the cross B. juncea x (B. juncea x B. napus). Hybridization between B. juncea and B. napus......, with B. juncea as the female parent, was successful both in controlled crosses and spontaneously in the field. The controlled backcrossing of selected hybrids to B. juncea, again with B. juncea as the female parent, also resulted in many seeds. The BC1 plants contained from 0 to 20 of the rapeseed RAPD...... markers, and the frequency of inheritance of individual RAPD markers ranged from 19% to 93%. The transgene was found in 52% of the plants analyzed. Five synteny groups of RAPD markers were identified. In the hybrids pollen fertility was 0-28%. The hybrids with the highest pollen fertility were selected...

  17. Comparative study of the floral biology and of the response of productivity to insect visitation in two rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L. in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Blochtein

    Full Text Available Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61 were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420.

  18. Region-specific greenhouse gas balances for rapeseed cultivation in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Regionalspezifische Treibhausgasbilanzen fuer den Rapsanbau in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirauch, Mareike [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    2014-08-01

    The renewable energy directive (RED, 2009128/EG) announced guidelines to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the use of biofuels in comparison to the fossil fuels since 2009. The EU-RED contains maximum permissible values for the several production pathways of biofuels. On the basis of operating agriculture data (crop years 2011, 2012 and 2013) the current practical values of GHG emissions during the cultivation of rapeseed in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania have been analyzed in a present research project of the State Research Institute of Agriculture and Fishery Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The results of the status quo analysis of the GHG emissions during rapeseed cultivation are compared with the EU-RED standard value for biodiesel (made of rapeseed) and optimization options for GHG reduction are discussed, which will make it possible to require the EU-RED 50% GHG reduction value in 2017.

  19. Comparative study of the floral biology and of the response of productivity to insect visitation in two rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.) in Rio Grande do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blochtein, B; Nunes-Silva, P; Halinski, R; Lopes, L A; Witter, S

    2014-11-01

    Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus) is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61) were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420.

  20. Consumer perception of eatable oils quality in SR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the perception of the quality of edible oils and preferences of the Slovak consumers for the oil purchase as well as the factors that can affect the purchase of oil, respectively the consumer decision-making. In order to obtain primary data was used the method of questionnaire investigation. In the questionnaire research there were 664 respondents from all over Slovakia involved. The results of marketing research showed the different approaches to assessing the quality by Slovak consumers. Nearly 54% of respondents connect the food quality with health certificate, high-quality ingredients and freshness. Brand quality SK is known by 58% of respondents. The raw material from which is oil produced, oil clarity, thermal stability and color are features that respondents prefer when purchasing the edible oils. To know the content of essential fatty acids was interesting only for 7.44% of the respondents. Slovak consumers prefer sunflower, olive and rapeseed oil.

  1. Dynamic transcriptome analysis reveals AP2/ERF transcription factors responsible for cold stress in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunfang; Hu, Kaining; Xian, Shuanshi; Liu, Chunqing; Fan, Jianchun; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2016-06-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) superfamily plays an important regulatory role in signal transduction of the plant responses to various stresses including low temperature. Significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of cold resistance in Brassica napus, an important oilseed crop. However, comprehensive studies on the induction and activity of these TFs under low temperature have been lacking. In this study, 132 AP2/ERF genes were identified by transcriptome sequencing of rapeseed leaves exposed to 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of low (4 °C) temperature stress. The genes were classified into 4 subfamilies (AP2, DREB, ERF, and RAV) and 13 subgroups, among which the DREB subfamily and ERF subfamily contained 114 genes, no genes were assigned to soloist or DREB A3 subgroups. One hundred and eighteen genes were located on chromosomes A1 to C9. GO functional analysis and promoter sequence analysis revealed that these genes are involved in many molecular pathways that may enhance cold resistance in plants, such as the low-temperature responsiveness, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethylene-responsiveness pathways. Their expression patterns revealed dynamic control at different times following initiation of cold stress; the RAV and DREB subfamilies were expressed at the early stage of cold stress, whereas the AP2 subfamily was expressed later. Quantitative PCR analyses of 13 cold-induced AP2/ERF TFs confirmed the accuracy of above results. This study is the first dynamic analysis of the AP2/ERF TFs responsible for cold stress in rapeseed. These findings will serve as a reference for future functional research on transcription in rapeseed.

  2. Genome-Wide SNP Markers Based on SLAF-Seq Uncover Breeding Traces in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant and richest form of genomic polymorphism, and hence make highly favorable markers for genetic map construction and genome-wide association studies. In this study, a total of 300 rapeseed accessions (278 representative of Chinese germplasm, plus 22 outgroup accessions of different origins and ecotypes were collected and sequenced using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq technology, obtaining 660.25M reads with an average sequencing depth of 6.27 × and a mean Q30 of 85.96%. Based on the 238,711 polymorphic SLAF tags a total of 1,197,282 SNPs were discovered, and a subset of 201,817 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05 and integrity >0.8 were selected. Of these, 30,877 were designated SNP “hotspots,” and 41 SNP-rich genomic regions could be delineated, with 100 genes associated with plant resistance, vernalization response, and signal transduction detected in these regions. Subsequent analysis of genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD, and population structure in the 300 accessions was carried out based on the 201,817 SNPs. Nine subpopulations were observed based on the population structure analysis. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis divided the 300 varieties roughly in accordance with their ecotype origins. However, spring-type varieties were intermingled with semi-winter type varieties, indicating frequent hybridization between spring and semi-winter ecotypes in China. In addition, LD decay across the whole genome averaged 299 kb when r2 = 0.1, but the LD decay in the A genome (43 kb was much shorter than in the C genome (1,455 kb, supporting the targeted introgression of the A genome from progenitor species B. rapa into Chinese rapeseed. This study also lays the foundation for genetic analysis of important agronomic traits using this rapeseed population.

  3. Genome-Wide SNP Markers Based on SLAF-Seq Uncover Breeding Traces in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghong; Zhou, Can; Zheng, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Fan, Shuying; Wu, Caijun; Fu, Donghui; Huang, Yingjin

    2017-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant and richest form of genomic polymorphism, and hence make highly favorable markers for genetic map construction and genome-wide association studies. In this study, a total of 300 rapeseed accessions (278 representative of Chinese germplasm, plus 22 outgroup accessions of different origins and ecotypes) were collected and sequenced using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, obtaining 660.25M reads with an average sequencing depth of 6.27 × and a mean Q30 of 85.96%. Based on the 238,711 polymorphic SLAF tags a total of 1,197,282 SNPs were discovered, and a subset of 201,817 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05 and integrity >0.8 were selected. Of these, 30,877 were designated SNP "hotspots," and 41 SNP-rich genomic regions could be delineated, with 100 genes associated with plant resistance, vernalization response, and signal transduction detected in these regions. Subsequent analysis of genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population structure in the 300 accessions was carried out based on the 201,817 SNPs. Nine subpopulations were observed based on the population structure analysis. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis divided the 300 varieties roughly in accordance with their ecotype origins. However, spring-type varieties were intermingled with semi-winter type varieties, indicating frequent hybridization between spring and semi-winter ecotypes in China. In addition, LD decay across the whole genome averaged 299 kb when r(2) = 0.1, but the LD decay in the A genome (43 kb) was much shorter than in the C genome (1,455 kb), supporting the targeted introgression of the A genome from progenitor species B. rapa into Chinese rapeseed. This study also lays the foundation for genetic analysis of important agronomic traits using this rapeseed population.

  4. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  5. Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects onin vitrodigestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M A M; Gruppen, Harry; Hendriks, Wouter H; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2016-01-01

    Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120 min, with samples taken every 20 min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its in vitro CP digestibility. The decrease in protein solubility and the increase of intermolecular β-sheets with increasing toasting time were indications of protein aggregation. The contents of NDF and ADIN increased with increasing toasting time. Contents of arginine, lysine and O -methylisourea reactive lysine (OMIU-RL) linearly decreased with increasing toasting time, with a larger decrease of OMIU-RL than lysine. First-order reactions calculated from the measured parameters show that glucosinolates were degraded faster than lysine, OMIU-RL and arginine and that physical changes to proteins seem to occur before chemical changes during toasting. Despite the drastic physical and chemical changes noticed on the proteins, the coefficient of in vitro CP digestibility ranged from 0.776 to 0.750 and there were no effects on the extent of protein hydrolysis after 120 min. In contrast, the rate of protein hydrolysis linearly decreased with increasing toasting time, which was largely correlated to the decrease in protein solubility, lysine and OMIU-RL observed. Rate of protein hydrolysis was more than 2-fold higher for the untoasted RSM compared to the 120 min toasted material. Increasing the toasting time for the production of RSM causes physical and chemical changes to the proteins that decrease the rate of protein hydrolysis. The observed decrease in the rate of protein hydrolysis could impact protein digestion and utilization.

  6. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  7. Effect of introducing hemp oil into feed on the nutritional quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourot Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research is being carried out to diversify the sources of n-3 fatty acid-rich lipids for animal feed. In this study, 3 batches of 12 pigs with between 50 and 105 kg of live weight, received isolipidic diets containing either palm oil (PO, or rapeseed oil (CO, or hemp oil (HO (providing respectively 0.6; 1.9 and 3.4 g of C18:3 n-3 (ALA /kg of feed. The quantity of ALA deposited in the meat is higher (p< 0.001 in the HO pigs. Hemp oil may be an interesting source of ALA to improve the nutritional quality of pork.

  8. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    stocks is to employ acid catalysis, which is slow and requires a large excess of methanol, orto evaporate FFA and convert that in a separate process. An attractive option would be to convert the FFA in oil feedstocks to FAME, before introducing it into the alkaline process. The high selectivity of enzyme...... catalysis makes it a suitable basis for such a pretreatment process. In this work, we present a characterization of the pretreatment of high-FFA rapeseed oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), focused on the impact of initial FFA and methanol concentration. Based on experimental...... results, we have identified limitations for the process in terms of FFA concentration in the feedstock and make suggestions for process operation. It was found that, using 5% catalyst and 4% methanol at 35C, the FFA concentration could be reduced to 0.5% within an hour for feedstock containing up to 15...

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  10. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it by mouth to lose weight and lower cholesterol. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a ... coconut oil by mouth as a medicine. High cholesterol: Coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase ...

  11. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  12. Rapid and sensitive detection of fipronil and its metabolites in edible oils by solid-phase extraction based on humic acid bonded silica combined with gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-Tian; Li, Yu-Nan; Xia, Hong; Peng, Li-Jun; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-06-01

    Solid-phase extraction based on humic acid bonded silica followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection was developed to determine fipronil and its metabolites in edible oil. To achieve the best extraction performance, we systematically investigated a series of solid-phase extraction parameters. Under the optimized conditions, the method was validated according to linearity, recovery, and precision. Good linearities were obtained with R(2) more than 0.9996 for all analytes. The limits of detection were between 0.3 and 0.5 ng/g, and the recoveries ranged from 83.1 to 104.0% at three spiked concentrations with intra- and interday relative standard deviation values less than 8.7%. Finally, the proposed method was applied to determine fipronil and its metabolites in 11 edible oil samples taken from Wuhan markets. Fipronil was detectable in four samples with concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 5.2 ng/g. In China, the maximum residue limits of fipronil in some vegetables and maize are 20 and 100 ng/g (GB/T 2763-2014), respectively. The residues of fipronil and its metabolites in commercial edible oils might exhibit some potential threat to human health as a result of high consumption of edible oil as part of daily intake. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vegetable oils in the agriculture. Experience reports; Pflanzenoel als Kraftstoff in der Landwirtschaft. Erfahrungsberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemnitz, Dietmar [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); Paul, Nicole [Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V., Guelzow (Germany); WPR COMMUNICATION GmbH und Co. KG, Koenigswinter/Bonn (Germany); Wichmann, Volker; Schuemann, Ulrike [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Maurer, Karl [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum Straubing (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    In the agriculture, bio fuels increasingly meet with great interest. The use of bio diesel and vegetable oil as alternative fuels in diesel engines requires clear technical adjustments. The brochure under consideration reports on realizations of farmers who switched their tractors to an operation with vegetable oils. The brochure consists of the following contributions: (a) Employment of vegetable oil as fuel in the agriculture (empiric reports of farmers); (b) Re-equipment on operation with vegetable oil (empiric reports of reequipping persons); (c) Scientifically accompanying research of re-equipment (results of a 100-tractor-demonstration project); (d) Mixtures of plant oil and diesel fuel (results from engine test stand investigations); (e) Production of vegetable oil (experiences from an oil mill operator); (f) scientifically accompanying research for the production of vegetable oils (references to the production of rapeseed oil fuel according to the standard DIN 51605); (g) Hints and notes for the practice; (h) Fuel filling stations for self-consumers and storage of vegetable oil; (i) FNR funding programs bio fuels in the agriculture; (j) Adresses and contact persons.

  14. Egg performance, egg quality, and nutrient utilization in laying hens fed diets with different levels of rapeseed expeller cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SWIATKIEWICZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of rapeseed expeller cake (RC in the diet of laying hens on egg performance, egg quality, retention and excretion of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, and metabolizability of energy. The experiment was carried out with 72 Bovans Brown hens, from 28 to 53 weeks of age. Experimental treatment consisted of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric corn-soybean diets (as calculated: 17% crude protein, 11.6 MJ/kg metabolizable energy, 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% calcium and 0.37% available phosphorus, containing 0, 4, 6 or 8% RC. The RC used was produced from double zero rapeseed and contained 29.3% crude protein, 17.4% crude fat, 10.8% crude fibre, 0.63% calcium, 0.97% phosphorus, 1.91% lysine and 0.84% methionine. During the experimental period, the dietary level of RC had no significant effects on egg performance and egg quality parameters. Boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with 8% RC were characterized by an inferior flavour to those from other groups. There were no treatment effects on nitrogen balance or metabolizability of energy, though the highest dietary level of RC negatively affected retention and excretion of calcium and phosphorus.;

  15. A genome-wide association study of plant height and primary branch number in rapeseed (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Gao, Guizhen; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Li, Lixia; Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Tianyao; Nishio, Takeshi; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Crop plant architecture plays a highly important role in its agronomic performance. Plant height (PH) and primary branch number (PB) are two major factors that affect the plant architecture of rapeseed (Brassica napus). Previous studies have shown that these two traits are controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, QTLs have not been delimited to regions less than 10cM. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a highly efficient approach for identifying genetic loci controlling traits at relatively high resolution. In this study, variations in PH and PB of a panel of 472 rapeseed accessions that had previously been analyzed by a 60k SNP array were investigated for three consecutive years and studied by GWAS. Eight QTLs on chromosome A03, A05, A07 and C07 were identified for PH, and five QTLs on A01, A03, A07 and C07 were identified for PB. Although most QTLs have been detected in previous studies based on linkage analyses, the two QTLs of PH on A05 and the QTL of PB on C07 were novel. In the genomic regions close to the GWAS peaks, orthologs of the genes involved in flower development, phytohormone biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in Arabidopsis were identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An estimation of the global emission of methyl bromide from rapeseed ( Brassica napus) from 1961 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. Iqbal; White, Iain R.; Nickless, Graham; Wang, Kuo-Ying; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    Gan et al. [Gan, J., Yates, S.R., Ohr, H.D., Sims, J.J., 1998. Production of methyl bromide by terrestrial higher plants. Geophysical Research Letters 25 (19), 3595-3598] have reported that plants of the family Brassicaceae take up bromide from soils and subsequently release methyl bromide (CH 3Br) to the atmosphere deriving a significant emission from this source of about 7 Gg(10 9 g) yr -1. In this study, we determine a yearly global emission rate for CH 3Br from one such species, rapeseed, from 1961 to 2003 using data on crop harvest index and growth rate in conjunction with global production data. This study suggests that CH 3Br emissions from rapeseed have increased 10-fold from 1961 to 2003 and by a factor of 3-4 since 1980. It also suggests that the geographical distribution of emissions has also changed substantially in the last 40 yr. The annual emission of CH 3Br from mustard and cabbage is also estimated; whilst relative levels emitted from these species are less significant, as these crops are continually exploited for new applications CH 3Br emissions are set to increase.

  17. Utilisation of rapeseed protein isolates for production of peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ACE activity is related to increased arterial pressure and coronary diseases. A rapeseed protein isolate was hydrolyzed with the protease Alcalase in order to investigate the possible presence of ACE inhibitory peptides in the resulting hydrolysates. Hydrolysis for 30 min yielded a hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Two fractions of this hydrolysate obtained by Biogel P2 gel filtration chromatography were used for further purification of ACE inhibitory peptides. Three fractions with ACE inhibitory activity were purified by reverse-phase HPLC of Biogel P2 f ractions. This demonstrates that rapeseed protein hydrolysates represent a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides .La actividad de ECA está relacionada con una presión arterial alta y enfermedades cardíacas. Un aislado proteico de colza se hidrolizó con alcalasa para estudiar la posible presencia de péptidos inhibidores de ECA en el hidrolizado. La hidrólisis durante 30 min produjo el hidrolizado con la mayor actividad inhibidora de ECA. Dos fracciones de este hidrolizado, obtenidas por cromatografía de filtración en gel Biogel P2, se usaron para la purificación de péptidos inhibidores de ECA. Tres fracciones con actividad inhibidora de ECA se purificaron mediante HPLC en fase reversa de las fracciones obtenidas mediante Biogel P2. Esto demuestra que los hidrolizados proteicos de colza representan una buena fuente de péptidos inhibidores de ECA.

  18. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study Dissecting the Genetic Architecture Underlying the Branch Angle Trait in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Wang, Xiaohua; Hu, Kaining; Li, Kaidi; Li, Zhanyu; Li, San; Yan, Lei; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Jiefu; Zhang, Zhenqian; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-09-20

    The rapeseed branch angle is an important morphological trait because an adequate branch angle enables more efficient light capture under high planting densities. Here, we report that the average angle of the five top branches provides a reliable representation of the average angle of all branches. Statistical analyses revealed a significantly positive correlation between the branch angle and multiple plant-type and yield-related traits. The 60 K Brassica Infinium(®) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was utilized to genotype an association panel with 520 diverse accessions. A genome-wide association study was performed to determine the genetic architecture of branch angle, and 56 loci were identified as being significantly associated with the branch angle trait via three models, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Moreover, these loci explained 51.1% of the phenotypic variation when a simple additive model was applied. Within the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay ranges of 53 loci, we observed plausible candidates orthologous to documented Arabidopsis genes, such as LAZY1, SGR2, SGR4, SGR8, SGR9, PIN3, PIN7, CRK5, TIR1, and APD7. These results provide insight into the genetic basis of the branch angle trait in rapeseed and might facilitate marker-based breeding for improvements in plant architecture.

  20. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic Changes during Storage of Brassica napus Seeds under Moist Conditions and the Consequences for the Sensory Quality of the Resulting Virgin Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Schweiger, Rabea; Pons, Caroline; Wagner, Claudia; Brühl, Ludger; Matthäus, Bertrand; Müller, Caroline

    2017-12-20

    Virgin rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil is a valuable niche product, if delivered with a high quality. In this study, the effects of moist storage of B. napus seeds for 1 to 4 days on the seed metabolome and the chemo-sensory properties of the produced oils were determined. The concentrations of several primary metabolites, including monosaccharides and amino acids, rapidly increased in the seeds, probably indicating the breakdown of storage compounds to support seed germination. Seed concentrations of indole glucosinolates increased with a slight time offset suggesting that amino acids may be used to modify secondary metabolism. The volatile profiles of the oils were pronouncedly influenced by moist seed storage, with the sensory quality of the oils decreasing. This study provides a direct time-resolved link between seed metabolism under moist conditions and the quality of the resulting oils, thereby emphasizing the crucial role of dry seed storage in ensuring high oil quality.

  2. What vegetable oils and proteins for 2030? Would the protein fraction be the future of oil and protein crops?⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilorgé Etienne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To support the reflections of the French professionnels of vegetable oils and proteins, a foresight study was carried out to 2030 horizon (15 years, to shed light on the opportunities that will draw the oilcrops and grain legumes, and the areas of growth for the French and European vegetable oil and protein sector. The thinking was organized in the form of four different scenarios for 2030, which illustrate different logical evolutions of the context and related key issues, under the pressure of demographic, economic and socio-political constraints. It is clear that the economic value of the protein fraction is a key aspect of the future of oilseeds such as rapeseed, sunflower and soy. However, a saturated market for vegetable oils falls within the trend but is not a certainty.

  3. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  4. Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the

  5. Apparent protein digestibility and recovery of endogenous nitrogen at the terminal ileum of pigs fed diets containing various soyabean products, peas or rapeseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Leeuwen, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the use of three different soyabean products (soya concentrate and two different soyabean meals), peas or rapeseed hulls in the diet on the apparent ileal digestibility of CP (N x 6.25) and recovery of ileal endogenous nitrogen (N) in weanling pigs were investigated. Ileal endogenous N

  6. Fast and nondestructive determination of protein content in rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Du, Changwen; Yu, Changbing; Zhou, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Fast and non-destructive determination of rapeseed protein content carries significant implications in rapeseed production. This study presented the first attempt of using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to quantify protein content of rapeseed. The full-spectrum model was first built using partial least squares (PLS). Interval selection methods including interval partial least squares (iPLS), synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), backward elimination interval partial least squares (biPLS) and dynamic backward elimination interval partial least squares (dyn-biPLS) were then employed to select the relevant band or band combination for PLS modeling. The full-spectrum PLS model achieved an ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) of 2.047. In comparison, all interval selection methods produced better results than full-spectrum modeling. siPLS achieved the best predictive accuracy with an RPD of 3.215 when the spectrum was sectioned into 25 intervals, and two intervals (1198-1335 and 1614-1753 cm(-1) ) were selected. iPLS excelled biPLS and dyn-biPLS, and dyn-biPLS performed slightly better than biPLS. FTIR-PAS was verified as a promising analytical tool to quantify rapeseed protein content. Interval selection could extract the relevant individual band or synergy band associated with the sample constituent of interest, and then improve the prediction accuracy of the full-spectrum model. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  8. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  9. Dietary moderately oxidized oil activates the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the liver of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varady Juliane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that administration of oxidized oils increases gene expression and activities of various enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and stress response in the liver of rats and guinea pigs. As these genes are controlled by nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding of oxidized fats causes an activation of that transcription factor in the liver which in turn activates the expression of antioxidant, cytoprotective and detoxifying genes. Methods Twenty four crossbred pigs were allocated to two groups of 12 pigs each and fed nutritionally adequate diets with either fresh rapeseed oil (fresh fat group or oxidized rapeseed oil prepared by heating at a temperature of 175°C for 72 h (oxidized fat group. Results After 29 days of feeding, pigs of the oxidized fat group had a markedly increased nuclear concentration of the transcription factor Nrf2 and a higher activity of cellular superoxide dismutase and T4-UDP glucuronosyltransferase in liver than the fresh fat group (P P Conclusion The present study shows for the first time that administration of an oxidized fat activates the Nrf2 in the liver of pigs which likely reflects an adaptive mechanism to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Activation of the NF-κB pathway might also contribute to this effect of oxidized fat.

  10. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  11. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  12. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  13. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  14. Effect of Salinity and Low Osmotic Potential on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Rapeseed Cultivars with Different Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mediterranean environments, rapeseed is grown in fall-winter with late-summer sowing and this implies that germination and initial seedling growth may occur in soils with low water content and/or high salinity. Lab experiments were carried out to study the effect of the level and timing of salt and osmotic stress application on the germination and seedling growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera Del. cultivars with different stress tolerance. After a preliminary screening on eighteen cultivars, four hybrids with different stress tolerance during germination were chosen to study germination on Petri dishes at 14 increasing concentrations of PEG 6000 (ψs up to -1.5 MPa and 12 increasing concentrations of NaCl (up to 600 mM. Seedlings from seeds germinated at 0 and 250 mM of NaCl were then grown into boxes for the slant test containing NaCl solutions 0 mM and 100 mM, while seedlings from seeds germinated -0.8 and -0.03 MPa (PEG were grown in pots containing siliceous sand with a water content equivalent to field capacity or half of field capacity. In both experiments seedlings were grown for 11 days under controlled light/temperature conditions. Therefore, for both salt and osmotic stress experiments, the following four combinations for “germination-growth” conditions were obtained for each cultivar: optimum-optimum; optimum-stress; stress-optimum; stress-stress. The following determinations were performed: final percentage germination, time to 50% germination (T50, and base water potential of seeds; dry and fresh weights, and shoot and root lengths of seedlings at the end of the growth period (i.e. 11 days after plant transfer to the growth medium, and correspondent relative growth rates between the start and the end of the growth period. The different degree of stress tolerance observed among rapeseed cultivars for germination was in the order of 150 mMol for NaCl concentration and 0.2-0.3 MPa for osmotic potential. Nonetheless

  15. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  16. Seed loss and volunteer seedling establishment of rapeseed in the northernmost European conditions: potential for weed infestation and GM risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed soil seed bank development and volunteer plant establishment represent substantial risk for crop infestation and GM contamination. This study was designed to complement such investigations with novel understanding from high latitude conditions. Four experiments were designed to characterise seed loss at harvest, persistence, viability and capacity for volunteer seedling establishment, as well as impact of management measures on soil seed bank dynamics. Oilseed rape was the primary crop investigated due to the availability of GM cultivars and because of the increasing importance. Harvest losses and soil seed bank development were significant. Volunteer seedlings emerged at reasonably high rates, especially in the first autumn after harvest, but about 10% of buried seeds maintained their viability for at least three years. Soil incorporation methods had no major effect on numbers of volunteer seedlings, but herbicide treatments controlled volunteer seedlings efficiently, though not completely, due to irregular timing of seedling emergence.

  17. Biotechnology in breeding of industrial oil crops - the present status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W.

    1988-02-01

    With increasing 'overproduction' of food supplies it is frequently emphasized now that agricultural production of industrial 'non-food' raw materials should be intensified. Many adapted crop plants are already available for producing various kinds of natural materials. Particularly the large group of oil-crops could be used even more widely for providing vegetable oils. The example of rape-seed (Brassica Napus) clearly demonstrates that the composition of vegetable oil can be completely reconstructed according to the wishes of manufacturers or consumers, even by conventional breeding methods. Rapid and efficient breeding is expected by application of modern 'biotechnology'. Where variation for a character like oil-quality is limited within a crop plnt, a wide range of alien wild species is available for broadening genetic variation of plants like rapeseed, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or linseed (flax, Linum usitatissimum). Exploration of such 'new' genetic variation is nowadays facilitated by in vitro embryo culture or cell (protoplast)-fusion techniques. Such biotechniques can help to overcome crossing barriers between species (genus Brassica). In other important oilcrops like linseed or sunflower, biotechniques can now be applied profitably. Protoplasts can be regenerated in Linum, so that asexual interspecific hybrids can principally be produced in that way. Alien species of sunflower and lineseed show a wide range of variation regarding agronomically important characters, particularly of oil composition and disease resistance. This alien genetic variation can be used for breeding new disease resistant oil-crop cultivars. Other techniques, like the 'haploidy-method' can help to accelerate a breeding programme, ultimately leading to a homozygous line or cultivar.

  18. Natural Zeolite Sample and Investigation Its Use in Oil Bleaching Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Oyku

    2017-12-01

    In the sector of oil bleaching, the stored raw oil is subjected to physical and chemical methods such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization and winterization. In the process of oil bleaching, the selection of correct bleaching earth in accordance with oil characteristics matters so much. Bleaching earth is an inorganic product used in removing impurities being available within the structures of vegetable, animal oil (sunflower, soya, corn, palm, tallow, rapeseed, fish oils…etc.) and fatty acids, mineral oils (glycerine, paraffin, mineral motor oils. etc.) with the adsorption process. The factors such as low cost of oil bleaching earth, low ratio of oil retaining, high bleaching capacity in spite of using them in small amounts, filter’s delayed blocking by the earth and non-increase of the free acidity of the oil should be taken into consideration. Bleaching earths are processed with some acids in order to widen their surface areas. During this process, a certain amount of acid is left within oil bleaching earths even if it is very little. These acids also increase oil’s acidity by oxidizing oil in the course of bleaching process. In this study, zeolite sample taken from Manisa -Demirci region was used. Following the processes of crushing and sieving, zeolite sample was subjected to chemical analyses according to their grain thickness, microscopic examination, the analyses of XRD and cation exchange capacity and their ore characteristics were determined. Afterwards, it was searched whether zeolite sample has oil bleaching ability or not or whether it can be used as oil bleaching earth or not.

  19. Incorporating pleiotropic quantitative trait loci in dissection of complex traits: seed yield in rapeseed as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ziliang; Wang, Meng; Long, Yan; Huang, Yongju; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Chunyu; Liu, Xiang; Fitt, Bruce D L; Xiang, Jinxia; Mason, Annaliese S; Snowdon, Rod J; Liu, Peifa; Meng, Jinling; Zou, Jun

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive linkage atlas for seed yield in rapeseed. Most agronomic traits of interest for crop improvement (including seed yield) are highly complex quantitative traits controlled by numerous genetic loci, which brings challenges for comprehensively capturing associated markers/genes. We propose that multiple trait interactions underlie complex traits such as seed yield, and that considering these component traits and their interactions can dissect individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects more effectively and improve yield predictions. Using a segregating rapeseed (Brassica napus) population, we analyzed a large set of trait data generated in 19 independent experiments to investigate correlations between seed yield and other complex traits, and further identified QTL in this population with a SNP-based genetic bin map. A total of 1904 consensus QTL accounting for 22 traits, including 80 QTL directly affecting seed yield, were anchored to the B. napus reference sequence. Through trait association analysis and QTL meta-analysis, we identified a total of 525 indivisible QTL that either directly or indirectly contributed to seed yield, of which 295 QTL were detected across multiple environments. A majority (81.5%) of the 525 QTL were pleiotropic. By considering associations between traits, we identified 25 yield-related QTL previously ignored due to contrasting genetic effects, as well as 31 QTL with minor complementary effects. Implementation of the 525 QTL in genomic prediction models improved seed yield prediction accuracy. Dissecting the genetic and phenotypic interrelationships underlying complex quantitative traits using this method will provide valuable insights for genomics-based crop improvement.

  20. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  1. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut oil is high in monounsaturated “good” fat, and low in saturated “bad” fat, which is believed to help prevent heart disease and lower cholesterol. However, in animal studies, peanut oil has been shown to ...

  2. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  3. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (poils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  5. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  6. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  7. Recovery of low temperature heat in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in oil mills is a major item of costs and a sensitive point in the production of biofuels. To improve their performance, industrials can recover lowtemperature heat thanks to a new technology of heat exchangers suitable for treating granular solid materials. Information about the energy requirements of the rapeseed crushing being not readily available, the article gives a detailed assessment of consumption items (per ton of seed: 263 MJ for preparation operations and 284 MJ for solvent extraction. These exchangers used as pre-conditioners saves about 55 MJ.t−1 of heat by use of steam condensates. We could go further in use of these devices on the one hand to recover heat from press cake and meal, and secondly to use recovered energy to dry and warm up the seeds before pre-pressing. In this configuration, the energy savings could reach 38% of current needs.

  8. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    methane emissions were measured on 24 cows by means of indirect calorimetry. Slurry was collected the last 10 days of the experiment. Ultimate biogas yield, CH4 emissions at different storage temperatures and yield in a thermophilic biogas digester were determined for the three slurries. Dry matter intake......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dietary strategies on milk production and composition, enteric CH4 emissions, slurry storage losses of CH4 and total emissions of CH4 with and without biogas production. Fifty-four cows were allocated to three diets according...... to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric...

  9. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    on the duodenal enzyme profile in dairy cows. Four mid-lactation Danish Holstein dairy cows were submitted to an experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed four rations containing 50% forage and 50% concentrate on a dry matter basis. The four rations were: a control ration with rapeseed meal (low fat......Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat......, frozen immediately and stored frozen (–20°C) before analyses. Additional fat increased the soluble protein content in duodenal chyme (P treatments. Lipase activity increased for RSO compared with the control...

  10. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    -six Jersey cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, for 4 periods of 3 weeks and with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: spring grass/clover silage from primary growth or autumn grass/clover silage which was an equal mixture of 3rd regrowth and 4th regrowth, with or without rapeseed...... supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations...

  11. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application, nitrogen and zinc sulphate fertilizer on yield and nitrogen uptake in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, on grain yield and nitrogen uptake efficiency in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola308, a field experiment was conducted as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design at research field of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran, during growing season of 2007-2008. Results showed that urea fertilizer, ZnSO4 fertilizer and biological fertilizer had significant effects on nitrogen uptake and accumulation. Maximum grain yield (2568 kg.ha-1 were obtained in 150kgN + ZnSO4+ bio treatment. Maximum accumulation of nitrogen in rosette stage (4.9% and nitrogen content of grain (3.6% was obtained in 150 kg N.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. Maximum Nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency (0.86 and 29.56 kg.kg-1, respectively were obtained in 50 kgN.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. In regard to significant effects of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer with lower N rate and high nitrogen uptake efficiency of rapeseed, it seems that the ability of uptake and use of nitrogen fertilizers was greater for seed formation in the presence of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer in rapeseed, cv. Hyola308. The most important of mechanisms of PGPRs is increase the bioavailability of mineral nutrients with biological nitrogen fixation and soluble phosphorus and potassium that lead to economize nitrogen fertilizer in rapeseed production and minimizing environmental pollution risk.

  12. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the metabolisable energy content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed meals for chicken, guinea fowl and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A B; Elangovan, A V; Tyagi, Pramod K; Tyagi, Praveen K; Johri, A K; Kaur, S

    2005-02-01

    (1) The nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(N)) content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed (un-decorticated) meals in relation to species (chicken, guinea fowl and quail) and dietary addition of feed enzymes (0 or 0.5 g/kg diet) was evaluated by a diet replacement method in a 3 x 2 factorial design. (2) The metabolism trial was conducted at two substitution levels (200 and 400 g/kg diet) of each meal with or without supplementation of commercial enzyme preparation in 6 individuals or 6 groups of cockerels, guinea fowls and quails. (3) The experimental diets were fed for a period of 12 d followed by a 3-d collection period during which total feed consumed and droppings output were quantitatively recorded. (4) The AME(N) values of rapeseed meal for cockerels, guinea fowls and quails were 8.4, 8.7 and 8.8 MJ/kg, respectively, while the corresponding values for sunflower seed meal were 6.1, 6.1 and 6.2 MJ/kg dry matter, without enzyme supplementation. (5) The AME(N) value of rapeseed meal did not improve with enzyme supplementation. However, AME(N) values of sunflower seed meal significantly increased with enzyme supplementation, from 6.1 to 6.5 MJ/kg dry matter. (6) Since AME(N) values of rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal were similar in chicken, guinea fowl and quail, values reported for chicken could, therefore, be used for guinea fowl and Japanese quail.

  13. Effects of different dates of transplanting on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Ghilan (Rasht) conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad javad Golmohammadi; Majid Nahvi

    2016-01-01

    An experiment conducted to study the effects of transplanting dates on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Agriculture Faculty of Ghlilan University. This research was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications on the PF (sarigol) cultivar. Treatments consisted various dates of transplanting in cluding 1st November, 21st November, 11st December and 31st December. The results showed that the effect of different date...

  14. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin Gong

    Full Text Available Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7% and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34% in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock.

  15. Investigation on the effect of mixed rapeseed stalk residues with wood particles, and mixing of melamine and urea formaldehyde resin on properties of manufactured particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possibility of using the rapeseed stalk mixed with industrial wood particles for manufacturing particleboard with target density of 0.7 gr/cm3 was considered. Variable factors such as mixing ratios of rapeseed stalk with industrial wood particles at five mixing levels of (0-100, 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 and 100-0 percent, mixing ratios of melamine resin with urea formaldehyde at three levels of 0-100, 15-85 and 30-70 percent, and kind of board at two levels of homogenate and layer were considered. 10 percent resin based on oven dried weight of particles, 2 percent catalyzer based on oven dried weight of resin, press temperature and time with 170 OC and 7 minute, press pressure and rate with 30 Kg/cm3 and 4.5 mm/min were fixed. Then, the boards were manufactured and the physical and mechanical properties including modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were measured according to EN standard. Results indicated that the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and thickness swelling of boards increased with increase rapeseed stalk loading; however, the internal bonding decreased. Also, the use of melamine urea formaldehyde resin caused to improve the mechanical strength and dimensional stability in the samples.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Candidate Genes for Control of Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height and Branch Number in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Liu, Hongfang; Tang, Min; Yang, Hongli; Li, Xiaokang; Liu, Jinglin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Xu, Junfeng; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Plant architecture is crucial for rapeseed yield and is determined by plant height (PH), branch initiation height (BIH), branch number (BN) and leaf and inflorescence morphology. In this study, we measured three major factors (PH, BIH, and BN) in a panel of 333 rapeseed accessions across 4 years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via Q + K model and the panel was genotyped using the 60 k Brassica Infinium SNP array. We identified seven loci for PH, four for BIH, and five for BN. Subsequently, by determining linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay associated with 38 significant SNPs, we gained 31, 15, and 17 candidate genes for these traits, respectively. We also showed that PH is significantly correlated with BIH, while no other correlation was revealed. Notably, a GA signaling gene (BnRGA) and a flowering gene (BnFT) located on chromosome A02 were identified as the most likely candidate genes associated with PH regulation. Furthermore, a meristem initiation gene (BnLOF2) and a NAC domain transcriptional factor (BnCUC3) that may be associated with BN were identified on the chromosome A07. This study reveals novel insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Candidate Genes for Control of Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height and Branch Number in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is crucial for rapeseed yield and is determined by plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, branch number (BN and leaf and inflorescence morphology. In this study, we measured three major factors (PH, BIH, and BN in a panel of 333 rapeseed accessions across 4 years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed via Q + K model and the panel was genotyped using the 60 k Brassica Infinium SNP array. We identified seven loci for PH, four for BIH, and five for BN. Subsequently, by determining linkage disequilibrium (LD decay associated with 38 significant SNPs, we gained 31, 15, and 17 candidate genes for these traits, respectively. We also showed that PH is significantly correlated with BIH, while no other correlation was revealed. Notably, a GA signaling gene (BnRGA and a flowering gene (BnFT located on chromosome A02 were identified as the most likely candidate genes associated with PH regulation. Furthermore, a meristem initiation gene (BnLOF2 and a NAC domain transcriptional factor (BnCUC3 that may be associated with BN were identified on the chromosome A07. This study reveals novel insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed.

  18. High-performance liquid-phase separation of glycosides. III. Determination of total glucosinolates in cabbage and rapeseed by capillary electrophoresis via the enzymatically released glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, A; Melouk, H A; El Rassi, Z

    1999-02-01

    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of total glucosinolates (GSs) in plant extracts by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed. It was based on the enzymatically released glucose from glucosinolates in the presence of the hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase. The released glucose was converted to gluconic acid (GA) by the action of glucose oxidase. The resulting GA was then labeled selectively with the fluorescent tag 7-aminonaphthalene-1, 3-disulfonic acid (ANDSA). The peak area resulting from the GA-ANDSA derived from free and bound glucose was subtracted from the peak area of the GA-ANDSA resulting from the free glucose in the sample. This gave the total glucosinolates in the sample. The peak areas were normalized to the internal standard, N-acetylneuraminic acid derivatized with ANDSA. The method was validated using four different plant extracts, white cabbage leaves, rapeseed leaves, rapeseed roots, and rapeseed seeds. Furthermore, a capillary electrophoresis-UV detection method for profiling GS in plant extracts was developed. In addition to providing a fingerprint of the glucosinolates in plant extracts, the method allowed the experimenter to rapidly check the various steps involved in the extraction and sample cleanup. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Comparison of the use of sunflower, cotton and rape seed crude oils as fuels in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balafoutiso, A.; Melaso, D.; Natsis, A.; Papadakis, G. (Agricultural University of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Papagiannopouloe, A. (Institute of Agricultural Machinery and Constructions, Athens (Greece))

    2007-07-01

    An investigation of using crude oils of sunflower, cottonseed and rapeseed origin produced in Greece as CI engine fuel has been conducted. These oils chemical and physical properties indicate a good potential as alternative diesel engine fuels. Blending and preheating of vegetable oils with conventional diesel before using them as fuels, have been proved to be effective methods to reduce engine malfunctions associated with high oil viscosity. Engine performance and respective gas emission at different load conditions were measured over the whole engine speed range. Increasing the percentage of the oil in the blends with diesel has generally indicated an increase of engine power and torque with a corresponding increase in brake specific fuel consumption. As for emission measurements, it was shown that NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced by increasing oil percentage in the blend. Comparing these three vegetable oils it was seen that in terms of power and torque output, rape oil based fuels have produced higher values than sunflower and cotton oil. As for brake specific fuel consumption, sunflower oil blends were consumed in a higher rate than blends of the other two vegetable oils. Finally, comparison of emissions has shown that NO{sub 2} level was higher with sunflower oil blends. These blends produced elevated NO emission especially with the 70% blend in comparison to the 70% cotton and rape oil blends. CO{sub 2} production was higher with cotton oil, but with a minor difference from the rest of the vegetable oil fuels. (orig.)

  20. Extraction of trace elements by ultrasound-assisted emulsification from edible oils producing detergentless microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements from edible oils via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) producing detergentless microemulsions. These were then analyzed using ICP-MS against matrix matched standards. Optimum experimental conditions were determined and the applicability of the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction method was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (μg kg(-1)) were 2.47, 2.81, 0.013, 0.037, 1.37, 0.050, 0.049, 0.47, 0.032 and 0.087 for Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3Sb/m). The accuracy of the developed method was checked by analyzing certified reference material. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower seed oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and cod liver oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrobioremediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Aulenta, Federico; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Franzetti, Andrea; Arends, Jan B A; Sherry, Angela; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-05-01

    Annually, thousands of oil spills occur across the globe. As a result, petroleum substances and petrochemical compounds are widespread contaminants causing concern due to their toxicity and recalcitrance. Many remediation strategies have been developed using both physicochemical and biological approaches. Biological strategies are most benign, aiming to enhance microbial metabolic activities by supplying limiting inorganic nutrients, electron acceptors or donors, thus stimulating oxidation or reduction of contaminants. A key issue is controlling the supply of electron donors/acceptors. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged, in which an electrical current serves as either electron donor or acceptor for oil spill bioremediation. BES are highly controllable and can possibly also serve as biosensors for real time monitoring of the degradation process. Despite being promising, multiple aspects need to be considered to make BES suitable for field applications including system design, electrode materials, operational parameters, mode of action and radius of influence. The microbiological processes, involved in bioelectrochemical contaminant degradation, are currently not fully understood, particularly in relation to electron transfer mechanisms. Especially in sulfate rich environments, the sulfur cycle appears pivotal during hydrocarbon oxidation. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the research on bioelectrochemical remediation of oil spills and of the key parameters involved in the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  3. Oil Analysis and Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, A.; Toms, L.

    Lubricants are essential and expensive components of machine systems needing sampling, analysis and monitoring. Monitoring can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's critical failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil and machinery monitoring. Contamination occurs by water, fuel, glycol, dirt, wrong oil, metal particulate, soot, oil degradation and additive depletion. Oil test methods include in situ or laboratory FT-IR, electronic particle counting, elemental metal measurement, X-ray fluorescence, viscosity, gas chromatography, water determination and RULER®. Condition monitoring data must be managed by storage, analysis and interpretation. Status levels must be established from the database and reported upon for individual and sequential runs of samples as condition indicators.

  4. Estimation the Amount of Oil Palm Trees Production Using Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrianto, A. C.; Tokimatsu, K.; Sufwandika, M.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, fossil fuels were used as the main source of power supply to generate energy including electricity. Depletion in the amount of fossil fuels has been causing the increasing price of crude petroleum and the demand for alternative energy which is renewable and environment-friendly and it is defined from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Indonesia known as the big palm oil producer which is the largest agricultural industry with total harvested oil palm area which is estimated grew until 8.9 million ha in 2015. On the other hand, lack of information about the age of oil palm trees and changes also their spatial distribution is mainly problem for energy planning. This research conducted to estimate fresh fruit bunch (FFB) of oil palm and their distribution using remote sensing technique. Cimulang oil palm plantation was choose as study area. First step, estimated the age of oil palm trees based on their canopy density as the result from Landsat 8 OLI analysis and classified into five class. From this result, we correlated oil palm age with their average FFB production per six months and classified into seed (0-3 years, 0kg), young (4-8 years, 68.77kg), teen (9-14 years, 109.08kg), and mature (14-25 years, 73.91kg). The result from satellite image analysis shows if Cimulang plantation area consist of teen old oil palm trees that it is covers around 81.5% of that area, followed by mature oil palm trees with 18.5% or corresponding to 100 hectares and have total production of FFB every six months around 7,974,787.24 kg.

  5. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  6. Effect of freezing and room temperatures storage for 18 months on quality of raw rapeseed honey (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzierska-Matysek, Monika; Florek, Mariusz; Wolanciuk, Anna; Skałecki, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    The physicochemical properties, colour characteristics and dynamic viscosity of fresh rapeseed honey (control, CON) and those stored for 18 months at room temperature (RT) or in freezer (FRO) were compared. The significant decrease of pH after storage was found. Honey stored at RT showed an increase of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (+543.0 %) and decrease of diastase activity (-24.4 %), while in FRO samples the decreasing course (-50.5 and -7.3 %, p > 0.05) were found in comparison with CON samples (3.07 and 28.37 mg kg-1). The negative correlation between HMF content and diastase activity was found. The temperature of storage significantly influenced colour parameters, however, RT differentiated colour of honey to a greater extent (ΔE = 20.37) than FRO (ΔE = 8.07). The lightness (L*), hue (h°), whiteness index (WI) and colour intensity (ABS450) of CON honey samples were similar to honey from FRO. The dynamic viscosity was significantly higher in honey stored in FRO in comparison to CON honey and honey stored at RT. However, in comparison with CON honey, higher (almost twice) viscosity for honey stored at RT was observed.

  7. Effects of physical treatment of barley and rapeseed meal in dairy cows given grass silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four Ayrshire cows were used to study the effects of physical treatment of barley, rapeseed meal (RSM supplementation and heat-moisture treatment of RSM on silage intake and milk production. Experimental design was a cyclic change-over with six dietary treatments. The treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement consisted of either untreated (UB or heat-moisture treated barley (TB, given without protein supplementation (control or with untreated or heat-moisture treated RSM. Grass silage was given ad libitum and the concentrates at a rate of 10 kg/d. For the RSM diets, 2 kg/d of the basal concentrate was replaced with either untreated or treated RSM. Treatment of barley decreased silage intake, the effect being greater when the supplement did not contain RSM. There was no effect on milk yield, but due to the lower milk fat content, energy corrected milk yield was lower in cows given TB than in those given UB. Feeding the TB diets was also associated with lower milk urea content, and with increased milk protein content but not protein yield. Faster initial rate of gas production in vitro suggested that the treatment of barley increased the rate of fermentation. Compared with the control diets, RSM supplementation significantly increased silage intake, milk yield, milk protein content and yields of all milk constituents. Heat-moisture treatment of RSM did not produce any further production response.;

  8. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  9. Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2009-09-01

    9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the